Science.gov

Sample records for address systems system

  1. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  2. DAAS: Defense Automatic Addressing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Optional Development. flOSS can be provided in the following two ways: a. Potential Scbscribers Use of Existing ADP System. If the PW country has an...series. (1) Features of the Turnkea estem. This menu driven system provides for easy system operation aW initial training. Another feature of the turnkey

  3. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  4. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  5. HVDC control developments - addressing system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Patel, H.S.; Piwko, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This article describes typical high voltage direct current (HVDC) control systems and some of the new developments in the control area. HVDC control systems are showing their flexible characteristics as demonstrated, for example, by the new modulation, torsional damping, and alternating current voltage and reactive power controllers. Extensive studies are conducted to design and integrate such controllers into HVDC systems and to assure against any detrimental interactions within the total control system. 8 figures.

  6. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  7. 14 CFR 25.1423 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Safety Equipment § 25.1423 Public address system. A public address system required by this chapter must— (a) Be powerable when the aircraft is in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public address system. 25.1423 Section...

  8. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  9. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  10. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  11. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  12. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems §...

  13. The 2006 ACTER Presidential Address: The Premier Educational Delivery System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Jack

    2007-01-01

    In this address, ACTER President Jack Elliot states that Career and Technical Education (CTE) is the premier educational delivery system in the world. It addresses all learning styles by employing pedagogical strategies that embrace all of the multiple intelligence areas and incorporate the current knowledge in brain-based research. He discusses…

  14. Selective Attention in Multi-Chip Address-Event Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    Selective attention is the strategy used by biological systems to cope with the inherent limits in their available computational resources, in order to efficiently process sensory information. The same strategy can be used in artificial systems that have to process vast amounts of sensory data with limited resources. In this paper we present a neuromorphic VLSI device, the “Selective Attention Chip” (SAC), which can be used to implement these models in multi-chip address-event systems. We also describe a real-time sensory-motor system, which integrates the SAC with a dynamic vision sensor and a robotic actuator. We present experimental results from each component in the system, and demonstrate how the complete system implements a real-time stimulus-driven selective attention model. PMID:22346689

  15. Selective attention in multi-chip address-event systems.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    Selective attention is the strategy used by biological systems to cope with the inherent limits in their available computational resources, in order to efficiently process sensory information. The same strategy can be used in artificial systems that have to process vast amounts of sensory data with limited resources. In this paper we present a neuromorphic VLSI device, the "Selective Attention Chip" (SAC), which can be used to implement these models in multi-chip address-event systems. We also describe a real-time sensory-motor system, which integrates the SAC with a dynamic vision sensor and a robotic actuator. We present experimental results from each component in the system, and demonstrate how the complete system implements a real-time stimulus-driven selective attention model.

  16. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... length, a battery powered bullhorn may serve as the public address system if audible throughout the accommodation spaces of the vessel during normal operating conditions. The bullhorn's batteries are to be continually maintained at a fully charged level by use of a battery charger or other means acceptable to...

  17. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... length, a battery powered bullhorn may serve as the public address system if audible throughout the accommodation spaces of the vessel during normal operating conditions. The bullhorn's batteries are to be continually maintained at a fully charged level by use of a battery charger or other means acceptable to...

  18. A WiFi Public Address System for Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A.; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas. PMID:17238466

  19. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  20. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  1. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  2. Addressing Questions on Life in Terrestrial Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2013-09-01

    A binational research team met on the campus of Yunnan University in Kunming, China, to discuss recent progress and future plans to leverage binational support to address major questions on life in terrestrial geothermal systems. The symposium included about 90 faculty, postdocs, and students from China and about 30 faculty, postdocs, students, and high school teachers from the United States. The introductory session reviewed the progress of the Tengchong PIRE project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) program (OISE-0836450). It also introduced a new collaborative project funded as a Key Project of International Cooperation by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST, 2013DFA31980), which is the first project funded through a memorandum of understanding between NSF and MOST to promote China-U.S. collaboration.

  3. Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Lexi Bambas; Braveman, Paula; Dachs, J. Norberto W.; Delgado, Iris; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Moser, Kath; Rolfe, Liz; Vega, Jeanette; Zarowsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Special studies and isolated initiatives over the past several decades in low-, middle- and high-income countries have consistently shown inequalities in health among socioeconomic groups and by gender, race or ethnicity, geographical area and other measures associated with social advantage. Significant health inequalities linked to social (dis)advantage rather than to inherent biological differences are generally considered unfair or inequitable. Such health inequities are the main object of health development efforts, including global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals, which require monitoring to evaluate progress. However, most national health information systems (HIS) lack key information needed to assess and address health inequities, namely, reliable, longitudinal and representative data linking measures of health with measures of social status or advantage at the individual or small-area level. Without empirical documentation and monitoring of such inequities, as well as country-level capacity to use this information for effective planning and monitoring of progress in response to interventions, movement towards equity is unlikely to occur. This paper reviews core information requirements and potential databases and proposes short-term and longer term strategies for strengthening the capabilities of HIS for the analysis of health equity and discusses HIS-related entry points for supporting a culture of equity-oriented decision-making and policy development. PMID:16184279

  4. Developing Cohesive Leadership Means Addressing All Parts of the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Troyce

    2010-01-01

    In her role with the School Administrators of Iowa leading Iowa's leadership grant from The Wallace Foundation, the author works with a coalition of individuals and groups striving to implement a cohesive leadership system for school leaders. Efforts to create a cohesive leadership system in Iowa for the past nine years have resulted in many…

  5. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  6. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of, and predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The IMBER community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  7. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the crewmember interphone system required by § 121.319, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  8. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of the crewmember interphone system required by § 121.319, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  9. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of the crewmember interphone system required by § 121.319, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1423 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of operation within 3 seconds from the time a microphone is removed from its stowage. (c) Be... so that no unused, unstowed microphone will render the system inoperative. (e) Be capable of... passenger emergency exit which has an adjacent flight attendant seat, have a microphone which is...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1423 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of operation within 3 seconds from the time a microphone is removed from its stowage. (c) Be... so that no unused, unstowed microphone will render the system inoperative. (e) Be capable of... passenger emergency exit which has an adjacent flight attendant seat, have a microphone which is...

  12. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the crewmember interphone system required by § 121.319, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1423 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of operation within 3 seconds from the time a microphone is removed from its stowage. (c) Be... so that no unused, unstowed microphone will render the system inoperative. (e) Be capable of... passenger emergency exit which has an adjacent flight attendant seat, have a microphone which is...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1423 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of operation within 3 seconds from the time a microphone is removed from its stowage. (c) Be... so that no unused, unstowed microphone will render the system inoperative. (e) Be capable of... passenger emergency exit which has an adjacent flight attendant seat, have a microphone which is...

  15. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the crewmember interphone system required by § 121.319, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  16. Addressing Modeling Challenges in Cyber-Physical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-04

    A. Lee and Eleftherios Matsikoudis. The semantics of dataflow with firing. In Grard Huet, Gordon Plotkin, Jean - Jacques Lévy, and Yves Bertot...Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 20(3), 2001. [12] Luca P. Carloni, Roberto Passerone, Alessandro Pinto , and Alberto Sangiovanni...gst/fullpage.html?res= 9504EFDA1738F933A2575AC0A9679C8B63. 20 [15] Abhijit Davare, Douglas Densmore, Trevor Meyerowitz, Alessandro Pinto , Alberto

  17. Discrete Address Beacon System (DABS) Baseline Test and Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    provides a method for performing a full loop system check. The CPME is permanently installed at a surveyed location within the, coverage pattern of one or...13 4 ATCRBS/DABS Performance as a Function of Signal Strength 27 5 Probability of Detection of Clear Air Targets for 29 ATCRBS/DABS Targets in ATCRBS...Only and ATCRBS and DABS Mixed Fruit Environments 6 Probability of Detection 31 7 ATCRBS Mode A-Code/DABS ID Reliability 32 8 Altitude Reliability 34

  18. Addressing Inpatient Glycaemic Control with an Inpatient Glucometry Alert System

    PubMed Central

    Seheult, J. N.; Pazderska, A.; Gaffney, P.; Fogarty, J.; Sherlock, M.; Gibney, J.; Boran, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Poor inpatient glycaemic control has a prevalence exceeding 30% and results in increased length of stay and higher rates of hospital complications and inpatient mortality. The aim of this study was to improve inpatient glycaemic control by developing an alert system to process point-of-care blood glucose (POC-BG) results. Methods. Microsoft Excel Macros were developed for the processing of daily glucometry data downloaded from the Cobas IT database. Alerts were generated according to ward location for any value less than 4 mmol/L (hypoglycaemia) or greater than 15 mmol/L (moderate-severe hyperglycaemia). The Diabetes Team provided a weekday consult service for patients flagged on the daily reports. This system was implemented for a 60-day period. Results. There was a statistically significant 20% reduction in the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted values >15 mmol/L compared to the preimplementation period without a significant change in the percentage of hypoglycaemic values. The time-to-next-reading after a dysglycaemic POC-BG result was reduced by 14% and the time-to-normalization of a dysglycaemic result was reduced from 10.2 hours to 8.4 hours. Conclusion. The alert system reduced the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted glucose values and the time-to-normalization of blood glucose. PMID:26290664

  19. Workshop Builds Strategies to Address Global Positioning System Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Genene

    2011-01-01

    When we examine the impacts of space weather on society, do we really understand the risks? Can past experiences reliably predict what will happen in the future? As the complexity of technology increases, there is the potential for it to become more fragile, allowing for a single point of failure to bring down the entire system. Take the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an example. GPS positioning, navigation, and timing have become an integral part of daily life, supporting transportation and communications systems vital to the aviation, merchant marine, cargo, cellular phone, surveying, and oil exploration industries. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Understanding the risks of space weather to GPS and the many economic sectors reliant upon it, as well as how to build resilience, was the focus of a policy workshop organized by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and held on 13-14 October 2010 in Washington, D. C. The workshop brought together a select group of policy makers, space weather scientists, and GPS experts and users.

  20. Integrated wireless systems: The future has arrived (Keynote Address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoir, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    It is believed that we are just at the beginning with wireless, and that a new age is dawning for this breakthrough technology. Thanks to several years of industrial manufacturing in mass-market applications such as cellular phones, wireless technology has nowadays reached a level of maturity that, combined with other achievements arising from different fields, such as information technology, artificial intelligence, pervasive computing, science of new materials, and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), will enable the realization of a networked stream-flow of real-time information, that will accompany us in our daily life, in a total seamless, transparent fashion. As almost any application scenario will require the deployment of complex, miniaturized, almost "invisible" systems, operating with different wireless standards, hard technological challenges will have to be faced for designing and fabricating ultra-low-cost, reconfigurable, and multi-mode heterogeneous smart micro-devices. But ongoing, unending progresses on wireless technology keeps the promise of helping to solve important societal problems in the health-care, safety, security, industry, environment sectors, and in general opening the possibility for an improved quality of life at work, on travel, at home, practically "everywhere, anytime".

  1. Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then

  2. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Public Address System Review Findings

    SciTech Connect

    HUMPHRYS, K.L.

    1999-11-03

    Public address system operation at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility was reviewed. The review was based on an Operational Readiness Review finding that public address performance was not adequate in parts of the WRAP facility. Several improvements were made to the WRAP Public Address (PA) system to correct the deficiencies noted. Speaker gain and position was optimized. A speech processor was installed to boost intelligibility in high noise areas. Additional speakers were added to improve coverage in the work areas. The results of this evaluation indicate that further PA system enhancements are not warranted. Additional speakers cannot compensate for the high background sound and high reverberation levels found in the work areas. Recommendations to improve PA system intelligibility include minor speaker adjustments, enhanced PA announcement techniques, and the use of sound reduction and abatement techniques where economically feasible.

  3. A phenomenographic study of the ability to address complex socio-technical systems via variation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Garcia, John A.

    Sometimes engineers fail when addressing the inherent complexity of socio-technical systems because they lack the ability to address the complexity of socio-technical systems. Teaching undergraduate engineering students how to address complex socio-technical systems, has been an educational endeavor at different levels ranging from kindergarten to post-graduate education. The literature presents different pedagogical strategies and content to reach this goal. However, there are no existing empirically-based assessments guided by a learning theory. This may be because at the same time explanations of how the skill is developed are scarce. My study bridges this gap, and I propose a developmental path for the ability to address the complex socio-technical systems via Variation Theory, and according to the conceptual framework provided by Variation Theory, my research question was "What are the various ways in which engineers address complex socio-technical systems?" I chose the research approach of phenomenography to answer my research question. I also chose to use a blended approach, Marton's approach for finding the dimensions of variation, and the developmental approach (Australian) for finding a hierarchical relationship between the dimensions. Accordingly, I recruited 25 participants with different levels of experience with addressing complex socio-technical systems and asked them all to address the same two tasks: A design of a system for a county, and a case study in a manufacturing firm. My outcome space is a nona-dimensional (nine) developmental path for the ability to address the complexity in socio-technical systems, and I propose 9 different ways of experiencing the complexity of a socio-technical system. The findings of this study suggest that the critical aspects that are needed to address the complexity of socio-technical systems are: being aware of the use of models, the ecosystem around, start recognizing different boundaries, being aware of time as a

  4. Classrooms for Children with Developmental Disabilities: Sound-Field and Public Address Amplification Systems Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Stanley W. H.; McPherson, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    Background noise poses adverse effects on speech sounds and affects student learning, especially for children with developmental disabilities. Sound-field and public address amplification systems can help to solve this problem by amplifying speech sounds relative to background noise. This study surveyed school classrooms for children with special…

  5. [Research in social psychiatry - addressing future challenges of health- and social systems].

    PubMed

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2009-01-01

    Demographic change, limited financial resources and increasing social exclusion of individuals suffering chronic illness are major challenges for health and social systems in general and for psychiatry in particular. The paper analyses to what extent social psychiatric research currently addresses this challenges. Future perspectives are discussed, exploring the relationship of clinical neuroscience and social psychiatry.

  6. 33 CFR 149.675 - What are the requirements for the public address system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for the public address system? 149.675 Section 149.675 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... Medical Treatment Rooms...

  7. Discrete Address Beacon System (DABS) Software System Reliability Modeling and Prediction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    19004 DT-A.3.Tef e.0-OW8 , ... t 13. Tyeo Sat ~ n-v d e ed_ 12 Spon soring Agency Name and Address U.S. Department of Transportation Final / / [’’ -4...Model 36 12 Surveillance Module - Reliability Growth Model 39 B-1 DABS Trouble Report/Change Proposal 49 B-2 DABS Trouble Report/Change Proposal Update...Surveillance Module - Reliability Data Summary 38 12 Summary of Software Reliability Predictions 42 13 Summary of Module Critical Error Rates 43 iii I

  8. An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Wyss, Kaspar; de Savigny, Don

    2011-12-02

    As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health system stewards should have a good understanding of how health systems operate in order to govern them appropriately. While a number of frameworks for assessing governance in the health sector have been proposed, their application is often hindered by unrealistic indicators or they are overly complex resulting in limited empirical work on governance in health systems. This paper reviews contemporary health sector frameworks which have focused on defining and developing indicators to assess governance in the health sector. Based on these, we propose a simplified approach to look at governance within a common health system framework which encourages stewards to take a systematic perspective when assessing governance. Although systems thinking is not unique to health, examples of its application within health systems has been limited. We also provide an example of how this approach could be applied to illuminate areas of governance weaknesses which are potentially addressable by targeted interventions and policies. This approach is built largely on prior literature, but is original in that it is problem-driven and promotes an outward application taking into consideration the major health system building blocks at various levels in order to ensure a more complete assessment of a governance issue rather than a simple input-output approach. Based on an assessment of contemporary literature we propose a practical approach which we believe will facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of governance in health systems leading to the development of governance interventions to strengthen system performance and improve health as a basic human right.

  9. Continental-Scale Stable Isotope Measurements at NEON to Address Ecological Processes Across Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Goodman, K. J.; Hinckley, E. S.; West, J. B.; Williams, D. G.; Bowen, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform. The overarching goal of NEON is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology (such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, ecohydrology, etc.). NEON focuses explicitly on questions that relate to grand challenges in environmental science, are relevant to large regions, and would otherwise be very difficult to address with traditional ecological approaches. The use of stable isotope approaches in ecological research has grown steadily during the last two decades. Stable isotopes at natural abundances in the environment trace and integrate the interaction between abiotic and biotic components across temporal and spatial scales. In this poster, we will present the NEON data products that incorporate stable isotope measurements in atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems in North America. We further outline current questions in the natural sciences community and how these data products can be used to address continental-scale ecological questions, such as the ecological impacts of climate change, terrestrial-aquatic system linkages, land-atmosphere exchange, landscape ecohydrological processes, and linking biogeochemical cycles across systems. Specifically, we focus on the use of stable isotopes to evaluate water availability and residence times in terrestrial systems, as well as nutrient sources to terrestrial systems, and cycling across ecosystem boundaries.

  10. Practices Changes in the Child Protection System to Address the Needs of Parents With Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra T.; Maggi, Mirella C.; Proctor, Stephon Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    Parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD) are over-represented in the child protection system. However, the current state of the child protection system is not well prepared for working with them. Biases that exist against their parenting, the need for accommodations in assessment and intervention practices, and specific training in staff and cross systems barriers need to be addressed. This paper argues for changes that will ensure such parents are more effectively served and that child protection staff and contract providers are better equipped to work with them. Specific changes are discussed in assessment and intervention practices. These changes will require human capacity building and organizational restructuring. Although empirically based behavioral approaches with PCD will be emphasized, recent empirical work suggests that social information processing and neurocognitive problems occur in PCD. Approaches to working with such problems are emerging and must also be considered and integrated into a blueprint for change. PMID:27610050

  11. An Integrated Survey System for Addressing Abuse and Misconduct Toward Air Force Trainees During Basic Military Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    An Integrated Survey System for Addressing Abuse and Misconduct Toward Air Force Trainees During Basic Military Training Kirsten M. Keller, Laura...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Survey System for Addressing Abuse and Misconduct Toward Air Force Trainees During...RAND Project AIR FORCE to help develop an integrated survey system to help address abuse and misconduct toward trainees in the BMT environment. This

  12. Addressing Impacts of Geomagnetic Disturbances on the North American Bulk Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollison, Eric; Moura, John; Lauby, Mark

    2011-08-01

    In a joint report issued in June 2010, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified geomagnetic disturbances as a high-impact, low-frequency (HILF) event risk to bulk power system reliability. The potential impact of geomagnetic disturbance events has gained renewed attention as recent studies have suggested that solar storms may be more severe and reach lower geographic latitudes than formerly expected and can affect bulk power system reliability. The most well known power system experience with geomagnetic disturbances in North America was the 13-14 March 1989 storm, which led to the collapse of the Hydro-Québec system in the early morning hours of 13 March 1989, lasting approximately 9 hours. NERC is actively addressing a range of HILF event risks to bulk power system reliability through the efforts of four of its task forces: Geomagnetic Disturbance, Spare Equipment Database, Cyber and Physical Attack, and Severe Impact Resilience. These task forces operate under the direction of three NERC committees: Planning, Operating, and Critical Infrastructure Protection. The NERC Geomagnetic Disturbance Task Force (GMDTF), which was established in September 2010, is charged with investigating the implications of geomagnetic disturbances to the reliability of bulk power systems and developing solutions to help mitigate these risks. The objective of these efforts is to develop models to better understand the nature and effects of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the vulnerabilities of equipment, bulk power system design considerations, our ability to reduce the operational and real-time impacts of geomagnetic disturbances on the bulk power system, and restoration methods, as well as to inventory long-lead-time equipment. For more information on the current activities of the GMDTF, please visit: www.nerc.com/filez/gmdtf.html

  13. Systems and capacity to address noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammed K; Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Flanigan, John; Blanchard, Claire; Narayan, K M Venkat; Engelgau, Michael

    2013-04-17

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are increasingly getting attention from different forums, including media outlets, health agencies, and the public and private sectors. Progress is being made in addressing NCDs, though more slowly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as compared with high-income settings. Here, we offer an analysis of the challenges faced in LMICs. We discuss realistic strategies to understand and develop capacity needs (workforce, finances, and infrastructure) and systems (institutions and processes) to sustainably optimize NCD prevention and care in LMICs.

  14. Using Systems Approaches to Address Challenges for Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Karnes, Jason H; Van Driest, Sara; Bowton, Erica A; Weeke, Peter E; Mosley, Jonathan D; Peterson, Josh F; Denny, Joshua C

    2014-01-01

    Many genetic variants have been shown to affect drug response through changes in drug efficacy and likelihood of adverse effects. Much of pharmacogenomic science has focused on discovering and clinically implementing single gene variants with large effect sizes. Given the increasing complexities of drug responses and their variability, a systems approach may be enabling for discovery of new biology in this area. Further, systems approaches may be useful in addressing challenges in moving these data to clinical implementation, including creation of predictive models of drug response phenotypes, improved clinical decision-making through complex biological models, improving strategies for integrating genomics into clinical practice, and evaluating the impact of implementation programs on public health. PMID:24319008

  15. 76 FR 2369 - Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk- Power System... related to reliability of the Bulk-Power System, including priorities for addressing risks to reliability.... The conference will be Webcast. Anyone with Internet access who desires to listen to this event can...

  16. The effects of a public address system on the off-task behavior of elementary physical education students.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Stu; Ormond, Tom; Imwold, Charles; Rotunda, Rob J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of teacher feedback delivered via a public address system on the off-task behavior of elementary-school physical education students. A multiple baseline design across three classes was used in this investigation. Results indicated a consistent decline in off-task behavior when the public address feedback system was used. PMID:12365746

  17. Simulating microbial systems: addressing model uncertainty/incompleteness via multiscale and entropy methods.

    PubMed

    Singharoy, A; Joshi, H; Cheluvaraja, S; Miao, Y; Brown, D; Ortoleva, P

    2012-01-01

    Most systems of interest in the natural and engineering sciences are multiscale in character. Typically available models are incomplete or uncertain. Thus, a probabilistic approach is required. We present a deductive multiscale approach to address such problems, focusing on virus and cell systems to demonstrate the ideas. There is usually an underlying physical model, all factors in which (e.g., particle masses, charges, and force constants) are known. For example, the underlying model can be cast in terms of a collection of N-atoms evolving via Newton's equations. When the number of atoms is 10(6) or more, these physical models cannot be simulated directly. However, one may only be interested in a coarse-grained description, e.g., in terms of molecular populations or overall system size, shape, position, and orientation. The premise of this chapter is that the coarse-grained equations should be derived from the underlying model so that a deductive calibration-free methodology is achieved. We consider a reduction in resolution from a description for the state of N-atoms to one in terms of coarse-grained variables. This implies a degree of uncertainty in the underlying microstates. We present a methodology for modeling microbial systems that integrates equations for coarse-grained variables with a probabilistic description of the underlying fine-scale ones. The implementation of our strategy as a general computational platform (SimEntropics™) for microbial modeling and prospects for developments and applications are discussed.

  18. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  19. Addressing Neuroplastic Changes in Distributed Areas of the Nervous System Associated With Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, René; Higgins, Johanne; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Present interventions utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation are guided, in large part, by a biomedical model where peripheral structural injury is believed to be the sole driver of the disorder. There are, however, neurophysiological changes across different areas of the peripheral and central nervous systems, including peripheral receptors, dorsal horn of the spinal cord, brain stem, sensorimotor cortical areas, and the mesolimbic and prefrontal areas associated with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and tendon injuries. These neurophysiological changes appear not only to be a consequence of peripheral structural injury but also to play a part in the pathophysiology of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Neurophysiological changes are consistent with a biopsychosocial formulation reflecting the underlying mechanisms associated with sensory and motor findings, psychological traits, and perceptual changes associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. These changes, therefore, have important implications in the clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, and treatment of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation professionals have at their disposal tools to address these neuroplastic changes, including top-down cognitive-based interventions (eg, education, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, motor imagery) and bottom-up physical interventions (eg, motor learning, peripheral sensory stimulation, manual therapy) that induce neuroplastic changes across distributed areas of the nervous system and affect outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Furthermore, novel approaches such as the use of transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be utilized to help renormalize neurological function. Comprehensive treatment addressing peripheral structural injury as well as neurophysiological changes occurring across

  20. Effective target binarization method for linear timed address-event vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiangtao; Zou, Jiawei; Yan, Shi; Gao, Zhiyuan

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an effective target binarization method for a linear timed address-event (TAE) vision system. In the preprocessing phase, TAE data are processed by denoising, thinning, and edge connection methods sequentially to obtain the denoised- and clear-event contours. Then, the object region will be confirmed by an event-pair matching method. Finally, the image open and close operations of morphology methods are introduced to remove the artifacts generated by event-pair mismatching. Several degraded images were processed by our method and some traditional binarization methods, and the experimental results are provided. As compared with other methods, the proposed method performs efficiently on extracting the target region and gets satisfactory binarization results from object images with low-contrast and nonuniform illumination.

  1. Institutional misfit and environmental change: A systems approach to address ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Ekstrom, Julia A; Crona, Beatrice I

    2017-01-15

    Emerging environmental threats often lack sufficient governance to address the full extent of the problem. An example is ocean acidification which is a growing concern in fishing and aquaculture economies worldwide, but has remained a footnote in environmental policy at all governance levels. However, existing legal jurisdictions do account for some aspects of the system relating to ocean acidification and these may be leveraged to support adapting to and mitigating ocean acidification. We refine and apply a methodological framework that helps objectively evaluate governance, from a social-ecological systems perspective. We assess how well a set of extant US institutions fits with the social-ecological interactions pertinent to ocean acidification. The assessment points to measured legal gaps, for which we evaluate the government authorities most appropriate to help fill these gaps. The analysis is conducted on United State federal statutes and regulations. Results show quantitative improvement of institutional fit over time (2006 to 2013), but a substantial number of measured legal gaps persist especially around acknowledging local sources of acidification and adaptation strategies to deal with or avoid impacts. We demonstrate the utility of this framework to evaluate the governance surrounding any emerging environmental threat as a first step to guiding the development of jurisdictionally realistic solutions.

  2. Addressing security, collaboration, and usability with tactical edge mobile devices and strategic cloud-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Christopher J.

    2012-05-01

    Success in the future battle space is increasingly dependent on rapid access to the right information. Faced with a shrinking budget, the Government has a mandate to improve intelligence productivity, quality, and reliability. To achieve increased ISR effectiveness, leverage of tactical edge mobile devices via integration with strategic cloud-based infrastructure is the single, most likely candidate area for dramatic near-term impact. This paper discusses security, collaboration, and usability components of this evolving space. These three paramount tenets outlined below, embody how mission information is exchanged securely, efficiently, with social media cooperativeness. Tenet 1: Complete security, privacy, and data integrity, must be ensured within the net-centric battle space. This paper discusses data security on a mobile device, data at rest on a cloud-based system, authorization and access control, and securing data transport between entities. Tenet 2: Lack of collaborative information sharing and content reliability jeopardizes mission objectives and limits the end user capability. This paper discusses cooperative pairing of mobile devices and cloud systems, enabling social media style interaction via tagging, meta-data refinement, and sharing of pertinent data. Tenet 3: Fielded mobile solutions must address usability and complexity. Simplicity is a powerful paradigm on mobile platforms, where complex applications are not utilized, and simple, yet powerful, applications flourish. This paper discusses strategies for ensuring mobile applications are streamlined and usable at the tactical edge through focused features sets, leveraging the power of the back-end cloud, minimization of differing HMI concepts, and directed end-user feedback.teInput=

  3. Addressing the systems-based practice requirement with health policy content and educational technology.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Alisa; Andolsek, Kathryn; Dossary, Kristin; Schlueter, Joanne; Schulman, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Duke University Hospital Office of Graduate Medical Education and Duke University's Fuqua School of Business collaborated to offer a Health Policy lecture series to residents and fellows across the institution, addressing the "Systems-based Practice" competency.During the first year, content was offered in two formats: live lecture and web/podcast. Participants could elect the modality which was most convenient for them. In Year Two, the format was changed so that all content was web/podcast and a quarterly live panel discussion was led by module presenters or content experts. Lecture evaluations, qualitative focus group feedback, and post-test data were analyzed.A total of 77 residents and fellows from 8 (of 12) Duke Graduate Medical Education departments participated. In the first year, post-test results were the same for those who attended the live lectures and those who participated via web/podcast. A greater number of individuals participated in Year Two. Participants from both years expressed the need for health policy content in their training programs. Participants in both years valued a hybrid format for content delivery, recognizing a desire for live interaction with the convenience of accessing web/podcasts at times and locations convenient for them. A positive unintended consequence of the project was participant networking with residents and fellows from other specialties.

