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Sample records for address translation nat

  1. NAT Usage in Residential Broadband Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Gregor; Schneider, Fabian; Feldmann, Anja

    Many Internet customers use network address translation (NAT) when connecting to the Internet. To understand the extend of NAT usage and its implications, we explore NAT usage in residential broadband networks based on observations from more than 20,000 DSL lines. We present a unique approach for detecting the presence of NAT and for estimating the number of hosts connected behind a NAT gateway using IP TTLs and HTTP user-agent strings. Furthermore, we study when each of the multiple hosts behind a single NAT gateway is active. This enables us to detect simultaneous use. In addition, we evaluate the accuracy of NAT analysis techniques when fewer information is available.

  2. P-CSCF's Algorithm for Solving NAT Traversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Jae-Oh

    Many ways for efficient use of limited IP address of IPv4 are existed. The one of these ways is to construct the private network using Network Address Translator (NAT). NAT filtering rule makes network management easier. However, NAT Filtering rule makes NAT Traversal. Many solutions like Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT (STUN), Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) and Media Relay method exist. But these solutions require additional servers or devices. So, we suggest that P-CSCFs in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) change the packet's header and solve the NAT Traversal without any additional equipment.

  3. Translating Developmental Science to Address Childhood Adversity.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S; Forkey, Heather; Szilagyi, Moira

    2015-01-01

    Demystifying child development is a defining element of pediatric care, and pediatricians have long appreciated the profound influences that families and communities have on both child development and life course trajectories. Dramatic advances in the basic sciences of development are beginning to reveal the biologic mechanisms underlying well-established associations between a spectrum of childhood adversities and less than optimal outcomes in health, education and economic productivity. Pediatricians are well positioned to translate this new knowledge into both practice and policy, but doing so will require unprecedented levels of collaboration with educators, social service providers, and policy makers. Pediatricians might recognize the negative impact of family-level adversities on child development, but developing an effective response will likely require the engagement of community partners. By developing collaborative, innovative ways to promote the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that are biologic prerequisites for health, academic success, and economic productivity, family-centered pediatric medical homes will remain relevant in an era that increasingly values wellness and population health. PMID:26183002

  4. A community-based approach to translational research addressing breast cancer disparities.

    PubMed

    Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; Mason, Mondi; Turner, Jerome; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Chow, Marie; Hine, R Jean; Henry-Tillman, Ronda; Greene, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Disparities in breast cancer survival rates suggest that biological processes contribute. Translational research addressing health disparities would benefit from using a community-based participatory approach (CBPR) to examine biological processes commonly seen as the proximal causes of illness as well as behavioral and social-ecological "causes of the causes" within an integrated conceptual framework. This paper describes a CBPR study that explored perceptions regarding breast cancer relevant behaviors, and the application of the study's results to develop translational research. Data from eight focus groups of African American (n = 29) and Caucasian women (n = 27) were analyzed, using the framework of the social-ecological model. Nutrition and physical activity were valued over screening and research participation. Treatment of illness was emphasized over prevention. Women's perspectives are presented within a framework that facilitated the collaborative development of translational research to examine associations among biological, behavioral, and societal processes contributing to disparities. PMID:24073047

  5. SHAPING A NEW GENERATION OF HISPANIC CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCHERS ADDRESSING MINORITY HEALTH AND HEALTH DISPARITIES

    PubMed Central

    Estape, Estela S.; Segarra, Barbara; Baez, Adriana; Huertas, Aracelis; Diaz, Clemente; Frontera, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, research educators face significant challenges. Training programs in Clinical and Translational Research need to develop or enhance their curriculum to comply with new scientific trends and government policies. Curricula must impart the skills and competencies needed to help facilitate the dissemination and transfer of scientific advances at a faster pace than current health policy and practice. Clinical and translational researchers are facing also the need of new paradigms for effective collaboration, and resource sharing while using the best educational models. Both government and public policy makers emphasize addressing the goals of improving health quality and elimination of health disparities. To help achieve this goal, our academic institution is taking an active role and striving to develop an environment that fosters the career development of clinical and translational researchers. Consonant with this vision, in 2002 the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus School of Health Professions and School of Medicine initiated a multidisciplinary post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical Research focused in training Hispanics who will address minority health and health disparities research. Recently, we proposed a curriculum revision to enhance this commitment in promoting competency-based curricula for clinician-scientists in clinical and translational sciences. The revised program will be a post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical and Translational Research (MCTR), expanding its outreach by actively engaging in establishing new collaborations and partnerships that will increase our capability to diversify our educational efforts and make significant contributions to help reduce and eliminate the gap in health disparities. PMID:22263296

  6. ISCCP TOVS NAT

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-12

    ISCCP TOVS NAT Atmospheric Profiles, NATIVE file format Project Title:  ... Parameters:  Cloud Amount Cloud Top Pressure Ozone Precipitable Water Profiles Surface Pressure Surface Temperature Temperature Profiles Tropopause Pressure ...

  7. A Strategic Framework for Utilizing Late-Stage (T4) Translation Research to Address Health Inequities.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Class, Maria; Peprah, Emmanuel; Zhang, Xinzhi; Kaufmann, Peter G; Engelgau, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Achieving health equity requires that every person has the opportunity to attain their full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of social position or other socially determined circumstances. Inequity experienced by populations of lower socioeconomic status is reflected in differences in health status and mortality rates, as well as in the distribution of disease, disability and illness across these population groups. This article gives an overview of the health inequities literature associated with heart, lung, blood and sleep (HLBS) disorders. We present an ecological framework that provides a theoretical foundation to study late-stage T4 translation research that studies implementation strategies for proven effective interventions to address health inequities. PMID:27440979

  8. Addressing core challenges for the next generation of type 2 translation research and systems: the translation science to population impact (TSci Impact) framework.

    PubMed

    Spoth, Richard; Rohrbach, Louise A; Greenberg, Mark; Leaf, Philip; Brown, C Hendricks; Fagan, Abigail; Catalano, Richard F; Pentz, Mary Ann; Sloboda, Zili; Hawkins, J David

    2013-08-01

    Evidence-based preventive interventions developed over the past two decades represent great potential for enhancing public health and well-being. Research confirming the limited extent to which these interventions have been broadly and effectively implemented, however, indicates much progress is needed to achieve population-level impact. In part, progress requires Type 2 translation research that investigates the complex processes and systems through which evidence-based interventions are adopted, implemented, and sustained on a large scale, with a strong orientation toward devising empirically-driven strategies for increasing their population impact. In this article, we address two core challenges to the advancement of T2 translation research: (1) building infrastructure and capacity to support systems-oriented scaling up of evidence-based interventions, with well-integrated practice-oriented T2 research, and (2) developing an agenda and improving research methods for advancing T2 translation science. We also summarize a heuristic "Translation Science to Population Impact (TSci Impact) Framework." It articulates key considerations in addressing the core challenges, with three components that represent: (1) four phases of translation functions to be investigated (pre-adoption, adoption, implementation, and sustainability); (2) the multiple contexts in which translation occurs, ranging from community to national levels; and (3) necessary practice and research infrastructure supports. Discussion of the framework addresses the critical roles of practitioner-scientist partnerships and networks, governmental agencies and policies at all levels, plus financing partnerships and structures, all required for both infrastructure development and advances in the science. The article concludes with two sets of recommended action steps that could provide impetus for advancing the next generation of T2 translation science and, in turn, potentially enhance the health and well

  9. Genetic polymorphism in N-Acetyltransferase (NAT): Population distribution of NAT1 and NAT2 activity.

    PubMed

    Walker, Katy; Ginsberg, Gary; Hattis, Dale; Johns, Douglas O; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2009-01-01

    N-Acetyltransferases (NAT) are key enzymes in the conjugation of certain drugs and other xenobiotics with an arylamine structure. Polymorphisms in NAT2 have long been recognized to modulate toxicity produced by the anti-tubercular drug isoniazid, with molecular epidemiologic studies suggesting a link between acetylator phenotype and increased risk for bladder cancer. Recent evidence indicates that the other major NAT isozyme, NAT1, is also polymorphic. The current analysis characterizes the main polymorphisms in both NAT2 and NAT1 in terms of their effect on enzyme activity and frequency in the population. Multiple NAT2 alleles (NAT2*5, *6, *7, and *14) have substantially decreased acetylation activity and are common in Caucasians and populations of African descent. In these groups, most individuals carry at least one copy of a slow acetylator allele, and less than 10% are homozygous for the wild type (fast acetylator) trait. Incorporation of these data into a Monte Carlo modeling framework led to a population distribution of NAT2 activity that was bimodal and associated with considerable variability in each population assessed. The ratio of the median to the first percentile of NAT2 activity ranged from 7 in Caucasians to 18 in the Chinese population. This variability indicates the need for more quantitative approaches (e.g., physiologically based pharmacokinetic [PBPK] modeling) to assess the full distribution of internal dose and adverse responses to aromatic amines and other NAT2 substrates. Polymorphisms in NAT1 are generally associated with relatively minor effects on acetylation function, with Monte Carlo analysis indicating less interindividual variability than seen in NAT2 analysis. PMID:20183529

  10. Translating Research Into E/PO That Addresses Real Needs in K-12 Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Wil E.; Belbruno, E. A.; Roelofsen Moody, T.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges in NASA ROSES E/PO is translating cutting edge research into products for which there is a demonstrated need. Rather than working from the premise that the "research is so cool’ that K-12 students or the public should learn about it, it is key to consult with the target audience to identify what their needs really are. The partnership between NJACE, Innovative Orbital Design, Inc., and Princeton offered a unique opportunity to translate intriguing but theoretical and mathematical research related to low energy orbits into a valuable education product. NJACE worked with educators to identify several needs with an intellectual link to this research: 1) Understanding of Gravity and Newton's Laws, 2) Understanding of Energy and Energy Transformations, 3) Integration of the sciences with math and technology, and 4) Knowledge of NASA's past accomplishments (such as the moon landings). Based on these identified needs, two science units were developed for students in grades 5-12 that integrate astronomy, physics, and the life sciences with math and technology. In addition an engaging public lecture was developed that tells a personal story of the quest for more economic space travel. In the past year, the workshops have been presented on three occasions, reaching over 75 teachers and demand exceeded available space with numerous teachers on waiting lists. The lecture has been presented numerous times at planetariums, museums, amateur astronomy and other clubs. We hope that our partnership will serve as a useful example of how to translate cutting edge research into valuable education products with an identified need. We will provide handouts with links to a website where the products and training can be downloaded in hope that others will help disseminate our product.

  11. Translating Life Course Theory to clinical practice to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tina L; Solomon, Barry S

    2014-02-01

    Life Course Theory (LCT) is a framework that explains health and disease across populations and over time and in a powerful way, conceptualizes health and health disparities to guide improvements. It suggests a need to change priorities and paradigms in our healthcare delivery system. In "Rethinking Maternal and Child Health: The Life Course Model as an Organizing Framework," Fine and Kotelchuck identify three areas of rethinking that have relevance to clinical care: (1) recognition of context and the "whole-person, whole-family, whole-community systems approach;" (2) longitudinal approach with "greater emphasis on early ("upstream") determinants of health"; and (3) need for integration and "developing integrated, multi-sector service systems that become lifelong "pipelines" for healthy development". This paper discusses promising clinical practice innovations in these three areas: addressing social influences on health in clinical practice, longitudinal and vertical integration of clinical services and horizontal integration with community services and resources. In addition, barriers and facilitators to implementation are reviewed. PMID:23677685

  12. Translating Life Course Theory to Clinical Practice to Address Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Barry S.

    2013-01-01

    Life Course Theory (LCT) is a framework that explains health and disease across populations and over time and in a powerful way, conceptualizes health and health disparities to guide improvements. It suggests a need to change priorities and paradigms in our healthcare delivery system. In “Rethinking Maternal and Child Health: The Life Course Model as an Organizing Framework,” Fine and Kotelchuck identify three areas of rethinking that have relevance to clinical care: (1) recognition of context and the “whole-person, whole-family, whole-community systems approach;” (2) longitudinal approach with “greater emphasis on early (“upstream”) determinants of health”; and (3) need for integration and “developing integrated, multi-sector service systems that become lifelong “pipelines” for healthy development”. This paper discusses promising clinical practice innovations in these three areas: addressing social influences on health in clinical practice, longitudinal and vertical integration of clinical services and horizontal integration with community services and resources. In addition, barriers and facilitators to implementation are reviewed. PMID:23677685

  13. The NatA Acetyltransferase Couples Sup35 Prion Complexes to the [PSI+] Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Pezza, John A.; Langseth, Sara X.; Raupp Yamamoto, Rochele; Doris, Stephen M.; Ulin, Samuel P.; Salomon, Arthur R.

    2009-01-01

    Protein-only (prion) epigenetic elements confer unique phenotypes by adopting alternate conformations that specify new traits. Given the conformational flexibility of prion proteins, protein-only inheritance requires efficient self-replication of the underlying conformation. To explore the cellular regulation of conformational self-replication and its phenotypic effects, we analyzed genetic interactions between [PSI+], a prion form of the S. cerevisiae Sup35 protein (Sup35[PSI+]), and the three Nα-acetyltransferases, NatA, NatB, and NatC, which collectively modify ∼50% of yeast proteins. Although prion propagation proceeds normally in the absence of NatB or NatC, the [PSI+] phenotype is reversed in strains lacking NatA. Despite this change in phenotype, [PSI+] NatA mutants continue to propagate heritable Sup35[PSI+]. This uncoupling of protein state and phenotype does not arise through a decrease in the number or activity of prion templates (propagons) or through an increase in soluble Sup35. Rather, NatA null strains are specifically impaired in establishing the translation termination defect that normally accompanies Sup35 incorporation into prion complexes. The NatA effect cannot be explained by the modification of known components of the [PSI+] prion cycle including Sup35; thus, novel acetylated cellular factors must act to establish and maintain the tight link between Sup35[PSI+] complexes and their phenotypic effects. PMID:19073888

  14. NAT: perspectives for cellular components.

    PubMed

    Barbara, J A

    1999-12-01

    The introduction of routine testing to detect viral genomes in donated blood was originally driven by requirements for plasma fractionation in relation to exclusion of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. Nevertheless, it was obvious from the outset that a dual standard for fractionated products and individual blood components would be untenable. In many countries therefore, planning for introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) of blood incorporated progression to release of HCV RNA tested components. HCV was singled out because of its long seronegative 'window period', relatively high prevalence and incidence in blood donors, rapid burst time and high genome copy number during seroconversion. The latter properties made HCV particularly suitable for detection in pools of samples. If HCV RNA testing is required for release of labile components such as platelets, rapid provision of NAT results is vital because of short shelf life of platelets and the problems of delays when resolving the infectious unit in a reactive pool. For NAT release of labile components smaller sample pool sizes allow faster resolution of RNA positive units. Smaller pools involve high test throughput, the likely need for more testing laboratories and ensuing increased costs. Single sample testing is the ultimate extrapolation of reducing sample pool size. With reduced pool sizes or single sample testing, the option of testing for other viruses (e.g. HIV or HBV) singly or in multiplex also arises. The cost-benefit and incremental yield of such strategies in the light of 'combo' assays for HIV Ag/Ab and the recently described HCV Ag assay will require careful and objective assessment, together with re-appraisal of anti-HBc screening for detection of HBV infected donors at the "tail-end" of carriage. PMID:10686060

  15. BUILDING A PLATFORM FOR TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN CHRONIC NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES TO ADDRESS POPULATION HEALTH IN PERU

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Cardenas, María K.; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Pesantes, M. Amalia; Araya, Ricardo; Boggio, Oscar; Checkley, William; García, Patricia J.; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Lescano, Andrés G.; Montori, Victor; Pan, William; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Sacksteder, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the United States National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognised Centre of Excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The Centre’s identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organisation: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them, and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment is key to fostering innovation in research. PMID:25754562

  16. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    PubMed Central

    Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. We explored the meaning and outcomes of a 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners participating in a Community of Practice. METHOD. A one-group (N = 117) mixed-methods design using a pretest–posttest survey and qualitative analysis of written reflections was used to explore the meaning and outcomes of the building capacity process. RESULTS. Statistically significant improvements (p < .02) in pretest–posttest scores of knowledge, beliefs, and actions related to a public health approach to mental health were found. Qualitative findings suggest that participation resulted in a renewed commitment to addressing children’s mental health. CONCLUSION. The building capacity process expanded practitioner knowledge, renewed energy, and promoted confidence, resulting in change leaders empowered to articulate, advocate for, and implement practice changes reflecting occupational therapy’s role in addressing children’s mental health. PMID:26565099

  17. NAT THE RAT - PUPIL'S BOOK. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROJAS, PAULINE M.; AND OTHERS

    THE EXPERIMENTAL EDITION OF "NAT THE RAT" REPRESENTS LEVEL TWO OF THE "MIAMI LINGISTIC READERS" DESIGNED TO BE USED IN TEACHING BEGINNING READING TO PUPILS WHOSE PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE WAS OTHER THAN ENGLISH. THE FIVE MAJOR CHARACTERS IN THE STORY ARE INTRODUCED ON THE FIRST FIVE PAGES OF THE PUPILS' BOOK. ILLUSTRATIONS (BLACK AND WHITE) TO REINFORCE…

  18. Worldwide distribution of NAT2 diversity: Implications for NAT2 evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Audrey; Langaney, André; Darlu, Pierre; Gérard, Nathalie; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Poloni, Estella S

    2008-01-01

    Background The N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene plays a crucial role in the metabolism of many drugs and xenobiotics. As it represents a likely target of population-specific selection pressures, we fully sequenced the NAT2 coding region in 97 Mandenka individuals from Senegal, and compared these sequences to extant data on other African populations. The Mandenka data were further included in a worldwide dataset composed of 41 published population samples (6,727 individuals) from four continental regions that were adequately genotyped for all common NAT2 variants so as to provide further insights into the worldwide haplotype diversity and population structure at NAT2. Results The sequencing analysis of the NAT2 gene in the Mandenka sample revealed twelve polymorphic sites in the coding exon (two of which are newly identified mutations, C345T and C638T), defining 16 haplotypes. High diversity and no molecular signal of departure from neutrality were observed in this West African sample. On the basis of the worldwide genotyping survey dataset, we found a strong genetic structure differentiating East Asians from both Europeans and sub-Saharan Africans. This pattern could result from region- or population-specific selective pressures acting at this locus, as further suggested in the HapMap data by extremely high values of FST for a few SNPs positions in the NAT2 coding exon (T341C, C481T and A803G) in comparison to the empirical distribution of FST values accross the whole 400-kb region of the NAT gene family. Conclusion Patterns of sequence variation at NAT2 are consistent with selective neutrality in all sub-Saharan African populations investigated, whereas the high level of population differentiation between Europeans and East Asians inferred from SNPs could suggest population-specific selective pressures acting at this locus, probably caused by differences in diet or exposure to other environmental signals. PMID:18304320

  19. Recoil studies of photonuclear reactions on natCu, natAg, natTa, and 197Au at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, I.; Haba, H.; Matsumura, H.; Sakamoto, K.; Miyamoto, Y.; Oura, Y.; Shibata, S.; Furukawa, M.