  4. Systems approach to address incivility and disruptive behaviors in health-care organizations.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Elizabeth; Kusy, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing evidence that disruptive behaviors within health-care teams constitute a major threat to the quality of care, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO; Joint Commission Resources, 2008) has a new leadership standard that addresses disruptive and inappropriate behaviors effective January 1, 2009. For professionals who work in human resources and organization development, these standards represent a clarion call to design and implement evidence-based interventions to create health-care communities of respectful engagement that have zero tolerance for disruptive, uncivil, and intimidating behaviors by any professional. In this chapter, we will build an evidence-based argument that sustainable change must include organizational, team, and individual strategies across all professionals in the organization. We will then describe an intervention model--Toxic Organization Change System--that has emerged from our own research on toxic behaviors in the workplace (Kusy & Holloway, 2009) and provide examples of specific strategies that we have used to prevent and ameliorate toxic cultures.

  5. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast (SEUS; AL, AR, GA, FL, KY, LA, NC, SC, TN, E. TX) faces the greatest impacts as a result of climate change of any region in the U.S. which presents considerable and costly adaptation challenges. Paradoxically, people in the SEUS hold attitudes and perceptions that are more dismissive of climate change than those of any other region. An additional mismatch exists between the manner in which climate science is generally communicated and the underlying core values and beliefs held by a large segment of people in the SEUS. As a result, people frequently misinterpret and/or distrust information sources, inhibiting efforts to productively discuss and consider climate change and related impacts on human and environmental systems, and possible solutions and outcomes. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project includes an extensive network of partners throughout the SEUS from faith, agriculture, culturally diverse, leisure, and K-20 educator communities that aim to address this educational need through a shared vision. CLiPSE has conducted a Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in and beyond the CLiPSE network. The descriptive results of the CSS indicate that religion, predominantly Protestantism, plays a minor role in climate knowledge and perceptions. Likewise, political affiliation plays a minimal role in climate knowledge and perceptions between religions. However, when Protestants were broken out by political affiliation, statistically significant differences (t(30)=2.44, p=0.02) in knowledge related to the causes of climate change exist. Those Protestants affiliated with the Democratic Party (n=206) tended to maintain a statistically significant stronger knowledge of the causes of global climate change than their Republican counterparts. When SEUS educator (n=277) group was only considered, similar trends were evidenced, indicating that strongly held beliefs potentially

  6. A Multimedia Adaptive Tutoring System for Mathematics That Addresses Cognition, Metacognition and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly Park; Burelson, Winslow; Muldner, Kasia; Rai, Dovan; Tai, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    This article describes research results based on multiple years of experimentation and real-world experience with an adaptive tutoring system named Wayang Outpost. The system represents a novel adaptive learning technology that has shown successful outcomes with thousands of students, and provided teachers with valuable information about students'…

  7. Politics and technology in health information systems development: a discourse analysis of conflicts addressed in a systems design group.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2008-02-01

    Different types of disagreements must be managed during the development of health information systems. This study examines the antagonisms discussed during the design of an information system for 175,000 users in a public health context. Discourse analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis. Three hundred and twenty-six conflict events were identified from four design meetings and divided into 16 categories. There were no differences regarding the types of conflicts that the different participants brought into the design discussions. Instead, conflict occurrence was primarily affected by the agendas that set the stage for examinations and debates. The results indicate that the selection of design method and the structure used for the meetings are important factors for the manner in which conflicts are brought into consideration during health information system design. Further studies comparing participatory and non-participatory information system design practices in health service settings are warranted.

  8. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  9. Addressing fundamental architectural challenges of an activity-based intelligence and advanced analytics (ABIAA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Kevin; Albert, Thomas; Brower, Bernard V.; Pellechia, Matthew F.

    2015-06-01

    The domain of Geospatial Intelligence Analysis is rapidly shifting toward a new paradigm of Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) and information-based Tipping and Cueing. General requirements for an advanced ABIAA system present significant challenges in architectural design, computing resources, data volumes, workflow efficiency, data mining and analysis algorithms, and database structures. These sophisticated ABI software systems must include advanced algorithms that automatically flag activities of interest in less time and within larger data volumes than can be processed by human analysts. In doing this, they must also maintain the geospatial accuracy necessary for cross-correlation of multi-intelligence data sources. Historically, serial architectural workflows have been employed in ABIAA system design for tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination. These simpler architectures may produce implementations that solve short term requirements; however, they have serious limitations that preclude them from being used effectively in an automated ABIAA system with multiple data sources. This paper discusses modern ABIAA architectural considerations providing an overview of an advanced ABIAA system and comparisons to legacy systems. It concludes with a recommended strategy and incremental approach to the research, development, and construction of a fully automated ABIAA system.

  10. Status of Civil Judicial Consent Decrees Addressing Combined Sewer Systems (CSOs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tracking table of civil consent decrees for combined sewer systems (CSOs). This supports the National Enforcement Initiative (NEI) for Keeping Raw Sewage and Contaminated Stormwater Out of Our Nation's Waters.

  11. Individual addressing of trapped {sup 171}Yb{sup +} ion qubits using a microelectromechanical systems-based beam steering system

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, S.; Mount, E.; Baek, S.; Kim, J.

    2014-11-03

    The ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits is one of the many challenges towards scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems technology, we focus laser beams on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. We demonstrate sequential single qubit gates on multiple {sup 171}Yb{sup +} qubits and characterize the gate performance using quantum state tomography. Our system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (<3×10{sup −4}), and switching speed comparable to typical single qubit gate times (<2 μs)

  12. A Possible Approach for Addressing Neglected Human Factors Issues of Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity of safety-critical applications has led to the introduction of decision support tools in the transportation and process industries. Automation has also been introduced to support operator intervention in safety-critical applications. These innovations help reduce overall operator workload, and filter application data to maximize the finite cognitive and perceptual resources of system operators. However, these benefits do not come without a cost. Increased computational support for the end-users of safety-critical applications leads to increased reliance on engineers to monitor and maintain automated systems and decision support tools. This paper argues that by focussing on the end-users of complex applications, previous research has tended to neglect the demands that are being placed on systems engineers. The argument is illustrated through discussing three recent accidents. The paper concludes by presenting a possible strategy for building and using highly automated systems based on increased attention by management and regulators, improvements in competency and training for technical staff, sustained support for engineering team resource management, and the development of incident reporting systems for infrastructure failures. This paper represents preliminary work, about which we seek comments and suggestions.

  13. Environmentally responsive material to address human-system interaction in the automotive cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehkopf, Jackie D.; Barbat, Saeed D.; Goldman, Neil M.; Samus, Marsha A.; Gold, Harris

    2001-06-01

    There is significant human-system interaction in an automotive cockpit, and for particular components this interaction can be ever-present while being transient in nature. It is envisioned that environmentally responsive materials can be used in some components to accommodate personal and transient differences in the desired human-system interaction. Systems containing responsive gels have been developed to provide user activation and adjustment of the physical properties of a particular interior automotive component. Proprietary reverse viscosification gel formulations were developed that are thermally responsive. Formulations were modified to adjust the dynamic modulus and viscosity in terms of magnitude, amount of change over the viscosification transition, and the temperature over which the transition occurs. Changes in the physical properties of two orders of magnitude and more were achieved over a narrow transition region. Preliminary human factors assessment indicates that this order of magnitude of change is desirable. As the system of responsive gel, encapsulating material and activation mechanism is developed further, additional human factors studies will refine the desired physical properties and thermal activation mechanism. Ultimately, this system will have to perform over the broad range of temperatures imposed on interior automotive components and exhibit long-term durability chemically, physically and mechanically.

  14. Engineered muscle systems having individually addressable distributed muscle actuators controlled by optical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Neal, Devin; Asada, H Harry

    2013-01-01

    A multi degree-of-freedom system using live skeletal muscles as actuators is presented. Millimeter-scale, optically excitable 3D skeletal muscle strips are created by culturing genetically coded precursory muscle cells that are activated with light: optogenetics. These muscle bio-actuators are networked together to create a distributed actuator system. Unlike traditional mechanical systems where fixed axis joints are rotated with electric motors, the new networked muscle bio-actuators can activate loads having no fixed joint. These types of loads include shoulders, the mouth, and the jaw. The optogenetic approach offers high spatiotemporal resolution for precise control of muscle activation, and opens up the possibility to activate hundreds of interconnected muscles in a spatiotemporally coordinated manner. In this work, we explore the design of robotic systems composed of multiple light-activated live muscular actuator units. We describe and compare massively parallel and highly serial/networked distributions of these building-block actuator units. We have built functional fundamental prototypes and present experimental results to demonstrate the feasibility of the construction of larger scale muscle systems.

  15. Assessing the Use of School Public Address Systems to Deliver Nutrition Messages to Children: Shape Up Somerville--Audio Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folta, Sara C.; Goldberg, Jeanne P.; Economos, Christina; Bell, Rick; Landers, Stewart; Hyatt, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Given the current childhood obesity epidemic, it is especially important to find effective ways to promote healthful foods to children. School public address (PA) systems represent an inexpensive and a replicable way of reaching children with health messages. To test the effectiveness of this channel, messages were created to promote 2 dried bean…

  16. Media Literacy Education from Kindergarten to College: A Comparison of How Media Literacy Is Addressed across the Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans C.

    2013-01-01

    This study of media literacy education at all levels of the educational system considered faculty perceptions of student media literacy competencies, the extent to which media literacy is addressed in class, and the extent to which faculty members consider media literacy education to be important. Data suggest that despite the research and policy…

  17. Probing the biology of dry biological systems to address the basis of seed longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying cells reduces molecular mobility and slows chemical and physical reactions. As a result, dry biological systems deteriorate slowly. The time course of deterioration in a population of living cells often follows a sigmoidal pattern in which aging is occurring but no changes to viability are ...

  18. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  19. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Further Actions Needed to Address Challenges and Improve Accountability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Compliance and Requirements Traceability AF-IPPS Air Force Integrated Personnel and Pay System BPR business process reengineering BEA business...updated its BPR guidance in late September 2012 to include actions to be taken to review supporting documentation on selected investments

  20. Clicker Lessons: Assessing and Addressing Student Responses to Audience Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Tim; Pelton, Leslee Francis; Sanseverino, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This project began in response to a perceived need to assess students' perceptions with respect to the emerging use of audience response systems (clickers) in several mid- to large-size undergraduate courses at the University of Victoria. We developed and validated a "Clicker Use Survey" to gather students' opinions with respect to…

  1. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... interphone system required by paragraph (b) of this section, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  2. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interphone system required by paragraph (b) of this section, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  3. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interphone system required by paragraph (b) of this section, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  4. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... interphone system required by paragraph (b) of this section, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  5. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interphone system required by paragraph (b) of this section, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  6. Collaborative Group Learning and Knowledge Building to Address Information Systems Project Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelo, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Approximately half of the information systems (IS) projects implemented each year are considered failures. These failed projects cost billions of dollars annually. Failures can be due to projects being delivered late, over-budget, abandoned after significant time and resource investment, or failing to achieve desired results. More often than not,…

  7. Addressing Indigenous (ICT) Approaches in South-East Asian Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a structural overview about indigenous approaches to learning in South East Asian countries, with a particular reference to education initiatives that have been operating in this region; and especially to investigate information and communication technologies (ICT) systems, in combination with…

  8. Moving Forward? Addressing the Needs of Young At-Risk Students in the Dutch Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina M.

    2007-01-01

    Inclusive education in the Dutch education system has achieved new meaning in the last decade or so. Until 1998, the Netherlands recognized 19 types of special education. Then, two Educational Acts were passed, in 1998 and 2003, that decreased the types of special education by including measures to enhance inclusion of students with special…

  9. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system

    PubMed Central

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere–ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system—System 4—has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981–2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  10. Examining How Web Designers' Activity Systems Address Accessibility: Activity Theory as a Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    While accessibility of information technologies is often acknowledged as important, it is frequently not well addressed in practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the work of web developers and content managers to explore why and how accessibility is or is not addressed as an objective as websites are planned, built and maintained.…

  11. Girls in the juvenile justice system: leave no girl's health un-addressed.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Barbara J; Hoey, Erin; Ravoira, LaWanda; Kintner, Eileen

    2002-12-01

    Despite an increase in middle to older aged adolescent females' early contact with the juvenile justice system, inadequate health care remains a concern. This descriptive study surveyed the physical and mental health needs of 130 self-selected, nonrandomized girls aged 12 to 18 years, with a mean age of 15.42 years (SD, 1.24), who were involved with a juvenile justice diversional program located in a southeastern region of the United States. Findings revealed early initiation of sexual-related activities (mean age, 13.9 years; SD, 1.49) and substance use (mean age, 12.9 years; SD, 1.53). The data suggest an increasing need for pediatric nurses, and in particular advanced practice nurses, to provide gender-responsive health care and health promotion services to early middle-childhood females in the juvenile justice system.

  12. San Diego Healthy Weight Collaborative: a systems approach to address childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Serpas, Shaila; Brandstein, Kendra; McKennett, Marianne; Hillidge, Sharon; Zive, Michelle; Nader, Philip R

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative approach to identify opportunities for interactions between multiple systems is an important model for childhood obesity prevention. This paper describes a process aligning multiple partners in primary care, public health, university research, schools, and community organizations. Jointly implemented strategies in a Latino underserved community included: (1) building an effective and sustainable collaborative team; (2) disseminating a healthy weight message across sectors; (3) assessing weight status and healthy weight plans in primary care, school, and early childhood settings; and (4) implementing policy changes to support healthy eating and physical activity. The process and lessons learned were analyzed so other communities can utilize a systems approach to develop culturally appropriate interventions tailored to a specific community.

  13. Series-connected shaded modules to address partial shading conditions in SPV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, Smita; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    With the progress of technology and reduced cost of PV cells, the PV systems are being installed in many countries, including India. Even though this method of power generation has sufficient potential but its effective utilization is still lacking. This is because the output power of PV cells depends on many factors like insolation, temperature, climate conditions prevailing nearby, aging, using modules from different technologies/manufacturers or partial shading conditions. Among these factors, partial shading causes major reduction in output power despite the size of PV systems. As a result, the produced power is lower than the expected value. The connection of modules to each other has great impact on output power if they are prone to partial shading conditions. In this paper, PV arrays are investigated under partial shading conditions. The results show that partial shading losses can be minimized by connecting shaded modules in series rather than in parallel.

  14. A manual for addressing ineffectiveness within a Corrective Action System and driving on-time dispositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallari, Lawrence Anthony Castro

    This project proposes a manual specifically for remedying an ineffective Corrective Action Request System for Company ABC by providing dispositions within the company's quality procedure. A Corrective Action Request System is a corrective action tool that provides a means for employees to engage in the process improvement, problem elimination cycle. At Company ABC, Corrective Action Recommendations (CARs) are not provided with timely dispositions; CARs are being ignored due to a lack of training and awareness of Company ABC's personnel and quality procedures. In this project, Company ABC's quality management software database is scrutinized to identify the number of delinquent, non-dispositioned CARs in 2014. These CARs are correlated with the number of nonconformances generated for the same issue while the CAR is still open. Using secondary data, the primary investigator finds that nonconformances are being remediated at the operational level. However, at the administrative level, CARS are being ignored and forgotten.

  15. Identifying and Addressing Stakeholder Interests in Design Science Research: An Analysis Using Critical Systems Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venable, John R.

    This paper utilises the Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) framework developed by Werner Ulrich to critically consider the stakeholders and design goals that should be considered as relevant by researchers conducing Design Science Research (DSR). CSH provides a philosophically and theoretically grounded framework and means for critical consideration of the choices of stakeholders considered to be relevant to any system under design consideration. The paper recommends that legitimately undertaken DSR should include witnesses to represent the interests of the future consumers of the outcomes of DSR, i.e., the future clients, decision makers, professionals, and other non-included stakeholders in the future use of the solution technologies to be invented in DSR. The paper further discusses options for how witnesses might be included, who should be witnessed for and obstacles to implementing the recommendations.

  16. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  17. F-35 Sustainment: DOD Needs a Plan to Address Risks Related to Its Central Logistics System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    planning, supply-chain management , maintenance, and other processes. The F-35 program is approaching several key milestones: the Air Force and...Air Vehicle Data/Health CAPE Office of the Director for Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation CMMS Computerized Maintenance Management ...Office of the Secretary of Defense SCM Supply Chain Management SOU Standard Operating Unit TMS Training Management System This is a work

  18. Policy Options to Address Crucial Communication Gaps in the Incident Command System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection COML Communications Unit Leader COMT Communication Technician EBRPD East Bay Regional Parks...Laguna Fire 1970 - One of California’s Worst Wildfires.” Available at http://www.cccarto.com/cal_wildfire/laguna/fire.html, Accessed August 10, 2012...NIMS - The Evolution of the National Incident Management System.” Fire Rescue Magazine, August 2011. 15 compatibility, and department emergency

  19. Can We Better Address the Siting of Hazard Division 1.3 Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    American Petroleum Institute standard API 521 (Reference 22). These include (1) 15.97 kW/m2 for heat flux on structures where operators are not likely...The Hague, Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning, and Environment, 1990.) 22. American Petroleum Institute . Guide for Pressure-Relieving...and Depressurizing Systems. American Petroleum Institute , Washington, D.C., 1997, API 521. 23. Quest Consultants, Inc. Worst-Case Consequence

  20. Tailored Educational Approaches for Consumer Health (TEACH): a model system for addressing health communication.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Wendy F; Pannone, Aaron; Schubart, Jane; Lyman, Jason; Kinzie, Mable; Broshek, Donna K; Guterbock, Thomas M; Hartman, David; Mick, David; Bolmey, Armando; Garson, Arthur T

    2006-01-01

    The Consumer Health Education Institute (CHEDI) has developed a model system to improve the quality and effectiveness of patient education and health communication. Through assessment of characteristics and preferences, segmentation into groups and matching with the appropriate materials, we have demonstrated that patients and health consumers have different health information needs and preferences which show promise as a basis for selecting or designing the most appropriate materials or programs.

  1. Spring-Based Helmet System Support Prototype to Address Aircrew Neck Strain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Royal Canadian Air Force Griffon helicopter aircrew are known to have extremely high incidence of chronic, debilitating neck pain. Fischer et al...2013) identified that unbalanced moments due to head-borne equipment (i.e. helmet with NVG ) were a particular concern since the current solution was...to add more weight (battery pack and counterweight (CW)) as a counterbalancing force. Three concepts were proposed to improve the helmet- NVG system

  2. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Melin, Alexander M; Czejdo, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  3. Application of fuzzy system theory in addressing the presence of uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Yusmye, A. Y. N.; Goh, B. Y.; Adnan, N. F.; Ariffin, A. K.

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, the combinations of fuzzy system theory with the finite element methods are present and discuss to deal with the uncertainties. The present of uncertainties is needed to avoid for prevent the failure of the material in engineering. There are three types of uncertainties, which are stochastic, epistemic and error uncertainties. In this paper, the epistemic uncertainties have been considered. For the epistemic uncertainty, it exists as a result of incomplete information and lack of knowledge or data. Fuzzy system theory is a non-probabilistic method, and this method is most appropriate to interpret the uncertainty compared to statistical approach when the deal with the lack of data. Fuzzy system theory contains a number of processes started from converting the crisp input to fuzzy input through fuzzification process and followed by the main process known as mapping process. The term mapping here means that the logical relationship between two or more entities. In this study, the fuzzy inputs are numerically integrated based on extension principle method. In the final stage, the defuzzification process is implemented. Defuzzification is an important process to allow the conversion of the fuzzy output to crisp outputs. Several illustrative examples are given and from the simulation, the result showed that propose the method produces more conservative results comparing with the conventional finite element method.

  4. Results of a Loran-C flight test using an absolute data reference. [vhf monirange navigation system and discrete address beacon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    A closed circuit flight test was conducted using VORs and NDBs as reference points. The Loran-C data collected during the flight was then compared against a reference provided by a discrete address beacon system facility. Information on the equipment configuration in the aircraft, the flight procedure, and the results obtained are presented.

  5. Socio-Ecohydrologic Agents And Services: Integrating Human And Natural Components To Address Coupled System Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavao-zuckerman, M.; Pope, A.; Chan, D.; Curl, K.; Gimblett, H. R.; Hough, M.; House-Peters, L.; Lee, R.; Scott, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian corridors in arid regions are highly valued for their relative scarcity, and because healthy riparian systems support high levels of biodiversity, can meet human demand for water and water-related resources and functions. Our team is taking a transdiciplinary social-ecological systems approach to assessing riparian corridor resilience in two watersheds (the San Pedro River in USA and Mexico, and the Rio San Miguel in Mexico) through a project funded by the NSF CNH program ("Strengthening Resilience of Arid Region Riparian Corridors"). Multiple perspectives are integrated in the project, including hydrology, ecology, institutional dynamics, and decision making (at the level of both policy and individual choice), as well as the perspectives of various stakeholder groups and individuals in the watersheds. Here we discuss initial findings that center around linking changes in ecohydrology and livelihoods related to decisions in response to climatic, ecological, and social change. The research team is implementing two approaches to integrate the disparate disciplines participating in the research (and the varied perspectives among the stakeholders in this binational riparian context): (1) ecosystem service assessment, and (2) agent based model simulation. We are developing an ecosystem service perspective that provides a bridge between ecological dynamics in the landscape and varied stakeholder perspectives on the implications of ecohydrology for well-being (economic, cultural, ecological). Services are linked on one hand to the spatial patterns of traits of individuals within species (allowing a more predictive application of ecosystem services as they vary with community change in time), and to stakeholder perspectives (facilitating integration of ecosystem services into our understanding of decision making processes) in a case study in the San Pedro River National Conservation Area. The agent- based model (ABM) approach incorporates the influence of human

  6. Whole Neuraxis Irradiation to Address Central Nervous System Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Croog, Victoria J.; Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Souweidane, Mark M.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2010-11-01

    Background: As systemic control of high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) has improved, relapse in the central nervous system (CNS) is an increasingly recognized entity that carries a grim prognosis. This study describes the use of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for CNS relapse and compares outcomes to patients who received focal radiotherapy (RT). Methods: A retrospective query identified 29 children with NB treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center since 1987 who received RT for CNS relapse. At CNS relapse, 16 patients received CSI (median dose, 2160cGy), and 13 received focal RT. Of those who underwent CSI, 14 (88%) received intra-Ommaya (IO) radioimmunotherapy (RIT); one patient in the non-CSI cohort received IO-RIT. Results: Patient characteristics were similar between the groups. Time to CNS relapse was 20 and 17 months for the CSI and non-CSI cohorts, respectively. At a median follow-up of 28 months, 12 patients (75%) in the CSI group are alive without CNS disease, including two patients with isolated skeletal relapse. Another patient is alive without disease after a brain relapse was retreated with RT. Three patients died-one with no NB at autopsy, one of CNS disease, and one of systemic disease. The two patients who died of NB did not receive IO-RIT. All 13 patients in the non-CSI cohort died at a median of 8.8 months. Conclusions: Low-dose CSI together with IO-RIT provides durable CNS remissions and improved survival compared with focal RT and conventional therapies. Further evaluation of long-term NB survivors after CSI is warranted to determine the treatment consequences for this cohort.

  7. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  8. Addressing Special Education Inequity through Systemic Change: Contributions of Ecologically Based Organizational Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; Hernandez-Saca, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of special education, scholars and practitioners have been concerned about the disproportionate representation of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds among students identified with disabilities. Professional efforts to address this disproportionality have encompassed a range of targets, but scholars…

  9. Electrical addressing of confined quantum systems for quasiclassical computation and finite state logic machines.

    PubMed

    Remacle, F; Heath, J R; Levine, R D

    2005-04-19

    Conduction spectroscopy measures the current I through a nanosystem as a function of the voltage V between two electrodes. The differential conductance, dI/dV, has peaks that can be assigned to resonance conditions with different electronic levels of the system. Between these increments, the current has roughly constant plateaus. We discuss how measurements of the current vs. voltage can be used to perform Boolean operations and hence construct finite state logic machines and combinational circuits. The inputs to the device are the source-drain voltage, including its sign, and a gate voltage applied in a manner analogous to optical Stark spectroscopy. As simple examples, we describe a two-state set-reset machine (a machine whose output depends on the input and also on its present state) and a full adder circuit (a circuit that requires three inputs and provides two outputs).

  10. Don't blame patients, engage them: transforming health systems to address health literacy.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Dominick L; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is affirming a new era for health care delivery in the United States, with an increased focus on patient engagement. The field of health literacy has important contributions to make, and there are opportunities to achieve much more synergy between these seemingly different perspectives. Systems need to be designed in a user-centered way that is responsive to patients at all levels of health literacy. Similarly, strategies are needed to ensure that patients are supported to become engaged, at the level they desire, instead of the status quo, in which patients are rarely actively empowered and encouraged to engage in health care decisions, where preferences are rarely elicited, and where there is a lack of interest in how their life circumstances shape their priorities.

  11. GPS: Actions Needed to Address Ground System Development Problems and User Equipment Production Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    review the status of OCX development and DOD’s efforts to field M- code signal capability. This report addresses (1) the extent to which DOD is...meeting cost, schedule, and performance requirements for OCX; (2) the progress DOD is making in delivering M- code capable MGUE by the end of fiscal year...2017; and (3) the challenges DOD faces in synchronizing the development of GPS III, OCX, and MGUE to deploy M- code . To conduct this work, GAO

  12. Moonrise: Sampling the South Pole-Aitken Basin to Address Problems of Solar System Significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Shearer, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    A mission to land in the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin on the Moon's southern farside and return a sample to Earth for analysis is a high priority for Solar System Science. Such a sample would be used to determine the age of the SPA impact; the chronology of the basin, including the ages of basins and large impacts within SPA, with implications for early Solar System dynamics and the magmatic history of the Moon; the age and composition of volcanic rocks within SPA; the origin of the thorium signature of SPA with implications for the origin of exposed materials and thermal evolution of the Moon; and possibly the magnetization that forms a strong anomaly especially evident in the northern parts of the SPA basin. It is well known from studies of the Apollo regolith that rock fragments found in the regolith form a representative collection of many different rock types delivered to the site by the impact process (Fig. 1). Such samples are well documented to contain a broad suite of materials that reflect both the local major rock formations, as well as some exotic materials from far distant sources. Within the SPA basin, modeling of the impact ejection process indicates that regolith would be dominated by SPA substrate, formed at the time of the SPA basin-forming impact and for the most part moved around by subsequent impacts. Consistent with GRAIL data, the SPA impact likely formed a vast melt body tens of km thick that took perhaps several million years to cool, but that nonetheless represents barely an instant in geologic time that should be readily apparent through integrated geochronologic studies involving multiple chronometers. It is anticipated that a statistically significant number of age determinations would yield not only the age of SPA but also the age of several prominent nearby basins and large craters within SPA. This chronology would provide a contrast to the Imbrium-dominated chronology of the nearside Apollo samples and an independent test of

  13. Addressing health system barriers to access to and use of skilled delivery services: perspectives from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ganle, John Kuumuori; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Otupiri, Easmon; Parker, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Poor access to and use of skilled delivery services have been identified as a major contributory factor to poor maternal and newborn health in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. However, many previous studies that examine norms of childbirth and care-seeking behaviours have focused on identifying the norms of non-use of services, rather than factors, that can promote service use. Based on primary qualitative research with a total of 185 expectant and lactating mothers, and 20 healthcare providers in six communities in Ghana, this paper reports on strategies that can be used to overcome health system barriers to the use of skilled delivery services. The strategies identified include expansion and redistribution of existing maternal health resources and infrastructure, training of more skilled maternity caregivers, instituting special programmes to target women most in need, improving the quality of maternity care services provided, improving doctor-patient relationships in maternity wards, promotion of choice, protecting privacy and patient dignity in maternity wards and building partnerships with traditional birth attendants and other non-state actors. The findings suggest the need for structural changes to maternity clinics and routine nursing practices, including an emphasis on those doctor-patient relational practices that positively influence women's healthcare-seeking behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Lameness detection challenges in automated milking systems addressed with partial least squares discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; Klaas, I; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Enevoldsen, C

    2014-12-01

    Lameness causes decreased animal welfare and leads to higher production costs. This study explored data from an automatic milking system (AMS) to model on-farm gait scoring from a commercial farm. A total of 88 cows were gait scored once per week, for 2 5-wk periods. Eighty variables retrieved from AMS were summarized week-wise and used to predict 2 defined classes: nonlame and clinically lame cows. Variables were represented with 2 transformations of the week summarized variables, using 2-wk data blocks before gait scoring, totaling 320 variables (2 × 2 × 80). The reference gait scoring error was estimated in the first week of the study and was, on average, 15%. Two partial least squares discriminant analysis models were fitted to parity 1 and parity 2 groups, respectively, to assign the lameness class according to the predicted probability of being lame (score 3 or 4/4) or not lame (score 1/4). Both models achieved sensitivity and specificity values around 80%, both in calibration and cross-validation. At the optimum values in the receiver operating characteristic curve, the false-positive rate was 28% in the parity 1 model, whereas in the parity 2 model it was about half (16%), which makes it more suitable for practical application; the model error rates were, 23 and 19%, respectively. Based on data registered automatically from one AMS farm, we were able to discriminate nonlame and lame cows, where partial least squares discriminant analysis achieved similar performance to the reference method.

  15. Potential enhancements to addressing programmatic risk in the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.; Fassbender, L.; Bilyard, G.; Levine, L.

    1996-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management methodology development task. The objective of this task was to develop risk management methodology focused on (1) the use of programmatic risk information in making TWRS architecture selection decisions and (2) the identification/evaluation/selection of TWRS risk-handling actions. Methods for incorporating programmatic risk/uncertainty estimates into trade studies are provided for engineers/analysts. Methods for identifying, evaluating, and selecting risk-handling actions are provided for managers. The guidance provided in this report is designed to help decision-makers make difficult judgments. Current approaches to architecture selection decisions and identification/evaluation/selection of risk-handling actions are summarized. Three categories of sources of programmatic risk (parametric, external, and organizational) are examined. Multiple analytical approaches are presented to enhance the current alternative generation and analysis (AGA) and risk-handling procedures. Appendix A describes some commercially available risk management software tools and Appendix B provides a brief introduction to quantification of risk attitudes. The report provides three levels of analysis for enhancing the AGA Procedure: (1) qualitative discussion coupled with estimated uncertainty ranges for scores in the alternatives-by-criteria matrix; (2) formal elicitation of probability distributions for the alternative scores; and (3) a formal, more structured, comprehensive risk analysis. A framework is also presented for using the AGA programmatic risk analysis results in making better decisions. The report also presents two levels of analysis for evaluation and selection of risk-handling actions: (1) qualitative analysis and judgmental rankings of alternative actions, and (2) Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART).

  16. Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

  17. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  18. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Budy, Fidel C T

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  19. Do we need to change the legislation to a system of presumed consent to address organ shortage?

    PubMed

    Simillis, Constantinos

    2010-04-01

    Organ transplantation significantly improves the health, quality of life and life-expectancy of people whose organs have failed. Most patients in the UK cannot enjoy the benefits of a transplant because of an extreme shortage of organs. This paper demonstrates the magnitude of the problem of organ shortage and identifies possible causes. The current UK legislation regarding consent to organ transplantation is analysed and compared with other jurisdictions. The hypothesis of changing the legislation to a system of presumed consent in order to address the organ shortage is explored. The main issues surrounding a change in the legislation are considered, and the effects on society and the individual are discussed. This paper argues that there is not enough convincing evidence to support a change in the legislation to a system of presumed consent at this time. Instead, an increase in organ donations could be achieved by improving the effectiveness of the current system of organ donation, and by improving the public's awareness and understanding of organ transplantation issues.

  20. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  1. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

  2. Assessing the use of school public address systems to deliver nutrition messages to children: Shape up Somerville--audio adventures.

    PubMed

    Folta, Sara C; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Economos, Christina; Bell, Rick; Landers, Stewart; Hyatt, Raymond

    2006-11-01

    Given the current childhood obesity epidemic, it is especially important to find effective ways to promote healthful foods to children. School public address (PA) systems represent an inexpensive and a replicable way of reaching children with health messages. To test the effectiveness of this channel, messages were created to promote 2 dried bean (legume) dishes that had been added to the school lunch menu. Six elementary schools were pair matched, and 1 school from each pair was randomly chosen to play the messages. The impact of the intervention on choice of the 2 new entrees was assessed. Results indicate that for all schools combined, choice was not significantly affected. However, compared to their matched control schools, choice was significantly higher in the school that received the highest dose of the intervention and was significantly lower in the school that received the lowest dose. Choice was not changed in the school that received an intermediate dose. These results suggest that PA systems show promise as an effective and appropriate communications channel but only in schools that are able to play messages frequently.

  3. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G.; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2015-08-01

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  4. Future prospects for prophylactic immune stimulation in crustacean aquaculture - the need for improved metadata to address immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Hauton, Chris; Hudspith, Meggie; Gunton, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Future expansion of the crustacean aquaculture industry will be required to ensure global food security. However, this expansion must ensure: (a) that natural resources (including habitat use and fish meal) are sustainably exploited, (b) that the socio-economic development of producing nations is safeguarded, and (c) that the challenge presented by crustacean diseases is adequately met. Conventionally, the problem of disease in crustacean aquaculture has been addressed through prophylactic administration of stimulants, additives or probiotics. However, these approaches have been questioned both experimentally and philosophically. In this review, we argue that real progress in the field of crustacean immune stimulants has now slowed, with only incremental advances now being made. We further contend that an overt focus on the immune effector response has been misguided. In light of the wealth of new data reporting immune system complexity, a more refined approach is necessary - one that must consider the important role played by pattern recognition proteins. In support of this more refined approach, there is now a much greater requirement for the reporting of essential metadata. We propose a broad series of recommendations regarding the 'Minimum Information required to support a Stimulant Assessment experiment' (MISA guidelines) to foster new progression within the field.

  5. A Novel Approach to Mission-Level Engineering of Complex Systems of Systems: Addressing Integration and Interoperability Shortfalls by Interrogating the Interstitials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-17

    components on nodes, interconnections on edges) and emphasizes the components on the nodes. Figure 2 illustrates a simple system of two sensors (node A...other types of modeling – DoDAF views (OV-1, OV- 2 ), SysML Context Diagrams, UML Use Case Diagrams, etc. In fact, any model that depicts entities of...simulation, and analysis tools and processes for integrating a complex, adaptive System of Systems . Mr. Garrett was recognized by the International

  6. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  7. A Domain Analysis Model for eIRB Systems: Addressing the Weak Link in Clinical Research Informatics

    PubMed Central

    He, Shan; Narus, Scott P.; Facelli, Julio C.; Lau, Lee Min; Botkin, Jefferey R.; Hurdle, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are a critical component of clinical research and can become a significant bottleneck due to the dramatic increase, in both volume and complexity of clinical research. Despite the interest in developing clinical research informatics (CRI) systems and supporting data standards to increase clinical research efficiency and interoperability, informatics research in the IRB domain has not attracted much attention in the scientific community. The lack of standardized and structured application forms across different IRBs causes inefficient and inconsistent proposal reviews and cumbersome workflows. These issues are even more prominent in multi-institutional clinical research that is rapidly becoming the norm. This paper proposes and evaluates a domain analysis model for electronic IRB (eIRB) systems, paving the way for streamlined clinical research workflow via integration with other CRI systems and improved IRB application throughput via computer-assisted decision support. PMID:24929181

  8. A domain analysis model for eIRB systems: addressing the weak link in clinical research informatics.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Narus, Scott P; Facelli, Julio C; Lau, Lee Min; Botkin, Jefferey R; Hurdle, John F

    2014-12-01

    Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are a critical component of clinical research and can become a significant bottleneck due to the dramatic increase, in both volume and complexity of clinical research. Despite the interest in developing clinical research informatics (CRI) systems and supporting data standards to increase clinical research efficiency and interoperability, informatics research in the IRB domain has not attracted much attention in the scientific community. The lack of standardized and structured application forms across different IRBs causes inefficient and inconsistent proposal reviews and cumbersome workflows. These issues are even more prominent in multi-institutional clinical research that is rapidly becoming the norm. This paper proposes and evaluates a domain analysis model for electronic IRB (eIRB) systems, paving the way for streamlined clinical research workflow via integration with other CRI systems and improved IRB application throughput via computer-assisted decision support.

  9. Quantifying and Addressing the DOE Material Reactivity Requirements with Analysis and Testing of Hydrogen Storage Materials & Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Y. F.

    2012-04-30

    The objective of this project is to examine safety aspects of candidate hydrogen storage materials and systems being developed in the DOE Hydrogen Program. As a result of this effort, the general DOE safety target will be given useful meaning by establishing a link between the characteristics of new storage materials and the satisfaction of safety criteria. This will be accomplished through the development and application of formal risk analysis methods, standardized materials testing, chemical reactivity characterization, novel risk mitigation approaches and subscale system demonstration. The project also will collaborate with other DOE and international activities in materials based hydrogen storage safety to provide a larger, highly coordinated effort.

  10. A Systems Thinking Framework for Assessing and Addressing Malaria Locally: An Alternative to the Globalization of Anti-Malaria Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Derek W.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes a decision system that was used in the early 1900s in the Federated Malay States (FMS) by Malcolm Watson in order to make anti-malaria program recommendations to decision makers in a wide range of ecological settings. Watson's recommendations to decision makers throughout the FMS led to a dramatic suppression of malaria…

  11. Understanding Community Schools as Collaboratives for System Building to Address Barriers and Promote Well-Being. A Center Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This brief reviews different agenda for establishing school-community connections in general and community schools specifically. A Comprehensive Community School is discussed as an entity that emerges from system building by school-family-community collaboratives. Establishing effective collaboratives requires policy that supports shared…

  12. Cost Analysis of the Discrete Address Beacon System for the Low-Performance General Aviation Aircraft Community.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Community S. Performing Organization Report No.7. Author’,) S. Kowalski, K. Peter, A. Schust, D. Swann, P. Young 1326-01-15-2529 9. Perferming Organization... cooperative surveillance and communications system for air traffic control. It employs ground-based interrogators and airborne transponders. Data-link

  13. Opportunity, risk, and success recognizing, addressing, and balancing multiple factors crucial to the success of a project management system deployed to support multi-lateral decommissioning programs

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Greg; Longsworth, Paul

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the factors involved in effectively implementing a world-class program/project management information system funded by multiple nations. Along with many other benefits, investing in and utilizing such systems improves delivery and drive accountability for major expenditures. However, there are an equally large number of impediments to developing and using such systems. To be successful, the process requires a dynamic combining of elements and strategic sequencing of initiatives. While program/project-management systems involve information technologies, software and hardware, they represent only one element of the overall system.. Technology, process, people and knowledge must all be integrated and working in concert with one another to assure a fully capable system. Major system implementations occur infrequently, and frequently miss established targets in relatively small organizations (with the risk increasing with greater complexity). The European Bank of Reconstruction (EBRD) is midway through just such an implementation. The EBRD is using funds from numerous donor countries to sponsor development of an overarching program management system. The system will provide the Russian Federation with the tools to effectively manage prioritizing, planning, and physically decommissioning assets{sub i}n northwest Russia to mitigate risks associated the Soviet era nuclear submarine program. Project-management delivery using world-class techniques supported by aligned systems has been proven to increase the probability of delivering on-time and on-budget, assuring those funding such programs optimum value for money. However, systems deployed to manage multi-laterally funded projects must be developed with appropriate levels of consideration given to unique aspects such as: accommodation of existing project management methods, consideration for differences is management structures and organizational behaviors, incorporation of unique strengths, and

  14. System for routing messages in a vertex symmetric network by using addresses formed from permutations of the transmission line indicees

    DOEpatents

    Faber, Vance; Moore, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs .GAMMA..sub.d (k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d+1)!/(d-k+1)! processors for each d.gtoreq.k and .GAMMA..sub.d (k,-1) with degree 3-1, diameter k+1, and (d+1)!/(d-k+1)! processors for each d.gtoreq.k.gtoreq.4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network .GAMMA..sub.d (k,-1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction .delta..sub.1. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations.

  15. 76 FR 7187 - Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk-Power System; Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... protecting against sophisticated and fast-moving threats? What role do you expect Smart Grid to play in the... grid reliability under Smart Grid applications? If not, how should NERC address these issues? c. Will Smart Grid applications have non-cyber reliability implications that need to be addressed? d. What...

  16. Status of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems’ Cost, Schedule, and Management Actions Taken to Address Prior Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    identified corrective actions taken to ensure the integrity of business process re-engineering ( BPR ) assessments submitted for DoD ERP programs. DoD...certification authority determine that an appropriate BPR effort is completed before funds in excess of $1 million are obligated for defense...determine whether an adequate BPR effort occurred for ongoing defense business systems modernizations that have a total cost in excess of $100

  17. Improving U. S. Army Analysis of Alternatives to Better Address the Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act of 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Hume (2012) presents ideas for building an analytical framework for the capabilities development process. TRAC (2011b) presents recommendations to...TRAC WSMR Mr. Scott Schoeb, Chief, Maneuver Systems Branch, AMSAA Mr. Alan Dinsmore, Integration Team Leader, AMSAA Mr. David Henningsen, Office...continue to be, involved in multiple Army AoAs. The name, rank, organization, and position are provided below for each person interviewed. Dr. David

  18. Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance

  19. Who reports address changes through the healthcare system? The characteristics of laggers and non-reporters using the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Shuttleworth, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Address information from health service professionals is already important for the delivery of health care and population monitoring and screening. It is also important for statistical purposes such as the estimation of migration and small area populations and its importance could increase as the decade progresses and alternatives are sought to the traditional census. Because of this, it is important to understand more about the accuracy of address information provided through the health care system.This article considers the characteristics of 'laggers' - those who delay in reporting address changes - and 'non-reporters' - those who on occasion fail to report their addresses.The article finds that, as might be expected, laggers and non-reporters tend to be male and resident in urban and deprived areas. However, less expectedly, older people tend to be laggers, as are owner occupiers, those who are not ill, those who have some educational qualifications, and those who are self-employed. Some non-reporters are also more likely to be employed in professional jobs and to be unmarried (for example single, remarried and divorced). This suggests that poor address information is not just a problem associated with the socially deprived and the young but also with some more affluent groups such as those not experiencing limiting long-term illness. The article concludes by arguing that the checking of patients' address information should be collected under the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) as a performance indicator.

  20. A perfusion bioreactor system efficiently generates cell‐loaded bone substitute materials for addressing critical size bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhans, Claudia; Mohan, Ramkumar Ramani; Vacun, Gabriele; Schwarz, Thomas; Haller, Barbara; Sun, Yang; Kahlig, Alexander; Kluger, Petra; Finne‐Wistrand, Anna; Walles, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Critical size bone defects and non‐union fractions are still challenging to treat. Cell‐loaded bone substitutes have shown improved bone ingrowth and bone formation. However, a lack of methods for homogenously colonizing scaffolds limits the maximum volume of bone grafts. Additionally, therapy robustness is impaired by heterogeneous cell populations after graft generation. Our aim was to establish a technology for generating grafts with a size of 10.5 mm in diameter and 25 mm of height, and thus for grafts suited for treatment of critical size bone defects. Therefore, a novel tailor‐made bioreactor system was developed, allowing standardized flow conditions in a porous poly(L‐lactide‐co‐caprolactone) material. Scaffolds were seeded with primary human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different donors. In contrast to static experimental conditions, homogenous cell distributions were accomplished under dynamic culture. Additionally, culture in the bioreactor system allowed the induction of osteogenic lineage commitment after one week of culture without addition of soluble factors. This was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of calcification and gene expression markers related to osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the novel bioreactor technology allows efficient and standardized conditions for generating bone substitutes that are suitable for the treatment of critical size defects in humans. PMID:26011163

  1. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  2. Unmanned Aerial Systems as Part of a Multi-Component Assessment Strategy to Address Climate Change and Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Sciare, Jean; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been established as versatile tools for different applications, providing data and observations for atmospheric and Earth-Systems research. They offer an urgently needed link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations and are distinguished by significant versatility, flexibility and moderate operational costs. UAS have the proven potential to contribute to a multi-component assessment strategy that combines remote-sensing, numerical modelling and surface measurements in order to elucidate important atmospheric processes. This includes physical and chemical transformations related to ongoing climate change as well as issues linked to aerosol-cloud interactions and air quality. The distinct advantages offered by UAS comprise, to name but a few: (i) their ability to operate from altitudes of a few meters to up to a few kilometers; (ii) their capability to perform autonomously controlled missions, which provides for repeat-measurements to be carried out at precisely defined locations; (iii) their relative ease of operation, which enables flexible employment at short-term notice and (iv) the employment of more than one platform in stacked formation, which allows for unique, quasi-3D-observations of atmospheric properties and processes. These advantages are brought to bear in combining in-situ ground based observations and numerical modeling with UAS-based remote sensing in elucidating specific research questions that require both horizontally and vertically resolved measurements at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Employing numerical atmospheric modelling, UAS can provide survey information over spatially and temporally localized, focused areas of evolving atmospheric phenomena, as they become identified by the numerical models. Conversely, UAS observations offer urgently needed data for model verification and provide boundary conditions for numerical models. In this presentation, we will

  3. Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.

  4. Recommendations for implementing policy, systems, and environmental improvements to address chronic diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-11-20

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities.

  5. Addressing the Challenges of Diverse Knowledge Systems through Landscape Analysis: A Case Study in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, A. H.; Griggs, D.; Joachim, L.; Heider, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Barmah-Millewa region of the Murray-Darling Basin is the heart of the Traditional Lands of the Yorta Yorta people. Management of water and ecosystem services in the region is governed by a wide array of sometimes inconsistent legislation and policies with differing rules, management focus and plans, and permitting and allocation procedures. Geographic information systems are a common framework for the integration of Indigenous knowledge and insights into natural resources management. But only with appropriate collection, management and database design protocols in place can geodatabase development and analysis support the effective and respectful participation of the Yorta Yorta community in management of this ecologically, economically and culturally important region. Here we describe the knowledge collection and protection protocols that were applied to develop the integrated geodatabase. We present approaches to generating meaningful guidance for water managers on the cultural implications of water allocation decisions.

  6. Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  7. How much detail and accuracy is required in plant growth sub-models to address questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural systems?

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Simulations that integrate sub-models of important biological processes can be used to ask questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural and ecological systems. Building sub-models with more detail and aiming for greater accuracy and realism may seem attractive, but is likely to be more expensive and time-consuming and result in more complicated models that lack transparency. This paper illustrates a general integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems that is based on the principle of starting simple and then directly testing for the need to add additional detail and complexity. Methodology The approach is demonstrated using LUSO (Land Use Sequence Optimizer), an agricultural system analysis framework based on simulation and optimization. A simple sensitivity analysis and functional perturbation analysis is used to test to what extent LUSO's crop–weed competition sub-model affects the answers to a number of questions at the scale of the whole farming system regarding optimal land-use sequencing strategies and resulting profitability. Principal results The need for accuracy in the crop–weed competition sub-model within LUSO depended to a small extent on the parameter being varied, but more importantly and interestingly on the type of question being addressed with the model. Only a small part of the crop–weed competition model actually affects the answers to these questions. Conclusions This study illustrates an example application of the proposed integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems based on testing whether complexity needs to be added to address particular questions of interest. We conclude that this example clearly demonstrates the potential value of the general approach. Advantages of this approach include minimizing costs and resources required for model construction, keeping models transparent and easy to analyse, and ensuring the model

  8. Acceleration of dormant storage effects to address the reliability of silicon surface micromachined Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, James V.; Candelaria, Sam A.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Duesterhaus, Michelle Ann; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Timpe, Shannon J.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Skousen, Troy J.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Parson, Ted Blair

    2006-06-01

    Qualification of microsystems for weapon applications is critically dependent on our ability to build confidence in their performance, by predicting the evolution of their behavior over time in the stockpile. The objective of this work was to accelerate aging mechanisms operative in surface micromachined silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with contacting surfaces that are stored for many years prior to use, to determine the effects of aging on reliability, and relate those effects to changes in the behavior of interfaces. Hence the main focus was on 'dormant' storage effects on the reliability of devices having mechanical contacts, the first time they must move. A large number ({approx}1000) of modules containing prototype devices and diagnostic structures were packaged using the best available processes for simple electromechanical devices. The packaging processes evolved during the project to better protect surfaces from exposure to contaminants and water vapor. Packages were subjected to accelerated aging and stress tests to explore dormancy and operational environment effects on reliability and performance. Functional tests and quantitative measurements of adhesion and friction demonstrated that the main failure mechanism during dormant storage is change in adhesion and friction, precipitated by loss of the fluorinated monolayer applied after fabrication. The data indicate that damage to the monolayer can occur at water vapor concentrations as low as 500 ppm inside the package. The most common type of failure was attributed to surfaces that were in direct contact during aging. The application of quantitative methods for monolayer lubricant analysis showed that even though the coverage of vapor-deposited monolayers is generally very uniform, even on hidden surfaces, locations of intimate contact can be significantly depleted in initial concentration of lubricating molecules. These areas represent defects in the film prone to adsorption of water or

  9. Multi-modal demands of a smartphone used to place calls and enter addresses during highway driving relative to two embedded systems

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Reagan, Ian; Kidd, David; Dobres, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is limited research on trade-offs in demand between manual and voice interfaces of embedded and portable technologies. Mehler et al. identified differences in driving performance, visual engagement and workload between two contrasting embedded vehicle system designs (Chevrolet MyLink and Volvo Sensus). The current study extends this work by comparing these embedded systems with a smartphone (Samsung Galaxy S4). None of the voice interfaces eliminated visual demand. Relative to placing calls manually, both embedded voice interfaces resulted in less eyes-off-road time than the smartphone. Errors were most frequent when calling contacts using the smartphone. The smartphone and MyLink allowed addresses to be entered using compound voice commands resulting in shorter eyes-off-road time compared with the menu-based Sensus but with many more errors. Driving performance and physiological measures indicated increased demand when performing secondary tasks relative to ‘just driving’, but were not significantly different between the smartphone and embedded systems. Practitioner Summary: The findings show that embedded system and portable device voice interfaces place fewer visual demands on the driver than manual interfaces, but they also underscore how differences in system designs can significantly affect not only the demands placed on drivers, but also the successful completion of tasks. PMID:27110964

  10. Work stealing for GPU-accelerated parallel programs in a global address space framework: WORK STEALING ON GPU-ACCELERATED SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Arafat, Humayun; Dinan, James; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Balaji, Pavan; Sadayappan, P.

    2016-01-06

    Task parallelism is an attractive approach to automatically load balance the computation in a parallel system and adapt to dynamism exhibited by parallel systems. Exploiting task parallelism through work stealing has been extensively studied in shared and distributed-memory contexts. In this paper, we study the design of a system that uses work stealing for dynamic load balancing of task-parallel programs executed on hybrid distributed-memory CPU-graphics processing unit (GPU) systems in a global-address space framework. We take into account the unique nature of the accelerator model employed by GPUs, the significant performance difference between GPU and CPU execution as a function of problem size, and the distinct CPU and GPU memory domains. We consider various alternatives in designing a distributed work stealing algorithm for CPU-GPU systems, while taking into account the impact of task distribution and data movement overheads. These strategies are evaluated using microbenchmarks that capture various execution configurations as well as the state-of-the-art CCSD(T) application module from the computational chemistry domain.

  11. Multi-modal demands of a smartphone used to place calls and enter addresses during highway driving relative to two embedded systems.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Reagan, Ian; Kidd, David; Dobres, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    There is limited research on trade-offs in demand between manual and voice interfaces of embedded and portable technologies. Mehler et al. identified differences in driving performance, visual engagement and workload between two contrasting embedded vehicle system designs (Chevrolet MyLink and Volvo Sensus). The current study extends this work by comparing these embedded systems with a smartphone (Samsung Galaxy S4). None of the voice interfaces eliminated visual demand. Relative to placing calls manually, both embedded voice interfaces resulted in less eyes-off-road time than the smartphone. Errors were most frequent when calling contacts using the smartphone. The smartphone and MyLink allowed addresses to be entered using compound voice commands resulting in shorter eyes-off-road time compared with the menu-based Sensus but with many more errors. Driving performance and physiological measures indicated increased demand when performing secondary tasks relative to 'just driving', but were not significantly different between the smartphone and embedded systems. Practitioner Summary: The findings show that embedded system and portable device voice interfaces place fewer visual demands on the driver than manual interfaces, but they also underscore how differences in system designs can significantly affect not only the demands placed on drivers, but also the successful completion of tasks.

  12. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  13. Observing the Great Plains Low-Level Jet Using the Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS): A Comparison with Boundary Layer Profiler Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, P. S.; Basu, S.

    2009-12-01

    Wind resources derived from the nocturnal low-level jet of the Great Plains of the United States are a driving factor in the proliferation of wind energy facilities across the region. Accurate diagnosis and forecasting of the low-level jet is important to not only assess the wind resource but to estimate the potential for shear-induced stress generation on turbine rotors. This study will examine the utility of Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) observations in diagnosing low-level jet events across the Texas Panhandle. ACARS observations from Lubbock International Airport (KLBB) will be compared to observations from a 915 MHZ Doppler radar vertical boundary-layer profiler with 60m vertical resolution located at the field experiment site of Texas Tech University. The ability of ACARS data to adequately observe low-level jet events during the spring and summer of 2009 will be assessed and presented.