    1999-01-01

    The recoil properties of nuclides produced in the photonuclear reactions on natCu, natAg, natTa, and 197Au induced by bremsstrahlung of end-point energies (E o) of 250 to 1000 MeV have been investigated using the thick-target thick-catcher method. The obtained mean ranges of produced nuclides smoothly increase with an increase of the mass difference (ΔA) between products and target, and show E 0-independence at E 0≥600 MeV, reflecting the limiting behavior above (3, 3) resonance region. The mean kinetic energies, T, deduced from the mean ranges show the following two components; (1) (γ, xn) products by giant-resonance and/or quasi-deuteron resonance absorption, (2) (γ, xnyp) products by mainly (3, 3) resonance absorption. Slightly rapid increase of T was found around ΔA=15, 18, 24, and 25 for natCu, natAg, natTa and 197Au, respectively, reflecting a change in mechanism. Kinematic properties of the product nuclei were calculated by using the PICA (Photon-Induced Intranuclear Cascade Analysis) code. The T calculated by the PICA code at E 0=400 MeV well reproduced the experimental results of natCu, but the same calculation for natAg, natTa, and 197Au gave lower mean kinetic energies than the experimental results.

  20. Recoil studies of photonuclear reactions on natCu, natAg, natTa, and 197Au at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, I.; Haba, H.; Matsumura, H.; Sakamoto, K.; Miyamoto, Y.; Oura, Y.; Shibata, S.; Furukawa, M.

    1999-01-01

    The recoil properties of nuclides produced in the photonuclear reactions on natCu, natAg, natTa, and 197Au induced by bremsstrahlung of end-point energies ( E o) of 250 to 1000 MeV have been investigated using the thick-target thick-catcher method. The obtained mean ranges of produced nuclides smoothly increase with an increase of the mass difference (ΔA) between products and target, and show E 0-independence at E 0≥600 MeV, reflecting the limiting behavior above (3, 3) resonance region. The mean kinetic energies, T, deduced from the mean ranges show the following two components; (1) (γ, xn) products by giant-resonance and/or quasi-deuteron resonance absorption, (2) (γ, xnyp) products by mainly (3, 3) resonance absorption. Slightly rapid increase of T was found around ΔA=15, 18, 24, and 25 for natCu, natAg, natTa and 197Au, respectively, reflecting a change in mechanism. Kinematic properties of the product nuclei were calculated by using the PICA (Photon-Induced Intranuclear Cascade Analysis) code. The T calculated by the PICA code at E 0=400 MeV well reproduced the experimental results of natCu, but the same calculation for natAg, natTa, and 197Au gave lower mean kinetic energies than the experimental results.

  1. Metastable NAT in Ice-Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Fabian; Kubel, Frank; Gálvez, Óscar; Hoelzel, Markus; Parker, Stewart F.; Iannarelli, Riccardo; Rossi, Michel J.; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Cirrus Clouds contain, besides pure water ice, a rather large fraction of various hydrates. These are very important for the formation of the cloud, which is a yet not well understood process. We recently solved the structure of a metastable NAT phase (alpha-NAT), we believe to not only be present, but playing a major role in the formation of clouds. On the basis of previous work on this phase by Grothe et al. [1], we enhanced the production of alpha-NAT to the point, where we could produce enough sample to do neutron diffraction. This enabled us to solve the structure. Our quantum mechanical calculations, using this newly found structure, show a large affinity towards water-ice. With this in mind, we interlaced our results with the experiments of R. Iannarelli [2] to derive a new 3-step NAT-formation mechanism in ice-clouds, which could explain some of the observed kinetics better than the mechanism postulated in Zondlo et al. [3]. 1. Grothe, H., Tizek, H., Waller, D. & Stokes, D. The crystallization kinetics and morphology of nitric acid trihydrate. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 8, 2232-2239 (2006) 2. Iannarelli, R. Multidiagnostic Observations on HCl and HNO3 Hydrate Films in the Temperature Range 170-205K: A Kinetic Study. PhD Thesis 21791, ETH Zürich, (2013). 3. Zondlo, M.A., Hudson, P.K., Prenni A.J. & Tolbert, M.A. Chemistry and microphysics of polar stratospheric clouds and Cirrus clouds. Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem., 51, 473-499 (2000).

  2. Extreme Nat Supersaturations In Mountain Wave Pscs - A Clue To

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, B. P.; Voigt, C.; Fuglistaler, S.; Peter, T.

    There is evidence for the existence of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and for its role in sedimentary denitrification enhancing chlorine- catalyzed ozone reduction. However, the scientific understanding of NAT formation mechanisms is vague. We show that strong cooling rates in mountain waves, though causing only moderate NAT saturation ratio over supercooled ternary solution (STS) droplets (SNAT < 30) lead to NAT saturation ratios exceeding 500 within the gas phase. Laboratory measurements suggest that such extreme supersaturations promote NAT deposition nucleation on ice or other solid surfaces, as long as they are not coated by STS. Based on airborne lidar PSC observations in three Arctic winters and a com- bined microphysical/optical model, we derive a simple parameterization for a NAT deposition nucleation rate which depends only on NAT supersaturation and tempera- ture. The results indicate that deposition nucleation of NAT on ice driven by extreme NAT supersaturations is able to explain the formation of NAT particle number densi- ties in the observed wide range between 10-4 to 10 cm-3.

  3. Effect of arylamine acetyltransferase Nat3 gene knockout on N-acetylation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Sugamori, K S; Brenneman, D; Wong, S; Gaedigk, A; Yu, V; Abramovici, H; Rozmahel, R; Grant, D M

    2007-07-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT) catalyze the biotransformation of many important arylamine drugs and procarcinogens. NAT can either detoxify or activate procarcinogens, complicating the manner in which these enzymes may participate in enhancing or preventing toxic responses to particular agents. Mice possess three NAT isoenzymes: Nat1, Nat2, and Nat3. Whereas Nat1 and Nat2 can efficiently acetylate many arylamines, few substrates appear to be appreciably metabolized by Nat3. We generated a Nat3 knockout mouse strain and used it along with our double Nat1/2(-/-) knockout strain to further investigate the functional role of Nat3. Nat3(-/-) mice showed normal viability and reproductive capacity. Nat3 expression was very low in wild-type animals and completely undetectable in Nat3(-/-) mice. In contrast, greatly elevated expression of Nat3 transcript was observed in Nat1/2(-/-) mice. We used a transcribed marker polymorphism approach to establish that the increased expression of Nat3 in Nat1/2(-/-) mice is a positional artifact of insertion of the phosphoglycerate kinase-neomycin resistance cassette in place of the Nat1/Nat2 gene region and upstream of the intact Nat3 gene, rather than a biological compensatory mechanism. Despite the increase in Nat3 transcript, the N-acetylation of p-aminosalicylate, sulfamethazine, 2-aminofluorene, and 4-aminobiphenyl was undetectable either in vivo or in vitro in Nat1/2(-/-) animals. In parallel, no difference was observed in the in vivo clearance or in vitro metabolism of any of these substrates between wild-type and Nat3(-/-) mice. Thus, Nat3 is unlikely to play a significant role in the N-acetylation of arylamines either in wild-type mice or in mice lacking Nat1 and Nat2 activities. PMID:17403913

  4. Association Between NAT2 Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Cui, Wei; Cong, Lin; Wang, Li; Ruan, Xinjian; Jia, Jia; Liu, Yanfang; Jia, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xia

    2015-12-01

    To further investigate the association between NAT2 polymorphisms and lung cancer susceptibility.In terms of phenotypes, we investigated the acetylator status of NAT2 polymorphisms associated with lung cancer risk. Additionally, in view of genotypes, we mainly analyzed 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NAT2 gene, namely C282T, A803G, C481T, G590A, and G857A. Twenty-six eligible studies were included in our meta-analysis by searching PubMed, Embase, and CNKI databases. We used odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the susceptibility to lung cancer associated with NAT2 polymorphisms.Overall, based on phenotypes, the pooled ORs showed no significant association between NAT2 polymorphisms and lung cancer susceptibility. In the subgroup analyses by ethnicity and source of control, there was still no significant association. In terms of genotypes, overall, no obvious relationship was observed between NAT2 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. But increased risk of lung cancer was found in association with NAT2 C282T polymorphism (TT vs. CC + TC: OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.11-2.25).Our meta-analysis demonstrates that TT genotype in NAT2 C282T polymorphism may be a risk factor for lung cancer susceptibility. Additionally, the acetylator status of 5 SNPs in NAT2 gene may not be associated with lung cancer risk. PMID:26656326

  5. Determination of NAT2 acetylation status in the Greenlandic population.

    PubMed

    Geller, Frank; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders; Michelsen, Sascha Wilk; Bjorn-Mortensen, Karen; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Birch, Emilie; Nordholm, Anne Christine; Johansen, Marie Mila Broby; Børresen, Malene Landbo; Feenstra, Bjarke; Melbye, Mads

    2016-04-01

    N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is a well-studied phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme relevant in drug metabolism and cancerogenesis. NAT2 activity is largely determined by genetic polymorphisms in the coding region of the corresponding gene. We investigated NAT2 acetylation status in 1556 individuals from Greenland based on four different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels and the tagging SNP rs1495741. There was good concordance between the NAT2 status inferred by the different SNP combinations. Overall, the fraction of slow acetylators was low with 17.5 % and varied depending on the degree of Inuit ancestry; in individuals with <50 % Inuit ancestry, we observed more than 25 % slow acetylators reflecting European ancestry. Greenland has a high incidence of tuberculosis, and individual dosing of isoniazid according to NAT2 status has been shown to improve treatment and reduce side effects. Our findings could be a first step in pharmacogenetics-based tuberculosis therapy in Greenland. PMID:25794903

  6. National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Nelson; Timothy Carr

    2009-03-31

    ending, NatCarb will continue as an internal US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) project with the continued cooperation of personnel at both West Virginia University and the Kansas Geological Survey. The successor project will continue to organize and enhance the information about CO{sub 2} sources and developing the technology needed to access, query, analyze, display, and distribute natural resource data critical to carbon management. Data are generated, maintained and enhanced locally at the RCSP level, or at the national level in specialized data warehouses, and assembled, accessed, and analyzed in real-time through a single geoportal. To address the broader needs of a spectrum of users form high-end technical queries to the general public, NatCarb will be moving to an improved and simplified display for the general public using readily available web tools such as Google Earth{trademark} and Google Maps{trademark}. The goal is for NatCarb to expand in terms of technology and areal coverage and remain the premier functional demonstration of distributed data-management systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas, and forms the foundation of a functioning carbon cyber-infrastructure. NatCarb provides access to first-order information to evaluate the costs, economic potential and societal issues of CO{sub 2} capture and storage, including public perception and regulatory aspects.

  7. Genetic variation in N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Schenk, Maryjean; Hein, David W.; Davis, Scott; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Cozen, Wendy; Cerhan, James R.; Hartge, Patricia; Welch, Robert; Chanock, Stephen J.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Wang, Sophia S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Animal studies suggest that lymphomagenesis can be induced by exposure to carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines found in diet, cigarette smoke, and the environment, but human epidemiologic investigations of these exogenous exposures have yielded conflicting results. As part of our evaluation of the role of aromatic and heterocyclic amines, which are metabolized by N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes, in the etiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we examined NHL risk in relation to genetic variation in NAT1 and NAT2 and exposure to cigarette smoke and dietary heterocyclic amines and mutagens. Methods We genotyped ten common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NAT1 and NAT2 among 1136 cases and 922 controls from a population-based case–control study in four geographic areas of the US. Relative risk of NHL for NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes, NAT2 acetylation phenotype, and exposure to cigarette smoke and dietary heterocyclic amines and mutagens was estimated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived from unconditional logistic regression models. Results We observed increased risk of NHL among individuals with the NAT1*10/*10 genotype compared with individuals with other NAT1 genotypes (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.04–2.46, p=0.03). We also observed increased NHL risk in a dose-dependent model among NAT2 intermediate- and rapid-acetylators in comparison with slow-acetylators, although only the trend was statistically significant (intermediate: OR=1.18, 95% CI 0.97–1.44, p=0.1; rapid: OR=1.43, 95% CI 0.97–2.14, p=0.07; p for linear trend=0.03). Compared with nonsmokers, NHL risk estimates for current cigarette smoking were increased only among NAT2 intermediate/rapid-acetylators (OR=2.44, 95% CI 1.15–5.20, p=0.02). Conclusions Our data provide evidence that NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes are associated with NHL risk and support a contributory role for carcinogenic aromatic and/or heterocyclic amines in the multi-factorial etiology of

  8. The NatCarb geoportal: Linking distributed data from the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Rich, P.M.; Bartley, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships are generating the data for a "carbon atlas" of key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential sinks, etc.) required for rapid implementation of carbon sequestration on a broad scale. The NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb) provides Web-based, nation-wide data access. Distributed computing solutions link partnerships and other publicly accessible repositories of geological, geophysical, natural resource, infrastructure, and environmental data. Data are maintained and enhanced locally, but assembled and accessed through a single geoportal. NatCarb, as a first attempt at a national carbon cyberinfrastructure (NCCI), assembles the data required to address technical and policy challenges of carbon capture and storage. We present a path forward to design and implement a comprehensive and successful NCCI. ?? 2007 The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A national look at carbon capture and storage-National carbon sequestration database and geographical information system (NatCarb)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Iqbal, A.; Callaghan, N.; Dana-Adkins-Heljeson; Look, K.; Saving, S.; Nelson, K.

    2009-01-01

    CO2 capture and storage, including public perception and regulatory aspects. NatCarb online access has been modified to address the broad needs of a spectrum of users. NatCarb includes not only GIS and database query tools for high-end user, but simplified display for the general public using readily available web tools such as Google Earth???and Google Maps???. Not only is NatCarb connected to all the RCSPs, but data are also pulled from public servers including the U.S. Geological Survey-EROS Data Center and from the Geography Network. Data for major CO2 sources have been obtained from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) databases, and data on major coal basins and coalbed methane wells were obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel implementation research designs for scaling up global mental health care: overcoming translational challenges to address the world's leading cause of disability.