  14. Regional Arctic System Model (RASM): A Tool to Address the U.S. Priorities and Advance Capabilities for Arctic Climate Modeling and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslowski, W.; Roberts, A.; Cassano, J. J.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Nijssen, B.; Osinski, R.; Zeng, X.; Brunke, M.; Duvivier, A.; Hamman, J.; Hossainzadeh, S.; Hughes, M.; Seefeldt, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing some of the most coordinated rapid climatic changes currently occurring anywhere on Earth, including the retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, which integrates forcing by, exchanges with and feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and land. While historical reconstructions from Earth System Models (ESMs) are in broad agreement with these changes, the rate of change in ESMs generally remains outpaced by observations. Reasons for that relate to a combination of coarse resolution, inadequate parameterizations, under-represented processes and a limited knowledge of physical interactions. We demonstrate the capability of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) in addressing some of the ESM limitations in simulating observed variability and trends in arctic surface climate. RASM is a high resolution, pan-Arctic coupled climate model with the sea ice and ocean model components configured at an eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12o and the atmosphere and land hydrology model components at 50 km resolution, which are all coupled at 20-minute intervals. RASM is an example of limited-area, process-resolving, fully coupled ESM, which due to the constraints from boundary conditions facilitates detailed comparisons with observational statistics that are not possible with ESMs. The overall goal of RASM is to address key requirements published in the Navy Arctic Roadmap: 2014-2030 and in the Implementation Plan for the National Strategy for the Arctic Region, regarding the need for advanced modeling capabilities for operational forecasting and strategic climate predictions through 2030. The main science objectives of RASM are to advance understanding and model representation of critical physical processes and feedbacks of importance to sea ice thickness and area distribution. RASM results are presented to quantify relative contributions by (i) resolved processes and feedbacks as well as (ii) sensitivity to space dependent sub-grid parameterizations to better

  15. Addressing the social determinants of health through health system strengthening and inter-sectoral convergence: the case of the Indian National Rural Health Mission

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Amit Mohan; Chakraborty, Gautam; Yadav, Sajjan Singh; Bhatia, Salima

    2013-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 21st century, India was plagued by significant rural–urban, inter-state and inter-district inequities in health. For example, in 2004, the infant mortality rate (IMR) was 24 points higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. To address these inequities, to strengthen the rural health system (a major determinant of health in itself) and to facilitate action on other determinants of health, India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in April 2005. Methods Under the NRHM, Rs. 666 billion (US$12.1 billion) was invested in rural areas from April 2005 to March 2012. There was also a substantially higher allocation for 18 high-focus states and 264 high-focus districts, identified on the basis of poor health and demographic indicators. Other determinants of health, especially nutrition and decentralized action, were addressed through mechanisms like State/District Health Missions, Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committees, and Village Health and Nutrition Days. Results Consequently, in bigger high-focus states, rural IMR fell by 15.6 points between 2004 and 2011, as compared to 9 points in urban areas. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate in high-focus states declined by 17.9% between 2004–2006 and 2007–2009 compared to 14.6% in other states. Conclusion The article, on the basis of the above approaches employed under NRHM, proposes the NRHM model to ‘reduce health inequities and initiate action on SDH’. PMID:23458089

  16. Letter Report to Address Comments on the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-03-17

    The Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on November 01, 2007. The approval letter contained the following two comments: Comment 1--For 06-05-01, 06-17-04, 06-23-01 provide evidence that the 6 inch VCP pipe originating from building CP-2 is no longer active and sealed to prevent possible future contamination. Comment 2--For the area that includes 06-03-01, provide evidence that active lines are no longer feeding the North and South lagoons and have been sealed to prevent possible future contamination. To address these comments, closure documentation was reviewed, and site visits were conducted to locate and document the areas of concern. Additional fieldwork was conducted in March 2008 to seal the lines and openings described in the two comments. Photographs were taken of the closed drains and lines to document that the NDEP comments were adequately addressed and potential inadvertent discharge to the environment has been eliminated. Investigation and closure documentation was reviewed to identify the locations of potential drains, lines, and other features that could receive and/or transmit liquid. Based on the investigation findings and subsequent closure activities, no openings, distribution boxes, or other features (excluding known floor drains at CP-2) that could receive liquid were found at the CP-2 location (Figure 1), and potential manholes for the north and south sewage lagoons were identified for Corrective Action Site (CAS) 06-03-01 (Figure 2). The distribution box identified in Figure 1 was not located during the investigation and was assumed to have been previously removed.

  17. Identifying Liquid-Gas System Misconceptions and Addressing Them Using a Laboratory Exercise on Pressure-Temperature Diagrams of a Mixed Gas Involving Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on students' understandings of a liquid-gas system with liquid-vapor equilibrium in a closed system using a pressure-temperature ("P-T") diagram. By administrating three assessment questions concerning the "P-T" diagrams of liquid-gas systems to students at the beginning of undergraduate general chemistry…

  18. Addressing the impact of environmental uncertainty in plankton model calibration with a dedicated software system: the Marine Model Optimization Testbed (MarMOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, J. C. P.; Challenor, P. G.

    2011-08-01

    A wide variety of different marine plankton system models have been coupled with ocean circulation models, with the aim of understanding and predicting aspects of environmental change. However, an ability to make reliable inferences about real-world processes from the model behaviour demands a quantitative understanding of model error that remains elusive. Assessment of coupled model output is inhibited by relatively limited observing system coverage of biogeochemical components. Any direct assessment of the plankton model is further inhibited by uncertainty in the physical state. Furthermore, comparative evaluation of plankton models on the basis of their design is inhibited by the sensitivity of their dynamics to many adjustable parameters. The Marine Model Optimization Testbed is a new software tool designed for rigorous analysis of plankton models in a multi-site 1-D framework, in particular to address uncertainty issues in model assessment. A flexible user interface ensures its suitability to more general inter-comparison, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, including model comparison at the level of individual processes, and to state estimation for specific locations. The principal features of MarMOT are described and its application to model calibration is demonstrated by way of a set of twin experiments, in which synthetic observations are assimilated in an attempt to recover the true parameter values of a known system. The experimental aim is to investigate the effect of different misfit weighting schemes on parameter recovery in the presence of error in the plankton model's environmental input data. Simulated errors are derived from statistical characterizations of the mixed layer depth, the horizontal flux divergences of the biogeochemical tracers and the initial state. Plausible patterns of uncertainty in these data are shown to produce strong temporal and spatial variability in the expected simulation error over an annual cycle, indicating

  19. Addressing the impact of environmental uncertainty in plankton model calibration with a dedicated software system: the Marine Model Optimization Testbed (MarMOT 1.1 alpha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, J. C. P.; Challenor, P. G.

    2012-04-01

    A wide variety of different plankton system models have been coupled with ocean circulation models, with the aim of understanding and predicting aspects of environmental change. However, an ability to make reliable inferences about real-world processes from the model behaviour demands a quantitative understanding of model error that remains elusive. Assessment of coupled model output is inhibited by relatively limited observing system coverage of biogeochemical components. Any direct assessment of the plankton model is further inhibited by uncertainty in the physical state. Furthermore, comparative evaluation of plankton models on the basis of their design is inhibited by the sensitivity of their dynamics to many adjustable parameters. Parameter uncertainty has been widely addressed by calibrating models at data-rich ocean sites. However, relatively little attention has been given to quantifying uncertainty in the physical fields required by the plankton models at these sites, and tendencies in the biogeochemical properties due to the effects of horizontal processes are often neglected. Here we use model twin experiments, in which synthetic data are assimilated to estimate a system's known "true" parameters, to investigate the impact of error in a plankton model's environmental input data. The experiments are supported by a new software tool, the Marine Model Optimization Testbed, designed for rigorous analysis of plankton models in a multi-site 1-D framework. Simulated errors are derived from statistical characterizations of the mixed layer depth, the horizontal flux divergence tendencies of the biogeochemical tracers and the initial state. Plausible patterns of uncertainty in these data are shown to produce strong temporal and spatial variability in the expected simulation error variance over an annual cycle, indicating variation in the significance attributable to individual model-data differences. An inverse scheme using ensemble-based estimates of the

  20. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    PubMed

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  1. Addressing Invisible Barriers: Improving Outcomes for Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osher, David; Quinn, Mary Magee; Kendziora, Kimberly; Woodruff, Darren; Rouse, Gerald

    This monograph introduces a series on youth with cognitive or behavioral disabilities and the juvenile justice system. The first section discusses the importance of prevention and early intervention to divert youth with disabilities from entering the justice system. It offers examples of such efforts and considers early and later intervention…

  2. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized.

  3. Addressing the Training and Employment Needs of Youth with Mental Health Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System. Conference Proceedings with Recommendations to the Presidential Task Force on Employment of Adults with Disabilities (March 3-4, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagungun, Hazel

    This document contains information about and from a conference on addressing the training and employment needs of youth with mental health disabilities in the juvenile justice system that was held by the National Mental Health Association (NMHA). The document begins with an executive summary and nine recommendations for the Youth Subcommittee of…

  4. Staff Preparation, Reward, and Support: Are Quality Rating and Improvement Systems Addressing All of the Key Ingredients Necessary for Change? Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Lea J. E.; Whitebook, Marcy; Connors, Maia; Darrah, Rory

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting the growing momentum in support of quality rating and improvement systems (QRISs) as a key strategy to improve early care and education quality, significant amounts of public dollars have been devoted to their development and implementation. In this brief, the authors report on their investigation of both quality rating and improvement…

  5. Can the sustainable development goals reduce the burden of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases without truly addressing major food system reforms?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-06-16

    While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; 2000-2015) focused primarily on poverty reduction, hunger and infectious diseases, the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets pay more attention to nutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). One of the 169 proposed targets of the SDGs is to reduce premature deaths from NCDs by one third; another is to end malnutrition in all its forms. Nutrition-related NCDs (NR-NCDs) stand at the intersection between malnutrition and NCDs. Driven in large part by remarkable transformations of food systems, they are rapidly increasing in most low and middle income countries (LMICs). The transformation to modern food systems began in the period following World War II with policies designed to meet a very different set of nutritional and food needs, and continued with globalization in the 1990s onwards. Another type of food systems transformation will be needed to shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet--as will meeting many of the other SDGs. The process will be complex but is necessary. Communities concerned with NCDs and with malnutrition need to work more closely together to demand food systems change.

  6. Close to community health providers post 2015: Realising their role in responsive health systems and addressing gendered social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Universal health coverage is gaining momentum and is likely to form a core part of the post Millennium Development Goal (MDG) agenda and be linked to social determinants of health, including gender; Close to community health providers are arguably key players in meeting the goal of universal health coverage through extending and delivering health services to poor and marginalised groups; Close to community health providers are embedded in communities and may therefore be strategically placed to understand intra household gender and power dynamics and how social determinants shape health and well-being. However, the opportunities to develop critical awareness and to translate this knowledge into health system and multi-sectoral action are poorly understood; Enabling close to community health providers to realise their potential requires health systems support and human resource management at multiple levels. PMID:28281706

  7. ACARS wind measurements - An intercomparison with radiosonde, cloud motion and VAS thermally derived winds. [Communications, Addressing and Reporting System VISSR Atmospheric Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, R. J.; Menzel, W. P.; Pecht, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical comparisons between winds measured by ACARS and winds obtained from radiosondes, geostationary satellite image cloud motions, and VAS are presented. Observations from three separate comparisons reveal over 60 percent of wind vector magnitude differences are within 9 m/s, and 70 percent of the directional differences are within 15 deg. The comparisons indicate that the ACARS system provides an independent source of wind data that complements other sources of wind data for constructing composite wind field analyses.

  8. Environmental Assessment Addressing FTFA07-1174, Repair Approach Lighting System at the North End of Runway 01/19 at Eglin AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    photovoltaic panels, solar collection, heat recovery systems, wind turbines , green roofs, and habitat-oriented storm water management) would be...and im pacts on the installation ’s habitats will be reduced with the im plementation of BMPs and environmental protection measures. Most wildlife wi...disturbing activities occurring at the same time and in lhe same vicinity could have temporary cumulative effects on habitats and wildlife . However. these

  9. Mental health care delivery system reform in Belgium: the challenge of achieving deinstitutionalisation whilst addressing fragmentation of care at the same time.

    PubMed

    Nicaise, Pablo; Dubois, Vincent; Lorant, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Most mental health care delivery systems in welfare states currently face two major issues: deinstitutionalisation and fragmentation of care. Belgium is in the process of reforming its mental health care delivery system with the aim of simultaneously strengthening community care and improving integration of care. The new policy model attempts to strike a balance between hospitals and community services, and is based on networks of services. We carried out a content analysis of the policy blueprint for the reform and performed an ex-ante evaluation of its plan of operation, based on the current knowledge of mental health service networks. When we examined the policy's multiple aims, intermediate goals, suggested tools, and their articulation, we found that it was unclear how the new policy could achieve its goals. Indeed, deinstitutionalisation and integration of care require different network structures, and different modes of governance. Furthermore, most of the mechanisms contained within the new policy were not sufficiently detailed. Consequently, three major threats to the effectiveness of the reform were identified. These were: issues concerning the relationship between network structure and purpose, the continued influence of hospitals despite the goal of deinstitutionalisation, and the heterogeneity in the actual implementation of the new policy.

  10. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  11. System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk

  12. Computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  13. Addressing Enterprise-Level Information System Deficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    INFORMATION 5841014708036CX PROCESSOR,RADAR DATA 2840010491153OJ LINER ,COMBUSTION CHAMBER,AIRCRAFT GAS TU 6610015272395 INDICATOR, VERTICAL...1610008736424 AFTER BODY HALF BODY 1620011708325 CYLINDER AND PISTON ASSEMBLY,LANDING GEA F-22 5985015260321 Antenna 1560015246083 Radome 5993015237903...Generator/Amplifier 6130014869149 Power Supply 5841015279740 Processor, Radar Data 2840015614467RF LINER ,AFT EXT SW UR 1560015252952FR DOOR,ACCESS

  14. Presidential address. Systemic effects of smoking.

    PubMed

    Read, R C

    1984-12-01

    Millions of people continue to smoke. Recent studies confirm the pioneering epidemiologic data that indicated that, despite the well-established effects on the lung, most of the hundreds of thousands of premature deaths annually result from extrapulmonary toxicity, particularly accelerated cardiac and vascular disease. As with lung cancer, abstention significantly reduces the risk, even after myocardial infarction or surgery for complications of vascular disease. Erythrocytosis, thrombocytosis, and leukocytosis, by increasing blood viscosity, aggravate ischemia. The neutrophils of smokers release excessive amounts of oxidants which damage tissue and antiproteases. Increased alveolar permeability enhances allergy. Lymphocytic suppressor cells increase, which leads to immunocompetence, increased infection, and cancer. Smokers lose weight and die at an earlier age, even after cancer chemotherapy and peptic ulcer surgery. Smoking prevents inhibition of gastric night acid secretion by histamine-blocking agents. Menopause occurs earlier and children are damaged in utero and after birth by passive smoking. Recent evidence indicates that nicotine releases endorphins, which account for the addiction. Surgeons need to do more to combat this menace. Many victims need professional assistance to stop the habit.

  15. Leasing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The article discusses the adoption, consequences and current market status of the leasing of residential photovoltaic systems. It addresses attributed energy savings and market potential of residential system leasing.

  16. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  17. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  18. Man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.

  19. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System A A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  20. System of systems modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Longsine, Dennis E.; Shirah, Donald N.

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' that was conducted during FY 2003 and FY 2004. Systems that themselves consist of multiple systems (referred to here as System of Systems or SoS) introduce a level of complexity to systems performance analysis and optimization that is not readily addressable by existing capabilities. The objective of the 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' project was to develop an integrated modeling and simulation environment that addresses the complex SoS modeling and analysis needs. The approach to meeting this objective involved two key efforts. First, a static analysis approach, called state modeling, has been developed that is useful for analyzing the average performance of systems over defined use conditions. The state modeling capability supports analysis and optimization of multiple systems and multiple performance measures or measures of effectiveness. The second effort involves time simulation which represents every system in the simulation using an encapsulated state model (State Model Object or SMO). The time simulation can analyze any number of systems including cross-platform dependencies and a detailed treatment of the logistics required to support the systems in a defined mission.

  1. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  2. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  3. Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

  4. Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. The Respiratory System The respiratory system is made up of organs ... vessels, and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ...

  5. Lymph system

    MedlinePlus

    Lymphatic system ... Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ... 2015:chap 9. Hall JE. The microcirculation and lymphatic system: capillary fluid exchange, interstitial fluid, and lymph flow. ...

  6. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Digestive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Digestive System A A A ... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  7. Mechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    The presentation provides an overview of requirement and interpretation letters, mechanical systems safety interpretation letter, design and verification provisions, and mechanical systems verification plan.

  8. Systems Thinking (and Systems Doing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.; Dams, Peter-Cornelius

    1999-01-01

    Introduces human performance technology (HPT) by answering the following questions related to: what systems does; practical issues and questions to which systems thinking is relevant; research questions and answers with respect to systems thinking; how HPT practitioners can do systems thinking; systems thinking tools; what is and is not known…

  9. On evolutionary systems.

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Lorenzana, J M; Ward, L M

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a metatheoretical framework for understanding evolutionary systems (systems that develop in ways that increase their own variety). The framework addresses shortcomings seen in other popular systems theories. It concerns both living and nonliving systems, and proposes a metahierarchy of hierarchical systems. Thus, it potentially addresses systems at all descriptive levels. We restrict our definition of system to that of a core system whose parts have a different ontological status than the system, and characterize the core system in terms of five global properties: minimal length interval, minimal time interval, system cycle, total receptive capacity, and system potential. We propose two principles through the interaction of which evolutionary systems develop. The Principle of Combinatorial Expansion describes how a core system realizes its developmental potential through a process of progressive differentiation of the single primal state up to a limit stage. The Principle of Generative Condensation describes how the components of the last stage of combinatorial expansion condense and become the environment for and components of new, enriched systems. The early evolution of the Universe after the "big bang" is discussed in light of these ideas as an example of the application of the framework.

  10. Complexity, Systems, and Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-14

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Complexity, Systems, and Software Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8...for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the United States

  11. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

  12. Environmental geographic information system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Dennis W; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  13. Expert system requirements for power system restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. ); Milanicz, D.P. )

    1994-08-01

    This paper is one of series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration. Expert systems are being considered for restoring bulk power supplies. In general, there are three restoration periods following a major power disturbance: establishment of initial sources of power, re-integration of a skeleton of the bulk power supply, and minimization of the unserved loads. Expert systems together with analytical tools have the potential of addressing the restoration procedures over these three periods. This paper describes the expert system requirements from the point of view of the practicing power engineers with emphasis placed on the initial power sources and requirements. The paper draws on the previous reports by the Power System Restoration Working Group.

  14. Systems thinking.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results.

  15. Telemetry Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center developed satellite telemetry processing technology to meet NASA's sophisticated processing requirements. The Microelectronic Systems Branch, a 'company' within Goddard, provided NASA with the telemetry data systems from 1985 to 1994. TSI/Telsys, Inc. was then founded to commercialize the systems and began operations on October 1, 1995. The system aids the remote sensing industry by providing affordable and quick access to data collected from space.

  16. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  17. Mars Aerocapture Systems Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Henry S.; Oh, David Y.; Westhelle, Carlos H.; Fisher, Jody L.; Dyke, R. Eric; Edquist, Karl T.; Brown, James L.; Justh, Hilary L.; Munk, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Mars Aerocapture Systems Study (MASS) is a detailed study of the application of aerocapture to a large Mars robotic orbiter to assess and identify key technology gaps. This study addressed use of an Opposition class return segment for use in the Mars Sample Return architecture. Study addressed mission architecture issues as well as system design. Key trade studies focused on design of aerocapture aeroshell, spacecraft design and packaging, guidance, navigation and control with simulation, computational fluid dynamics, and thermal protection system sizing. Detailed master equipment lists are included as well as a cursory cost assessment.

  18. Cross-functional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Many companies, including Xerox and Texas Instruments, are using cross functional systems to deal with the increasingly complex and competitive business environment. However, few firms within the aerospace industry appear to be aware of the significant benefits that cross functional systems can provide. Those benefits are examined and a flexible methodology is discussed that companies can use to identify and develop cross functional systems that will help improve organizational performance. In addition, some of the managerial issues are addressed that cross functional systems may raise and specific examples are used to explore networking's contributions to cross functional systems.

  19. Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoyama, Kenji

    2002-02-01

    In this lecture we discuss the principle of method of cooling to a very low temperature, i.e. cryogenic. The "gas molecular model" will be introduced to explain the mechanism cooling by the expansion engine and the Joule-Thomson expansion valve. These two expansion processes are normally used in helium refrigeration systems to cool the process gas to cryogenic temperature. The reverse Carnot cycle will be discussed in detail as an ideal refrigeration cycle. First the fundamental process of liquefaction and refrigeration cycles will be discussed, and then the practical helium refrigeration system. The process flow of the system and the key components; -compressor, expander, and heat exchanger- will be discussed. As an example of an actual refrigeration system, we will use the cryogenic system for the KEKB superconducting RF cavity. We will also discuss the liquid helium distribution system, which is very important, especially for the cryogenic systems used in accelerator applications. 1 Principles of Cooling and Fundamental Cooling Cycle 2 Expansion engine, Joule-Thomson expansion, kinetic molecular theory, and enthalpy 3 Liquefaction Systems 4 Refrigeration Systems 5 Practical helium liquefier/refrigeration system 6 Cryogenic System for TRISTAN Superconducting RF Cavity

  20. Deep Space Telecommunications Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, J. H. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical information useful for the optimal design, specification, and performance evaluation of deep space telecommunications systems is presented. Telemetry, tracking, and command systems, receiver design, spacecraft antennas, frequency selection, interference, and modulation techniques are addressed.

  1. Advanced, Energy Efficient Shelter Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-02

    Development Analysis, M&S Thermal Barriers Large Shelter Efficiency System Integration Follow-On Demonstrations Lessons Learned from Initial...UNCLASSIFIED 13 Technology Development: Thermal Barriers Objective: Address the enduring challenge of developing a thermal insulation for shelter systems

  2. An Emergent Perspective on Interoperation in Systems of Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    addressing interoperation in systems of systems . It is our hope that this report will stimulate interest in the development of sound theory and drive... decisions with respect to the system of which it is a part. In its internal structure, an autonomous system can be either monolithic or a system of...structures create unnecessary vulnerabilities • outcomes depend not only on the automated and mechanized aspects of systems but also on the decisions

  3. Satellite services system analysis study: Propellant transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    General servicing requirements, a servicing mission concept and scenario, overall servicing needs, basic servicing equipment, and a general servicing mission configuration layout are addressed. Servicing needs, equipment concepts, system requirements equipment specifications, preliminary designs, and resource requirements for flight hardware for the propellant transfer system are also addressed.

  4. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  5. CALUTRON SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-08-12

    A calutron system capable of functioning with only a portion of the separation tanks in the system operating is described. The invention is a calutron system comprssing a closed series of alternated tanks and electromagnets having a mid-yoke connecting intermediate positions of the series. dividing the series into twv-o portions, and thereby providing a closed magnetic path through either of the portions.

  6. Systemic Darwinism

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-01-01

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a “compositional paradigm” according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. PMID:18697926

  7. Systemic darwinism.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  8. Dimensions of Intelligent Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    strategies - the intelligent parts of a cognitive model. This was necessary to achieve effective time performance - conventional AI techniques were too slow...Dimensions of Intelligent Systems Dr. Gary Berg-Cross Knowledge Strategies Division, SLAG, Inc. Potomac, Maryland 20854, USA 1. Abstract As...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) SLAG, Inc,Knowledge Strategies Division,Potomac,MD,20854 8

  9. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  10. MAPGEN CARTOGRAPHIC SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenden, Gerald I.; ,

    1986-01-01

    MAPGEN is a software system that facilitates production of cartographic displays in the research and production environment. The system generates a set of metagraphic overlays of application-defined geographical information that can be aggregated in any combination for display without reprocessing the original data. An overview of the control files, available cartographic projections, graphic attributes, overlay generator and ancillary support programs, and the device-independent graphic subsystem are presented, along with examples of usage. System transportability and associated host hardware and operating system requirements are also addressed.

  11. Automated wire preparation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulley, Deborah J.

    The first step toward an automated wire harness facility for the aerospace industry has been taken by implementing the Wire Vektor 2000 into the wire harness preparation area. An overview of the Wire Vektor 2000 is given, including the facilities for wire cutting, marking, and transporting, for wire end processing, and for system control. Production integration in the Wire Vektor 2000 system is addressed, considering the hardware/software debug system and the system throughput. The manufacturing changes that have to be made in implementing the Wire Vektor 2000 are discussed.

  12. Space Station information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, W. L.; Mckay, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    The space operations information system is defined and characterized in a wide perspective. Interactive subsets of the total system are defined and discussed. Particular attention is paid to the concept of end-to-end systems and their repetitive population within the total system. High level program goals are reviewed and related to more explicit system requirements and user needs. Emphasis is placed on the utility and cost effectiveness of data system services from a user standpoint. Productivity, as a quantitative goal, in both development and operational phases is also addressed. Critical aspects of the approach to successful development of the data management system are discussed along with recommendations important to advanced development activities. Current and planned activity in both technology and advanced development areas are reviewed with emphasis on their importance to program success.

  13. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  14. Digital communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A digital communication system is reported for parallel operation of 16 or more transceiver units with the use of only four interconnecting wires. A remote synchronization circuit produces unit address control words sequentially in data frames of 16 words. Means are provided in each transceiver unit to decode calling signals and to transmit calling and data signals. The transceivers communicate with each other over one data line. The synchronization unit communicates the address control information to the transceiver units over an address line and further provides the timing information over a clock line. A reference voltage level or ground line completes the interconnecting four wire hookup.

  15. Remote robotic countermine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Peter

    2010-04-01

    QinetiQ North America (QNA) has approximately 27 years experience in the mine/countermine mission area. Our expertise covers mine development, detection, and neutralization and has always been intertwined with deployment of remote robotic systems. Our countermine payload systems have been used to detect limpet mines on ship hulls, antiassault mines in shallow water and littoral zones and currently for clearance and render safe of land-based routes. In our talk, we will address the challenges encountered in addressing the ongoing countermine mission over a diverse range of operational scenarios, environmental conditions and strategic priorities.

  16. Phacoemulsification systems.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    Our objectives in conducting this evaluation were to present an overview of a basic phacoemulsification system and its components, to describe the phacoemulsification procedure within the context of the operating principles of the system's components, and to compare two manufacturers' products. Specifications for additional phacoemulsification systems are available in the November 1989 edition of ECRI's Hospital Product Comparison System. Both of the evaluated systems enable a surgeon to perform a complete cataract extraction procedure by phacoemulsification. We rated both units Acceptable. In selecting a unit, users should consider performance, safety, human factors design, and manufacturer training and support. Although list prices vary widely among available systems, cost factors should not override clinical performance and safety requirements. While we measured certain engineering parameters, such as stroke length and ultrasound (US) output forces exerted on a medium, we stress that the results of these tests do not provide enough information to predict clinical performance. Clinical performance of phacoemulsification systems can be determined only by the experience of the clinicians who use them. Clinicians should review our evaluation thoroughly before making a purchasing decision. The information we present is useful for purchasing the evaluated or other available models because our criteria will guide users in assessing all components, and our findings and discussion on some aspects are common to many available systems (e.g., type of pump, irrigation and aspiration [I/A] characteristics). The in-depth clinical and technical information will help users to better understand principles, thereby helping them to better define their needs. Although we discovered a number of problems with the evaluated models, users should not assume that similar or other problems do not exist with systems that we did not evaluate. The willingness of manufacturers to cooperate in

  17. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  18. Electronic system

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G H; Dickson, J F

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is designed for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. The system comprises separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation an electronic channel associated with each input means, including control means and indicating means; timing means adapted to apply a signal from the input means after a predetermined time to the control means to deactivate each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after the observation of each group of events. (D.L.C.)

  19. Onboard System Health Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Tom; Cunningham, Harry

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion of onboard system health assessment are presented. Success of the space station program will be measured by how well it addresses the basic requirements for (1) maintaining the orbiting Space Station Freedom fully operational for its projected life of thirty years, and (2) the cost-effective execution of the overall space station program. Onboard system health assessment must provide complete and thorough testing capabilities along with effective associated redundancy/fault management.