    PubMed

    Meffert, Susan M; Neylan, Thomas C; Chambers, David A; Verdeli, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Despite established knowledge that Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) bear the majority of the world's burden of mental disorders, and more than a decade of efficacy research showing that the most common disorders, such as depression and anxiety, can be treated using readily available local personnel in LMICs to apply evidence-based treatments, there remains a massive mental health treatment gap, such that 75 % of those in LMICs never receive care. Here, we discuss the use of a new type of implementation science study design, the effectiveness-implementation hybrids, to speed the translation and scale up of mental health care in LMICs. We use our current study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) delivered by local personnel for depression and trauma-related disorders among HIV+ women in Kenya as an example of effectiveness-implementation hybrid design for mental health services research in LMICs. PMID:26958075

  11. Building a platform for translational research in chronic noncommunicable diseases to address population health: lessons from NHLBI supported CRONICAS in Peru.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Cardenas, María K; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Pesantes, M Amalia; Araya, Ricardo; Boggio, Oscar; Checkley, William; García, Patricia J; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Lescano, Andrés G; Montori, Victor; Pan, William; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Sacksteder, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; García, Héctor H; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-03-01

    The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognized center of excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The center's identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity-building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organization: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment are key to fostering innovation in research. PMID:25754562

  12. Study protocol: Addressing evidence and context to facilitate transfer and uptake of consultation recording use in oncology: A knowledge translation implementation study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The time period from diagnosis to the end of treatment is challenging for newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients have a substantial need for information, decision aids, and psychosocial support. Recordings of initial oncology consultations improve information recall, reduce anxiety, enhance patient satisfaction with communication, and increase patients' perceptions that the essential aspects of their disease and treatment have been addressed during the consultation. Despite the research evidence supporting the provision of consultation recordings, uptake of this intervention into oncology practice has been slow. The primary aim of this project is to conduct an implementation study to explicate the contextual factors, including use of evidence, that facilitate and impede the transfer and uptake of consultation-recording use in a sample of patients newly diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer. Methods Sixteen oncologists from cancer centres in three Canadian cities will participate in this three-phase study. The preimplementation phase will be used to identify and address those factors that are fundamental to facilitating the smooth adoption and delivery of the intervention during the implementation phase. During the implementation phase, breast and prostate cancer patients will receive a recording of their initial oncology consultation to take home. Patient interviews will be conducted in the days following the consultation to gather feedback on the benefits of the intervention. Patients will complete the Digital Recording Use Semi-Structured Interview (DRUSSI) and be invited to participate in focus groups in which their experiences with the consultation recording will be explored. Oncologists will receive a summary letter detailing the benefits voiced by their patients. The postimplementation phase includes a conceptual framework development meeting and a seven-point dissemination strategy. Discussion Consultation recording has been used in oncology

  13. NatF Contributes to an Evolutionary Shift in Protein N-Terminal Acetylation and Is Important for Normal Chromosome Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Helsens, Kenny; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Martinho, Rui G.; Gevaert, Kris; Arnesen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (N-Ac) is a highly abundant eukaryotic protein modification. Proteomics revealed a significant increase in the occurrence of N-Ac from lower to higher eukaryotes, but evidence explaining the underlying molecular mechanism(s) is currently lacking. We first analysed protein N-termini and their acetylation degrees, suggesting that evolution of substrates is not a major cause for the evolutionary shift in N-Ac. Further, we investigated the presence of putative N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) in higher eukaryotes. The purified recombinant human and Drosophila homologues of a novel NAT candidate was subjected to in vitro peptide library acetylation assays. This provided evidence for its NAT activity targeting Met-Lys- and other Met-starting protein N-termini, and the enzyme was termed Naa60p and its activity NatF. Its in vivo activity was investigated by ectopically expressing human Naa60p in yeast followed by N-terminal COFRADIC analyses. hNaa60p acetylated distinct Met-starting yeast protein N-termini and increased general acetylation levels, thereby altering yeast in vivo acetylation patterns towards those of higher eukaryotes. Further, its activity in human cells was verified by overexpression and knockdown of hNAA60 followed by N-terminal COFRADIC. NatF's cellular impact was demonstrated in Drosophila cells where NAA60 knockdown induced chromosomal segregation defects. In summary, our study revealed a novel major protein modifier contributing to the evolution of N-Ac, redundancy among NATs, and an essential regulator of normal chromosome segregation. With the characterization of NatF, the co-translational N-Ac machinery appears complete since all the major substrate groups in eukaryotes are accounted for. PMID:21750686

  14. NAT nucleation and denitrification in the polar stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Engel, Ines; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas; Frey, Wiebke; Molleker, Sergej; Borrmann, Stephan; Schlager, Hans; Vömel, Holger; Kivi, Rigel; Walker, Kaley A.; Santee, Michelle L.; Stiller, Gabriele; Pitts, Michael; Müller, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles in the polar stratosphere are known to influence the chemistry of ozone depletion. NAT particles, along with other liquid and crystalline particles, provide heterogeneous surfaces for chlorine activation. More importantly, they can take up significant amounts of HNO3 from the gas phase and transport HNO3 downward by sedimentation. This can lead to denitrification, in the Arctic typically at altitudes above about 20 km, and a re-nitrification below, at the level where the NAT particles evaporate. The nucleation rate of NAT particles is a critical parameter for the simulation of this process. Very low NAT nucleation rates around 2?10-9cm-3s-1 have been deduced for low NAT supersaturations from observations. In previous studies, vertical HNO3 transport has been successfully simulated by Lagrangian 3-D simulations using a constant NAT nucleation rate of around 2?10-9cm-3s-1, for the Arctic winters in the years 2003 and 2005. However, for winter 2009/2010, this approach does not generate satisfying results. Here, saturation dependent NAT nucleation rates were derived from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), observations under the assumption that NAT nucleates heterogeneously on dust particles that are characterized by active sites with a certain occurrence probability distribution depending on the contact angle. Simulations with the Zurich Optical and Microphysical box Model (ZOMM) along back-trajectories starting from points where PSCs were observed by CALIPSO allow the parametrisation of heterogeneous nucleation rates for NAT and ice on dust, and the reproduction of the different PSC classes observed. We present simulations by the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) of the winter 2009/2010 applying this new parametrisation of heterogeneous NAT nucleation rates. The CLaMS simulation is initialized using a combination of MLS, MIPAS-ENVISAT and ACE-FTS data. The simulation

  15. PlantNATsDB: a comprehensive database of plant natural antisense transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dijun; Yuan, Chunhui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Zhao; Bai, Lin; Meng, Yijun; Chen, Ling-Ling; Chen, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Natural antisense transcripts (NATs), as one type of regulatory RNAs, occur prevalently in plant genomes and play significant roles in physiological and pathological processes. Although their important biological functions have been reported widely, a comprehensive database is lacking up to now. Consequently, we constructed a plant NAT database (PlantNATsDB) involving approximately 2 million NAT pairs in 69 plant species. GO annotation and high-throughput small RNA sequencing data currently available were integrated to investigate the biological function of NATs. PlantNATsDB provides various user-friendly web interfaces to facilitate the presentation of NATs and an integrated, graphical network browser to display the complex networks formed by different NATs. Moreover, a ‘Gene Set Analysis’ module based on GO annotation was designed to dig out the statistical significantly overrepresented GO categories from the specific NAT network. PlantNATsDB is currently the most comprehensive resource of NATs in the plant kingdom, which can serve as a reference database to investigate the regulatory function of NATs. The PlantNATsDB is freely available at http://bis.zju.edu.cn/pnatdb/. PMID:22058132

  16. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  17. NAT2 genetic variations among South Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Lakkakula, Saikrishna; Mohan Pathapati, Ram; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan; Lakkakula, Bhaskar Vks; Maram, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-01

    The N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs, environmental toxins and the aromatic amine carcinogens present in cigarette smoke. Genetic variations in NAT2 have long been recognized as the cause of variable enzymatic activity or stability, leading to slow or rapid acetylation. In the present study, we genotyped three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the NAT2 gene (rs1799929, rs1799930 and rs1799931), using TaqMan allelic discrimination, among 212 individuals from six major South Indian populations and compared the results with other available Indian and worldwide data. All three of the markers followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were highly polymorphic in the studied populations. The constructed haplotypes showed a high level of heterozygosity. All of the populations in the present study commonly shared only four haplotypes out of the eight possible three-site haplotypes. The haplotypes exhibited fairly high frequencies across multiple populations, where three haplotypes were shared by all six populations with a cumulative frequency ranging from 88.2% (Madiga) to 97.0% (Balija). We also observed a tribal-specific haplotype. A strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between rs1799929 and rs1799930 was consistent in all of the studied populations, with the exception of the Madiga. A comparison of the genomic regions 20-kb up- and downstream of rs1799930 in a large number of worldwide samples showed a strong LD of this SNP with another NAT2 SNP, rs1112005, among the majority of the populations. Moreover, our lifestyle test (hunter-gatherer versus agriculturist) in comparison with the NAT2 variant suggested that two of the studied populations (Balija and Madiga) have likely shifted their diet more recently. PMID:27081506

  18. Life is translation

    PubMed Central

    Zagrovic, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary origin of translation represents one of the key questions that Carl Woese addressed in his work. Here we give a personal account of his results in this area and the effect they have had on the field. PMID:24572678

  19. Identification of N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) Transcription Start Sites and Quantitation of NAT2-specific mRNA in Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Anwar; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Doll, Mark A.; States, J. Christopher; Barker, David F.; Hein, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Human N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genetic polymorphism is associated with drug toxicity and/or carcinogenesis in various tissues. Knowledge of NAT2 gene structure and expression are critical for understanding these associations. Previous findings suggest that human NAT2 expression is highest in liver and gut, but expressed at functional levels in other tissues. A sensitive and specific TaqMan reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay with intron-spanning primers was developed and used, together with a second TaqMan RT-PCR assay based on amplification of a NAT2 open reading frame (ORF) exon segment, to measure NAT2 mRNA in 29 different human tissues. Cap-dependent amplification of mRNA 5′ termini and review of public database information was done to more precisely define the NAT2 promoter(s) and to validate the quantitative RT-PCR assay design. The great majority (40/41) of NAT2 liver cDNAs had 5′ termini between 8682 and 8752 nucleotides upstream of the NAT2 ORF exon, and 34/40 5′-termini were at the -8711 and -8716 adenines. All of 59 NAT2 cDNAs with 5′ termini in this vicinity, including 40 of the liver isolates and 19 cDNAs in public databases from liver and other sources, showed direct splicing to the ORF exon, with no other non-coding exon detected. NAT2 mRNA was highest in liver, small intestine and colon and readily detected in most other tissues albeit at much lower levels. NAT2 expression in diverse human tissues provides further mechanistic support underlying associations between NAT2 genetic polymorphism, drug toxicity and/or chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:17287389

  20. Translators and Translation: 1974 Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caille, Pierre-Francois

    1974-01-01

    An international survey of conditions and practices involving translators deals with the following points: (1) change in the legal status and material situation of translators since 1968; (2) translators' associations; (3) translators' training, and (4) encouraging translation of contemporary works. (CK)

  1. Improvements in algorithms for phenotype inference: the NAT2 example.

    PubMed

    Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Ickstadt, Katja; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies have analyzed the impact of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms on drug efficacy, side effects as well as cancer risk. Here, we present the state of the art of deriving haplotypes from polymorphisms and discuss the available software. PHASE v2.1 is currently considered a gold standard for NAT2 haplotype assignment. In vitro studies have shown that some slow acetylation genotypes confer reduced protein stability. This has been observed particularly for G191A, T341C and G590A. Substantial ethnic variations of the acetylation status have been described. Probably, upcoming agriculture and the resulting change in diet caused a selection pressure for slow acetylation. In recent years much research has been done to reduce the complexity of NAT2 genotyping. Deriving the haplotype from seven SNPs is still considered a gold standard. However, meanwhile several studies have shown that a two-SNP combination, C282T and T341C, results in a similarly good distinction in Caucasians. However, attempts to further reduce complexity to only one 'tagging SNP' (rs1495741) may lead to wrong predictions where phenotypically slow acetylators were genotyped as intermediate or rapid. Numerous studies have shown that slow NAT2 haplotypes are associated with increased urinary bladder cancer risk and increased risk of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity. A drawback of the current practice of solely discriminating slow, intermediate and rapid genotypes for phenotype inference is limited resolution of differences between slow acetylators. Future developments to differentiate between slow and ultra-slow genotypes may further improve individualized drug dosing and epidemiological studies of cancer risk. PMID:24524665

  2. Production cross section of At radionuclides from 7Li+natPb and 9Be+natTl reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta

    2011-12-01

    Earlier we reported theoretical studies on the probable production of astatine radionuclides from 6,7Li- and 9Be-induced reactions on natural lead and thallium targets, respectively. The production of astatine radionuclides were investigated experimentally with two heavy-ion-induced reactions: 9Be + natTl and 7Li + natPb. Formation cross sections of the evaporation residues, 207,208,209,210At, produced in the (HI,xn) channel, were measured by the stacked-foil technique followed by off-line γ spectrometry at low incident energies (<50 MeV). Measured excitation functions were interpreted in terms of a compound nuclear reaction mechanism using Weisskopf-Ewing and Hauser-Feshbach models. Measured cross-section values are lower than the respective theoretical predictions.

  3. Proton and deuteron induced reactions on natGa: Experimental and calculated excitation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Adam-Rebeles, R.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.

    2015-09-01

    Cross-sections for reactions on natGa, induced by protons (up to 65 MeV) and deuterons (up to 50 MeV), producing γ-emitting radionuclides with half-lives longer than 1 h were measured in a stacked-foil irradiation using thin Ga-Ni alloy (70-30%) targets electroplated on Cu or Au backings. Excitation functions for generation of 68,69Ge, 66,67,68,72Ga and 65,69mZn on natGa are discussed, relative to the monitor reactions natAl(d,x)24,22Na, natAl(p,x)24,22Na, natCu(p,x)62Zn and natNi(p,x)57Ni. The results are compared to our earlier measurements, the scarce literature values and to the results of the code TALYS 1.6 (online database TENDL-2014).

  4. Global analysis of cis-natural antisense transcripts and their heat-responsive nat-siRNAs in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brassica rapa includes several important leaf vegetable crops whose production is often damaged by high temperature. Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) and cis-NATs-derived small interfering RNAs (nat-siRNAs) play important roles in plant development and stress responses. However, genome-wide cis-NATs in B. rapa are not known. The NATs and nat-siRNAs that respond to heat stress have never been well studied in B. rapa. Here, we took advantage of RNA-seq and small RNA (sRNA) deep sequencing technology to identify cis-NATs and heat responsive nat-siRNAs in B. rapa. Results Analyses of four RNA sequencing datasets revealed 1031 cis-NATs B. rapa ssp. chinensis cv Wut and B. rapa ssp. pekinensis cv. Bre. Based on sequence homology between Arabidopsis thaliana and B. rapa, 303 conserved cis-NATs in B. rapa were found to correspond to 280 cis-NATs in Arabidopsis; the remaining 728 novel cis-NATs were identified as Brassica-specific ones. Using six sRNA libraries, 4846 nat-siRNAs derived from 150 cis-NATs were detected. Differential expression analysis revealed that nat-siRNAs derived from 12 cis-NATs were responsive to heat stress, and most of them showed strand bias. Real-time PCR indicated that most of the transcripts generating heat-responsive nat-siRNAs were upregulated under heat stress, while the transcripts from the opposite strands of the same loci were downregulated. Conclusions Our results provide the first subsets of genome-wide cis-NATs and heat-responsive nat-siRNAs in B. rapa; these sRNAs are potentially useful for the genetic improvement of heat tolerance in B. rapa and other crops. PMID:24320882

  5. N-acetyltransferase 2 (Nat2) polymorphism in the sand rat Psammomys obesus.

    PubMed

    Khelil, Malika; Djerdjouri, Bahia; Tayebi, Bouchentouf

    2010-10-01

    Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and its homologue in rodents (Nat2) are polymorphic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and also seem to play a role in endogenous metabolism. NAT1 and Nat2 polymorphism was associated to cancers under xenobiotic procarcinogens metabolism as well as under endogenous substrate metabolism. This study investigated the p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) -Nat2 catalytic activity and its polymorphism in liver homogenates of adult sand rats Psammomys obesus Cretzschmar, 1828. These Saharian sand rats develop high incidence of spontaneous cancers under standard laboratory diet. The average value of PABA-Nat2 specific activity tested in nine sand rats was significant (2.96 ± 2.16 nmoles/min/mg). The N-acetylation exhibited a bimodal distribution. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) between PABA-Nat2 activity in the fast acetylators group (4.10 ± 1.67 nmol/min/mg) and slow acetylators group (0.7 ± 0.27 nmol/min/mg). The percentage of the fast acetylator group was 66.66%. These results support the presence of Nat2 polymorphism in the liver of the strain sand rats Psammomys obesus. This strain is useful for investigating the role of Nat2 polymorphisms in susceptibility to cancers related to arylamine carcinogen exposures as well as to endogenous substrate metabolism. PMID:20550432

  6. Standardization of NAT for Blood-Borne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Sally A.; Chudy, Michael; Nübling, C. Micha

    2015-01-01

    Summary Assays based on nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) are increasingly used for screening of blood and for diagnosis or monitoring of patients. Both regulatory requirements for blood screening and international recommendations for the treatment of patients are based on common reference materials available globally for the standardization of NAT assays. World Health Organization International Standards (WHO ISs) and International Reference Panels (WHO IRPs) are primary reference materials. The characterization and manufacture of WHO reference materials as well as their evaluation is performed on behalf of the WHO by collaborating centers; their establishment is decided upon by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS). The potency of the first WHO IS is defined by the ‘international unit’ (IU) which should be maintained upon replacement of the IS. The IU, unlike copy number or genome equivalent, is defined by the IS with a physical existence, is available worldwide, and allows traceability and comparability of results. The anticipated use of WHO ISs is the calibration of secondary standards or the validation of essential assay features, e.g. limit of detection. PMID:26557812

  7. Neutron emission asymmetries from linearly polarized γ rays on ^natCd, ^natSn, and ^181Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke Smith, W.; Feldman, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Azimuthal asymmetries in neutron yields produced by bombarding targets with linearly polarized photons via (γ,n), (γ,2n), and (γ,f) reactions are being investigated as a possible means of identifying various nuclear isotopes. The High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS) at Duke University provides nearly monochromatic, circularly or linearly polarized γ rays with high intensity by Compton backscattering free-electron-laser photons from stored electrons. Linearly polarized γ rays produced by HIγS were incident on ^natCd, ^natSn, and ^181Ta targets at six energies Eγ between 11.0 and 15.5 MeV and emitted neutrons were detected both parallel and perpendicular to the plane of polarization by an array of 18 liquid-scintillator detectors at angles in the range θ=55^o--142^o. Detected neutrons were distinguished from Compton scattered photons by pulse-shape-discrimination and timing cuts, and their energies (En) were determined using time-of-flight information over a 0.5 m flight path. The characteristic plots of Rn, the ratio of neutron counts parallel to neutron counts perpendicular to the plane of the incident γ-ray polarization, against En were constructed for each value of Eγ and θ and then compared to those for other targets studied at HIγS, including fissile nuclei ^235U and ^238U.

  8. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  9. A Study Guide for Stephen B. Oates' "The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    2006-01-01

    This document is a study guide for Stephen B. Oates biography of Nat Turner, "The Fires of Jubilee." The book is a practical reading vehicle for introducing Nat Turner to secondary students in grades 11 and 12. Oates divides his work into four parts, which could provide the basis for four reading assignments, although the sections are not of equal…

  10. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) in high prevalence-low resource settings.

    PubMed

    El Ekiaby, Magdy; Lelie, Nico; Allain, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Blood screening by NAT for major transfusion transmitted viral infections (TTIs) was originally intended to complement serology for detection of infected donations. Reports from developed countries showed limited marginal value to NAT blood screening in improving blood safety. Reports on NAT results from Europe indicated yield of 1:0.6 million donations for HBV, <1:M for HCV and HIV-1-related to low prevalence of TTI. In contrast, prevalence of TTI in resource-limited countries is almost always high. As a result, more incident cases can be expected among first-time blood donors. Most reports of NAT blood donation screening in these countries showed NAT confirmed yield as high as 1/2800 for HBV and 1/3100 blood donations for HCV as reported from Thailand and Egypt, respectively. The issues for low resource countries are mostly the high cost of NAT but also the requirements of staff qualification, adequate facilities, reagent procurement and maintenance of delicate equipment. Alternatives to commercial NAT are the use of combos antigen-antibody for HIV and HCV, anti-HBc for HBV and in-house NAT. Most of these alternatives have been reported but very few comparisons are available. Once yield data is available, models for estimation of feasibility and cost-effectiveness are proposed to help decision-making. PMID:20079664

  11. NAT10, a nucleolar protein, localizes to the midbody and regulates cytokinesis and acetylation of microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Qi; Zheng, Xingzheng; McNutt, Michael A.; Guang, Lizhao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Jiaochen; Gong, Yilei; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Bo

    2009-06-10

    The midbody is a structural organelle formed in late phase mitosis which is responsible for completion of cytokinesis. Although various kinds of proteins have been found to distribute or immigrate to this organelle, their functions have still not been completely worked out. In this study, we demonstrated that NAT10 (N-acetyltransferase 10, NAT10) is not only predominantly distributed in the nucleolus in interphase, but is also concentrated in the mitotic midbody during telophase. The domain in N-terminal residues 549-834 of NAT10 specifically mediated its subcellular localization. Treatment with genotoxic agents or irradiation increased concentration of NAT10 in both the nucleolus and midbody. Moreover, DNA damage induced increase of NAT10 in the midbody apparently accompanied by in situ elevation of the level of acetylated {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting that it plays a role in maintaining or enhancing stability of {alpha}-tubulin. The depletion of NAT10 induced defects in nucleolar assembly, cytokinesis and decreased acetylated {alpha}-tubulin, leading to G2/M cell cycle arrest or delay of mitotic exit. In addition, over-expression of NAT10 was found in a variety of soft tissue sarcomas, and correlated with tumor histological grading. These results indicate that NAT10 may play an important role in cell division through facilitating reformation of the nucleolus and midbody in the late phase of cell mitosis, and stabilization of microtubules.

  12. Genetic Variation at the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) Genes in Global Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Functional variability at the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) genes is associated with adverse drug reactions and cancer susceptibility in humans. Previous studies of small sets of ethnic groups have indicated that the NAT genes have high levels of amino acid variation that differ in f...

  13. Antarctic NAT PSC Belt of June 2003: Observational Validation of the Mountain Wave Seeding Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, S. D.; Hoffmann, L.; Hoepfner, M.; Wu, D. L.; Alexander, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) over Antarctica in June 2003 revealed small nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles forming suddenly along the vortex edge. Models suggest the trigger was mountain waves over the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) forming ice for NAT nucleation. We test this hypothesis by analyzing perturbations in stratospheric radiances from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). AIRS data show mountain waves over the AP on 10-14 June, with no resolved wave activity before or after. Peak wave temperature amplitudes derived from independent 40 hPa channels all return values of 10-12 K, in agreement with values used to model this NAT event. These observations support a NAT wake from a small region of mountain wave activity over the AP as the source of this circumpolar NAT outbreak.

  14. EEG markers for characterizing anomalous activities of cerebral neurons in NAT (neuronal activity topography) method.

    PubMed

    Musha, Toshimitsu; Matsuzaki, Haruyasu; Kobayashi, Yohei; Okamoto, Yoshiwo; Tanaka, Mieko; Asada, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    A pair of markers, sNAT and vNAT, is derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra (PS) recorded for 5 min with 21 electrodes (4-20 Hz) arranged according to the 10-20 standard. These markers form a new diagnosis tool "NAT" aiming at characterizing various brain disorders. Each signal sequence is divided into segments of 0.64 s and its discrete PS consists of eleven frequency components from 4.68 (3 × 1.56) Hz through 20.34 (13 × 1.56) Hz. PS is normalized to its mean and the bias of PS components on each frequency component across the 21 signal channels is reset to zero. The marker sNAT consists of ten frequency components on 21 channels, characterizing neuronal hyperactivity or hypoactivity as compared with NLc (normal controls). The marker vNAT consists of ten ratios between adjacent PS components denoting the over- or undersynchrony of collective neuronal activities as compared with NLc. The likelihood of a test subject to a specified brain disease is defined in terms of the normalized distance to the template NAT state of the disease in the NAT space. Separation of MCI-AD patients (developing AD in 12-18 months) from NLc is made with a false alarm rate of 15%. Locations with neuronal hypoactivity and undersynchrony of AD patients agree with locations of rCBF reduction measured by SPECT. The 2-D diagram composed of the binary likelihoods between ADc and NLc in the two representations of sNAT and vNAT enables tracing the NAT state of a test subject approaching the AD area, and the follow-up of the treatment effects. PMID:23559020

  15. Technical Writing and Translation: Changing with the Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguinot, Candace

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the assumptions underlying the training of technical translators versus technical translation, and their differing notions of quality. Addresses integrating translation and documentation, implications for training, and cross-cultural procedures. (SR)

  16. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  17. Heterogeneous Formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds- Part 1: Nucleation of Nitric Acid Trihydrate (NAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Engel, I.; Luo, B. P.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Grooss, J.-U.; Peter, T.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based observations during the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 provide firm evidence that, in contrast to the current understanding, the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in the polar stratosphere does not only occur on preexisting ice particles. In order to explain the NAT clouds observed over the Arctic in mid-December 2009, a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is required, occurring via immersion freezing on the surface of solid particles, likely of meteoritic origin. For the first time, a detailed microphysical modelling of this NAT formation pathway has been carried out. Heterogeneous NAT formation was calculated along more than sixty thousand trajectories, ending at Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observation points. Comparing the optical properties of the modelled NAT with these observations enabled a thorough validation of a newly developed NAT nucleation parameterisation, which has been built into the Zurich Optical and Microphysical box Model (ZOMM). The parameterisation is based on active site theory, is simple to implement in models and provides substantial advantages over previous approaches which involved a constant rate of NAT nucleation in a given volume of air. It is shown that the new method is capable of reproducing observed polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) very well, despite the varied conditions experienced by air parcels travelling along the different trajectories. In a companion paper, ZOMM is applied to a later period of the winter, when ice PSCs are also present, and it is shown that the observed PSCs are also represented extremely well under these conditions.

  18. Heterogeneous formation of polar stratospheric clouds - Part 1: Nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Engel, I.; Luo, B. P.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Grooß, J.-U.; Peter, T.

    2013-09-01

    Satellite-based observations during the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 provide firm evidence that, in contrast to the current understanding, the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in the polar stratosphere does not only occur on preexisting ice particles. In order to explain the NAT clouds observed over the Arctic in mid-December 2009, a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is required, occurring via immersion freezing on the surface of solid particles, likely of meteoritic origin. For the first time, a detailed microphysical modelling of this NAT formation pathway has been carried out. Heterogeneous NAT formation was calculated along more than sixty thousand trajectories, ending at Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observation points. Comparing the optical properties of the modelled NAT with these observations enabled a thorough validation of a newly developed NAT nucleation parameterisation, which has been built into the Zurich Optical and Microphysical box Model (ZOMM). The parameterisation is based on active site theory, is simple to implement in models and provides substantial advantages over previous approaches which involved a constant rate of NAT nucleation in a given volume of air. It is shown that the new method is capable of reproducing observed polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) very well, despite the varied conditions experienced by air parcels travelling along the different trajectories. In a companion paper, ZOMM is applied to a later period of the winter, when ice PSCs are also present, and it is shown that the observed PSCs are also represented extremely well under these conditions.

  19. Heterogeneous formation of polar stratospheric clouds - Part 1: Nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Engel, I.; Luo, B. P.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Grooß, J.-U.; Peter, T.

    2013-03-01

    Satellite based observations during the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 provide firm evidence that, in contrast to the current understanding, the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in the polar stratosphere does not only occur on preexisting ice particles. In order to explain the NAT clouds observed over the Arctic in mid December 2009, a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is required, occurring via immersion freezing on the surface of solid particles, likely of meteoritic origin. For the first time, a detailed microphysical modelling of this NAT formation pathway has been carried out. Heterogeneous NAT formation was calculated along more than sixty thousand trajectories, ending at Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) observation points. Comparing the optical properties of the modelled NAT with these observations enabled the thorough validation of a newly developed NAT nucleation parameterisation, which has been built into the Zurich Optical and Microphysical box Model (ZOMM). The parameterisation is based on active site theory, is simple to implement in models and provides substantial advantages over previous approaches which involved a constant rate of NAT nucleation in a given volume of air. It is shown that the new method is capable of reproducing observed PSCs very well, despite the varied conditions experienced by air parcels travelling along the different trajectories. In a companion paper, ZOMM is applied to a later period of the winter, when ice PSCs are also present, and it is shown that the observed PSCs are also represented extremely well under these conditions.

  20. Effect of NAT2 gene polymorphism on bladder cancer risk in Slovak population.

    PubMed

    Klimčáková, Lucia; Habalová, Viera; Sivoňová, Monika; Nagy, Vincent; Šalagovič, Ján; Židzik, Jozef

    2011-02-01

    N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is phase II enzyme with major roles in catalyzing the detoxification of aromatic amines, which are known risk factors for bladder cancer, and are ubiquitously present in the environment. We assessed the association between common polymorphisms in NAT2 gene and the risk of bladder cancer in 90 Slovak patients and 274 ethnicity-matched healthy controls. Effect modifications by smoking, age and gender were also evaluated. Overall, NAT2 slow acetylation was associated with significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.15-3.16). In stratified analyses by age and gender, the elevated risk conferred by slow acetylator genotype was evident in older individuals (OR = 3.55; 95% CI, 1.77-7.35) and males (OR = 4.65; 95% CI, 1.68-16.10), with further increasing in NAT2*5B/*6A genotype carriers. Smoking was confirmed to be important risk factor, moreover, the risk was markedly increased in smokers with NAT2 slow acetylator genotype, and NAT2*5B/*6A carriers especially. In summary, these findings are consistent with previous literature suggesting that individual susceptibility to bladder cancer may be modulated by NAT2 polymorphisms, particularly in interaction with relevant environmental exposures such as smoking. PMID:20568013

  1. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  2. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  3. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    DOEpatents

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  4. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  5. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  6. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.; Crawford, D.W.

    1982-03-09

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  7. Yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are conserved 18S rRNA cytosine acetyltransferases that modify tRNAs assisted by the adaptor Tan1/THUMPD1

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunny; Langhendries, Jean-Louis; Watzinger, Peter; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Lafontaine, Denis L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The function of RNA is subtly modulated by post-transcriptional modifications. Here, we report an important crosstalk in the covalent modification of two classes of RNAs. We demonstrate that yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are RNA cytosine acetyltransferases with, surprisingly, specificity toward both 18S rRNA and tRNAs. tRNA acetylation requires the intervention of a specific and conserved adaptor: yeast Tan1/human THUMPD1. In budding and fission yeasts, and in human cells, we found two acetylated cytosines on 18S rRNA, one in helix 34 important for translation accuracy and another in helix 45 near the decoding site. Efficient 18S rRNA acetylation in helix 45 involves, in human cells, the vertebrate-specific box C/D snoRNA U13, which, we suggest, exposes the substrate cytosine to modification through Watson–Crick base pairing with 18S rRNA precursors during small subunit biogenesis. Finally, while Kre33 and NAT10 are essential for pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to 18S rRNA synthesis, we demonstrate that rRNA acetylation is dispensable to yeast cells growth. The inactivation of NAT10 was suggested to suppress nuclear morphological defects observed in laminopathic patient cells through loss of microtubules modification and cytoskeleton reorganization. We rather propose the effects of NAT10 on laminopathic cells are due to reduced ribosome biogenesis or function. PMID:25653167

  8. Yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are conserved 18S rRNA cytosine acetyltransferases that modify tRNAs assisted by the adaptor Tan1/THUMPD1.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunny; Langhendries, Jean-Louis; Watzinger, Peter; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2015-02-27

    The function of RNA is subtly modulated by post-transcriptional modifications. Here, we report an important crosstalk in the covalent modification of two classes of RNAs. We demonstrate that yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are RNA cytosine acetyltransferases with, surprisingly, specificity toward both 18S rRNA and tRNAs. tRNA acetylation requires the intervention of a specific and conserved adaptor: yeast Tan1/human THUMPD1. In budding and fission yeasts, and in human cells, we found two acetylated cytosines on 18S rRNA, one in helix 34 important for translation accuracy and another in helix 45 near the decoding site. Efficient 18S rRNA acetylation in helix 45 involves, in human cells, the vertebrate-specific box C/D snoRNA U13, which, we suggest, exposes the substrate cytosine to modification through Watson-Crick base pairing with 18S rRNA precursors during small subunit biogenesis. Finally, while Kre33 and NAT10 are essential for pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to 18S rRNA synthesis, we demonstrate that rRNA acetylation is dispensable to yeast cells growth. The inactivation of NAT10 was suggested to suppress nuclear morphological defects observed in laminopathic patient cells through loss of microtubules modification and cytoskeleton reorganization. We rather propose the effects of NAT10 on laminopathic cells are due to reduced ribosome biogenesis or function. PMID:25653167

  9. Investigations of natTi(d,x)48V nuclear reactions for beam monitoring purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Kanaya, Jumpei; Otuka, Naohiko; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Amin, Yusoff Mohd

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the natTi(d,x)48V reaction cross-sections by using a stacked-foil activation technique in combination with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry at the AVF cyclotron facility of the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Wako, Japan. An overall good agreement is found between the measured data and the literature ones, whereas partial agreement is obtained with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2011 library provided by the TALYS model calculations. Measured cross-sections of natTi(d,x)48V reactions find significance in monitoring of deuteron beam parameters from threshold to 50 MeV. Furthermore, IAEA recommended cross-sections of natTi(d,x)48V reaction has been verified here, and found a very good agreement. Additionally, measured cross-sections of the natTi(d,x)48V reactions find significance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine.

  10. Expression of NAT2 in immune system cells and the relation of NAT2 gene polymorphisms in the anti-tuberculosis therapy in Mexican mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Salazar-González, R; Gómez, R; Romano-Moreno, S; Medellín-Garibay, S; Núñez-Ruíz, A; Magaña-Aquino, M; Milán-Segovia, R C; Portales-Pérez, D P

    2014-12-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) metabolizes isoniazid (INH) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) responsible for its activity has been reported. The aim of this study in the Mexican mestizo population was to evaluate NAT2 expression at the protein level in immune cells, as well as the distribution and frequency of six NAT2 SNPs and their association with anti-TB therapy, by measuring the plasma levels of INH and Acetyl-INH (AcINH). We performed genotyping assays of NAT2 SNPs in 40 TB patients and 121 healthy volunteers by real-time PCR. A method for detecting NAT2 in immune cells using flow cytometry was developed. Plasma concentrations of INH and AcINH were obtained by HPLC in TB patients and the Metabolic Ratio (MR) was calculated. The phenotypes obtained in the healthy volunteers were as follows; 18.87 % of subjects had the rapid acetylator phenotype, 45.45 % had the intermediate phenotype and 39.66 % exhibited the slow acetylator phenotype. In the TB patient group, 35 % of patients had the rapid acetylator phenotype, 32.5 % were intermediate and 32.5 % showed the slow acetylator phenotype. A higher expression level of NAT2 in innate immune cells from TB patients compared to those from healthy volunteers was detected (P < 0.013). In TB patients the MR showed a bimodal distribution with an antimode of 0.7, which was used as a threshold value for acetylator classification. A high correspondence between the rapid and slow acetylator phenotype with MR was demonstrated. In conclusion, the 282C>T, 341T>C, 481C>T, 590G>A, 803A>G, 857G>A SNPs of NAT2 gene provides accurate for prediction of the acetylator phenotype in Mexican mestizo population. A statistical difference was found in frequency of rapid metabolizer phenotype, which was higher in TB patients. In addition, the expression of NAT2 protein in immune cells can lead to further studies related to its functional role in the innate immune response against M. tuberculosis and other xenobiotics

  11. Comparison of CYP1A2 and NAT2 Phenotypes between Black and White Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Muscat, Joshua E.; Pittman, Brian; Kleinman, Wayne; Lazarus, Philip; Stellman, Steven D.; Richie, John P.