  20. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. Addressing fluorogenic real-time qPCR inhibition using the novel custom Excel file system 'FocusField2-6GallupqPCRSet-upTool-001' to attain consistently high fidelity qPCR reactions

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss fluorogenic real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibition and to introduce/define a novel Microsoft Excel-based file system which provides a way to detect and avoid inhibition, and enables investigators to consistently design dynamically-sound, truly LOG-linear qPCR reactions very quickly. The qPCR problems this invention solves are universal to all qPCR reactions, and it performs all necessary qPCR set-up calculations in about 52 seconds (using a pentium 4 processor) for up to seven qPCR targets and seventy-two samples at a time – calculations that commonly take capable investigators days to finish. We have named this custom Excel-based file system "FocusField2-6GallupqPCRSet-upTool-001" (FF2-6-001 qPCR set-up tool), and are in the process of transforming it into professional qPCR set-up software to be made available in 2007. The current prototype is already fully functional. PMID:17033699

  2. Systems Vaccinology

    PubMed Central

    Pulendran, Bali; Li, Shuzhao; Nakaya, Helder I

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the greatest triumphs of modern medicine, yet we remain largely ignorant of the mechanisms by which successful vaccines stimulate protective immunity. Two recent advances are beginning to illuminate such mechanisms: realization of the pivotal role of the innate immune system in sensing microbes and stimulating adaptive immunity, and advances in systems biology. Recent studies have used systems biology approaches to obtain a global picture of the immune responses to vaccination in humans. This has enabled the identification of early innate signatures that predict the immunogenicity of vaccines, and identification of potentially novel mechanisms of immune regulation. Here we review these advances, and critically examine the potential opportunities and challenges posed by systems biology in vaccine development. PMID:21029962

  3. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  4. Bioculture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figliozzi, Gianine; Sato, Kevin Y.; Sun. Sidney

    2013-01-01

    The document is a 2 page fact sheet that describes the Bioculture system, how it may be used by researchers for life science research, how and when it will be installed and validated aboard the international space station.

  5. Microelectromechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, Kaigham J.

    1995-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is an enabling technology that merges computation and communication with sensing and actuation to change the way people and machines interact with the physical world. MEMS is a manufacturing technology that will impact widespread applications including: miniature inertial measurement measurement units for competent munitions and personal navigation; distributed unattended sensors; mass data storage devices; miniature analytical instruments; embedded pressure sensors; non-invasive biomedical sensors; fiber-optics components and networks; distributed aerodynamic control; and on-demand structural strength. The long term goal of ARPA's MEMS program is to merge information processing with sensing and actuation to realize new systems and strategies for both perceiving and controlling systems, processes, and the environment. The MEMS program has three major thrusts: advanced devices and processes, system design, and infrastructure.

  6. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  7. ASN reputation system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Steve; Erbacher, Robert F.

    2015-05-01

    Network security monitoring is currently challenged by its reliance on human analysts and the inability for tools to generate indications and warnings for previously unknown attacks. We propose a reputation system based on IP address set membership within the Autonomous System Number (ASN) system. Essentially, a metric generated based on the historic behavior, or misbehavior, of nodes within a given ASN can be used to predict future behavior and provide a mechanism to locate network activity requiring inspection. This will provide reinforcement of notifications and warnings and lead to inspection for ASNs known to be problematic even if initial inspection leads to interpretation of the event as innocuous. We developed proof of concept capabilities to generate the IP address to ASN set membership and analyze the impact of the results. These results clearly show that while some ASNs are one-offs with individual or small numbers of misbehaving IP addresses, there are definitive ASNs with a history of long term and wide spread misbehaving IP addresses. These ASNs with long histories are what we are especially interested in and will provide an additional correlation metric for the human analyst and lead to new tools to aid remediation of these IP address blocks.

  8. Addressing case specific biogas plant tasks: industry oriented methane yields derived from 5L Automatic Methane Potential Test Systems in batch or semi-continuous tests using realistic inocula, substrate particle sizes and organic loading.

    PubMed

    Kolbl, Sabina; Paloczi, Attila; Panjan, Jože; Stres, Blaž

    2014-02-01

    The primary aim of the study was to develop and validate an in-house upscale of Automatic Methane Potential Test System II for studying real-time inocula and real-scale substrates in batch, codigestion and enzyme enhanced hydrolysis experiments, in addition to semi-continuous operation of the developed equipment and experiments testing inoculum functional quality. The successful upscale to 5L enabled comparison of different process configurations in shorter preparation times with acceptable accuracy and high-through put intended for industrial decision making. The adoption of the same scales, equipment and methodologies in batch and semi-continuous tests mirroring those at full scale biogas plants resulted in matching methane yields between the two laboratory tests and full-scale, confirming thus the increased decision making value of the approach for industrial operations.

  9. Model-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    2007-01-01

    Engineers, who design systems using text specification documents, focus their work upon the completed system to meet Performance, time and budget goals. Consistency and integrity is difficult to maintain within text documents for a single complex system and more difficult to maintain as several systems are combined into higher-level systems, are maintained over decades, and evolve technically and in performance through updates. This system design approach frequently results in major changes during the system integration and test phase, and in time and budget overruns. Engineers who build system specification documents within a model-based systems environment go a step further and aggregate all of the data. They interrelate all of the data to insure consistency and integrity. After the model is constructed, the various system specification documents are prepared, all from the same database. The consistency and integrity of the model is assured, therefore the consistency and integrity of the various specification documents is insured. This article attempts to define model-based systems relative to such an environment. The intent is to expose the complexity of the enabling problem by outlining what is needed, why it is needed and how needs are being addressed by international standards writing teams.

  10. Active control system trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yore, E. E.; Gunderson, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The active control concepts which achieve the benefit of improved mission performance and lower cost and generate system trends towards improved dynamic performance, more integration, and digital fly by wire mechanization are described. Analytical issues and implementation requirements and tools and approaches developed to address the analytical and implementation issues are briefly discussed.

  11. Management Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Jean, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This collection of papers addresses key questions facing college managers and others choosing, introducing, and living with big, complex computer-based systems. "What Use the User Requirement?" (Tony Coles) stresses the importance of an information strategy driven by corporate objectives, not technology. "Process of Selecting a…

  12. Systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods.

  13. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering.

  14. In-tank aeration, a necessary compliment of loaded systems in an airlift recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water treatment components in recirculating aquaculture systems in generally address solids removal, nitrification, circulation, aeration, and degasification. Airlift pumps in a recirculating aquaculture system can address water circulation, aeration, and degasification. Recent data indicates oxygen...

  15. The Planetary Data System Distributed Inventory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; McMahon, Susan K.

    1996-01-01

    The advent of the World Wide Web (Web) and the ability to easily put data repositories on-line has resulted in a proliferation of digital libraries. The heterogeneity of the underlying systems, the autonomy of the individual sites, and distributed nature of the technology has made both interoperability across the sites and the search for resources within a site major research topics. This article will describe a system that addresses both issues using standard Web protocols and meta-data labels to implement an inventory of on-line resources across a group of sites. The success of this system is strongly dependent on the existence of and adherence to a standards architecture that guides the management of meta-data within participating sites.

  16. Optimal Inputs for System Identification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    The derivation of the power spectral density of the optimal input for system identification is addressed in this research. Optimality is defined in...identification potential of general System Identification algorithms, a new and efficient System Identification algorithm that employs Iterated Weighted Least

  17. Large space systems technology, 1981. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, W. J. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    A total systems approach including structures, analyses, controls, and antennas is presented as a cohesive, programmatic plan for large space systems. Specifically, program status, structures, materials, and analyses, and control of large space systems are addressed.

  18. Turbine system

    DOEpatents

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  19. Robotic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A complicated design project, successfully carried out by New York manufacturing consultant with help from NERAC, Inc., resulted in new type robotic system being marketed for industrial use. Consultant Robert Price, operating at E.S.I, Inc. in Albany, NY, sought help from NERAC to develop an automated tool for deburring the inside of 8 inch breech ring assemblies for howitzers produced by Watervliet Arsenal. NERAC conducted a search of the NASA data base and six others. From information supplied, Price designed a system consisting of a standard industrial robot arm, with a specially engineered six-axis deburring tool fitted to it. A microcomputer and computer program direct the tool on its path through the breech ring. E.S.I. markets the system to aerospace and metal cutting industries for deburring, drilling, routing and refining machined parts.

  20. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  1. Microbiology System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  2. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G.H. et al.

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is described for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. It is comprised of separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation: an electronic channel associated with each input means including control means and indicating means; timing means associated with each of the input means and the control means and adapted to derive a signal from the input means and apply it after a predetermined time to the control means to effect deactivation of each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after observation of each group of events.

  3. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  4. Integrated Workforce Modeling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    2000-01-01

    There are several computer-based systems, currently in various phases of development at KSC, which encompass some component, aspect, or function of workforce modeling. These systems may offer redundant capabilities and/or incompatible interfaces. A systems approach to workforce modeling is necessary in order to identify and better address user requirements. This research has consisted of two primary tasks. Task 1 provided an assessment of existing and proposed KSC workforce modeling systems for their functionality and applicability to the workforce planning function. Task 2 resulted in the development of a proof-of-concept design for a systems approach to workforce modeling. The model incorporates critical aspects of workforce planning, including hires, attrition, and employee development.

  5. Inflatable Aeroponic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelt, Jennifer Van

    2005-01-01

    Aeroponics Internationals (AI) innovation is a self-contained, self-supporting, flexible low mass aeroponic crop production unit with integral environmental systems for the control and delivery of a nutrient mist to the roots. This FLEX Aeroponic System model was developed for commercialization as a result of the NASA SBIR Phase I contract for the research and development of a low-mass, Inflatable Aeroponic System (IAS) for producing pesticide-free lettuces, grains, peppers, tomatoes and other vegetables. The innovation addresses the needs of water and nutrient delivery systems technologies for food production in space. The inflatable nature of the innovation makes it lightweight, allowing it to be deflated so it takes up less volume during transportation and storage. It improves upon AI's current aeroponic system design that uses more rigid structures and takes advantage of vertical inclines to increase bio-mass production by over 600%.

  6. Solar energy systems cost

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Five major areas of work currently being pursued in the United States in solar energy which will have a significant impact on the world's energy situation in the future are addressed. The five significant areas discussed include a technical description of several solar technologies, current and projected cost of the selected solar systems, and cost methodologies which are under development. In addition, sensitivity considerations which are unique to solar energy systems and end user applications are included. A total of six solar technologies - biomass, photovoltaics, wind, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), solar thermal, and industrial process heat (IPH) have been included in a brief technical description to present the variety of systems and their techncial status. System schematics have been included of systems which have been constructed, are currently in the detail design and test stage of development, or are of a conceptual nature.

  7. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels, respectively, and co-chaired the Vehicle Systems Panel. The following four papers are discussed in this section: (1) Net Section components for Weldalite Cryogenic Tanks, by Don Bolstad; (2) Build-up Structures for Cryogenic Tanks and Dry Bay Structural Applications, by Barry Lisagor; (3) Composite Materials Program, by Robert Van Siclen; (4) Shuttle Technology (and M&S Lessons Learned), by Stan Greenberg.

  8. International Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Completes a discussion of a systems model of distance education (in articles since May 1999) focusing on the most complex level, international. Discussion includes transfer of technology from United States universities to developing nations, the free market, and the age of the global economy. Presents a list of "early indicators" of changes in…

  9. Auditory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

  10. Instructional Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banathy, Bela H.

    The underlying assumption of this book is that the systems approach has a dual role in education. "As applied 'in' education, it offers a powerful methodology for decisionmaking and design development. As applied 'to' education, it may bring about a clear understanding of what education is truly about." The essential purpose of the book is to…

  11. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  12. Systems Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  13. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  14. Developing Data System Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, J.; Byrnes, J. B.; Kobler, B.

    2011-12-01

    In the early days of general computer systems for science data processing, staff members working on NASA's data systems would most often be hired as mathematicians. Computer engineering was very often filled by those with electrical engineering degrees. Today, the Goddard Space Flight Center has special position descriptions for data scientists or as they are more commonly called: data systems engineers. These staff members are required to have very diverse skills, hence the need for a generalized position description. There is always a need for data systems engineers to develop, maintain and operate the complex data systems for Earth and space science missions. Today's data systems engineers however are not just mathematicians, they are computer programmers, GIS experts, software engineers, visualization experts, etc... They represent many different degree fields. To put together distributed systems like the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System (EOSDIS), staff are required from many different fields. Sometimes, the skilled professional is not available and must be developed in-house. This paper will address the various skills and jobs for data systems engineers at NASA. Further it explores how to develop staff to become data scientists.

  15. Remote systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R.; Schaefer, O.; Hussey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Potential space missions of the nineties and the next century require that we look at the broad category of remote systems as an important means to achieve cost-effective operations, exploration and colonization objectives. This paper addresses such missions, which can use remote systems technology as the basis for identifying required capabilities which must be provided. The relationship of the space-based tasks to similar tasks required for terrestrial applications is discussed. The development status of the required technology is assessed and major issues which must be addressed to meet future requirements are identified. This includes the proper mix of humans and machines, from pure teleoperation to full autonomy; the degree of worksite compatibility for a robotic system; and the required design parameters, such as degrees-of-freedom. Methods for resolution are discussed including analysis, graphical simulation and the use of laboratory test beds. Grumman experience in the application of these techniques to a variety of design issues are presented utilizing the Telerobotics Development Laboratory which includes a 17-DOF robot system, a variety of sensing elements, Deneb/IRIS graphics workstations and control stations. The use of task/worksite mockups, remote system development test beds and graphical analysis are discussed with examples of typical results such as estimates of task times, task feasibility and resulting recommendations for design changes. The relationship of this experience and lessons-learned to future development of remote systems is also discussed.

  16. 2014 Runtime Systems Summit. Runtime Systems Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Vivek; Budimlic, Zoran; Kulkani, Milind

    2016-09-19

    This report summarizes runtime system challenges for exascale computing, that follow from the fundamental challenges for exascale systems that have been well studied in past reports, e.g., [6, 33, 34, 32, 24]. Some of the key exascale challenges that pertain to runtime systems include parallelism, energy efficiency, memory hierarchies, data movement, heterogeneous processors and memories, resilience, performance variability, dynamic resource allocation, performance portability, and interoperability with legacy code. In addition to summarizing these challenges, the report also outlines different approaches to addressing these significant challenges that have been pursued by research projects in the DOE-sponsored X-Stack and OS/R programs. Since there is often confusion as to what exactly the term “runtime system” refers to in the software stack, we include a section on taxonomy to clarify the terminology used by participants in these research projects. In addition, we include a section on deployment opportunities for vendors and government labs to build on the research results from these projects. Finally, this report is also intended to provide a framework for discussing future research and development investments for exascale runtime systems, and for clarifying the role of runtime systems in exascale software.

  17. Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, and System and Software Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    2009 Carnegie Mellon University Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, and System and Software Architectures Software Engineering Institute...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, and System and Software Architectures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Carnegie Mellon University, Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY

  18. 75 FR 21264 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Management Information System Records System location: Software Engineering Center, Functional Processing... Management Information System will be used to automate the Army's Food Service Program. The system... should address written inquiries to Army Food Management Information System, Supervisor, 401 First...

  19. Surveying System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

  20. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  1. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  2. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  3. Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

  4. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  5. Tychonic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The world system proposed in 1583 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). Unable to accept the Copernican doctrine that the Earth moves around the Sun, he put forward the view, later disproved by Kepler (1571-1630), that the planets move around the Sun, but the Sun and Moon move around the Earth. The theory explained the observed variations of the phases of Venus, for which the Ptolemai...

  6. Systemic Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-31

    to, warranty of fitness for purpose or merchantability, exclusivity, or results obtained from use of the material. Stevens Institute of Technology...customer organizations judge them fit for use in the mission environment. These assurance judgments must be based on evidence that a system manifests...which it is achieved. Assurance is a human judgment of fitness for use. This judgment is thus contextualized by the mission definition, the features

  7. Copernican System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The heliocentric (i.e. `Sun-centered') theory proposed by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), and published by him in 1543 in his book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. In this system Copernicus placed the Sun at the center of the universe and regarded the Earth and the planets as moving around it in circular orbits. Because of his retention of the notion of circular motion...

  8. CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.

    1962-10-30

    A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

  9. System monitors discrete computer inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    Computer system monitors inputs from checkout devices. The comparing, addressing, and controlling functions are performed in the I/O unit. This leaves the computer main frame free to handle memory, access priority, and interrupt instructions.

  10. Bioregenerative system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design course is an eight semester credit multi-disciplinary engineering design course taught primarily to Engineering Science, Aerospace, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering seniors. This year the course project involved the design of the three interrelated loops: atmospheric, liquid nutrient and solid waste management, associated with growing higher plants to support man during long-term space missions. The project is complementary to the NASA Kennedy Space Center Controlled Environmental Life Support System (CELSS) project. The first semester the class worked on a preliminary design for a complete system. This effort included means for monitoring and control of composition, temperature, flow rate, etc., for the atmosphere and liquid nutrient solution; disease and contaminant monitoring and control; plant mechanical support, propagation and harvesting; solid and liquid waste recycling; and system maintenance and refurbishing. The project has significant biological, mechanical, electrical and Al/Robotics aspects. The second semester a small number of subsystems or components, identified as important and interesting during the first semester, were selected for detail design, fabrication, and testing. The class was supported by close cooperation with The Kennedy Space Center and by two teaching assistants. The availability of a dedicated, well equipped project room greatly enhanced the communication and team spirit of the class.

  11. Braking system

    DOEpatents

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  12. Dynamical systems approaches to nonlinear problems in systems and circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, F.M.A.; Levi, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Applications of dynamical-systems analysis to nonlinear circuits and physical systems are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include general analytical methods, general simulation methods, nonlinear circuits and systems in electrical engineering, control systems, solids and vibrations, and mechanical systems. Consideration is given to the applicability of the Mel'nikov method to highly dissipative systems, damping in nonlinear solid mechanics, a three-dimensional rotation instrument for displaying strange attractors, a chaotic saddle catastrophe in forced oscillators, soliton experiments in annular Josephson junctions, local bifurcation control, periodic and chaotic motions of a buckled beam experiencing parametric and external excitation, and robust nonlinear computed torque control for robot manipulators.

  13. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  14. A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-15

    A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System Gareth R. Thomas1 and Bernard J. Sia2 1ATA Engineering, 11995 El Camino Real, San Diego, CA 92130; PH (858) 480...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ATA Engineering,11995 El Camino Real,San Diego,CA,92130 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  15. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    PubMed Central

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007). The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology / systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology. PMID:20838980

  16. Computational systems chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  17. Cooperating intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Some of the issues connected to the development of a bureaucratic system are discussed. Emphasis is on a layer multiagent approach to distributed artificial intelligence (DAI). The division of labor in a bureaucracy is considered. The bureaucratic model seems to be a fertile model for further examination since it allows for the growth and change of system components and system protocols and rules. The first part of implementing the system would be the construction of a frame based reasoner and the appropriate B-agents and E-agents. The agents themselves should act as objects and the E-objects in particular should have the capability of taking on a different role. No effort was made to address the problems of automated failure recovery, problem decomposition, or implementation. Instead what has been achieved is a framework that can be developed in several distinct ways, and which provides a core set of metaphors and issues for further research.

  18. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  19. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  20. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  1. DRS: Derivational Reasoning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Bhaskar

    1995-01-01

    The high reliability requirements for airborne systems requires fault-tolerant architectures to address failures in the presence of physical faults, and the elimination of design flaws during the specification and validation phase of the design cycle. Although much progress has been made in developing methods to address physical faults, design flaws remain a serious problem. Formal methods provides a mathematical basis for removing design flaws from digital systems. DRS (Derivational Reasoning System) is a formal design tool based on advanced research in mathematical modeling and formal synthesis. The system implements a basic design algebra for synthesizing digital circuit descriptions from high level functional specifications. DRS incorporates an executable specification language, a set of correctness preserving transformations, verification interface, and a logic synthesis interface, making it a powerful tool for realizing hardware from abstract specifications. DRS integrates recent advances in transformational reasoning, automated theorem proving and high-level CAD synthesis systems in order to provide enhanced reliability in designs with reduced time and cost.

  2. The embedded operating system project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    This progress report describes research towards the design and construction of embedded operating systems for real-time advanced aerospace applications. The applications concerned require reliable operating system support that must accommodate networks of computers. The report addresses the problems of constructing such operating systems, the communications media, reconfiguration, consistency and recovery in a distributed system, and the issues of realtime processing. A discussion is included on suitable theoretical foundations for the use of atomic actions to support fault tolerance and data consistency in real-time object-based systems. In particular, this report addresses: atomic actions, fault tolerance, operating system structure, program development, reliability and availability, and networking issues. This document reports the status of various experiments designed and conducted to investigate embedded operating system design issues.

  3. Digital system bus integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldredge, Donald; Hitt, Ellis F.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes and describes the results of a study of current or emerging multiplex data buses as applicable to digital flight systems, particularly with regard to civil aircraft. Technology for pre-1995 and post-1995 timeframes has been delineated and critiqued relative to the requirements envisioned for those periods. The primary emphasis has been an assured airworthiness of the more prevalent type buses, with attention to attributes such as fault tolerance, environmental susceptibility, and problems under continuing investigation. Additionally, the capacity to certify systems relying on such buses has been addressed.

  4. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  5. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  6. Purification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T. (Inventor); Gibbons, Randall E. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system for prolonging the life of a granulated activated charcoal (GAC) water treatment device is disclosed in which an ultraviolet light transparent material is used to constrain water to flow over carbon surfaces. It is configured to receive maximum flux from a UV radiation source for the purpose of preventing microbial proliferation on the carbon surfaces; oxidizing organic contaminants adsorbed from the water onto the carbon surfaces and from biodegradation of adsorbed microbial forms; disinfecting water; and oxidizing organic contaminants in the water.

  7. Relaxation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  8. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  9. Unified Engineering Software System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.; Gordon, S.; Peltzman, A.; Dube, M.

    1989-01-01

    Collection of computer programs performs diverse functions in prototype engineering. NEXUS, NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is research set of computer programs designed to support full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. Sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. Primarily addresses process of prototype engineering, task of getting single or small number of copies of product to work. Written in FORTRAN 77 and PROLOG.

  10. The immune system

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    All organisms are connected in a complex web of relationships. Although many of these are benign, not all are, and everything alive devotes significant resources to identifying and neutralizing threats from other species. From bacteria through to primates, the presence of some kind of effective immune system has gone hand in hand with evolutionary success. This article focuses on mammalian immunity, the challenges that it faces, the mechanisms by which these are addressed, and the consequences that arise when it malfunctions. PMID:27784777

  11. System of Systems (SoS) Architecture Centric Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    spectrum management Functionality and capability are important, but the architecture must be driven by the quality attributes. Identifying and...evaluation is integrated into the system engineering management plan in relation to the program milestones, (2) how the system’s quality attribute...addressing quality attributes between system and software architectures. This is further exacerbated in an SoS. Example quality attributes

  12. Systems Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Boran, Aislyn D. W.; Iyengar, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    We examine how physiology and pathophysiology are studied from a systems perspective, using high-throughput experiments and computational analysis of regulatory networks. We describe the integration of these analyses with pharmacology, which leads to new understanding of drug action and enables drug discovery for complex diseases. Network studies of drug-target relationships can serve as an indication on the general trends in the approved drugs and the drug-discovery progress. There is a growing number of targeted therapies approved and in the pipeline, which meets a new set of problems with efficacy and adverse effects. The pitfalls of these mechanistically based drugs are described, along with how a systems view of drug action is increasingly important to uncover intricate signaling mechanisms that play an important part in drug action, resistance mechanisms, and off-target effects. Computational methodologies enable the classification of drugs according to their structures and to which proteins they bind. Recent studies have combined the structural analyses with analysis of regulatory networks to make predictions about the therapeutic effects of drugs for complex diseases and possible off-target effects. PMID:20687178

  13. NASA's spacecraft data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan; Flanegan, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), a space flight data system developed to support the Small Explorer (SMEX) project, is addressed. The system was flown on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) SMEX mission, and with reconfiguration for different requirements will fly on the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). SEDS is also foreseen for the Hubble repair mission. Its name was changed to Spacecraft Data System (SDS) in view of expansions. Objectives, SDS hardware, and software are described. Each SDS box contains two computers, data storage memory, uplink (command) reception circuitry, downlink (telemetry) encoding circuitry, Instrument Telemetry Controller (ITC), and spacecraft timing circuitry. The SDS communicates with other subsystems over the MIL-STD-1773 data bus. The SDS software uses a real time Operating System (OS) and the C language. The OS layer, communications and scheduling layer, application task layer, and diagnostic software, are described. Decisions on the use of advanced technologies, such as ASIC's (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) and fiber optics, led to technical improvements, such as lower power and weight, without increasing the risk associated with the data system. The result was a successful SAMPEX development, integration and test, and mission using SEDS, and the upgrading of that system to SDS for TRMM and XTE.

  14. Future Air Force systems.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, S A

    1986-10-01

    Planning for the future is under way in earnest at the Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It has been statistically established that it takes from 14-16 years from the generation of a new system idea to enter into engineering development. With this unpleasing, but realistic, schedule in mind, ASD has, during the last 3 years, been initiating long-term planning projects that are pre-starts for new system ideas. They are generated from throughout the Air Force and are locally managed and funded. Through this process, which spans from 12-14 months, specific and revolutionary new ideas for the systems of the future are generated. This article addresses more than a dozen specific new ideas in work at ASD today. These ideas range from a need to replace the C-130 type aircraft after the year 2000 to planning a follow-on to the B-18 well into the 21st century. Among other specific projects are investigation into an immortal fighter intended to be free of reliability and maintenance demands for an especially long period of operation, a new training system and advanced trainer to replace the T-38, a transatmospheric vehicle that could operate in the 100,000-500,000 foot flight region (30,480-152,400 m), and a new means of defending against hostile cruise missile launchers and cruise missiles. Other ideas are also addressed. The article concludes with emphasis on systems that can operate hypersonically in and out of the known atmosphere and greater use of airbreathing propulsion systems operating between Mach 3 and Mach 6.

  15. Campus Telephone Systems: Managing Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Issues facing a college or university that seeks to change its telephone system are raised in seven chapters. Major topics addressed by this resource guide are: telephone deregulation and changes in the telephone industry, the new technology available, how to manage a system, consultants, financing options, and institutional case studies. Specific…

  16. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  17. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2014-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  18. Transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Kurosawa, Kanji; Koga, Bunichiro; Ito, Hideki; Kiriyama, Shigeru; Higuchi, Shizuo

    2003-05-20

    A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

  19. Power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, G.

    1982-01-01

    Significant events in current, prototype, and experimental utility power generating systems in 1981 are reviewed. The acceleration of licensing and the renewal of plans for reprocessing of fuel for nuclear power plants are discussed, including the rise of French reactor-produced electricity to over 40% of the country's electrical output. A 4.5 MW fuel cell neared completion in New York City, while three 2.5 MW NASA-designed windpowered generators began producing power in the state of Washington. Static bar compensators, nonflammable-liquid cooled power transformers, and ZnO surge arrestors were used by utilities for the first time, and the integration of a coal gasifier-combined cycle power plant approached the planning phase. An MHD generator was run for 1000 hours and produced 50-60 kWe, while a 20 MVA superconducting generator was readied for testing.

  20. Pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Kime, J.A.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes a gas-oil production system for pumping formation fluid in a well through a tubing string within which a down hole pump connects to a hydraulic stroking device through a rod string providing the pump including a plunger reciprocally driven by the hydraulic stroking device toward an upper terminal position during a plunger upstroke. The rod string normally supports the weight of a column of fluid and toward a lower terminal position at the end of a plunger downstroke during which the weight of the column fluid is normally transferred to the tubing string through fluid within the pump. The method for detecting when the well is pumped off comprises: supplying working fluid to the hydraulic stroking device to raise the hydraulic stroking device and thereby move the plunger from the lower terminal position to the upper terminal position; and removing the working fluid at a controlled rate from the hydraulic stroking device.