    2008-01-01

    The lower incidence rate of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in blacks than in whites may be due to racial differences in the catalytic activity of enzymes that metabolize carcinogenic arylamines in tobacco smoke. To examine this, we compared cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase-2 activities (NAT2) in black and white smokers using urinary caffeine metabolites as a probe for enzyme activity in a community-based study of 165 black and 183 white cigarette smokers. The paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine, 17X)/caffeine (trimethylxanthine, 137X) ratio or [17X + 1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U)]/137X ratio was used as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity. The 5-acetyl-amino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU)/1-methylxanthine (1X) ratio indicated NAT2 activity. The odds ratio for the slow NAT2 phenotype associated with black race was 0.4; 95% confidence intervals 0.2–0.7. The putative combined low risk phenotype (slow CYP1A2/rapid NAT2) was more common in blacks than in whites (25% vs. 15%, P<0.02). There were no significant racial differences in slow and rapid CYP1A2 phenotypes, and in the combined slow NAT2/rapid CYP1A2 phenotype. Age, education, cigarette smoking amount, body mass index, GSTM1 and GSTM3 genotypes were unrelated to CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity. Intake of cruciferous vegetables (primarily broccoli), red meat, carrots, grapefruit and onions predicted CYP1A2 activity either for all subjects or in race-specific analyses. Carrot and grapefruit consumption was related to NAT2 activity. Collectively, these results indicated that phenotypic differences in NAT2 alone or in combination with CYP1A2 might help explain the higher incidence rates of transitional cell bladder cancer in whites. PMID:18703023

  12. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by EasyNAT diagnostic kit in sputum samples from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mhimbira, Francis A; Bholla, Maira; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Mukurasi, William; Hella, Jerry J; Jugheli, Levan; Reither, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    The EasyNAT assay was evaluated for the detection of tuberculosis in sputum smears from presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in an African high-TB and high-HIV setting. The sensitivity of the EasyNAT assay was 66.7%, and the specificity and positive predictive value were 100% for the culture-positive patients. The sensitivity was only 10% in the smear-negative and culture-positive patients. PMID:25609720

  13. NAT2 gene polymorphisms in three indigenous groups in the Colombian Caribbean Coast region

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Isis; Lecompte, Nelly; Visbal, Lila; Curiel, Iliana; Hernández, Enio; Garavito, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the NAT2 gene polymorphisms 481T, 590A and 857A in the Chimila, Wiwa and Wayuu indigenous groups of the Colombian Caribbean to determine the frequencies of the alleles NAT2*4, NAT2*5, NAT2*6, and NAT2*7 and to determine the types of acetylators present in these populations. Methods: A total of 202 subjects were studied: 47 Chimila, 55 Wiwa, and 100 Wayuu. The polymorphisms were identified using a real-time PCR method for allelic discrimination designed using Taqman of Applied Biosystems. Results: The following alleles were found at the highest frequency in the following groups: the NAT2*4 allele (wild type) in the Wayuu group (55.3%), the NAT2*5 allele in the Wiwa group (34.5%), and the NAT2*7 allele in the Chimila group (24.2%). A higher frequency of the rapid acetylator status was found in the Wayuu group (31.3%) and Chimila group (29.5%) compared with the Wiwa group (12.7%). The intermediate acetylator status distribution was very similar in all three groups, and the frequency of the slow acetylator status was higher in the Wiwa group (32.7%) compared with the Chimila and Wayuu groups (20.5% and 21.2%, respectively). Conclusion: The results demonstrated the allelic distribution and pharmacogenetic differences of the three groups studied and revealed the most frequent acetylator status and phenotype. Because of the high prevalence of slow acetylators, a greater incidence of tuberculosis (TB) drug-induced hepatotoxicity is predicted in these populations, with a higher frequency in the Wiwa group. PMID:25767302

  14. Comparison of CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotypes between black and white smokers.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Joshua E; Pittman, Brian; Kleinman, Wayne; Lazarus, Philip; Stellman, Steven D; Richie, John P

    2008-10-01

    The lower incidence rate of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in blacks than in whites may be due to racial differences in the catalytic activity of enzymes that metabolize carcinogenic arylamines in tobacco smoke. To examine this, we compared cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase-2 activities (NAT2) in black and white smokers using urinary caffeine metabolites as a probe for enzyme activity in a community-based study of 165 black and 183 white cigarette smokers. The paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine, 17X)/caffeine (trimethylxanthine, 137X) ratio or [17X+1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U)]/137X ratio was used as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity. The 5-acetyl-amino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU)/1-methylxanthine (1X) ratio indicated NAT2 activity. The odds ratio for the slow NAT2 phenotype associated with black race was 0.4; 95% confidence intervals 0.2-0.7. The putative combined low risk phenotype (slow CYP1A2/rapid NAT2) was more common in blacks than in whites (25% vs. 15%, P<0.02). There were no significant racial differences in slow and rapid CYP1A2 phenotypes, and in the combined slow NAT2/rapid CYP1A2 phenotype. Age, education, cigarette smoking amount, body mass index, GSTM1 and GSTM3 genotypes were unrelated to CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity. Intake of cruciferous vegetables (primarily broccoli), red meat, carrots, grapefruit and onions predicted CYP1A2 activity either for all subjects or in race-specific analyses. Carrot and grapefruit consumption was related to NAT2 activity. Collectively, these results indicated that phenotypic differences in NAT2 alone or in combination with CYP1A2 might help explain the higher incidence rates of transitional cell bladder cancer in whites. PMID:18703023

  15. SP-100 GES/NAT radiation shielding systems design and development testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disney, Richard K.; Kulikowski, Henry D.; McGinnis, Cynthia A.; Reese, James C.; Thomas, Kevin; Wiltshire, Frank

    The design approach and development testing to support the design, fabrication, and assembly of three shield components for use within the vacuum vessel of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Nuclear Assembly Test (GES/NAT) are described. The GES/NAT shields must be designed to operate in a high vacuum which simulates space operations. Shielding, thermal, and structural performance have been demonstrated by a combination of detailed analyses. Key tests to obtain critical design data and design feature performance are reviewed.

  16. Clarifying haplotype ambiguity of NAT2 in multi-national cohorts.

    PubMed

    Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Agundez, Jose A G; Martinez, Carmen; Garcia-Martin, Elena; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is the key enzyme in aromatic amine metabolism. NAT2 genotyping requires a subsequent determination of the haplotype pairs (formerly: alleles) to derive the acetylation status. The chromosomal phase of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is unclear for about 2/3 of the genotypes. We investigated NAT2 genotypes of 1,234 bladder cancer cases and 2,207 controls from Germany, Hungary, Pakistan and Venezuela plus 696 further German cancer cases. We reconstructed NAT2 haplotypes using PHASE v2.1.1. We analysed if the variability of the NAT2 haplotypes affected the haplotype reconstruction. Furthermore, we compared population haplotype frequencies in three Caucasian control cohorts (German, Hungarian, Spanish), in Pakistanis and Venezuelans and the impact on bladder cancer. We conclude that a common haplotype reconstruction is feasible, enhances precision and reliability. Hungarian controls showed the largest intra-ethnic variability whereas the Pakistanis showed a haplotype distribution typical for Caucasians. The main differences could be observed for the slow haplotypes *5B, *6A and *7B. The association of slow NAT2 genotypes with bladder cancer risk was most prominent in the Venezuelan study group. PMID:23277078

  17. Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) Genetic Diversity and Traditional Subsistence: A Worldwide Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Audrey; Darlu, Pierre; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Poloni, Estella S.

    2011-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is involved in human physiological responses to a variety of xenobiotic compounds, including common therapeutic drugs and exogenous chemicals present in the diet and the environment. Many questions remain about the evolutionary mechanisms that have led to the high prevalence of slow acetylators in the human species. Evidence from recent surveys of NAT2 gene variation suggests that NAT2 slow-causing variants might have become targets of positive selection as a consequence of the shift in modes of subsistence and lifestyle in human populations in the last 10,000 years. We aimed to test more extensively the hypothesis that slow acetylation prevalence in humans is related to the subsistence strategy adopted by the past populations. To this end, published frequency data on the most relevant genetic variants of NAT2 were collected from 128 population samples (14,679 individuals) representing different subsistence modes and dietary habits, allowing a thorough analysis at both a worldwide and continent scale. A significantly higher prevalence of the slow acetylation phenotype was observed in populations practicing farming (45.4%) and herding (48.2%) as compared to populations mostly relying on hunting and gathering (22.4%) (P = 0.0007). This was closely mirrored by the frequency of the slow 590A variant that was found to occur at a three-fold higher frequency in food producers (25%) as compared to hunter-gatherers (8%). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the Neolithic transition to subsistence economies based on agricultural and pastoral resources modified the selective regime affecting the NAT2 acetylation pathway. Furthermore, the vast amount of data collected enabled us to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of NAT2 worldwide genetic diversity, thus building up a useful resource of frequency data for further studies interested in epidemiological or anthropological research questions involving

  18. Translational progress on tumor biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Lu, Yi; Xie, Liye; Chen, Qian; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to apply basic research achievements to the clinic. In particular, mechanistic studies should be developed by bench researchers, depending upon clinical demands, in order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. To date, translational medicine has been addressed in cancer biology, particularly in the identification and characterization of novel tumor biomarkers. This review focuses on the recent achievements and clinical application prospects in tumor biomarkers based on translational medicine. PMID:26557902

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of Bacillus cereus arylamine N-acetyltransferase 3 [(BACCR)NAT3].

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Xavier; Pluvinage, Benjamin; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Weber, Patrick; Haouz, Ahmed; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) that catalyze the acetylation of arylamines. All functional NATs described to date possess a strictly conserved Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of Bacillus cereus arylamine N-acetyltransferase 3 [(BACCR)NAT3], a putative NAT isoenzyme that possesses a unique catalytic triad containing a glutamate residue, is reported. The crystal diffracted to 2.42 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.44, b = 44.52, c = 132.98 Å, β = 103.8°. PMID:22297998

  20. Rapid birth-and-death evolution of the xenobiotic metabolizing NAT gene family in vertebrates with evidence of adaptive selection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are a unique family of enzymes widely distributed in nature that play a crucial role in the detoxification of aromatic amine xenobiotics. Considering the temporal changes in the levels and toxicity of environmentally available chemicals, the metabolic function of NATs is likely to be under adaptive evolution to broaden or change substrate specificity over time, making NATs a promising subject for evolutionary analyses. In this study, we trace the molecular evolutionary history of the NAT gene family during the last ~450 million years of vertebrate evolution and define the likely role of gene duplication, gene conversion and positive selection in the evolutionary dynamics of this family. Results A phylogenetic analysis of 77 NAT sequences from 38 vertebrate species retrieved from public genomic databases shows that NATs are phylogenetically unstable genes, characterized by frequent gene duplications and losses even among closely related species, and that concerted evolution only played a minor role in the patterns of sequence divergence. Local signals of positive selection are detected in several lineages, probably reflecting response to changes in xenobiotic exposure. We then put a special emphasis on the study of the last ~85 million years of primate NAT evolution by determining the NAT homologous sequences in 13 additional primate species. Our phylogenetic analysis supports the view that the three human NAT genes emerged from a first duplication event in the common ancestor of Simiiformes, yielding NAT1 and an ancestral NAT gene which in turn, duplicated in the common ancestor of Catarrhini, giving rise to NAT2 and the NATP pseudogene. Our analysis suggests a main role of purifying selection in NAT1 protein evolution, whereas NAT2 was predicted to mostly evolve under positive selection to change its amino acid sequence over time. These findings are consistent with a differential role of the two human isoenzymes

  1. NATb/NAT1*4 promotes greater arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 mediated DNA adducts and mutations than NATa/NAT1*4 following exposure to 4-aminobiphenyl

    PubMed Central

    Millner, Lori M.; Doll, Mark A.; Cai, Jian; States, J. Christopher; Hein, David W.

    2011-01-01

    N -acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II metabolic enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens such as 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP). NAT1 catalyzes N-acetylation of arylamines as well as the O-acetylation of N-hydroxylated arylamines. O-acetylation leads to the formation of electrophilic intermediates that result in DNA adducts and mutations. NAT1 is transcribed from a major promoter, NATb, and an alternative promoter, NATa, resulting in mRNAs with distinct 5′-untranslated regions (UTR). NATa mRNA is expressed primarily in the kidney, liver, trachea and lung while NATb mRNA has been detected in all tissues studied. To determine if differences in 5′-UTR have functional effect upon NAT1 activity and DNA adducts or mutations following exposure to ABP, pcDNA5/FRT plasmid constructs were prepared for transfection of full length human mRNAs including the 5′-UTR derived from NATa or NATb, the open reading frame, and 888 nucleotides of the 3′-UTR. Following stable transfection of NATb/NAT1*4 or NATa/NAT1*4 into nucleotide excision repair (NER) deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells, N-acetyltransferase activity (in vitro and in situ), mRNA, and protein expression were higher in NATb/NAT1*4 than NATa/NAT1*4 transfected cells (p<0.05). Consistent with NAT1 expression and activity, ABP-induced DNA adducts and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase mutants were significantly higher (p<0.05) in NATb/NAT1*4 than in NATa/NAT1*4 transfected cells following exposure to ABP. These differences observed between NATa and NATb suggest that the 5′-UTRs are differentially regulated. PMID:21837760

  2. Pooled analysis of NAT2 genotypes as risk factors for asbestos-related malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Betti, Marta; Neri, Monica; Ferrante, Daniela; Landi, Stefano; Biava, Alessandra; Gemignani, Federica; Bertolotti, Marinella; Mirabelli, Dario; Padoan, Marina; Ugolini, Donatella; Botta, Mario; Bonassi, Stefano; Magnani, Corrado; Dianzani, Irma

    2009-05-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive tumor of the pleura. The most important causal factor for the development of MM is occupational exposure to asbestos. Different lines of evidence suggest a role of genetic background in MM development, as for other cancers. Two published studies observed an association between MM and N-acetyl-transferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms. First, a Finnish study observed that the NAT2 slow acetylator phenotype was associated with an increased risk of MM. Conversely, MM risk was higher in Italian subjects carrying the NAT2 fast acetylator genotypes. The conflicting results obtained in Finland and Italy could be ascribed to random chance, considering the small panel of patients and controls in the two studies, but also ethnic or other differences may have been important. To ascertain the role of NAT2 genotype, we performed a study on 252 MM patients and 262 controls recruited in two Northern Italy areas that were characterized by high asbestos exposure, due to intense industrial activities (an asbestos cement factory in Casale Monferrato, mainly shipyards and refineries in Liguria). Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). NAT2 fast acetylator genotypes showed an increased OR, although not statistically significant, both in asbestos-exposed subjects (OR=1.47; 95% CI=0.96-2.26) and in the entire population (OR=1.38; 95% CI=0.93-2.04). These results suggest that NAT2 polymorphisms do not exert a strong effect on individual susceptibility to MM. PMID:18838334

  3. SP-100 GES/NAT radiation shielding systems design and development testing

    SciTech Connect

    Disney, R.K.; Kulikowski, H.D.; McGinnis, C.A.; Reese, J.C.; Thomas, K. ); Wiltshire, F. )

    1991-01-10

    Advanced Energy Systems (AES) of Westinghouse Electric Corporation is under subcontract to the General Electric Company to supply nuclear radiation shielding components for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Nuclear Assembly Test to be conducted at Westinghouse Hanford Company at Richland, Washington. The radiation shielding components are integral to the Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) assembly and include prototypic and non-prototypic radiation shielding components which provide prototypic test conditions for the SP-100 reactor subsystem and reactor control subsystem components during the GES/NAT operations. W-AES is designing three radiation shield components for the NAT assembly; a prototypic Generic Flight System (GFS) shield, the Lower Internal Facility Shield (LIFS), and the Upper Internal Facility Shield (UIFS). This paper describes the design approach and development testing to support the design, fabrication, and assembly of these three shield components for use within the vacuum vessel of the GES/NAT. The GES/NAT shields must be designed to operate in a high vacuum which simulates space operations. The GFS shield and LIFS must provide prototypic radiation/thermal environments and mechanical interfaces for reactor system components. The NAT shields, in combination with the test facility shielding, must provide adequate radiation attenuation for overall test operations. Special design considerations account for the ground test facility effects on the prototypic GFS shield. Validation of the GFS shield design and performance will be based on detailed Monte Carlo analyses and developmental testing of design features. Full scale prototype testing of the shield subsystems is not planned.

  4. NAT2 polymorphisms combining with smoking associated with breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wang, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Jia-Lei; He, Shuang-Shuang; Hu, Xi-Chun

    2010-10-01

    To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between the slow or rapid acetylation resulting from N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, a meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science were searched. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess strength of association. The pooled ORs were performed for slow versus rapid acetylation genotypes. A total of 26 studies including 9,215 cases and 10,443 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, no significantly elevated breast cancer risk was associated with NAT2 slow genotypes when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (OR = 1.026, 95% CI = 0.968-1.087). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, increased risks were not found for either Caucasians (OR = 1.001, 95% CI = 0.938-1.068) or Asians (OR = 1.155, 95% CI = 0.886-1.506). When stratified by study design, statistically significantly elevated risk associated with NAT2 slow genotypes was only found among hospital-based studies (OR = 1.178, 95% CI = 1.037-1.339). In the subgroup analysis by menopausal status, no statistically significantly increased risk was found in either premenopausal (OR = 1.053, 95% CI = 0.886-1.252) or postmenopausal women (OR = 0.965, 95% CI = 0.844-1.104). When stratified by cumulative smoking exposure, in the subgroup of smokers with high pack-years, NAT2 slow genotypes were significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR = 1.400, 95% CI = 1.099-1.784). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that there is overall lack of association between NAT2 genotypes and breast cancer risk, however, NAT2 polymorphisms when combining with heavy smoking history may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:20180012

  5. Red meat intake, NAT2, and risk of colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of 11 studies

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.; Du, Mengmeng; Berndt, Sonja I.; Brenner, Hermann; Caan, Bette J.; Casey, Graham; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Duggan, David; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hou, Lifang; Hsu, Li; Jenkins, Mark A.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Nan, Hongmei; Newcomb, Polly A.; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Thornquist, Mark; White, Emily; Wu, Kana; Peters, Ulrike; Chan, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Red meat intake has been associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), potentially mediated through heterocyclic amines. The metabolic efficiency of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) required for the metabolic activation of such amines is influenced by genetic variation. The interaction between red meat intake, NAT2 genotype, and CRC has been inconsistently reported. Methods We used pooled individual-level data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Red meat intake was collected by each study. We inferred NAT2 phenotype based on polymorphism at rs1495741, highly predictive of enzyme activity. Interaction was assessed using multiplicative interaction terms in multivariate-adjusted models. Results From 11 studies, 8,290 CRC cases and 9,115 controls were included. The highest quartile of red meat intake was associated with increased risk of CRC compared to the lowest quartile (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.29 – 1.55). However, a significant association was observed only for studies with retrospective diet data, not for studies with diet prospectively assessed before cancer diagnosis. Combining all studies, high red meat intake was similarly associated with CRC in those with a rapid/intermediate NAT2 genotype (OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.20 – 1.59) as with a slow genotype (OR 1.43, 95%CI 1.28 – 1.61) (p- interaction=0.9). Conclusion We found that high red meat intake was associated with increased risk of CRC only from retrospective case-control studies and not modified by NAT2 enzyme activity. Impact Our results suggest no interaction between NAT2 genotype and red-meat intake in mediating risk of CRC. PMID:25342387

  6. SP-100 GES/NAT radiation shielding systems design and development testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disney, Richard K.; Kulikowski, Henry D.; McGinnis, Cynthia A.; Reese, James C.; Thomas, Kevin; Wiltshire, Frank

    1991-01-01

    Advanced Energy Systems (AES) of Westinghouse Electric Corporation is under subcontract to the General Electric Company to supply nuclear radiation shielding components for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Nuclear Assembly Test to be conducted at Westinghouse Hanford Company at Richland, Washington. The radiation shielding components are integral to the Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) assembly and include prototypic and non-prototypic radiation shielding components which provide prototypic test conditions for the SP-100 reactor subsystem and reactor control subsystem components during the GES/NAT operations. W-AES is designing three radiation shield components for the NAT assembly; a prototypic Generic Flight System (GFS) shield, the Lower Internal Facility Shield (LIFS), and the Upper Internal Facility Shield (UIFS). This paper describes the design approach and development testing to support the design, fabrication, and assembly of these three shield components for use within the vacuum vessel of the GES/NAT. The GES/NAT shields must be designed to operate in a high vacuum which simulates space operations. The GFS shield and LIFS must provide prototypic radiation/thermal environments and mechanical interfaces for reactor system components. The NAT shields, in combination with the test facility shielding, must provide adequate radiation attenuation for overall test operations. Special design considerations account for the ground test facility effects on the prototypic GFS shield. Validation of the GFS shield design and performance will be based on detailed Monte Carlo analyses and developmental testing of design features. Full scale prototype testing of the shield subsystems is not planned.

  7. Induction of neuronal axon outgrowth by Shati/Nat8l by energy metabolism in mice cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Kazuyuki; Uno, Kyosuke; Matsumura, Shohei; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Nitta, Atsumi

    2015-09-01

    A novel N-acetyltransferase, Shati/Nat8l, was identified in the nucleus accumbens of mice repeatedly treated with methamphetamine (METH). Shati/Nat8l has been reported to inhibit the pharmacological action induced by METH. Shati/Nat8l produces N-acetylaspartate from aspartate and acetyl-CoA. Previously, we reported that overexpression of Shati/Nat8l in nucleus accumbens attenuates the response to METH by N-acetylaspartylglutamate (which is derived from N-acetylaspartate)-mGluR3 signaling in the mice brain. In the present study, to clarify the type of cells that produce Shati/Nat8l, we carried out in-situ hybridization for the detection of Shati/Nat8l mRNA along with immunohistochemical studies using serial sections of mice brain. Shati/Nat8l mRNA was detected in neuronal cells, but not in astrocytes or microglia cells. Next, we investigated the function of Shati/Nat8l in the neuronal cells in mice brain; then, we used an adeno-associated virus vector containing Shati/Nat8l for transfection and overexpression of Shati/Nat8l protein into the primary cultured neurons to investigate the contribution toward the neuronal activity of Shati/Nat8l. Overexpression of Shati/Nat8l in the mice primary cultured neurons induced axonal growth, but not dendrite elongation at day 1.5 (DIV). This finding indicated that Shati/Nat8l contributes toward neuronal development. LY341495, a selective group II mGluRs antagonist, did not abolish this axonal growth, and N-acetylaspartylglutamate itself did not abolish axon outgrowth in the same cultured system. The cultured neurons overexpressing Shati/Nat8l contained high ATP, suggesting that axon outgrowth is dependent on energy metabolism. This study shows that Shati/Nat8l in the neuron may induce axon outgrowth by ATP synthesis and not through mGluR3 signaling. PMID:26164607

  8. Suitability of the HAM-Nat test and TMS module "basic medical-scientific understanding" for medical school selection

    PubMed Central

    Hissbach, Johanna; Feddersen, Lena; Sehner, Susanne; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Tests with natural-scientific content are predictive of the success in the first semesters of medical studies. Some universities in the German speaking countries use the ‘Test for medical studies’ (TMS) for student selection. One of its test modules, namely “medical and scientific comprehension”, measures the ability for deductive reasoning. In contrast, the Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine, Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat) evaluates knowledge in natural sciences. In this study the predictive power of the HAM-Nat test will be compared to that of the NatDenk test, which is similar to the TMS module “medical and scientific comprehension” in content and structure. Methods: 162 medical school beginners volunteered to complete either the HAM-Nat (N=77) or the NatDenk test (N=85) in 2007. Until spring 2011, 84.2% of these successfully completed the first part of the medical state examination in Hamburg. Via different logistic regression models we tested the predictive power of high school grade point average (GPA or “Abiturnote”) and the test results (HAM-Nat and NatDenk) with regard to the study success criterion “first part of the medical state examination passed successfully up to the end of the 7th semester” (Success7Sem). The Odds Ratios (OR) for study success are reported. Results: For both test groups a significant correlation existed between test results and study success (HAM-Nat: OR=2.07; NatDenk: OR=2.58). If both admission criteria are estimated in one model, the main effects (GPA: OR=2.45; test: OR=2.32) and their interaction effect (OR=1.80) are significant in the HAM-Nat test group, whereas in the NatDenk test group only the test result (OR=2.21) significantly contributes to the variance explained. Conclusions: On their own both HAM-Nat and NatDenk have predictive power for study success, but only the HAM-Nat explains additional variance if combined with GPA. The selection according to HAM-Nat and GPA has under the current

  9. NAT8L (N-Acetyltransferase 8-Like) Accelerates Lipid Turnover and Increases Energy Expenditure in Brown Adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Pessentheiner, Ariane R.; Pelzmann, Helmut J.; Walenta, Evelyn; Schweiger, Martina; Groschner, Lukas N.; Graier, Wolfgang F.; Kolb, Dagmar; Uno, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Toh; Nitta, Atsumi; Rieder, Dietmar; Prokesch, Andreas; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G.

    2013-01-01

    NAT8L (N-acetyltransferase 8-like) catalyzes the formation of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) from acetyl-CoA and aspartate. In the brain, NAA delivers the acetate moiety for synthesis of acetyl-CoA that is further used for fatty acid generation. However, its function in other tissues remained elusive. Here, we show for the first time that Nat8l is highly expressed in adipose tissues and murine and human adipogenic cell lines and is localized in the mitochondria of brown adipocytes. Stable overexpression of Nat8l in immortalized brown adipogenic cells strongly increases glucose incorporation into neutral lipids, accompanied by increased lipolysis, indicating an accelerated lipid turnover. Additionally, mitochondrial mass and number as well as oxygen consumption are elevated upon Nat8l overexpression. Concordantly, expression levels of brown marker genes, such as Prdm16, Cidea, Pgc1α, Pparα, and particularly UCP1, are markedly elevated in these cells. Treatment with a PPARα antagonist indicates that the increase in UCP1 expression and oxygen consumption is PPARα-dependent. Nat8l knockdown in brown adipocytes has no impact on cellular triglyceride content, lipogenesis, or oxygen consumption, but lipolysis and brown marker gene expression are increased; the latter is also observed in BAT of Nat8l-KO mice. Interestingly, the expression of ATP-citrate lyase is increased in Nat8l-silenced adipocytes and BAT of Nat8l-KO mice, indicating a compensatory mechanism to sustain the acetyl-CoA pool once Nat8l levels are reduced. Taken together, our data show that Nat8l impacts on the brown adipogenic phenotype and suggests the existence of the NAT8L-driven NAA metabolism as a novel pathway to provide cytosolic acetyl-CoA for lipid synthesis in adipocytes. PMID:24155240

  10. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  11. Proper regulation of a sperm-specific cis-nat-siRNA is essential for double fertilization in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    /Cis/-nat-siRNAs are a recently characterized class of small regulatory RNAs that are widespread in eukaryotes. Despite their abundance the importance of their regulatory activity is largely unknown. The only functional role for eukaryotic /cis/-nat-siRNAs that has been described to date is in envir...

  12. Russian Translation.

    PubMed

    O'dette, R E

    1957-03-29

    This discussion has described the status of the large United States program for translation from the Russian. A partial description of what is being done or planned, and by whom, has been provided as a guide for those who wish to follow the subject further. The urge to pass on useful information has necessarily restricted the space which might also have been profitably devoted to the philosophic aspects of the problem. Although it is not said with any sense of pride in achievement-because much more remains to be done than has been done-it would seem fair to describe the current national translation activity, including all contributions to it, as a phenomenon. Phenomena in scientific communication are not common: a full appreciation of their significance requires more analysis than results from a simple listing of their outward characteristics. But a few observations might be made in conclusion. Most United States scientists probably feel that, as a nation, we are and should be world leaders in science, even though this feeling is neither nurtured nor expressed in a spirit of violent competition. If this assumption is allowed, the point which seems to remain is that the United States will not retain its position casually. Our scientists expect to maintain an awareness of the scientific achievements and failures of the other nations of the world. But we must especially become more aware of the advances of Soviet science, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The evidence points toward this last conclusion, regardless of whether one is concerned with the production of ideas or things, increase in man's knowledge of himself and his environment, conflict between idealisms, or simply the national security. PMID:17836422

  13. Excitation functions of alpha particle induced reactions on natTi up to 40 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, M. S.; Scholten, B.

    2016-08-01

    Excitation functions of the reactions natTi(α,x)48Cr, natTi(α,x)48V and natTi(α,x)46,48Sc were determined by the stacked-foil activation technique up to 40 MeV. The radioactivities produced in the natTi target were measured by γ-ray spectrometry using HPGe detector. The reaction natTi(α,x)51Cr was used to determine the beam parameters. New experimental values for the above reactions have been obtained. An intercomparison of our data with the available literature values has been done. The cross section results obtained in this work could be useful in defining new monitor reactions, radiation safety and isotope production.

  14. The Pharmacogenetics of NAT2 Enzyme Maturation in Perinatally HIV Exposed Infants Receiving Isoniazid

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rui; Kiser, Jennifer J.; Seifart, Heiner I.; Werely, Cedric J.; Mitchell, Charles D.; D’Argenio, David Z.; Fletcher, Courtney V.

    2011-01-01

    The roles of the NAT2 genotype and enzyme maturation on isoniazid pharmacokinetics were investigated in South African infants with perinatal HIV exposure enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of isoniazid for prevention of tuberculosis disease and latent infection. Plasma concentration-time measurements of isoniazid from 151 infants (starting at 3-4 months of age) receiving isoniazid 10 to 20 mg/kg/d orally during the course of the 24-month study were incorporated in a population analysis along with NAT2 genotype, body weight, age, and sex. The results showed a different NAT2 enzyme maturation profile for each of the 3 acetylation groups, with the 70-kg body weight–normalized typical apparent clearance for the fast and intermediate acetylators increasing from 14.25 L/h and 10.88 L/h at 3 months of age to 22.84 L/h and 15.58 L/h at 24 months of age, respectively, with no significant change in the apparent clearance of the slow group during this period. A hypothesis is proposed to explain the genotype-dependent enzyme maturation processes for the NAT2 enzyme. PMID:21558457

  15. AmeriFlux US-SP1 Slashpine-Austin Cary- 65yrs nat regen

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SP1 Slashpine-Austin Cary- 65yrs nat regen. Site Description - The ACMF site is a 67 hectare naturally regenerated Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii mixed stand.

  16. Effects of Dietary Factors and the NAT2 Acetylator Status on Gastric Cancer in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan Wei; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Yong-Dae; Song, Young-Jin; Yun, Hyo-Yung; Park, Joo-Seung; Youn, Sei-Jin; Kim, Byung Sik; Kim, Heon; Hein, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental dietary carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes have been reported to be risk factors for gastric cancer. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the diet, the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 2 acetylation status, and their interaction on gastric cancer risk. The study population consisted of 471 gastric cancer patients and 471 age- and sex-matched control subjects. NAT2 genotypes were identified using single-nucleotide primer extension reaction methods. Thirty-one alleles related to 12 polymorphism sites were assayed in this study. Significantly increased odds ratios were observed in former smokers (OR = 2.39, 95%CI = 1.57-3.62), heavy drinkers (OR = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.06-1.55), and individuals who eat well-done meat (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.09-1.41). The odds ratios (95% CI) for high intake of kimchi, stews, and soybean paste were 3.27 (2.44-4.37), 1.96 (1.50-2.58), and 1.63 (1.24-2.14), respectively. The NAT2 genotype alone was not associated with gastric cancer risk. A significant gene-environment interaction was observed between environmental carcinogens and NAT2 genotypes. The odds ratios for kimchi, stews, and soybean paste were higher in slow/intermediate acetylators than in rapid acetylators. The odds ratios for slow/intermediate acetylators were 2.28 (95% CI: 1.29-4.04) for light smokers and 3.42 (95% CI: 2.06-5.68) for well-done meat intake. The NAT2 acetylator genotype may be an important modifier of the effects of environmental factors on gastric cancer risk. PMID:19350634

  17. Gender and functional CYP2C and NAT2 polymorphisms determine the metabolic profile of metamizole.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; Andreu, Inmaculada; Amo, Gemma; Miranda, Miguel A; Esguevillas, Gara; Torres, María José; Blanca-López, Natalia; Blanca, Miguel; García-Martín, Elena; Agúndez, José A G

    2014-12-01

    Metamizole is a pain-killer drug that has been banned in some countries because of its toxicity, but it is still used in many countries due to its effective analgesic and antispasmodic properties. Although large variability in the biodisposition and adverse effects of metamizole are known, factors underlying this variability are poorly understood. We analyzed the urinary recovery of metabolites, as well as the association of these profiles with genetic and non-genetic factors, in a group of 362 healthy individuals. Gender and functional polymorphisms are strongly related to metabolic profiles. N-demethylation of the active metabolite MAA is diminished in carriers of the CYP2C19*2 allele and in NAT2-slow acetylators. Acetylation of the secondary metabolite AA is decreased in men, in drinkers and in NAT2-slow acetylators with a differential effect of NAT2*5 and NAT2*6 alleles. The formylation of MAA is diminished in older subjects and in carriers of defect CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 alleles. Two novel arachidonoyl metabolites were identified for the first time in humans. Women and NAT2-slow acetylators show higher concentrations, whereas the presence of the rapid CYP2C19*17 allele is associated with lower concentrations of these metabolites. All genetic associations show a gene-dose effect. We identified for the first time genetic and non-genetic factors related to the oxidative metabolism of analgesic drug metamizole, as well as new active metabolites in humans. The phenotypic and genetic factors identified in this study have a potential application as biomarkers of metamizole biotransformation and toxicity. PMID:25241292

  18. Interactions of Cigarette Smoking with NAT2 Polymorphisms Impact Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mikuls, Ted R.; LeVan, Tricia; Gould, Karen A.; Yu, Fang; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Bynote, Kimberly K.; Conn, Doyt; Jonas, Beth L.; Callahan, Leigh F.; Smith, Edwin; Brasington, Richard; Moreland, Larry W.; Reynolds, Richard; Gaffo, Angelo; Bridges, S. Louis

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether polymorphisms in genes coding for drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) impact rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk due to cigarette smoking in African Americans. Methods Smoking status was evaluated in African American RA cases and non-RA controls categorized as heavy (≥ 10 pack-years) vs. other. Individuals were genotyped for a homozygous deletion polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase Mu-1 (GSTM1-null) in addition to tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in N-acetyltransferase (NAT)1, NAT2, and epoxide hydrolase (EPXH1). Associations of genotypes with RA were examined using logistic regression and gene-smoking interactions were assessed. Results There were no significant associations of any DME genotype with RA. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, there were significant additive interactions between heavy smoking and NAT2 SNPs rs9987109 (Padd = 0.000003) and rs1208 (Padd = 0.00001); attributable proportions (APs) due to interaction ranged from 0.61 to 0.67. None of the multiplicative gene-smoking interactions examined remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing in overall disease risk. There was no evidence of significant gene-smoking interactions in analyses of GSTM1-null, NAT1, or EPXH1. DME gene-smoking interactions were similar when cases were limited to anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive individuals. Conclusion Among African Americans, RA risk imposed by heavy smoking appears to be mediated in part by genetic variation in NAT2. While further studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms underpinning these interactions, these SNPs appear to identify African American smokers at a much higher risk for RA with relative risks that are at least two-fold higher compared to non-smokers lacking these risk alleles. PMID:21989592

  19. N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) Genotype: A Risk Factor for Urinary Bladder Cancer in a Lebanese Population.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Ibrahim A; Kobeissi, Loulou; Jabbour, Michel E; Dhaini, Hassan R

    2012-01-01

    In Lebanon, bladder cancer is the second most incident cancer among men. This study investigates a possible association between N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) genotype, a drug-metabolizing enzyme coding gene, and bladder cancer in Lebanese men. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002-2008. Controls were conveniently identified and selected from the same settings. Data was collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. NAT1 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analysis revolved around univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression models, along with checks for effect modification. Results showed NAT1(∗)14A allele, smoking, occupational exposure to combustion fumes, and prostate-related symptoms, to be risk factors for bladder cancer. The odds of carrying at least one NAT1(∗)14A allele are 7 times higher in cases compared to controls (OR = 7.86, 95% CI: 1.53-40.39). A gene-environment interaction was identified for NAT1(∗)14A allele with occupational exposure to combustion fumes. Among carriers of NAT1(∗)14A allele, the odds of bladder cancer dropped to 2.03 from 3.72. Our study suggests NAT1(∗)14A allele as a possible biomarker for bladder cancer. Further research is recommended to confirm this association. PMID:22956951

  20. N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) Genotype: A Risk Factor for Urinary Bladder Cancer in a Lebanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yassine, Ibrahim A.; Kobeissi, Loulou; Jabbour, Michel E.; Dhaini, Hassan R.