  1. Systems toxicology.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; van Vliet, Erwin; Jaworska, Joanna; Bonilla, Leo; Skinner, Nigel; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The need for a more mechanistic understanding of the ways in which chemicals modulate biological pathways is urgent if we are to identify and better assess safety issues relating to a wide range of substances developed by the pharmaceutical, chemical, agri-bio, and cosmetic industries. Omics technologies provide a valuable opportunity to refine existing methods and provide information for so-called integrated testing strategies via the creation of signatures of toxicity. By mapping these signatures to underlying pathways of toxicity, some of which have been identified by toxicologists over the last few decades, and bringing them together with pathway information determined from biochemistry and molecular biology, a "systems toxicology" approach will enable virtual experiments to be conducted that can improve the prediction of hazard and the assessment of compound toxicity.

  2. Climate Observing Systems: Data System Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T. R.

    2001-12-01

    Existing observing and data systems have provided considerable information about past climate variations and changes. The recent reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the National Research Council, and the USGCRP National Assessment of Climate Variability and Change are testaments to a vast array of knowledge. These reports also expose some serious deficiencies in our ability to discern past climate variations and change which lead to substantial uncertainties in key climate state, climate feedback, and climate forcing variables. How significant are these uncertainties? For climate trends that have our highest confidence, like the change in mean global surface temperature, the 95 percent confidence intervals amount to about two-thirds of the calculated change. With such large uncertainties it is exceedingly difficult to discern accelerated changes. For other variables, especially variables related to climate feedbacks and forcings (with exceptions for long-lived and well-mixed greenhouse gases like CO2 or CH4) or climate and weather extremes, we often have little or no information to discern trends or cannot objectively assess confidence intervals. Do we know how to reduce existing uncertainties? First and foremost, a climate observation oversight and monitoring capability is needed that tracks the gathering of the data, the processing system, and the performance of the observations, especially time-dependent biases. An organized capability does not now exist, but could be developed at a new and/or existing centers. This center(s) should then have the means and influence to fix problems and be able to establish requirements for new in-situ and satellite observing including related data systems. Such a capability should complement the following: (1) Climate observations from both space-based and in-situ platforms that are taken in ways that address climate needs and adhere to the ten principles outlined by the NRC (1999 Adequacy of Climate

  3. Coherent laser vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastion, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  4. Extraterrestrial surface propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Blackstock, Dexter L.; Barnhouse, K.; Charalambous, Z.; Coats, J.; Danagan, J.; Davis, T.; Dickens, J.; Harris, P.; Horner, G.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar traction systems, Mars oxygen production, and Mars methane engine operation were the three topics studied during 1992. An elastic loop track system for lunar construction operations was redesigned and is being tested. A great deal of work on simulating the lunar environment to facilitate traction testing has been reported. Operation of an oxygen processor under vacuum conditions has been the focus of another design team. They have redesigned the processor facility. This included improved seals and heat shields. Assuming methane and oxygen can be produced from surface resources on Mars, a third design team has addressed the problem of using Mars atmospheric carbon dioxide to control combustion temperatures in an internal combustion engine. That team has identified appropriate tests and instrumentation. They have reported on the test rig that they designed and the computer-based system for acquiring data.

  5. DCSP hardware maintenance system

    SciTech Connect

    Pazmino, M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper discusses the necessary changes to be implemented on the hardware side of the DCSP database. DCSP is currently tracking hardware maintenance costs in six separate databases. The goal is to develop a system that combines all data and works off a single database. Some of the tasks that will be discussed in this paper include adding the capability for report generation, creating a help package and preparing a users guide, testing the executable file, and populating the new database with data taken from the old database. A brief description of the basic process used in developing the system will also be discussed. Conclusions about the future of the database and the delivery of the final product are then addressed, based on research and the desired use of the system.

  6. Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, Ernie; Nelson, James; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Savy, Jean; Wong, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This Protocol is a living guidance document for geothermal developers, public officials, regulators and the general public that provides a set of general guidelines detailing useful steps to evaluate and manage the effects of induced seismicity related to EGS projects.

  7. Multisite Testing of the Discrete Address Beacon System (DABS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    surveillance processing , data link processing , and intersensor communications. It is concluded that the performance of the DABS sensors in multisite...of completed page autholed , ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Assistance in test conduct and data analysis was rendered by R. Frack , L. Baker, R. Gilmartin, Major...Collection 10 TEST RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 12 Network Management 12 Surveillance Processing 30 Data Link Message Processing 32 Intersensor Communications

  8. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... normal operating conditions. The bullhorn's batteries are to be continually maintained at a fully charged level by use of a battery charger or other means acceptable to the cognizant OCMI. ... station. (d) On a vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length, a battery powered bullhorn...

  9. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... normal operating conditions. The bullhorn's batteries are to be continually maintained at a fully charged level by use of a battery charger or other means acceptable to the cognizant OCMI. ... station. (d) On a vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length, a battery powered bullhorn...

  10. Data management system evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Hardware and software products and technologies that are available for implementation in the early space station data management system (DMS) design are expected to have limited capabilities in such areas as system performance, capacity, and throughput. With the anticipated growth in operations and payload user requirements during the space station's operational phase, a knowledge base of technological advancements and their possible incorporation into the DMS design will be maintained. System growth and technologies insertion issues for DMS design and development are addressed.

  11. Proteomics for systems toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Titz, Bjoern; Elamin, Ashraf; Martin, Florian; Schneider, Thomas; Dijon, Sophie; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2014-01-01

    Current toxicology studies frequently lack measurements at molecular resolution to enable a more mechanism-based and predictive toxicological assessment. Recently, a systems toxicology assessment framework has been proposed, which combines conventional toxicological assessment strategies with system-wide measurement methods and computational analysis approaches from the field of systems biology. Proteomic measurements are an integral component of this integrative strategy because protein alterations closely mirror biological effects, such as biological stress responses or global tissue alterations. Here, we provide an overview of the technical foundations and highlight select applications of proteomics for systems toxicology studies. With a focus on mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we summarize the experimental methods for quantitative proteomics and describe the computational approaches used to derive biological/mechanistic insights from these datasets. To illustrate how proteomics has been successfully employed to address mechanistic questions in toxicology, we summarized several case studies. Overall, we provide the technical and conceptual foundation for the integration of proteomic measurements in a more comprehensive systems toxicology assessment framework. We conclude that, owing to the critical importance of protein-level measurements and recent technological advances, proteomics will be an integral part of integrative systems toxicology approaches in the future. PMID:25379146

  12. Ukraine: health system review.

    PubMed

    Lekhan, Valery; Rudiy, Volodymyr; Shevchenko, Maryna; Nitzan Kaluski, Dorit; Richardson, Erica

    2015-03-01

    This analysis of the Ukrainian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Since the country gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, successive governments have sought to overcome funding shortfalls and modernize the health care system to meet the needs of the population's health. However, no fundamental reform of the system has yet been implemented and consequently it has preserved the main features characteristic of the Semashko model; there is a particularly high proportion of total health expenditure paid out of pocket (42.3 % in 2012), and incentives within the system do not focus on quality or outcomes. The most recent health reform programme began in 2010 and sought to strengthen primary and emergency care, rationalize hospitals and change the model of health care financing from one based on inputs to one based on outputs. Fundamental issues that hampered reform efforts in the past re-emerged, but conflict and political instability have proved the greatest barriers to reform implementation and the programme was abandoned in 2014. More recently, the focus has been on more pressing humanitarian concerns arising from the conflict in the east of Ukraine. It is hoped that greater political, social and economic stability in the future will provide a better environment for the introduction of deep reforms to address shortcomings in the Ukrainian health system.

  13. Intelligent diagnostics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquiston, Barbara M.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been applied to today's problems and could also be applied to space operations integrity. One of these systems is the XMAN tool designed for 'troubleshooting' jet engines. XMAN is the eXpert MAiNtenance tool developed to be an expert information analysis tool which stores trending and diagnostic data on Air Force engines. XMAN operates with a 'network topology' which follows a flow chart containing engine management information reports required by the governments technical order procedures. With XMAN technology, the user is able to identify engine problems by presenting the assertions of the fault isolation logic and attempting to satisfy individual assertions by referring to the databases created by an engine monitoring system. The troubleshooting process requires interaction between the technician and the computer to acquire new evidence form auxiliary maintenance tests corroboration of analytical results to accurately diagnose equipment malfunctions. This same technology will be required for systems which are functioning in space either with an onboard crew, or with an unmanned system. The technology and lessons learned developing this technology while suggesting definite applications for its use with developing space systems are addressed.

  14. Separation system

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Leslie S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  15. Incinerator system

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmell, R.K.

    1986-10-07

    An incineration system is described which consists of: combustion chamber structure having an inlet, an outlet, and burner structure in the combustion chamber, heat exchanger structure defining a chamber, divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber, an array of tubes extending through the heat exchanger chamber to the inlet of the combustion chamber at the divider structure. The heat exchanger chamber has an inlet coupled to the outlet of the combustion chamber for flow of the combustion products discharged from the combustion chamber through the heat exchanger chamber over the tubes in heat exchange relation, and an outlet for discharge of products from the heat exchanger chamber, aspirator sleeve structure secured to the divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber. Each aspirator sleeve receives the outlet end of a heat exchanger tube in slip fit relation so that the heat exchanger tubes are free to thermally expand longitudinally within the aspirator sleeves, and means for flowing vapor through the heat exchanger tubes into the combustion chamber at sufficiently high velocity to produce a reduced pressure effect in the aspirator sleeves in the heat exchanger chamber to draw a minor fraction of combustion products through the aspirator sleeves into the combustion chamber for reincineration.

  16. Systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; Sharma, Sanjeev; Baltaro, Richard; Hurley, John

    2011-03-01

    The systemic vasculitides are characterized by inflammation of blood vessel walls. Vessels of any type, in any organ can be affected, resulting in a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms. The heterogenous nature of vasculitides presents a diagnostic challenge. The American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature are the most widely used to distinguish different forms of vasculitis. The Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature defines 10 primary vasculitides based on vessel size (large, medium, and small). The diagnosis relies on the recognition of a compatible clinical presentation supported by specific laboratory or imaging tests and confirmatory histology. Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody testing has been of particular benefit in defining a subgroup of small vessel vasculitides. Treatment is based on clinical presentation and the pattern of organ involvement. Glucocorticoids are the primary treatment for many forms of vasculitis. Additional immunosuppressive agents, including methotrexate and cyclophosphamide, are sometimes required. Newer approaches, such as the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor or B cell therapies, are being tried in resistant cases. Patients can experience considerable treatment-related toxicity, especially infection from immunosuppressive therapy and adverse effects from steroids (e.g., osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, cataract). Vitamin D and calcium prophylaxis are recommended in patients on long-term steroid therapy.

  17. Computer Sciences and Data Systems, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: software engineering; university grants; institutes; concurrent processing; sparse distributed memory; distributed operating systems; intelligent data management processes; expert system for image analysis; fault tolerant software; and architecture research.

  18. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System A A A ... is called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  19. New Systems Produced by Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Wendy; Clem, Jo; Caine, Renate N.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Chapman, Carrie; Flinders, David J.; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents new systems produced by systemic change. First is Systemic Changes in the Chugach School District by Wendy Battino and Jo Clem. Second is Systemic Changes in Public Schools through Brain-Based Learning by Renate N. Caine. Third is A Vision of an Information-Age Educational System by Charles M. Reigeluth. Fourth is Systemic…

  20. Airborne Global Positioning System Antenna System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-14

    GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ANTENNA SYSTEM DISTRIBUTION: SMC/ GP (3 cys); AFFSA...standard that airborne Global Positioning System ( GPS ) antenna system must meet to be identified with the applicable MSO marking. The similarity of...UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENT NO. DATE NO. MSO-C144 14 Oct 04 Initial Release REV: REV: SHEET 1 OF 16 TITLE: AIRBORNE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

  1. Advanced Operating System Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cittolin, Sergio; Riccardi, Fabio; Vascotto, Sandro

    In this paper we describe an R&D effort to define an OS architecture suitable for the requirements of the Data Acquisition and Control of an LHC experiment. Large distributed computing systems are foreseen to be the core part of the DAQ and Control system of the future LHC experiments. Neworks of thousands of processors, handling dataflows of several gigaBytes per second, with very strict timing constraints (microseconds), will become a common experience in the following years. Problems like distributyed scheduling, real-time communication protocols, failure-tolerance, distributed monitoring and debugging will have to be faced. A solid software infrastructure will be required to manage this very complicared environment, and at this moment neither CERN has the necessary expertise to build it, nor any similar commercial implementation exists. Fortunately these problems are not unique to the particle and high energy physics experiments, and the current research work in the distributed systems field, especially in the distributed operating systems area, is trying to address many of the above mentioned issues. The world that we are going to face in the next ten years will be quite different and surely much more interconnected than the one we see now. Very ambitious projects exist, planning to link towns, nations and the world in a single "Data Highway". Teleconferencing, Video on Demend, Distributed Multimedia Applications are just a few examples of the very demanding tasks to which the computer industry is committing itself. This projects are triggering a great research effort in the distributed, real-time micro-kernel based operating systems field and in the software enginering areas. The purpose of our group is to collect the outcame of these different research efforts, and to establish a working environment where the different ideas and techniques can be tested, evaluated and possibly extended, to address the requirements of a DAQ and Control System suitable for LHC

  2. Portable treatment systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  3. Optimizing System Compute and Bandwidth Density for Deployed HPEC Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Optimizing System Compute and Bandwidth Density for Deployed HPEC Applications Randy Banton and Richard Jaenicke Mercury Computer Systems, Inc...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9... Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Optimizing System Compute Density for Deployed HPEC Applications Randy Banton, Director, Defense Electronics Engineering

  4. NASA pyrotechnically actuated systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Safety and Mission Quality initiated a Pyrotechnically Actuated Systems (PAS) Program in FY-92 to address problems experienced with pyrotechnically actuated systems and devices used both on the ground and in flight. The PAS Program will provide the technical basis for NASA's projects to incorporate new technological developments in operational systems. The program will accomplish that objective by developing/testing current and new hardware designs for flight applications and by providing a pyrotechnic data base. This marks the first applied pyrotechnic technology program funded by NASA to address pyrotechnic issues. The PAS Program has been structured to address the results of a survey of pyrotechnic device and system problems with the goal of alleviating or minimizing their risks. Major program initiatives include the development of a Laser Initiated Ordnance System, a pyrotechnic systems data base, NASA Standard Initiator model, a NASA Standard Linear Separation System and a NASA Standard Gas Generator. The PAS Program sponsors annual aerospace pyrotechnic systems workshops.

  5. Hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system controller design

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented.

  6. Multiscale Cloud System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell W.

    2009-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is to describe how cloud system resolving models (CRMs) of grid spacing approximately 1 km have been applied to various important problems in atmospheric science across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales and how these applications relate to other modeling approaches. A long-standing problem concerns the representation of organized precipitating convective cloud systems in weather and climate models. Since CRMs resolve the mesoscale to large scales of motion (i.e., 10 km to global) they explicitly address the cloud system problem. By explicitly representing organized convection, CRMs bypass restrictive assumptions associated with convective parameterization such as the scale gap between cumulus and large-scale motion. Dynamical models provide insight into the physical mechanisms involved with scale interaction and convective organization. Multiscale CRMs simulate convective cloud systems in computational domains up to global and have been applied in place of contemporary convective parameterizations in global models. Multiscale CRMs pose a new challenge for model validation, which is met in an integrated approach involving CRMs, operational prediction systems, observational measurements, and dynamical models in a new international project: the Year of Tropical Convection, which has an emphasis on organized tropical convection and its global effects.

  7. Modeling the earth system

    SciTech Connect

    Ojima, D.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  8. The global Earth observation system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, José

    2010-05-01

    synthetic interferograms, as well as damage maps, data, and space images. See http://supersites.unavco.org/haiti.php; - the global carbon observation and analysis system combines observations, reanalysis and product development to provide regional information on emission variations. It addresses the three components of the carbon cycle (atmosphere, land, ocean). The project includes the improvement of global networks of atmospheric CO2 observations, air-surface exchange flux networks, surface ocean CO2 and related marine biochemistry observations, as well as space-based measurements combining Sciamachy , Airs and the newly launched Japanese Gosat; - the Forest Carbon Tracking (FCT) project coordinates the acquisition of observations from multi-spectral and radar (X, C and L-band) satellites, their processing through different models and methodologies and their validation by in situ measurements in 7 selected countries. The aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of a global monitoring and verification system for carbon storage and change in forests. Data and results can be viewed on-line at www.geo-fct.org. This portal allows users to visualize the FCT National Demonstrators, the relevant validation sites and the inventory of the coordinated acquisitions of satellite and in-situ data. Maps and information resulting from the processing of the data will also be posted here when available.

  9. CAIS standard manual. System number 24. Natural gas distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Natural Gas Distribution System.

  10. RADAR WARNING SYSTEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADAR TRACKING, *AIRCRAFT DEFENSE SYSTEMS, RADAR EQUIPMENT, AIR TO AIR, SEARCH RADAR, GUIDED MISSILES, HIGH SPEED BOMBING, EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS, FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AIRCRAFT, TIME, CHINA.

  11. Systemic antibiotics in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Slots, Jørgen

    2004-11-01

    This position paper addresses the role of systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periodontal disease. Topical antibiotic therapy is not discussed here. The paper was prepared by the Research, Science and Therapy Committee of the American Academy of Periodontology. The document consists of three sections: 1) concept of antibiotic periodontal therapy; 2) efficacy of antibiotic periodontal therapy; and 3) practical aspects of antibiotic periodontal therapy. The conclusions drawn in this paper represent the position of the American Academy of Periodontology and are intended for the information of the dental profession.

  12. ALS superbend magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

    2000-09-15

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

  13. France: Health System Review.

    PubMed

    Chevreul, Karine; Berg Brigham, Karen; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the French health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The French population has a good level of health, with the second highest life expectancy in the world for women. It has a high level of choice of providers, and a high level of satisfaction with the health system. However, unhealthy habits such as smoking and harmful alcohol consumption remain significant causes of avoidable mortality. Combined with the significant burden of chronic diseases, this has underscored the need for prevention and integration of services, although these have not historically been strengths of the French system. Although the French health care system is a social insurance system, it has historically had a stronger role for the state than other Bismarckian social insurance systems. Public financing of health care expenditure is among the highest in Europe and out-of-pocket spending among the lowest. Public insurance is compulsory and covers the resident population; it is financed by employee and employer contributions as well as increasingly through taxation. Complementary insurance plays a significant role in ensuring equity in access. Provision is mixed; providers of outpatient care are largely private, and hospital beds are predominantly public or private non-profit-making. Despite health outcomes being among the best in the European Union, social and geographical health inequities remain. Inequality in the distribution of health care professionals is a considerable barrier to equity. The rising cost of health care and the increasing demand for long-term care are also of concern. Reforms are ongoing to address these issues, while striving for equity in financial access; a long-term care reform including public coverage of long-term care is still pending.

  14. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  15. System identification of physiological systems using short data segments.

    PubMed

    Ludvig, Daniel; Perreault, Eric J

    2012-12-01

    System identification of physiological systems poses unique challenges, especially when the structure of the system under study is uncertain. Nonparametric techniques can be useful for identifying system structure, but these typically assume stationarity and require large amounts of data. Both of these requirements are often not easily obtained in the study of physiological systems. Ensemble methods for time-varying nonparametric estimation have been developed to address the issue of stationarity, but these require an amount of data that can be prohibitive for many experimental systems. To address this issue, we developed a novel algorithm that uses multiple short data segments. Using simulation studies, we showed that this algorithm produces system estimates with lower variability than previous methods when limited data are present. Furthermore, we showed that the new algorithm generates time-varying system estimates with lower total error than an ensemble method. Thus, this algorithm is well suited for the identification of physiological systems that vary with time or from which only short segments of stationary data can be collected.

  16. System Identification of Physiological Systems Using Short Data Segments

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    System identification of physiological systems poses unique challenges, especially when the structure of the system under study is uncertain. Non-parametric techniques can be useful for identifying system structure, but these typically assume stationarity, and require large amounts of data. Both of these requirements are often not easily obtained in the study of physiological systems. Ensemble methods for time-varying, non-parametric estimation have been developed to address the issue of stationarity, but these require an amount of data that can be prohibitive for many experimental systems. To address this issue, we developed a novel algorithm that uses multiple short data segments. Using simulation studies, we showed that this algorithm produces system estimates with lower variability than previous methods when limited data are present. Furthermore we showed that the new algorithm generates time-varying system estimates with lower total error than an ensemble method. Thus, this algorithm is well suited for the identification of physiological systems that vary with time or from which only short segments of stationary data can be collected. PMID:23033429

  17. System design description cone penetrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The system design description documents in detail the design of the cone penetrometer system. The systems includes the cone penetrometer physical package, raman spectroscopy package and moisture sensor package. Information pertinent to the system design, development, fabrication and testing is provided.

  18. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  19. The embedded operating system project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The design and construction of embedded operating systems for real-time advanced aerospace applications was investigated. The applications require reliable operating system support that must accommodate computer networks. Problems that arise in the construction of such operating systems, reconfiguration, consistency and recovery in a distributed system, and the issues of real-time processing are reported. A thesis that provides theoretical foundations for the use of atomic actions to support fault tolerance and data consistency in real-time object-based system is included. The following items are addressed: (1) atomic actions and fault-tolerance issues; (2) operating system structure; (3) program development; (4) a reliable compiler for path Pascal; and (5) mediators, a mechanism for scheduling distributed system processes.

  20. Systems as Foundations for MBSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliot, Claude

    System enginieering has been able to cope, in the last decade, with its definition in terms of processes for the analysis of products, services and organisations in view of their design. Thus, system engineering has been more defined by its intend and program then by its purpose that Systems are. However, through the underlying assumption of MBSE (Model-Based Systems Engineering) which is that : insofar as we think through models, engineering is also a matter of modelling thinkings. This leads to the requirement that the other side of the definition of System engineering been addressed answering to "What are Systems?". In this communication, we will draw out some mainlines and orientations toward the formal definition of the concept of systems which are the fundations that MBSE is looking for.

  1. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  2. From systems biology to systems biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Antony, Paul M A; Balling, Rudi; Vlassis, Nikos

    2012-08-01

    Systems Biology is about combining theory, technology, and targeted experiments in a way that drives not only data accumulation but knowledge as well. The challenge in Systems Biomedicine is to furthermore translate mechanistic insights in biological systems to clinical application, with the central aim of improving patients' quality of life. The challenge is to find theoretically well-chosen models for the contextually correct and intelligible representation of multi-scale biological systems. In this review, we discuss the current state of Systems Biology, highlight the emergence of Systems Biomedicine, and highlight some of the topics and views that we think are important for the efficient application of Systems Theory in Biomedicine.

  3. Global Positioning System Shipborne Reference System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    Office of Naval Research Space and Remote Sensing 1997 Annual Report 1 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM SHIPBORNE REFERENCE SYSTEM James R. Clynch...N00014-97-WR30044 LONG-TERM GOAL The long term goal is to improve the navigation capability of naval vessels using the Global Positioning System ...COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System Shipborne Reference System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  4. Mechanical systems: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutches.

  5. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Parents > Endocrine System A A A ... to help the body function properly. About the Endocrine System The foundations of the endocrine system are the ...

  6. Immune System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Immune System KidsHealth > For Parents > Immune System A A A ... can lead to illness and infection. About the Immune System The immune system is the body's defense against ...

  7. Dynamic security assessment processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lei

    The architecture of dynamic security assessment processing system (DSAPS) is proposed to address online dynamic security assessment (DSA) with focus of the dissertation on low-probability, high-consequence events. DSAPS upgrades current online DSA functions and adds new functions to fit into the modern power grid. Trajectory sensitivity analysis is introduced and its applications in power system are reviewed. An index is presented to assess transient voltage dips quantitatively using trajectory sensitivities. Then the framework of anticipatory computing system (ACS) for cascading defense is presented as an important function of DSAPS. ACS addresses various security problems and the uncertainties in cascading outages. Corrective control design is automated to mitigate the system stress in cascading progressions. The corrective controls introduced in the dissertation include corrective security constrained optimal power flow, a two-stage load control for severe under-frequency conditions, and transient stability constrained optimal power flow for cascading outages. With state-of-the-art computing facilities to perform high-speed extended-term time-domain simulation and optimization for large-scale systems, DSAPS/ACS efficiently addresses online DSA for low-probability, high-consequence events, which are not addressed by today's industrial practice. Human interference is reduced in the computationally burdensome analysis.

  8. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  9. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, Verne William; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  10. Nanophotonics for information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhad, M.; Abashin, M.; Ikeda, K.; Pang, L.; Kim, H. C.; Levy, U.; Tetz, K.; Rokitski, R.; Fainman, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Optical technology plays an increasingly important role in numerous applications areas, including communications, information processing, and data storage. However, as optical technology develops, it is evident that there is a growing need to develop reliable photonic integration technologies. This will include the development of passive as well as active optical components that can be integrated into functional optical circuits and systems, including filters, switching fabrics that can be controlled either electrically or optically, optical sources, detectors, amplifiers, etc. We explore the unique capabilities and advantages of nanotechnology in developing next generation integrated photonic chips. Our long-range goal is to develop a range of photonic nanostructures including artificially birefringent and resonant devices, photonic crystals, and photonic crystals with defects to tailor spectral filters, and nanostructures for spatial field localization to enhance optical nonlinearities, to facilitate on-chip system integration through compatible materials and fabrication processes. The design of artificial nanostructured materials, PCs and integrated photonic systems is one of the most challenging tasks as it not only involves the accurate solution of electromagnetic optics equations, but also the need to incorporate the material and quantum physics equations. Near-field interactions in artificial nanostructured materials provide a variety of functionalities useful for optical systems integration. Recently, the inclusion of surface plasmon photonics in this area has opened up a host of new possibilities Finally and most importantly, nanophotonics may enable easier integration with other nanotechnologies: electronics, magnetics, mechanics, chemistry, and biology. We will address some of these areas in this paper.

  11. Medical ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Powers, Jeff; Kremkau, Frederick

    2011-08-06

    Medical ultrasound imaging has advanced dramatically since its introduction only a few decades ago. This paper provides a short historical background, and then briefly describes many of the system features and concepts required in a modern commercial ultrasound system. The topics addressed include array beam formation, steering and focusing; array and matrix transducers; echo image formation; tissue harmonic imaging; speckle reduction through frequency and spatial compounding, and image processing; tissue aberration; Doppler flow detection; and system architectures. It then describes some of the more practical aspects of ultrasound system design necessary to be taken into account for today's marketplace. It finally discusses the recent explosion of portable and handheld devices and their potential to expand the clinical footprint of ultrasound into regions of the world where medical care is practically non-existent. Throughout the article reference is made to ways in which ultrasound imaging has benefited from advances in the commercial electronics industry. It is meant to be an overview of the field as an introduction to other more detailed papers in this special issue.

  12. Quantify information system benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Koppel, L.B.

    1995-06-01

    What are information systems and how do they relate to control systems? How do information systems produce benefits in hydrocarbon processing? What are some examples of benefit-generating information system applications? Information System Benefits (ISBEN) is a structured methodology for estimating information system benefits in hydrocarbon processing. The paper discusses information and control systems, information system benefits and applications, objectives, strategies and measures of ISBEN, ISBEN business drivers, ISBEN database, ISBEN methodology, and implementation.