    2012-01-01

    In Lebanon, bladder cancer is the second most incident cancer among men. This study investigates a possible association between N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) genotype, a drug-metabolizing enzyme coding gene, and bladder cancer in Lebanese men. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002–2008. Controls were conveniently identified and selected from the same settings. Data was collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. NAT1 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analysis revolved around univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression models, along with checks for effect modification. Results showed NAT1∗14A allele, smoking, occupational exposure to combustion fumes, and prostate-related symptoms, to be risk factors for bladder cancer. The odds of carrying at least one NAT1∗14A allele are 7 times higher in cases compared to controls (OR = 7.86, 95% CI: 1.53–40.39). A gene-environment interaction was identified for NAT1∗14A allele with occupational exposure to combustion fumes. Among carriers of NAT1∗14A allele, the odds of bladder cancer dropped to 2.03 from 3.72. Our study suggests NAT1∗14A allele as a possible biomarker for bladder cancer. Further research is recommended to confirm this association. PMID:22956951

  1. NAT10 regulates p53 activation through acetylating p53 at K120 and ubiquitinating Mdm2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Tan, Yuqin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Liangliang; Ren, Pengwei; Deng, Hongkui; Luo, Jianyuan; Ke, Yang; Du, Xiaojuan

    2016-03-01

    As a genome guardian, p53 maintains genome stability by arresting cells for damage repair or inducing cell apoptosis to eliminate the damaged cells in stress response. Several nucleolar proteins stabilize p53 by interfering Mdm2-p53 interaction upon cellular stress, while other mechanisms by which nucleolar proteins activate p53 remain to be determined. Here, we identify NAT10 as a novel regulator for p53 activation. NAT10 acetylates p53 at K120 and stabilizes p53 by counteracting Mdm2 action. In addition, NAT10 promotes Mdm2 degradation with its intrinsic E3 ligase activity. After DNA damage, NAT10 translocates to nucleoplasm and activates p53-mediated cell cycle control and apoptosis. Finally, NAT10 inhibits cell proliferation and expression of NAT10 decreases in human colorectal carcinomas. Thus, our data demonstrate that NAT10 plays a critical role in p53 activation via acetylating p53 and counteracting Mdm2 action, providing a novel pathway by which nucleolar protein activates p53 as a cellular stress sensor. PMID:26882543

  2. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  3. Can Computer Translation Replace Human Translation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schairer, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates three commercial computer-based language translation programs' translation of a university social sciences telephone survey from English to Spanish. The three programs, "Spanish Scholar,""Spanish Assistant," and "Spanish Amigo," were rated as unacceptable in their quality of translations by native and near-native Spanish speakers. (nine…

  4. Automated Triplex (HBV, HCV and HIV) NAT Assay Systems for Blood Screening in India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This review is confined to triplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays to be used on fully automated platform. Around the world, these assays are being used at various transfusion medicine centres or blood banks to screen blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV. These assay systems can screen up to 1000 blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV simultaneously in a day. This area has been dominated by mainly two manufacturers: M/s Gen-Probe-Novartis and M/s Roche Molecular Systems. The triplex NAT assay systems of both manufacturers are licensed by United States Food and Drug Administration. There is not much awareness about the technology and procedures used in these assays. The main objective of this review is to create awareness about the technology and procedure of these assays. PMID:27042485

  5. Automated Triplex (HBV, HCV and HIV) NAT Assay Systems for Blood Screening in India.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Manoj Kumar

    2016-02-01

    This review is confined to triplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays to be used on fully automated platform. Around the world, these assays are being used at various transfusion medicine centres or blood banks to screen blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV. These assay systems can screen up to 1000 blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV simultaneously in a day. This area has been dominated by mainly two manufacturers: M/s Gen-Probe-Novartis and M/s Roche Molecular Systems. The triplex NAT assay systems of both manufacturers are licensed by United States Food and Drug Administration. There is not much awareness about the technology and procedures used in these assays. The main objective of this review is to create awareness about the technology and procedure of these assays. PMID:27042485

  6. Translational informatics: an industry perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health. PMID:22237867

  7. Activation cross-sections of proton induced reactions on natSm up to 65 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Hermanne, A.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    Activation cross sections for proton induced reactions on Sm are presented for the first time for natSm(p,xn)154,152m2,152m1,152g,150m,150g,149,148,147,146,145Eu, natSm(p,x)153,145Sm, natSm(p,x)151,150,149,148g,148m,146,144,143Pm and natSm(p,x)141Nd up to 65 MeV. The cross sections were measured via activation method by using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The results were compared with results of the nuclear reaction codes ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS (results taken from TENDL libraries). Integral yields of the activation products were calculated from the excitation functions.

  8. Cysteamine effects on somatostatin, catecholamines, pineal NAT and melatonin in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.M.; Champney, T.H.; Steger, R.W.; Vaughan, M.K.; Reiter, R.J.

    1986-03-01

    The thiol reagent cysteamine was administered to adult male rats with the aim of investigating its effect on different neural and pineal components. As expected, immunoreactive somatostatin decreased in the median eminence (ME) (p less than 0.05) and gastric antrum (p less than 0.05) after cysteamine; however, no significant change was observed in the pineal IRS content after drug treatment. A decrease in norepinephrine was observed in the ME (p less than 0.001), hypothalamus (p less than 0.001) and pineal gland (p less than 0.05), together with a rise in ME (p less than 0.005) and hypothalamic dopamine (p less than 0.005) content; these results are consistent with a dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibiting effect of cysteamine. No effect was observed on hypothalamic serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid content. Pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) after cysteamine than after saline, but no statistically significant effect was observed on pineal melatonin content. The mechanism involved in the NAT rise is presumably not related to the known stimulatory effect of norepinephrine, which fell after cysteamine. It is suggested that cysteamine may act at an intracellular level, inhibiting NAT degradation, an effect demonstrated in vitro and thought to be related to a thiol:disulfide exchange mechanism.

  9. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  10. The profibrinolytic enzyme subtilisin NAT purified from Bacillus subtilis Cleaves and inactivates plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1.

    PubMed

    Urano, T; Ihara, H; Umemura, K; Suzuki, Y; Oike, M; Akita, S; Tsukamoto, Y; Suzuki, I; Takada, A

    2001-07-01

    In this report, we demonstrate an interaction between subtilisin NAT (formerly designated BSP, or nattokinase), a profibrinolytic serine proteinase from Bacillus subtilis, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Subtilisin NAT was purified to homogeneity (molecular mass, 27.7 kDa) from a saline extract of B. subtilis (natto). Subtilisin NAT appeared to cleave active recombinant prokaryotic PAI-1 (rpPAI-1) into low molecular weight fragments. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in combination with time-of-flight mass spectroscopy and peptide sequence analysis revealed that rpPAI-1 was cleaved at its reactive site (P1-P1': Arg(346)-Met(347)). rpPAI-1 lost its specific activity after subtilisin NAT treatment in a dose-dependent manner (0.02-1.0 nm; half-maximal effect at approximately 0.1 nm). Subtilisin NAT dose dependently (0.06-1 nm) enhanced tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced fibrin clot lysis both in the absence of rpPAI-1 (48 +/- 1.4% at 1 nm) and especially in the presence of rpPAI-1 (78 +/- 2.0% at 1 nm). The enhancement observed in the absence of PAI-1 seems to be induced through direct fibrin dissolution by subtilisin NAT. The stronger enhancement by subtilisin NAT of rpPAI-1-enriched fibrin clot lysis seems to involve the cleavage and inactivation of active rpPAI-1. This mechanism is suggested to be important for subtilisin NAT to potentiate fibrinolysis. PMID:11325965

  11. Elevated arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) gene expression in medial habenular and suprachiasmatic nuclei of hibernating ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Erik Z; Hallenbeck, John M; Cai, Decheng; McCarron, Richard M

    2002-06-15

    Hibernation, an adaptive response for energy conservation in mammals, involves a variety of physiological changes. Melatonin is linked with the regulation of core body temperature and intervenes in generating circadian cycles; its role in seasonal (circannual) rhythms of hibernation is explored here. Melatonin is primarily produced in the pineal gland. Since arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme for synthesizing melatonin, AA-NAT gene expression was investigated to assess the possible role of melatonin in hibernation. The findings presented here utilized combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry methodologies to evaluate the AA-NAT mRNA expression in brains of both hibernating and non-hibernating ground squirrels. Brains were examined for the expression of AA-NAT mRNA using a oligonucleotide AA-NAT probe; antibody against neurofilament-70 (NF-70) was used as a neuronal marker. All hibernating animals expressed significantly (P<0.01) elevated levels of AA-NAT mRNA in both the epithalamic medial habenular nuclei (MHb) area and the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), which is also known as the master biologic clock. These findings represent the first demonstration of the expression of mRNA encoding for AA-NAT in the extra-pineal (i.e. SCN and MHb) sites of thirteen-lined ground squirrels and indicate that the habenular nucleus may be an important supplementary location for melatonin biosynthesis. The data presented here indicate that AA-NAT gene is one of the few specific genes up-regulated during hibernation and suggest that elevation of its expression in SCN and MHb may play an essential role in the generation and maintenance of hibernation. PMID:12191489

  12. Genotype and allele frequencies of isoniazid-metabolizing enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in Latvian tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Igumnova, Viktorija; Capligina, Valentina; Krams, Alvils; Cirule, Andra; Elferts, Didzis; Pole, Ilva; Jansone, Inta; Bandere, Dace; Ranka, Renate

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacogenomic testing of tuberculosis drug-metabolizing enzyme genes was proposed as a strategy to identify patients at risk for suboptimal responses to medications. However, variations of the genotype frequencies among ethnic groups exist and new alleles are been identified. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms of genes encoding metabolic enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in tuberculosis patients in Latvia and to estimate the frequency of NAT2 slow acetylator and GSTM1 null genotypes. In total, 85 DNA samples were genotyped, all individuals were Caucasian. An ethnic heterogeneity reflecting the multiethnic population of the country was observed. 49 patients were Latvians, 30 were Russians and 6 of other ethnicity. In total, 7 NAT2 alleles were identified: *4, *5, *6, *7, *11, *12, * and *13. The most frequent was the slow acetylation allele NAT2*6 (frequency 0.388) followed by the slow acetylation allele NAT2*5 and the rapid acetylation allele NAT2*4 (frequencies 0.306 and 0.194, respectively). The predominance of slow (51.8%) and intermediate (43.5%) acetylators compared with rapid acetylators (4.7%) was observed. The GSTM1 null genotype was detected in 48.2% of tuberculosis patients. When subgroup analysis was performed according to ethnicity, the results showed that neither NAT2 allele frequencies nor GSTM1 null genotype frequency did not differ significantly in TB patients of Latvian or Russian ethnicity. Overall, genotyping results were similar with previous reports of a NAT2 gene variation and GSTM1 null genotype frequency in Caucasians. Our findings have a contribution for the pharmacogenetics-based tuberculosis therapy in Latvia in future. PMID:27236516

  13. Literature in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

    An examination of literature in translation is vital to literary interpretation and, ultimately, essential to mutual understanding among peoples from different cultures. Teaching translations requires consideration of linguistic, social, and temporal areas. Translations require alterations in language since languages never translate precisely from…

  14. Thanksgiving Address of the North American Indian Ohenton Kariwatehkwen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Watenriio (Michael), Comp.; And Others

    Translated by the North American Indian Travelling College, this traditional Thanksgiving Address is delivered before and after all meetings and ceremonies of the Iroquois people. Through this address, the Creator is introduced into a ceremony, social dance, or council, and, at the end of the meeting, the address brings the minds of the people…

  15. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  16. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  17. Contribution of the N‐acetyltransferase 2 polymorphism NAT2*6A to age‐related hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Van Eyken, E; Van Camp, G; Fransen, E; Topsakal, V; Hendrickx, J J; Demeester, K; Van de Heyning, P; Mäki‐Torkko, E; Hannula, S; Sorri, M; Jensen, M; Parving, A; Bille, M; Baur, M; Pfister, M; Bonaconsa, A; Mazzoli, M; Orzan, E; Espeso, A; Stephens, D; Verbruggen, K; Huyghe, J; Dhooge, I; Huygen, P; Kremer, H; Cremers, C W R J; Kunst, S; Manninen, M; Pyykkö, I; Lacava, A; Steffens, M; Wienker, T F; Van Laer, L

    2007-01-01

    Background Age‐related hearing impairment (ARHI) is the most common sensory impairment in older people, affecting 50% of those aged 80 years. The proportion of older people is increasing in the general population, and as a consequence, the number of people affected with ARHI is growing. ARHI is a complex disorder, with both environmental and genetic factors contributing to the disease. The first studies to elucidate these genetic factors were recently performed, resulting in the identification of the first two susceptibility genes for ARHI, NAT2 and KCNQ4. Methods In the present study, the association between ARHI and polymorphisms in genes that contribute to the defence against reactive oxygen species, including GSTT1, GSTM1 and NAT2, was tested. Samples originated from seven different countries and were combined into two test population samples, the general European population and the Finnish population. Two distinct phenotypes for ARHI were studied, Zlow and Zhigh, representing hearing in the low and high frequencies, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed for single polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2*5A, NAT2*6A, and NAT2*7A), haplotypes, and gene–environment and gene–gene interactions. Results We found an association between ARHI and GSTT1 and GSTM1 in the Finnish population sample, and with NAT2*6A in the general European population sample. The latter finding replicates previously published data. Conclusion As replication is considered the ultimate proof of true associations in the study of complex disorders, this study provides further support for the involvement of NAT2*6A in ARHI. PMID:17513527

  18. Translation between representation languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  19. Translating the concepts behind gateways.

    PubMed

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The intention of this installment of IT World is to bring the various aspects of gateways into view. You can see how loosely the gateway term is used and how the meaning of the term has changed over time. Keep concepts of gateways in order by considering their main function. The main function for gateways is to convert from one set of communication protocols to some other set of communication protocols-thus allowing access to otherwise incompatible networks. These functions include: Protocol Conversion--When a message is prepared for transmission, each layer adds control information unique to the protocol used at that layer (see Figure 1). The gateway must be able to convert control information to the format the receiving network expects. Services affected may include message segmentation and reassembly, data flow control, and error detection and recovery. Protocol converters connect networks that use different communication protocols. Address Translation--Different networks may employ different network addressing schemes, mechanisms, and network address structures. The gateway must be able to interpret network addresses in one network and convert them into appropriate network addresses for the other network while holding the validity of the address resolution. Examples that include both protocol conversion and address translation are when a gateway converts a TCP/IP packet to a NetWare IPX packet and vice versa or from AppleTalk to DECnet, and so on. Message Format Conversion--Different networks can employ different message formats, maximum message sizes, or character codes. The gateway must be able to convert messages to an appropriate format, size, and coding for the receiving network. Examples are CGI and an email gateway (which is a layer 7-application layer-gateway). Keep these main concepts in mind while surfing the web trying to find out more information about what your gateways are up to! PMID:16796324

  20. NAT2 and NER genetic variants and sporadic prostate cancer susceptibility in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hooker, S; Bonilla, C; Akereyeni, F; Ahaghotu, C; Kittles, R A

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy that disproportionately affects African-American men. Environmental factors and variation in genes responsible for chemical and dietary carcinogen metabolism and DNA damage repair may modulate risk. Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms in NAT2 and four NER genes (ERCC1, XPF/ERCC4, XPG/ERCC5 and CSB/ERCC6) were genotyped in a case-control study of 254 African-American prostate cancer cases and 301 healthy controls from Washington, DC. Smoking status, BMI, age and genetic ancestry were included as covariates in the association analyses. We found that individuals homozygous for the XPG/ERCC5 -72C/T promoter polymorphism had a significant reduction in risk, for prostate cancer (OR=0.12; 95% CI=0.03-0.48). A haplotype trend regression test also revealed a protective effect for the haplotype bearing the T allele (P=0.003). In silica analyses suggest a functional implication for the promoter variant since it deletes a GCF transcriptional factor-binding site responsible for the downregulation of transcription. The protective effect of the promoter SNP on risk for prostate cancer was independent of smoking. In contrast, none of the SNPs typed for NAT2, ERCC1, ERCC4 and ERCC6 showed significant association with risk. Additional tests for genotype interactions were not significant. We note that there may be other factors, such as dietary exposures, which may modulate prostate cancer risk in combination with genetic variation within the NAT2 and NER genes. Our results, in combination with previous observations of LOH for ERCC5 in prostate tumors, provide further evidence for a role of XPG/ERCC5 in the etiology of prostate cancer. PMID:18026184

  1. Infrared spectroscopic characterization of dehydration and accompanying phase transition behaviors in NAT-topology zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Bishop, David

    2012-01-01

    Relative humidity (PH2O, partial pressure of water)-dependent dehydration and accompanying phase transitions in NAT-topology zeolites (natrolite, scolecite, and mesolite) were studied under controlled temperature and known PH2O conditions by in situ diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and parallel X-ray powder diffraction. Dehydration was characterized by the disappearance of internal H2O vibrational modes. The loss of H2O molecules caused a sequence of structural transitions in which the host framework transformation path was coupled primarily via the thermal motion of guest Na?/Ca2? cations and H2O molecules. The observation of different interactions of H2O molecules and Na?/Ca2? cations with host aluminosilicate frameworks under highand low-PH2O conditions indicated the development of different local strain fields, arising from cation H2O interactions in NAT-type channels. These strain fields influence the Si O/Al O bond strength and tilting angles within and between tetrahedra as the dehydration temperature is approached. The newly observed infrared bands (at 2,139 cm-1 in natrolite, 2,276 cm-1 in scolecite, and 2,176 and 2,259 cm-1 in mesolite) result from strong cation H2O Al Si framework interactions in NAT-type channels, and these bands can be used to evaluate the energetic evolution of Na?/Ca2? cations before and after phase transitions, especially for scolecite and mesolite. The 2,176 and 2,259 cm-1 absorption bands in mesolite also appear to be related to Na?/Ca2? order disorder that occur when mesolite loses its Ow4 H2O molecules.