  13. Data Systems Task Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    A08873 MARINE CORPS WASHINGTON DC F/B 5/9 DATA SYSTEMS TASK ANALYSIS. (U) "CLASSIFIEO. -%mm . LEVELIs DATA SYSTEMS O0 TASK ANALYSIS DCI) OO JF AUG 28...TECI-NICIAN jl. CCMPUTER SYSTEMS EVALLATOR ,13. LCMPUTER SYSTEMS MANAGER 314. LCMPUTER SYSTEMS MCNITOR A5o LCMPUTER TERMINAL OPERATOR j16. LCNFIGURATION...OPERATOR )27. DATA PROCESSING NCO )28. DATA PROCESSINIG TECHNICIAN 329e DATA SYSTEMS LIBRARIAN )35* DATA SYSTEMS OPERATICNS Cl-IEF 331. DATA SYSTEMS

  14. Certification Testing Approach for Propulsion System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Henry; Popp, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The Certification of Propulsion Systems is costly and complex, involving development and qualification testing. The desire of the certification process is to assure all requirements can be demonstrated to be compliant. The purpose of this paper is to address the technical design concerns of certifying a propulsion system for flight. Presented are Pressurization, Tankage, Feed System and Combustion Instability concerns. Propulsion System Engineers are challenged with the dilemma for testing new systems to specific levels to reduce risk yet maintain budgetary targets. A methodical approach is presented to define the types of test suitable to address the technical issues for qualifying systems for retiring the risk levels. Experience of the lessons learned from supporting the Shuttle Program for Main Propulsion and On Orbit Propulsions Systems as well as previous collaborations on design concerns for certifying propulsion systems are utilized to address design concerns and verification approaches.

  15. Practical systems thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konkarikoski, K.; Ritala, R.; Ihalainen, H.

    2010-07-01

    System is a dynamic and complex whole, interacting as a structured functional unit. Systems thinking provides tools for understanding a such system structure and its dynamic behavior. Practical systems thinking course teaches first year bachelor students basics about systems and how open problem can be formulated to system task.

  16. NPS-SCAT: Electrical Power System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NPS-SCAT; Electrical Power System 6. AUTHOR( S ) Lawrence Tyrone Dorn Jr. 5. FUNDING...NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The

  17. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide general guidance and information on systems engineering that will be useful to the NASA community. It provides a generic description of Systems Engineering (SE) as it should be applied throughout NASA. A goal of the handbook is to increase awareness and consistency across the Agency and advance the practice of SE. This handbook provides perspectives relevant to NASA and data particular to NASA. The coverage in this handbook is limited to general concepts and generic descriptions of processes, tools, and techniques. It provides information on systems engineering best practices and pitfalls to avoid. There are many Center-specific handbooks and directives as well as textbooks that can be consulted for in-depth tutorials. This handbook describes systems engineering as it should be applied to the development and implementation of large and small NASA programs and projects. NASA has defined different life cycles that specifically address the major project categories, or product lines, which are: Flight Systems and Ground Support (FS&GS), Research and Technology (R&T), Construction of Facilities (CoF), and Environmental Compliance and Restoration (ECR). The technical content of the handbook provides systems engineering best practices that should be incorporated into all NASA product lines. (Check the NASA On-Line Directives Information System (NODIS) electronic document library for applicable NASA directives on topics such as product lines.) For simplicity this handbook uses the FS&GS product line as an example. The specifics of FS&GS can be seen in the description of the life cycle and the details of the milestone reviews. Each product line will vary in these two areas; therefore, the reader should refer to the applicable NASA procedural requirements for the specific requirements for their life cycle and reviews. The engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and

  18. Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    algorithms for big data applications . (2) We studied stochastic dynamics of polymer systems in the mean field limit. (3) We studied noisy Hegselmann-Krause...DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b. ABSTRACT 2. REPORT TYPE 17. LIMITATION...Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the

  19. System Software Framework for System of Systems Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Peterson, Benjamin L; Thompson, Hiram C.

    2005-01-01

    Project Constellation implements NASA's vision for space exploration to expand human presence in our solar system. The engineering focus of this project is developing a system of systems architecture. This architecture allows for the incremental development of the overall program. Systems can be built and connected in a "Lego style" manner to generate configurations supporting various mission objectives. The development of the avionics or control systems of such a massive project will result in concurrent engineering. Also, each system will have software and the need to communicate with other (possibly heterogeneous) systems. Fortunately, this design problem has already been solved during the creation and evolution of systems such as the Internet and the Department of Defense's successful effort to standardize distributed simulation (now IEEE 1516). The solution relies on the use of a standard layered software framework and a communication protocol. A standard framework and communication protocol is suggested for the development and maintenance of Project Constellation systems. The ARINC 653 standard is a great start for such a common software framework. This paper proposes a common system software framework that uses the Real Time Publish/Subscribe protocol for framework-to-framework communication to extend ARINC 653. It is highly recommended that such a framework be established before development. This is important for the success of concurrent engineering. The framework provides an infrastructure for general system services and is designed for flexibility to support a spiral development effort.

  20. A survey of chemical information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Shaikh, Aneesa Bashir

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the features, functions, and characteristics of a fairly wide variety of chemical information storage and retrieval systems currently in operation is given. The types of systems (together with an identification of the specific systems) addressed within this survey are as follows: patents and bibliographies (Derwent's Patent System; IFI Comprehensive Database; PULSAR); pharmacology and toxicology (Chemfile; PAGODE; CBF; HEEDA; NAPRALERT; MAACS); the chemical information system (CAS Chemical Registry System; SANSS; MSSS; CSEARCH; GINA; NMRLIT; CRYST; XTAL; PDSM; CAISF; RTECS Search System; AQUATOX; WDROP; OHMTADS; MLAB; Chemlab); spectra (OCETH; ASTM); crystals (CRYSRC); and physical properties (DETHERM). Summary characteristics and current trends in chemical information systems development are also examined.

  1. Altimetric system: Earth observing system. Volume 2h: Panel report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert A.; Born, George; Chase, Robert R. P.; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Parsons, Chester; Tapley, Byron

    1987-01-01

    A rationale and recommendations for planning, implementing, and operating an altimetric system aboard the Earth observing system (Eos) spacecraft is provided. In keeping with the recommendations of the Eos Science and Mission Requirements Working Group, a complete altimetric system is defined that is capable of perpetuating the data set to be derived from TOPEX/Poseidon, enabling key scientific questions to be addressed. Since the scientific utility and technical maturity of spaceborne radar altimeters is well documented, the discussion is limited to highlighting those Eos-specific considerations that materially impact upon radar altimetric measurements.

  2. Methodology requirements for intelligent systems architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Terry; Colombano, Silvano

    1987-01-01

    The methodology required for the development of the 'intelligent system architecture' of distributed computer systems which integrate standard data processing capabilities with symbolic processing to provide powerful and highly autonomous adaptive processing capabilities must encompass three elements: (1) a design knowledge capture system, (2) computer-aided engineering, and (3) verification and validation metrics and tests. Emphasis must be put on the earliest possible definition of system requirements and the realistic definition of allowable system uncertainties. Methodologies must also address human factor issues.

  3. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  4. [X-33 Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

  5. Systems engineering and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, B.S.; Fabrycky, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    An introduction to systems is provided and tools for systems analysis are considered, taking into account system definitions and concepts, approaches for bringing systems into being, models in systems analysis, economic analysis techniques, mathematical modeling and optimization, probability and statistics, queuing theory and analysis, and control concepts and techniques. The system design process is discussed along with the design for operational feasibility, systems engineering management, and system design case studies. Attention is given to conceptual design, preliminary system design, detail design and development, system test and evaluation, design for reliability, design for maintainability, design for supportability, design for economic feasibility, communication system design, finite population system design, energy storage system design, and procurement-inventory system design.

  6. Language as a System of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, J. W. F.; Hervey, S. G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Based on Mulder's previous classification of all semiotic systems designed to describe the system of discrete features in human languages, this article explores a further subclassification of the genus language into species. (CLK)

  7. Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

  8. Problem Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Don; Serian, Charles; Sweet, Robert; Sapir, Babak; Gamez, Enrique; Mays, David

    2008-01-01

    The Problem Reporting System (PRS) is a Web application, running on two Web servers (load-balanced) and two database servers (RAID-5), which establishes a system for submission, editing, and sharing of reports to manage risk assessment of anomalies identified in NASA's flight projects. PRS consolidates diverse anomaly-reporting systems, maintains a rich database set, and incorporates a robust engine, which allows tracking of any hardware, software, or paper process by configuring an appropriate life cycle. Global and specific project administration and setup tools allow lifecycle tailoring, along with customizable controls for user, e-mail, notifications, and more. PRS is accessible via the World Wide Web for authorized user at most any location. Upon successful log-in, the user receives a customizable window, which displays time-critical 'To Do' items (anomalies requiring the user s input before the system moves the anomaly to the next phase of the lifecycle), anomalies originated by the user, anomalies the user has addressed, and custom queries that can be saved for future use. Access controls exist depending on a user's role as system administrator, project administrator, user, or developer, and then, further by association with user, project, subsystem, company, or item with provisions for business-to-business exclusions, limitations on access according to the covert or overt nature of a given project, all with multiple layers of filtration, as needed. Reporting of metrics is built in. There is a provision for proxy access (in which the user may choose to grant one or more other users to view screens and perform actions as though they were the user, during any part of a tracking life cycle - especially useful during tight build schedules and vacations to keep things moving). The system also provides users the ability to have an anomaly link to or notify other systems, including QA Inspection Reports, Safety, GIDEP (Government-Industry Data Exchange Program

  9. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  10. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts

  11. Information Systems, Security, and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    1984-01-01

    Computer security and computer privacy issues are discussed. Among the areas addressed are technical and human security threats, security and privacy issues for information in electronic mail systems, the need for a national commission to examine these issues, and security/privacy issues relevant to colleges and universities. (JN)

  12. Progress in Documentation: Database Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Malcolm P.

    1979-01-01

    This survey of current work on data base systems is divided into three main sectors: data models, data languages, and support for data base operations, including hardware for content addressing, data base machines, and software techniques for optimizing and evaluating group expressions. A 203-item bibliography is provided. (Author/JD)

  13. Cockpit control system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a means for operating the ailerons, elevator, elevator trim, rudder, nosewheel steering, and brakes in the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate system and subsystem integration, control function ability, and producibility. Weight and maintenance goals were addressed.

  14. Tinkering Change vs. System Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Russ

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author makes a distinction between two kinds of change: tinkering change and systemic change. Tinkering change includes reforms intended to address a specific deficiency or practice. Such tinkering change can be contrasted to what Shakespeare termed "sea change" in "The Tempest" ("a sea change into something rich and strange")…

  15. Simulating neural systems with Xyce.

    SciTech Connect

    Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Warrender, Christina E.; Aimone, James Bradley; Teeter, Corinne; Duda, Alex M.

    2012-12-01

    Sandias parallel circuit simulator, Xyce, can address large scale neuron simulations in a new way extending the range within which one can perform high-fidelity, multi-compartment neuron simulations. This report documents the implementation of neuron devices in Xyce, their use in simulation and analysis of neuron systems.

  16. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status.

  17. LCLS XTOD Attenuator System System Concept Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kishiyama, K; Roeben, M; Trent, J; Ryutov, D; Shen, S

    2006-04-12

    The attenuator system for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been configured and analyzed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, performance analyses and selection of the vacuum components are presented in this System Conceptual Review (SCR) report. Also included are the plans for prototype, procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

  18. Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

    2011-06-01

    From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

  19. Systems Theory, Systems Technology, and Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, David

    1978-01-01

    John Goodlad (1958) stated that "Nowhere in education is there greater need for a conceptual system to guide decision-making than the field of curriculum." This research attempts to explore ways in which systems thinking can provide a conceptual system, to illuminate the study of curriculum and guide the design of curricula. (Author/RK)

  20. Intelligent tutoring systems for systems engineering methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis

    1991-01-01

    The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.

  1. Deliquescence of pharmaceutical systems.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Lisa J; Taylor, Lynne S

    2010-12-01

    Deliquescence is a first order phase transition from solid to solution that occurs at a relative humidity (RH) that is characteristic to the crystalline compound. Such dissolution of active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients can lead to detrimental physical and chemical instabilities. Furthermore, in systems containing more than one deliquescent component, the RH of the solid-solution transition will be lowered, leading to some level of dissolution at unexpectedly low RH conditions. Deliquescence lowering is independent of the ratio of the deliquescent components and therefore is of concern for any formulation containing two or more deliquescent compounds. Because chemical reactions occur much more readily in solution, deliquescence will enhance the degradation of labile APIs. RH fluctuations will lead to cycles of deliquescence and efflorescence (crystallization), which will contribute to particle agglomeration and caking. This review will address the phenomenon of deliquescence, the significance of deliquescence to pharmaceutical systems, measurement techniques, the kinetics and thermodynamics of deliquescence, the behavior of mixtures of deliquescent compounds (including phase diagrams and thermodynamics of binary systems), and consequences of deliquescence on chemical and physical stability.

  2. Security systems engineering overview

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at $70 billion in direct costs and up to $300 billion in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses $100 billion. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled $3 billion in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies (counterfeit currency, cellular phone billing, credit card fraud, health care fraud, passport, green cards, and questionable documents); industrial espionage detection and prevention (intellectual property, computer chips, etc.); and security barrier technology (creation of delay such as gates, vaults, etc.).

  3. Security systems engineering overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Basil J.

    1997-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at 70 billion dollars in direct costs and up to 300 billion dollars in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses 100 billion dollars. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled 3 billion dollars in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies; industrial espionage detection and prevention; security barrier technology.

  4. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ivey, Mark D.; Robinson, David G.; Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.; Peterson, Kara J.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Desilets, Darin Maurice; Reinert, Rhonda Karen

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  5. A Behavioral Systems Analysis of Behavior Analysis as a Scientific System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Linda J.; Dubuque, Erick M.; Fryling, Mitch J.; Pritchard, Joshua K.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral systems analyses typically address organizational problems in business and industry. However, to the extent that a behavioral system is an entity comprised of interdependent elements formed by individuals interacting toward a common goal, a scientific enterprise constitutes a behavioral system to which a behavioral systems analysis may…

  6. 78 FR 12298 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-School Participation Division Complaints Tracking System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--School Participation Division Complaints Tracking System AGENCY... proposing to add a new system of records entitled ``School Participation Division Complaints Tracking System... result of public comment or OMB review. ] ADDRESSES: Address all comments about the School...

  7. Systemic Sclerosis: Commonly Asked Questions by Rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Young, Amber; Khanna, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare autoimmune disorder with significant morbidity and mortality due to multi-organ system involvement. Early diagnosis and screening for organ involvement is critical as earlier treatment appears to improve function and may impact mortality. The purpose of this article is to address some of the commonly asked questions by rheumatologists on systemic sclerosis. PMID:25807095

  8. Measuring Fiscal Capacity of School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Harry A.

    Ways of measuring the fiscal capacity of school systems are examined in this paper, which presents a representative tax system model. Fiscal capacity is influenced by factors other than tax base size; the "ideal" model should address adjustments for variations in cost across communities and school systems. The first section examines the…

  9. Space Shuttle interactive meteorological data system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. T.; Fox, R. J.; Benson, J. M.; Rueden, J. P.; Oehlkers, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Although focused toward the operational meteorological support review and definition of an operational meteorological interactive data display systems (MIDDS) requirements for the Space Meteorology Support Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center, the total operational meteorological support requirements and a systems concept for the MIDDS network integration of NASA and Air Force elements to support the National Space Transportation System are also addressed.

  10. Assessing an Introduction to Systems Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Plate, Richard R.; Colley, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This research study investigated the learning outcomes of a brief systems thinking intervention at the undergraduate level. A pre/post experimental design (n = 50) was used to address two primary questions: (1) Can a brief introduction to systems thinking improve students' understanding of systems thinking? and (2) Which teaching method (of…

  11. Hydrodynamic description for ballistic annihilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia de Soria, Maria Isabel; Trizac, Emmanuel; Maynar, Pablo; Schehr, Gregory; Barrat, Alain

    2009-01-21

    The problem of the validity of a hydrodynamic description for a system in which there are no collisional invariants is addressed. Hydrodynamic equations have been derived and successfully tested against simulation data for a system where particles annihilate with a probability p, or collide elastically otherwise. The response of the system to a linear perturbation is analyzed as well.

  12. Investigation of a Pulsed 1550 nm Fiber Laser System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-15

    Jain 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...14. ABSTRACT There is a strong need for a pulsed laser system at eye safe wavelengths for illuminator applications . High power pulsed 1550 nm fiber...system at eye safe wavelengths for illuminator applications . High power pulsed 1550 nm fiber lasers systems are able to generate, shaped, pulses at

  13. Systems Intelligence Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Törmänen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.; Saarinen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Systems intelligence (SI) (Saarinen and Hämäläinen, 2004) is a construct defined as a person's ability to act intelligently within complex systems involving interaction and feedback. SI relates to our ability to act in systems and reason about systems to adaptively carry out productive actions within and with respect to systems such as…

  14. Collaborative Systems Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocatilu, Paul; Ciurea, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative systems are widely used today in various activity fields. Their complexity is high and the development involves numerous resources and costs. Testing collaborative systems has a very important role for the systems' success. In this paper we present taxonomy of collaborative systems. The collaborative systems are classified in many…

  15. Systems Engineering Measurement Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Systems Engineering Measurement Primer A Basic Introduction to Systems Engineering Measurement Concepts and Use Version 1.0 March 1998 This document...Federal Systems Garry Roedler Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems Cathy Tilton The National Registry, Inc. E. Richard Widmann Raytheon Systems...IV 1. INTRODUCTION

  16. Intelligent test integration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sztipanovits, J.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Kawamura, K.; Purves, B.; Williams, R.; Biglari, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new test technology is described which was developed for space system integration. The ultimate purpose of the system is to support the automatic generation of test systems in real time, distributed computing environments. The Intelligent Test Integration System (ITIS) is a knowledge based layer above the traditional test system components which can generate complex test configurations from the specification of test scenarios.

  17. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Katherine A.; Murray, Regan; Walker, La Tonya Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  18. DDL system: Design systhesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language was integrated into the CADAT system environment of NASA-MSFC. The major technical aspects of this integration are summarized. Automatic hardware synthesis is now possible starting with a high level description of the system to be synthesized. The DDL system provides a high level design verification capability, thereby minimizing design changes in the later stages of the design cycle. An overview of the DDL system covering the translation, simulation and synthesis capabilities is provided. Two companion documents (the user's and programmer's manuals) are to be consulted for detailed discussions.

  19. Microwave landing system autoland system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

  20. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  1. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  2. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2016-10-11

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  3. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  4. Circumpolar Inuit health systems

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Leanna; O'Keeffe, Annmaree

    2013-01-01

    methodology and timing of the available data collection. Conclusions Despite the variations in the health systems as well as national, political and economic approaches, none is adequately addressing Inuit health needs. All Inuit populations still have significant gaps between their health status and those of broader national populations. Meaningful measurement and evaluation of the effectiveness of the respective health systems is severely hindered by the lack of relevant, Inuit-specific health data. The inadequacy, and in a number of cases absence of relevant data, hinders the design and development of a better and potentially more effective approach to delivering health services to Inuit. PMID:23984305

  5. The LSST: A System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Chuck F.; Debois-Felsmann, G. P.; Delgado, F.; Hascall, P.; Marshall, S.; Nordby, M.; Schumacher, G.; Sebag, J.; LSST Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complete observing system that acquires and archives images, processes and analyzes them, and publishes reduced images and catalogs of sources and objects. The LSST will operate over a ten year period producing a survey of 20,000 square degrees over the entire [Southern] sky in 6 filters (ugrizy) with each field having been visited several hundred times enabling a wide spectrum of science from fast transients to exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The LSST itself is a complex system of systems consisting of the 8.4m 3-mirror telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data management system. The LSST project uses a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to ensure an integrated approach to system design and rigorous definition of system interfaces and specifications. The MBSE methodology is applied through modeling of the LSST's systems with the System Modeling Language (SysML). The SysML modeling recursively establishes the threefold relationship between requirements, logical & physical functional decomposition and definition, and system and component behavior at successively deeper level of abstraction and detail. The LSST modeling includes the analysis and documenting the flow of command and control information and data between the suite of systems in the LSST observatory that are needed to carry out the activities of the survey. The MBSE approach is applied throughout all stages of the project from design, to validation and verification, though to commissioning.

  6. Systems Architecture for a Nationwide Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Abin, Jorge; Nemeth, Horacio; Friedmann, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    From a national level to give Internet technology support, the Nationwide Integrated Healthcare System in Uruguay requires a model of Information Systems Architecture. This system has multiple healthcare providers (public and private), and a strong component of supplementary services. Thus, the data processing system should have an architecture that considers this fact, while integrating the central services provided by the Ministry of Public Health. The national electronic health record, as well as other related data processing systems, should be based on this architecture. The architecture model described here conceptualizes a federated framework of electronic health record systems, according to the IHE affinity model, HL7 standards, local standards on interoperability and security, as well as technical advice provided by AGESIC. It is the outcome of the research done by AGESIC and Systems Integration Laboratory (LINS) on the development and use of the e-Government Platform since 2008, as well as the research done by the team Salud.uy since 2013.

  7. GEWEX Cloud Systems Study (GCSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moncrieff, Mitch

    1993-01-01

    The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Systems Study (GCSS) program seeks to improve the physical understanding of sub-grid scale cloud processes and their representation in parameterization schemes. By improving the description and understanding of key cloud system processes, GCSS aims to develop the necessary parameterizations in climate and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. GCSS will address these issues mainly through the development and use of cloud-resolving or cumulus ensemble models to generate realizations of a set of archetypal cloud systems. The focus of GCSS is on mesoscale cloud systems, including precipitating convectively-driven cloud systems like MCS's and boundary layer clouds, rather than individual clouds, and on their large-scale effects. Some of the key scientific issues confronting GCSS that particularly relate to research activities in the central U.S. are presented.

  8. The CESR computer control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmke, R. G.; Rice, D. H.; Strohman, C.

    1986-06-01

    The control system for the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has functioned satisfactorily since its implementation in 1979. Key characteristics are fast tuning response, almost exclusive use of FORTRAN as a programming language, and efficient coordinated ramping of CESR guide field elements. This original system has not, however, been able to keep pace with the increasing complexity of operation of CESR associated with performance upgrades. Limitations in address space, expandability, access to data system-wide, and program development impediments have prompted the undertaking of a major upgrade. The system under development accommodates up to 8 VAX computers for all applications programs. The database and communications semaphores reside in a shared multi-ported memory, and each hardware interface bus is controlled by a dedicated 32 bit micro-processor in a VME based system.

  9. QA system for structural analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiko, Heikki

    The activities to be addressed by an organization involved in structural analysis by numerical methods and/or development and maintenance of such computer codes or systems are described. The requirements are based on International Standard 9001. The interpretation of the requirements is done according to an application presented by a Quality Analysis (QA) working group. The purpose of a quality analysis system is to help anyone to do a better job. Emphasis on technical documentation to speed up operations is recommended. The first steps in implementing a finite element quality assurance system in an organization are as follows: constitute a technical body with responsibility and authority for the analysis quality system; agree on management responsibilities for each quality analysis activity; and review current practices against the quality system standard requirements. Experience shows that it is mainly a process of rationalizing, formalizing, and reinforcing existing practices.

  10. Poland health system review.

    PubMed

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    , particularly in areas such as pharmaceuticals, are highly regressive. The health status of the Polish population has improved substantially, with average life expectancy at birth reaching 80.2 years for women and 71.6 years for men in 2009. However, there is still a vast gap in life expectancy between Poland and the western European Union (EU) countries and between life expectancy overall and the expected number of years without illness or disability. Given its modest financial, human and material health care resources and the corresponding outcomes, the overall financial efficiency of the Polish system is satisfactory. Both allocative and technical efficiency leave room for improvement. Several measures, such as prioritizing primary care and adopting new payment mechanisms such as diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), have been introduced in recent years but need to be expanded to other areas and intensified. Additionally, numerous initiatives to enhance quality control and build the required expertise and evidence base for the system are also in place. These could improve general satisfaction with the system, which is not particularly high. Limited resources, a general aversion to cost-sharing stemming from a long experience with broad public coverage and shortages in health workforce need to be addressed before better outcomes can be achieved by the system. Increased cooperation between various bodies within the health and social care sectors would also contribute in this direction. The HiT profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services, and the role of the main actors in health systems; they describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis.

  11. TWRSview system requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  12. Multivariable Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-01-01

    one). Examples abound of systems with numerous controlled variables, and the modern tendency is toward ever greater utilization of systems and plants of this kind. We call them multivariable control systems (MCS).

  13. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  14. Manned systems technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretoi, Remus

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on manned systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew-systems interfaces and interactions; crew training; on-board systems maintenance and support; habitability and environment; and computational human factors.

  15. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  16. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  17. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  18. The Trinity System

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Billy Joe; Vigil, Benny Manuel

    2015-01-13

    This paper describes the Trinity system, the first ASC Advanced Technology System (ATS-1). We describe the Trinity procurement timeline, the ASC computing strategy, the Trinity specific mission needs, and the Trinity system specifications.

  19. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System A ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  20. Evaluating a Portfolio System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Contributes to the knowledge of portfolio systems for writing evaluation by sharing evaluative procedures and their results. Reports on the results of a survey of students evaluated using a portfolio system. Finds that students preferred the portfolio system. (RS)

  1. Antiskid braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazdera, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Published report describes analytical development and simulation of braking system. System prevents wheels from skidding when brakes are applied, significantly reducing stopping distance. Report also presents computer simulation study on system as applied to aircraft.

  2. Digestive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Digestive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Digestive System A A A ... out of the body as feces. About the Digestive System Every morsel of food we eat has to ...

  3. Immune System Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System A A A How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About KidsHealth ...

  4. Propulsion Systems Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) cryogenic tankage; (2) launch vehicle TPS/insulation; (3) durable passive thermal control devices and/or coatings; (4) development and characterization of processing methods to reduce anisotropy of material properties in Al-Li; (5) durable thermal protection system (TPS); (6) unpressurized Al-Li structures (interstages, thrust structures); (7) near net shape sections; (8) pressurized structures; (9) welding and joining; (10) micrometeoroid and debris hypervelocity shields; (11) state-of-the-art shell buckling structure optimizer program to serve as a rapid design tool; (12) test philosophy; (13) reduced load cycle time; (14) structural analysis methods; (15) optimization of structural criteria; and (16) develop an engineering approach to properly trade material and structural concepts selection, fabrication, facilities, and cost.

  5. The bicoid morphogen system.

    PubMed

    Porcher, Aude; Dostatni, Nathalie

    2010-03-09

    Several fundamental concepts of developmental biology have emerged from studies on the early development of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. In the late 1980s, studies on Bicoid provided the first solid experimental evidence for the existence of morphogenetic gradients and their implication in axial patterning. Bicoid has since stimulated further research, bringing together developmental and cell biologists, physicists and theoreticians to address fundamental biological questions. These include mechanistic aspects of transcriptional and translational control, molecular and functional aspects of evolution and, more recently with the development of quantitative approaches, the robustness of axial patterning in a systems biology view. However, recent studies provide data which lead to contradictory interpretations. Here, we discuss these recent observations, highlighting the data helping to understand how anterior patterning is achieved under the control of Bicoid and point to novel challenges for future studies.

  6. Indicator Systems and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, Shelley; Grabowski, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the workshop session were actively engaged in a hands-on, minds-on approach to learning about indicators and evaluation processes. The six hour session was broken down into three two hour sessions. Each session was built upon an instructional model which moved from general understanding to specific IITA application. Examples and practice exercises served to demonstrate tand reinforce the workshop concepts. Each successive session built upon the previous session and addressed the major steps in the evaluation process. The major steps covered in the workshop included: project descriptions, writing goals and objectives for categories, determining indicators and indicator systems for specific projects, and methods and issues of data collection. The workshop served as a baseline upon which the field centers will build during the summer in undertaking a comprehensive examination and evaluation of their existing K-12 education projects.

  7. Study of Thermal Control Systems for orbiting power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, H. R.

    1981-02-01

    Thermal control system designs were evaluated for the 25 kW power system. Factors considered include long operating life, high reliability, and meteoroid hazards to the space radiator. Based on a cost advantage, the bumpered pumped fluid radiator is recommended for the initial 25 kW power system and intermediate versions up to 50 kW. For advanced power systems with heat rejection rates above 50 kW the lower weight of the advanced heat pipe radiator offsets the higher cost and this design is recommended. The power system payloads heat rejection allocations studies show that a centralized heat rejection system is the most weight and cost effective approach. The thermal interface between the power system and the payloads was addressed and a concept for a contact heat exchanger that eliminates fluid transfer between the power system and the payloads was developed. Finally, a preliminary design of the thermal control system, with emphasis on the radiator and radiator deployment mechanism, is presented.

  8. Study of Thermal Control Systems for orbiting power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, H. R.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal control system designs were evaluated for the 25 kW power system. Factors considered include long operating life, high reliability, and meteoroid hazards to the space radiator. Based on a cost advantage, the bumpered pumped fluid radiator is recommended for the initial 25 kW power system and intermediate versions up to 50 kW. For advanced power systems with heat rejection rates above 50 kW the lower weight of the advanced heat pipe radiator offsets the higher cost and this design is recommended. The power system payloads heat rejection allocations studies show that a centralized heat rejection system is the most weight and cost effective approach. The thermal interface between the power system and the payloads was addressed and a concept for a contact heat exchanger that eliminates fluid transfer between the power system and the payloads was developed. Finally, a preliminary design of the thermal control system, with emphasis on the radiator and radiator deployment mechanism, is presented.

  9. DASCAR sensor suite and video data system

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.; Goodman, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    A research program oriented toward the development of a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research has been conducted. This paper discusses the background to the project and the requirements for the data acquisition system. it also provides a brief system overview and describes two of the system`s five major elements, the sensor suite and the video data system, in detail. Components, functions, and specifications are covered Finally the paper addresses the central data collection/analysis facility which was assembled to manage the sensor and video data, and presents the potential uses of the data acquisition system.

  10. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  11. System status display information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

  12. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  13. Systems interface biology.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-10-22

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines.

  14. The LSST: A System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Chuck F.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Delgado, F.; Hascall, P.; Horn, D.; Marshall, S.; Nordby, M.; Schalk, T. L.; Schumacher, G.; Sebag, J.; LSST Project Team

    2010-01-01

    The LSST is a complete observing system that acquires and archives images, processes and analyzes them, and publishes reduced images and catalogs of sources and objects. The LSST will operate over a ten year period producing a survey of 20,000 square degrees over the entire southern sky in 6 filters (ugrizy) with each field having been visited several hundred times enabling a wide spectrum of science from fast transients to exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The LSST itself is a complex system of systems consisting of the 8.4m three mirror telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data management system. The LSST project uses a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to ensure an integrated approach to system design and rigorous definition of system interfaces and specifications. The MBSE methodology is applied through modeling of the LSST's systems with the System Modeling Language (SysML). The SysML modeling recursively establishes the threefold relationship between requirements, logical & physical functional decomposition and definition, and system and component behavior at successively deeper levels of abstraction and detail. The MBSE approach is applied throughout all stages of the project from design, to validation and verification, though to commissioning.

  15. Lightside Atmospheric Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colling, A. K.; Cushman, R. J.; Hultman, M. M.; Nason, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The system was studied as a replacement to the present baseline LiOH system for extended duration shuttle missions. The system consists of three subsystems: a solid amine water desorbed regenerable carbon dioxide removal system, a water vapor electrolysis oxygen generating system, and a Sabatier reactor carbon dioxide reduction system. The system is designed for use on a solar powered shuttle vehicle. The majority of the system's power requirements are utilized on the Sun side of each orbit, when solar power is available.

  16. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  17. Umbra's system representation.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael James

    2005-07-01

    This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.

  18. Lunar crane system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In many lunar construction scenarios, mechanical cranes in some form will be indispensible in moving large masses around with various degrees of fine positioning. While thorough experience exists in the use of terrestrial cranes new thinking is required about the design of cranes to be used in extraterrestrial construction. The primary driving force for this new thinking is the need to automate the crane system so that space cranes can be operated as telerobotic machines with a large number of automatic capabilities. This is true because in extraterrestrial construction human resources will need to be critically rationed. The design problems of mechanisms and control systems for a lunar crane must deal with at least two areas of performance. First, the automated crane must be capable of maneuvering a large mass, so that when the mass arrives at the target position there are only small vibrations. Secondly, any residue vibrations must be automatically damped out and a fine positioning must be achieved. For extraterrestrial use there are additional challenges to a crane design - for example, to design a crane system so that it can be transformed for other construction uses. This initial project in crane design does not address such additional issues, although they may be the subject of future CSC research. To date the Center has designed and analyzed many mechanisms. The fundamental problem of trade-offs between passively stabilizing the load and actively controlling the load by actuators was extensively studied. The capability of 3D dynamics modeling now exists for such studies. A scaled model of a lunar crane was set up and it has been most fruitful in providing basic understanding of lunar cranes. Due to an interesting scaling match-up, this scaled model exhibits the load vibration frequencies one would expect in the real lunar case. Using the analytical results achieved to date, a laboratory crane system is now being developed as a test bed for verifying a wide

  19. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  20. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  1. Systems engineering for very large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  2. INSENS sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.W.; Baker, J.; Benzel, D.M.; Fuess, D.A.

    1993-09-29

    This paper describes an unattended ground sensor system that has been developed for the immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The system, known as INSENS, was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the United States Border Patrol. This system assists in the detection of illegal entry of aliens and contraband (illegal drugs, etc.) into the United States along its land borders. Key to the system is its flexible modular design which allows future software and hardware enhancements to the system without altering the fundamental architecture of the system. Elements of the system include a sensor system capable of processing signals from multiple directional probes, a repeater system, and a handheld monitor system. Seismic, passive infrared (PIR), and magnetic probes are currently supported. The design of the INSENS system elements and their performance are described.

  3. LANL environmental restoration site ranking system: System description. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Merkhofer, L.; Kann, A.; Voth, M.

    1992-10-13

    The basic structure of the LANL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Ranking System and its use are described in this document. A related document, Instructions for Generating Inputs for the LANL ER Site Ranking System, contains detailed descriptions of the methods by which necessary inputs for the system will be generated. LANL has long recognized the need to provide a consistent basis for comparing the risks and other adverse consequences associated with the various waste problems at the Lab. The LANL ER Site Ranking System is being developed to help address this need. The specific purpose of the system is to help improve, defend, and explain prioritization decisions at the Potential Release Site (PRS) and Operable Unit (OU) level. The precise relationship of the Site Ranking System to the planning and overall budget processes is yet to be determined, as the system is still evolving. Generally speaking, the Site Ranking System will be used as a decision aid. That is, the system will be used to aid in the planning and budgetary decision-making process. It will never be used alone to make decisions. Like all models, the system can provide only a partial and approximate accounting of the factors important to budget and planning decisions. Decision makers at LANL will have to consider factors outside of the formal system when making final choices. Some of these other factors are regulatory requirements, DOE policy, and public concern. The main value of the site ranking system, therefore, is not the precise numbers it generates, but rather the general insights it provides.

  4. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  5. Immune System as a Sensory System

    PubMed Central

    Dozmorov, Igor M.; Dresser, D.

    2010-01-01

    As suggested by the well-known gestalt concept the immune system can be regarded as an integrated complex system, the functioning of which cannot be fully characterized by the behavior of its constituent elements. Similar approaches to the immune system in particular and sensory systems in general allows one to discern similarities and differences in the process of distinguishing informative patterns in an otherwise random background, thus initiating an appropriate and adequate response. This may lead to a new interpretation of difficulties in the comprehension of some immunological phenomena. PMID:21686066

  6. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  7. Systems medicine: evolution of systems biology from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Sheng; Maron, Bradley A; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput experimental techniques for generating genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes, and interactomes have provided unprecedented opportunities to interrogate biological systems and human diseases on a global level. Systems biology integrates the mass of heterogeneous high-throughput data and predictive computational modeling to understand biological functions as system-level properties. Most human diseases are biological states caused by multiple components of perturbed pathways and regulatory networks rather than individual failing components. Systems biology not only facilitates basic biological research but also provides new avenues through which to understand human diseases, identify diagnostic biomarkers, and develop disease treatments. At the same time, systems biology seeks to assist in drug discovery, drug optimization, drug combinations, and drug repositioning by investigating the molecular mechanisms of action of drugs at a system's level. Indeed, systems biology is evolving to systems medicine as a new discipline that aims to offer new approaches for addressing the diagnosis and treatment of major human diseases uniquely, effectively, and with personalized precision.

  8. The global water systems project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, H.; Jaeger, C.; Leveque, C.; Lettenmaier, D.; Lins, H.; Meybeck, M.; Niasse, M.; Vorosmarty, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Global Water System (GWS) plays a central and integrative role in the dynamics of the Earth system. It is a regulator of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes, and it is also is essential for sustenance of human societies. The GWS is increasingly modified by humans and through climate effects (facets of it have moved well outside the range of natural variability), without adequate understanding of how the system works. For understanding the changes, feedbacks and potentially critical thresholds within the Earth system, and eventually for better managing the GWS, new synthetic knowledge is required. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) is a new activity being undertaken jointly by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), International Geophshere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), International Human Dimensions Program (IHP), and Diversitas. It will address the GWS in a comprehensive fashion at the global scale, building upon the emerging new consolidated Earth systems data sets, global monitoring tools, and predictive and coupled modeling capabilities. The central scientific question that motivates the GWSP is: "How are humans changing the global water cycle, the associated biogeochemical cycles, and the biological components of the GWS, and what are the social feedbacks arising from these changes?" GWSP will be structured around three "framing questions": a) What are the relative magnitudes of global-scale changes in the global water system that are attributable to changing human activities, and to environmental factors such as climate variability and change?; b) What are the main mechanisms by which human activities are affecting the global water system; and c) To what extent is the global water system resilient to global change? Examples of issues that might be addressed under each of these questions are provided.

  9. Remediation System Evaluation, Raymark Superfund Site (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Raymark site occupies 7 acres off Jacksonville Road in an industrial part of Hatboro, Pennsylvania.The pump-and-treat system addresses groundwater contamination, primarily trichloroethylene (TCE),associated with the operations of various ...

  10. Linear quadratic optimal control for symmetric systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. H.; Martin, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    Special symmetries are present in many control problems. This paper addresses the problem of determining linear-quadratic optimal control problems whose solutions preserve the symmetry of the initial linear control system.

  11. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will assist wastewater utilities with the condition assessment of their deteriorating wastewater collections systems, and will support the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Program Offices with addressing proposed capacity, management, operation and mainte...

  12. Virtual Tissues and Developmental Systems Biology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational modeling of embryonic systems to analyze how 'core development processes' are wired together. Has the potential to address environmental and human health factors with broad scientific and economic impacts.

  13. Requirements based system level risk modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Cornford, Steven; Feather, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The problem that we address in this paper is assessing the expected degree of success of the system or mission based on the degree to which each requirement is satisfied and the relative weight of the requirements.

  14. Big Data in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Baynes, Katie; McInerney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Approaches that are being pursued for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data system to address the challenges of Big Data were presented to the NASA Big Data Task Force. Cloud prototypes are underway to tackle the volume challenge of Big Data. However, advances in computer hardware or cloud won't help (much) with variety. Rather, interoperability standards, conventions, and community engagement are the key to addressing variety.

  15. Nonscanning confocal ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, P. C.; Arons, E.

    1995-03-01

    We demonstrate a nonscanning confocal ranging system based on spatially incoherent interferometry. Such a system has significant advantages over the conventional confocal imaging system and other interferometric systems. We develop the theory in terms of coherence cells and demonstrate the equivalence of our method to the conventional confocal methods. Experimental results are also provided.

  16. System Engineering Fundamentals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JAN 2001 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2001 to 00-00-2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE System...73 PART 3. SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND CONTROL Chapter 9. Work Breakdown Structure...divided into four parts: Introduction; Systems Engineering Process; Systems Analysis and Control ; and Planning, Organizing, and Managing. The first part

  17. Microsphere insulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

  18. Medical imaging systems

    DOEpatents

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  19. Vehicle tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Several systems have been developed to accomplish vehicle location. The systems consist of three types: Dead Reckoning, Satellite, and LORAN C. If the information is to be sent back to a central location, some type of radiocommunication system is needed. One can use the existing voice radio or add a radio system just for transmitting the data.

  20. Intelligent inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Jeniece; Dale, Ken; Holloway, Mike; Gaby, Willard

    1997-01-01

    The intelligent inspection system is an advanced controller and analysis system for dimensional measuring machines dedicated to measuring surface of revolution mechanical parts. IIS was developed by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Oak Ridge Y-12 plant because no commercial product was available to replace the obsolete computing systems on these important machines.

  1. Integrated library systems.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, C M

    1983-01-01

    The development of integrated library systems is discussed. The four major discussion points are (1) initial efforts; (2) network resources; (3) minicomputer-based systems; and (4) beyond library automation. Four existing systems are cited as examples of current systems. PMID:6354321

  2. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  3. Universal Index System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

  4. Broad Bandwidth Telecommunications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodolski, John

    Broad bandwidth transmission systems have been around for years. They include microwave, assorted cable systems, and recently, satellites. With the exception of some privately owned systems, broadband services have been furnished by the common carriers. Recently, a new element has been added--Cable Antenna Television (CATV) distribution systems.…

  5. Computer Center: CIBE Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crovello, Theodore J.

    1982-01-01

    Differentiates between computer systems and Computers in Biological Education (CIBE) systems (computer system intended for use in biological education). Describes several CIBE stand alone systems: single-user microcomputer; single-user microcomputer/video-disc; multiuser microcomputers; multiuser maxicomputer; and local and long distance computer…

  6. Cogeneration power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Cogeneration is defined as the combination of electrical generation and process heat for more efficient use of fuel. Comparisons of energy utilization in conventional electric power plants and cogeneration electric power plants are presented. Characteristics of various cogeneration systems are also presented. Systems are analyzed for use in utility systems and industrial systems. Economic and cost analysis are reviewed.

  7. Theory of reliable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to refine the current notion of system reliability by identifying and investigating attributes of a system which are important to reliability considerations. Techniques which facilitate analysis of system reliability are included. Special attention was given to fault tolerance, diagnosability, and reconfigurability characteristics of systems.

  8. Program (systems) engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

  9. Analyzing HVAC piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.W. )

    1993-10-01

    This article describes requirements and considerations for a software tool for analyzing both the hydraulic and heat transfer characteristics of a HVAC system to help in selecting systems components and predicting their performance. The topics of the article include analysis of installed system evolution, selection and analysis of pumps and valves, heat transfer in heating and cooling coils, and capacity to handle large systems.

  10. The Integral System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Integral System is a total care management system based on the Integral Theory which states ‘prolapse and symptoms of urinary stress, urge, abnormal bowel & bladder emptying, and some forms of pelvic pain, mainly arise, for different reasons, from laxity in the vagina or its supporting ligaments, a result of altered connective tissue’. Normal function The organs are suspended by ligaments against which muscles contract to open or close the their outlet tubes, urethra and anus. These ligaments fall naturally into a three-zone zone classification, anterior, middle, and posterior. Dysfunction Damaged ligaments weaken the force of muscle contraction, causing prolapse and abnormal bladder and bowel symptoms Diagnosis A pictorial diagnostic algorithm relates specific symptoms to damaged ligaments in each zone. Treatment In mild cases, new pelvic floor muscle exercises based on a squatting principle strengthen the natural closure muscles and their ligamentous insertions, thereby improving the symptoms predicted by the Theory. With more severe cases, polypropylene tapes applied through “keyhole” incision using special instruments reinforce the damaged ligaments, restoring structure and function. Problems that can be potentially addressed by application of the Integral System Urinary stress incontinenceUrinary urge incontinenceAbnormal bladder emptyingFacal incontinence and “obstructed evacuation” (“constipation”)Pelvic pain, and some types of vulvodynia and interstitial cystitisOrgan prolapse Conclusions Organ prolapse and symptoms are related, and both are mainly caused by laxity in the four main suspensory ligaments and perineal body. Restoration of ligament/fascial length and tension is required to restore anatomy and function. PMID:24578877

  11. Neural Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  12. Spain: Health system review.

    PubMed

    García-Armesto, Sandra; Begoña Abadía-Taira, María; Durán, Antonio; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Patient Safety. The SNS still has many challenges to face, some of which are commonplace across Western developed countries and some of which result from its own idiosyncratic features. The agenda laid out by the CISNS seems to address many of these challenges; its implementation will certainly test the political maturity of the system, and that of the coordination and cohesion tools developed. The eventual results of its implementation will deserve close attention, setting the evaluative agenda for the next few years.

  13. An Expert System Approach to Large Space Systems Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    ISPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION Of appil ,k) FOSR F49620-87- C --0105 8¢. ADDRESS (CRtY, Stat...oo...0 - An Expert System Approach To Large Space Systems Control Octobe 1988Accession For NTIS R& DTIC TAB C . GartrmII Unannounced E W...4.4.1 Case A: I Newton Harmonic Wave with a Frequency of 0.14 Hz 4-12 4.4.2 Case B: 1 Newton Impulse at x = 2.5 m 4-13 4.4.3 Case C : Traveling Wave with

  14. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

  15. Image display system 511

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M.

    1981-01-01

    The experience of the Idaho Department of Water Resources Remote Sensing Unit in bringing on line their System 511 is described. The system 511 is run on a PDP minicomputer. The minimum system hardware configuration is an 11/34 with a minimum core of 128 K word, 10 megabytes of direct access disk and a floating point processor. The required software configuration is an RSX 11M V 3.2 operating system with a FORTRAN IV plus compiler. The structure of System 511 is a series of hierarchical modular software units. Problems occurring during the systems installation are discussed, and the system operating and error detection capabilities and documentation evaluated.

  16. Lightning mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennon, C.; Maier, L.

    1991-01-01

    A Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System is being implemented at KSC in Florida. The first operational use is expected in the late summer of 1991. The system is designed to map the location of in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning based on the time of arrival (TOA) of electromagnetic radiation. The system detects very high frequency (VHF) radiation and designed to map the volumetric extent of lightning. The system implements two independent antenna arrays to provide a fast data quality check, as necessary for a real-time warning system. The system performance goals and a comparison with a similar system implemented in the mid-1970's is made.

  17. What is systems engineering?

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary process that ensures that the customers` needs are satisfied throughout a system`s entire life cycle. This process includes: understanding customer needs; stating the problem; specifying requirements; defining performance and cost measures, prescribing tests, validating requirements, conducting design reviews, exploring alternative concepts, sensitivity analyses, functional decomposition, system design, designing and managing interfaces, system integration, total system test, configuration management, risk management, reliability analysis; total quality management; project management; and documentation. Material for this paper was gathered from senior Systems Engineers at Sandia National Laboratories.

  18. Trading Freshness for Performance in Distributed Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Trading Freshness for Performance in Distributed Systems James Cipar CMU-CS-14-144 December 2014 School of Computer Science Computer Science...2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Trading Freshness for Performance in Distributed Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie

  19. The Shuttle inertial system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, W. L.; Kang, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle inertial system is built around a sensor assembly called the inertial measurement unit (IMU). The system includes a redundant set of three structurally integrated IMU's that operate in conjunction with parallel strung data system computers to provide precise attitude and velocity information to user system functions. The inertial system is actually a separate subsystem function integrated into the overall avionics system. Software resident in the system computers is the final link in the inertial system. The inertial software is comprised of two major sets, including a subsystem operating program (SOP) called the IMU SOP and redundancy management. Attention is given to system applications, systems performance, attitude sensitivities, the IMU platform, IMU thermal management, aspects of IMU calibration, and Shuttle program experience.

  20. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  1. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

  3. Efficient Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2009-01-01

    A learning management system (LMS) provides the platform for web-based learning environment by enabling the management, delivery, tracking of learning, testing, communication, registration process and scheduling. There are many LMS systems on the market that can be obtained for free or through payment. It has now become an important task to choose…

  4. EPICS system: system structure and user interface

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Lahey, T.E.; Kramper, B.J.; MacKinnon, B.A.

    1984-02-01

    This paper present the user's view of and the general organization of the EPICS control system at Fermilab. Various subsystems of the EPICS control system are discussed. These include the user command language, software protection, the device database, remote computer interfaces, and several application utilities. This paper is related to two other papers on EPICS: an overview paper and a detailed implementation paper.

  5. Formal System Verification for Trustworthy Embedded Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-19

    Koscher, Alexei Czeskis, Franziska Roesner, Shwetak Patel, Tadayoshi Kohno, Stephen Checkoway, Damon McCoy, Brian Kantor, Danny Anderson, Hovav...security analysis of a commercial real-time operating system kernel. In David S. Hardin , editor, Design and Verification of Microprocessor Systems for High

  6. Control Problems in Autonomous Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of constructing life support systems which require little or no input of matter (food and gases) for long, or even indefinite, periods of time is addressed. Natural control in ecosystems, a control theory for ecosystems, and an approach to the design of an ALSS are addressed.

  7. Biosleep: A Comprehensive Sleep Analysis System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    shown in Fig. 1. BIOSLEEP: A COMPREHENSIVE SLEEP ANALYSIS SYSTEM N.McGrogan1, E.Braithwaite1, L.Tarassenko2 1Oxford BioSignals Ltd, Magdalen...Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Oxford BioSignals Ltd

  8. Rf systems for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Brodowski, J.; Connolly, R.; Deng, D.P.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Pirkl, W.; Ratti, A.

    1995-05-01

    The RHIC rf systems must capture the injected beam, accelerate it through transition to top energy, shorten the bunches prior to rebucketing, and store the beam for 10 hours in the presence of strong intra-beam scattering. These different functions are met by three independent systems. An accelerating system at 26.7 Mhz (h = 342), a storage system at 196.1 MHz (h = 2508), and a wideband system for the damping of injection efforts.

  9. Robotics and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at ROBEXS' 86, the Second Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems. Many diverse perspectives on automation problems, and on the merging of robotics and expert systems technology with conventional systems, are contained in this book. The contents include: Integrated Expert Systems Applications; Expert Systems Theory and Applications, Robotics, Intelligent Control, CAD/CAE/CAM, AI Tools, Human Factors, and intelligent Interfaces.

  10. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.

  11. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  12. Automated Pilot Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

  13. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  14. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Technology developed during a joint research program with Langley and Kinetic Systems Corporation led to Kinetic Systems' production of a high speed Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) data acquisition system. The study, which involved the use of CAMAC equipment applied to flight simulation, significantly improved the company's technical capability and produced new applications. With Digital Equipment Corporation, Kinetic Systems is marketing the system to government and private companies for flight simulation, fusion research, turbine testing, steelmaking, etc.

  15. Solar photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy's photovoltaic program is outlined. The main objective of the program is the development of low cost reliable terrestrial photovoltaic systems. A second objective is to foster widespread use of the system in residential, industrial and commercial application. The system is reviewed by examining each component; silicon solar cell, silicon solar cell modules, advanced development modules and power systems. Cost and applications of the system are discussed.

  16. Kinetic Modeling of Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Linda; Pettigrew, Michel F.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of how the constituent components of a natural system interact defines the spatio-temporal response of the system to stimuli. Modeling the kinetics of the processes that represent a biophysical system has long been pursued with the aim of improving our understanding of the studied system. Due to the unique properties of biological systems, in addition to the usual difficulties faced in modeling the dynamics of physical or chemical systems, biological simulations encounter difficulties that result from intrinsic multiscale and stochastic nature of the biological processes. This chapter discusses the implications for simulation of models involving interacting species with very low copy numbers, which often occur in biological systems and give rise to significant relative fluctuations. The conditions necessitating the use of stochastic kinetic simulation methods and the mathematical foundations of the stochastic simulation algorithms are presented. How the well-organized structural hierarchies often seen in biological systems can lead to multiscale problems, and possible ways to address the encountered computational difficulties are discussed. We present the details of the existing kinetic simulation methods, and discuss their strengths and shortcomings. A list of the publicly available kinetic simulation tools and our reflections for future prospects are also provided. PMID:19381542

  17. Reliability Results of NERSC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Petascale Data Storage Institute; Mokhtarani, Akbar; Mokhtarani, Akbar; Kramer, William; Hick, Jason

    2008-05-27

    In order to address the needs of future scientific applications for storing and accessing large amounts of data in an efficient way, one needs to understand the limitations of current technologies and how they may cause systeminstability or unavailability. A number of factors can impact system availability ranging from facility-wide power outage to a single point of failure such as network switches or global file systems. In addition, individual component failure in a system can degrade the performance of that system. This paper focuses on analyzing both of these factors and their impacts on the computational and storage systems at NERSC. Component failure data presented in this report primarily focuses on disk drive in on of the computational system and tape drive failure in HPSS. NERSC collected available component failure data and system-wide outages for its computational and storage systems over a six-year period and made them available to the HPC community through the Petascale Data Storage Institute.

  18. Noise in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Faisal, A Aldo; Selen, Luc P J; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2008-04-01

    Noise--random disturbances of signals--poses a fundamental problem for information processing and affects all aspects of nervous-system function. However, the nature, amount and impact of noise in the nervous system have only recently been addressed in a quantitative manner. Experimental and computational methods have shown that multiple noise sources contribute to cellular and behavioural trial-to-trial variability. We review the sources of noise in the nervous system, from the molecular to the behavioural level, and show how noise contributes to trial-to-trial variability. We highlight how noise affects neuronal networks and the principles the nervous system applies to counter detrimental effects of noise, and briefly discuss noise's potential benefits.

  19. The nature of systems biology.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Frank J; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2007-01-01

    The advent of functional genomics has enabled the molecular biosciences to come a long way towards characterizing the molecular constituents of life. Yet, the challenge for biology overall is to understand how organisms function. By discovering how function arises in dynamic interactions, systems biology addresses the missing links between molecules and physiology. Top-down systems biology identifies molecular interaction networks on the basis of correlated molecular behavior observed in genome-wide "omics" studies. Bottom-up systems biology examines the mechanisms through which functional properties arise in the interactions of known components. Here, we outline the challenges faced by systems biology and discuss limitations of the top-down and bottom-up approaches, which, despite these limitations, have already led to the discovery of mechanisms and principles that underlie cell function.

  20. Surface Habitat Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2009-01-01

    The Surface Habitat Systems (SHS) Focused Investment Group (FIG) is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) effort to provide a focused direction and funding to the various projects that are working on human surface habitat designs and technologies for the planetary exploration missions. The overall SHS-FIG effort focuses on directing and guiding those projects that: 1) develop and demonstrate new surface habitat system concepts, innovations, and technologies to support human exploration missions, 2) improve environmental systems that interact with human habitats, 3) handle and emplace human surface habitats, and 4) focus on supporting humans living and working in habitats on planetary surfaces. The activity areas of the SHS FIG described herein are focused on the surface habitat project near-term objectives as described in this document. The SHS-FIG effort focuses on mitigating surface habitat risks (as identified by the Lunar Surface Systems Project Office (LSSPO) Surface Habitat Element Team; and concentrates on developing surface habitat technologies as identified in the FY08 gap analysis. The surface habitat gap assessment will be updated annually as the surface architecture and surface habitat definition continues to mature. These technologies are mapped to the SHS-FIG Strategic Development Roadmap. The Roadmap will bring to light the areas where additional innovative efforts are needed to support the development of habitat concepts and designs and the development of new technologies to support of the LSSPO Habitation Element development plan. Three specific areas of development that address Lunar Architecture Team (LAT)-2 and Constellation Architecture Team (CxAT) Lunar habitat design issues or risks will be focused on by the SHS-FIG. The SHS-FIG will establish four areas of development that will help the projects prepare in their planning for surface habitat systems development. Those development areas are