  2. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  3. Introduction of the HAM-Nat examination – applicants and students admitted to the Medical Faculty in 2012-2014

    PubMed Central

    Werwick, Katrin; Winkler-Stuck, Kirstin; Hampe, Wolfgang; Albrecht, Peggy; Robra, Bernt-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: In the 2012/13 winter semester, the Magdeburg Medical Faculty introduced a test of knowledge for the selection of applicants. The Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine - Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat) comprises a multiple-choice test with questions on the aspects of biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics relevant to medicine, which was specifically developed for the selection of medicine applicants. The aim is to study how the HAM-Nat influences student selection, the reasons why students decide to take the test as part of their application procedure and what expectations they have of their course of study. Methods: The selection procedures applied at the university in 2011 (without HAM-Nat) and in 2012-2014 (with HAM-Nat) are compared. On the basis of the results of exploratory interviews, university entrants in winter semester 2013/2014 participated in a written survey on why they chose their subject and place of study and their expectations of their course of study. Results: No problems were encountered in introducing the extended selection procedure that included the HAM-Nat Test. The HAM-Nat had a great influence on the selection decision. About 65% of the students admitted would not have obtained a place if the decision had been based exclusively on their Abitur grade [grade obtained in the German school-leaving examination]. On average, male applicants obtained better HAM-Nat results than female ones. The questionnaire was answered by 147 out of 191 university entrants (77%). In the case of applicants from Saxony-Anhalt, the principle reasons for choosing the regional capital are its proximity, the social environment offered, good conditions for studying and the feel-good factor at the university. For the majority of applicants, however, particularly applicants from other federal states, the relatively good chances of admission in Magdeburg were the main reason. Conclusion: The Magdeburg Medical Faculty regards the HAM-Nat as a suitable tool

  4. Genotyping of the polymorphic N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) and loss of heterozygosity in bladder cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Schnakenberg, E; Ehlers, C; Feyerabend, W; Werdin, R; Hübotter, R; Dreikorn, K; Schloot, W

    1998-05-01

    Acetylation is one of the major routes in metabolism and detoxification of a large number of drugs, chemicals and carcinogens. Slow acetylators are said to be more susceptible to developing bladder cancer and because of investigations about tumor risk based on phenotyping procedures, it was our aim to study the distribution of allelic constellations of the N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) by genotyping patients with bladder cancer. We analysed NAT2 gene of blood and tumor DNA from 60 patients with primary bladder cancer and DNA of blood samples from 154 healthy individuals. Using ASO-PCR/RFLP techniques we identified 70% of patients with bladder cancer (n = 42) to be slow acetylators while genotyping of controls resulted in 61% with slow acetylators (n = 94). In addition, dividing bladder cancer patients in males and females the genotype NAT2*5B/NAT2*6A occured with much higher frequencies in males (OR = 4, 95%); CI = 1.8-8.9). Furthermore, investigating bladder cancer tissues we could detect loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in slow and rapid acetylator genotypes. In eleven out of 60 tumor samples (18.3%) we observed allelic loss at the NAT2 locus while in control DNA of blood from the same patients both alleles were still detectable. PMID:9660060

  5. Toward Balance in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Nancy A.

    A study compared translations of biblical passages into different languages in Papua New Guinea. The study looked for evidence of balance between literal and free interpretation in translation style in the gospel of Mark, which is narrative and didactic material, in 12 languages, and the mainly hortatory genre in translations of 4 epistles:…

  6. For "Translation and Theories"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…

  7. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  8. Structures and functions of insect arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (iaaNAT); a key enzyme for physiological and behavioral switch in arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Hiragaki, Susumu; Suzuki, Takeshi; Mohamed, Ahmed A. M.; Takeda, Makio

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of N-acetyltransfeases (NATs) seems complex. Vertebrate arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aaNAT) has been extensively studied since it leads to the synthesis of melatonin, a multifunctional neurohormone prevalent in photoreceptor cells, and is known as a chemical token of the night. Melatonin also serves as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species. This is also true with invertebrates. NAT therefore has distinct functional implications in circadian function, as timezymes (aaNAT), and also xenobiotic reactions (arylamine NAT or simply NAT). NATs belong to a broader enzyme group, the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. Due to low sequence homology and a seemingly fast rate of structural differentiation, the nomenclature for NATs can be confusing. The advent of bioinformatics, however, has helped to classify this group of enzymes; vertebrates have two distinct subgroups, the timezyme type and the xenobiotic type, which has a wider substrate range including imidazolamine, pharmacological drugs, environmental toxicants and even histone. Insect aaNAT (iaaNAT) form their own clade in the phylogeny, distinct from vertebrate aaNATs. Arthropods are unique, since the phylum has exoskeleton in which quinones derived from N-acetylated monoamines function in coupling chitin and arthropodins. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity is limited in insects, but NAT-mediated degradation prevails. However, unexpectedly iaaNAT occurs not only among arthropods but also among basal deuterostomia, and is therefore more apomorphic. Our analyses illustrate that iaaNATs has unique physiological roles but at the same time it plays a role in a timezyme function, at least in photoperiodism. Photoperiodism has been considered as a function of circadian system but the detailed molecular mechanism is not well understood. We propose a molecular hypothesis for photoperiodism in Antheraea pernyi based on the transcription regulation of NAT interlocked by the circadian system

  9. Revisiting interaction in knowledge translation

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Liane R; Lewis, Steven; Zackheim, Lisa; Casebeer, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background Although the study of research utilization is not new, there has been increased emphasis on the topic over the recent past. Science push models that are researcher driven and controlled and demand pull models emphasizing users/decision-maker interests have largely been abandoned in favour of more interactive models that emphasize linkages between researchers and decisionmakers. However, despite these and other theoretical and empirical advances in the area of research utilization, there remains a fundamental gap between the generation of research findings and the application of those findings in practice. Methods Using a case approach, the current study looks at the impact of one particular interaction approach to research translation used by a Canadian funding agency. Results Results suggest there may be certain conditions under which different levels of decisionmaker involvement in research will be more or less effective. Four attributes are illuminated by the current case study: stakeholder diversity, addressability/actionability of results, finality of study design and methodology, and politicization of results. Future research could test whether these or other variables can be used to specify some of the conditions under which different approaches to interaction in knowledge translation are likely to facilitate research utilization. Conclusion This work suggests that the efficacy of interaction approaches to research translation may be more limited than current theory proposes and underscores the need for more completely specified models of research utilization that can help address the slow pace of change in this area. PMID:17971208

  10. Scaffold Translation: Barriers Between Concept and Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Translation of scaffold-based bone tissue engineering (BTE) therapies to clinical use remains, bluntly, a failure. This dearth of translated tissue engineering therapies (including scaffolds) remains despite 25 years of research, research funding totaling hundreds of millions of dollars, over 12,000 papers on BTE and over 2000 papers on BTE scaffolds alone in the past 10 years (PubMed search). Enabling scaffold translation requires first an understanding of the challenges, and second, addressing the complete range of these challenges. There are the obvious technical challenges of designing, manufacturing, and functionalizing scaffolds to fill the Form, Fixation, Function, and Formation needs of bone defect repair. However, these technical solutions should be targeted to specific clinical indications (e.g., mandibular defects, spine fusion, long bone defects, etc.). Further, technical solutions should also address business challenges, including the need to obtain regulatory approval, meet specific market needs, and obtain private investment to develop products, again for specific clinical indications. Finally, these business and technical challenges present a much different model than the typical research paradigm, presenting the field with philosophical challenges in terms of publishing and funding priorities that should be addressed as well. In this article, we review in detail the technical, business, and philosophical barriers of translating scaffolds from Concept to Clinic. We argue that envisioning and engineering scaffolds as modular systems with a sliding scale of complexity offers the best path to addressing these translational challenges. PMID:21902613

  11. Novel polymorphism of AA-NAT gene in Indian goat breeds differing in reproductive traits.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R; Ahlawat, S; Tantia, M S

    2015-01-01

    This is the first description of the polymorphisms of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) gene in Indian goats with different reproductive traits (twinning percentage and age of sexual maturity). Based on the important role of AA-NAT in reproduction, it is considered as a possible candidate gene for this trait. Two novel synonymous SNPs, C825T (exon2) and C1249T (exon3) were identified. All three possible genotypes (CC, CT and TT) were identified for C825T mutation whereas two genotypes were observed (CC and CT) for C1249T mutation. SNPs C825T and C1249T changed recognition site of restriction enzyme BtsCI (GGA T G) and AciI (C C GC) and thus can be genotyped by the relatively simple and cost effective technique of PCR-RFLP for establishing further association with reproductive traits. Present results add to the meager existing knowledge and extend the spectrum of genetic variation of caprine candidate genes of reproductive traits, which is another step towards improvement of goat genetic resources and breeding. PMID:27175207

  12. [Biomarkers: "Found in translation"].

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Brian P; Walther, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    Despite continued increase in global Pharma R & D expenditure, the number of innovative drugs obtaining market approval has declined since 1994. The pharmaceutical industry is now entering a crucial juncture where increasing rates of attrition in clinical drug development as well as increasing development timelines are impacted by external factors such as intense regulatory pricing and safety pressures, increasing sales erosion due to generics, as well as exponential increases in the costs of bringing a drug to market. Despite these difficulties, numerous opportunities exist such as multiple unmet medical needs, the increasing incidence of certain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity due to demographic changes, as well as the emergence of evolving markets such as China, India, and Eastern Europe. Consequently, Pharma is now responding to this challenge by improving both the productivity and the innovation in its drug discovery and development pipelines. In this regard, the advent of new technologies and expertise such as genomics, proteomics, structural biology, and molecular informatics in an integrated systems biology approach also provides a powerful opportunity for Pharma to address some of these difficulties. The key features behind this new strategy imply a discovery process based on an improved understanding of the molecular mechanism of diseases and drugs, translational research that places the patient at the center of the research process, and the application of biomarkers throughout the discovery and development phases. Moreover, new paradigms are required to improve target validation and develop more predictive cellular and animal models of human pathologies, a greater capacity in informatics-based analysis, and, consequently, a greater access to the vast sources of accumulating biological data and its integrated analysis. In the present review, we will address some of these issues and in particular emphasize how the

  13. Qualitative perspectives in translational research.

    PubMed

    Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Doebbeling, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    The rapid uptake of qualitative approaches in translational research can be best understood in the context of recent innovations in health services research, as well as an overarching concern with improving the quality of health care. Qualitative approaches highlight the human dimension in health care by foregrounding the perceptions, experiences, and behaviors of both consumers and providers of care. As such, these methods are particularly useful for addressing the complex issues related to improving health care quality and implementing system change. This overview traces a brief history of the factors contributing to the recent and rapid growth of qualitative methods in health research in general and translational research in particular; describes the varieties of qualitative approaches employed in this research; and illustrates the utility of these approaches for variable identification, instrument development, description/explanation of patient/provider perceptions and behaviors, individual/organizational change, and theory refinement. PMID:17129338

  14. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on natSm up to 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Hermanne, A.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Csikai, J.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2014-08-01

    Activation cross-sections for deuteron induced reactions on Sm are presented for the first time for natSm(d,xn)155,154,152m2,152m1,152g,150m,150g,149,148,147,146Eu, natSm(d,x) 153,145Sm and natSm(d,x)151,150,149,145,144,143Pm up to 50 MeV. The cross-sections were measured by the stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The results were compared with results of nuclear reaction codes ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS (from TENDL libraries). Integral yields of the products were calculated from the excitation functions.

  15. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  16. Alba from Thermoplasma volcanium belongs to α-NAT's: An insight into the structural aspects of Tv Alba and its acetylation by Tv Ard1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Pathak, Chinar; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki-Young; Jang, Sun-Bok; Nam, Minjoo; Im, Hookang; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2016-01-15

    The Alba superfamily proteins have been regarded as a conserved group of proteins in archaea and eukarya, which have shown to be important in nucleic acid binding, chromatic organization and gene regulation. These proteins often belong to the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) category (N(α)-acetyltransferases or N(ε)-acetyltransferases) and undergo post-translational modifications. Here, we report the crystal structure of Alba from Thermoplasma volcanium (Tv Alba) at 2.4 Å resolution. The acetylation of Tv Alba was monitored and the N-terminal of Tv Alba has been shown to interact with acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA). The chemical shift perturbation experiments of Tv Alba were performed in the presence of Ac-CoA and/or Tv Ard1, another T. volcanium protein that treats Tv Alba as a substrate. To examine the DNA binding capabilities of Tv Alba alone and in the presence of Ac-CoA and/or Tv Ard1, EMSA experiments were carried out. It is shown that although Tv Alba binds to Ac-CoA, the acetylation of Tv Alba is not related with its binding to dsDNA, and the involvement of the N-terminus in Ac-CoA binding demonstrates that Tv Alba belongs to the N(α)-acetyltransferase family. PMID:26657068

  17. The cancerous translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Craig R; Ruggero, Davide

    2011-08-01

    Deregulations in translational control are critical features of cancer initiation and progression. Activation of key oncogenic pathways promotes rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming, not simply by increasing overall protein synthesis, but also by modulating specific mRNA networks that promote cellular transformation. Additionally, ribosomopathies caused by mutations in ribosome components alter translational regulation leading to specific pathological features, including cancer susceptibility. Exciting advances in our understanding of translational control in cancer have illuminated a striking specificity innate to the translational apparatus. Characterizing this specificity will provide novel insights into how cells normally utilize translational control to modulate gene expression, how it is deregulated in cancer, and how these processes can be targeted to develop new cancer therapies. PMID:21543223

  18. Comparison of Procleix Ultrio Elite and Procleix Ultrio NAT Assays for Screening of Transfusion Transmitted Infections among Blood Donors in India

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Rahul; Rout, Diptiranjan; Zaman, Shamsuz; Chatterjee, Kabita; Pandey, Hem Chandra; Maurya, Abhishek Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) has helped in decreasing window period donations, resulting in increased safety of blood supplies. NAT combines the advantages of direct and highly sequence-specific detection of viral genomes. We analysed the performance of newer Procleix Ultrio Elite (PUE) and Procleix Ultrio assay (PUA) for the screening of the viral markers in our donor population. Material and Methods. 10,015 donor samples were screened by routine immunoassays and both versions of NAT. NAT yields detected were subjected to viral load estimation and to other serological markers. Results. A total of 21 NAT yields were detected; three were positive by both NAT systems, whereas 18 samples were reactive by PUE only. NAT yields include 18 HBV and 3 HCV yields, of which 17 HBV yields were occult infections and 1 was window period (WP) infection. All 3 HCV yields were WP infections. No HIV-1/HIV-2 yield was found. Conclusion. Efficient target capture chemistry in the new TMA assay version significantly improved sensitivity. NAT is superior to serological immunoassays for screening of the viral markers; and the efficient target capture system in the newer TMA assay, namely, the PUE system, has significantly improved sensitivity over the earlier versions. PMID:26904124

  19. Trusted Translation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  20. Human NAT10 Is an ATP-dependent RNA Acetyltransferase Responsible for N4-Acetylcytidine Formation in 18 S Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)*

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Satoshi; Horikawa, Sayuri; Suzuki, Tateki; Kawauchi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Human N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10) is known to be a lysine acetyltransferase that targets microtubules and histones and plays an important role in cell division. NAT10 is highly expressed in malignant tumors, and is also a promising target for therapies against laminopathies and premature aging. Here we report that NAT10 is an ATP-dependent RNA acetyltransferase responsible for formation of N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) at position 1842 in the terminal helix of mammalian 18 S rRNA. RNAi-mediated knockdown of NAT10 resulted in growth retardation of human cells, and this was accompanied by high-level accumulation of the 30 S precursor of 18 S rRNA, suggesting that ac4C1842 formation catalyzed by NAT10 is involved in rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25411247

  1. Neutron Elastic and Inelastic Scattering Cross Sections on ^NatFe and ^23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersting, Luke; Lueck, Collin J.; Hicks, S. F.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2010-10-01

    Neutron elastic and inelastic scattering angular distributions from ^NatFe and ^23Na at incident neutron energies of 3.57 and 3.81 MeV have been measured at the University of Kentucky 7 MV Van de Graaff laboratory using neutron time-of-flight techniques. The neutron beam was produced using the ^3H(p,n)He^3reaction. The scattered neutrons were detected at angles between 20 and 150 in 10 intervals with a hexafluorbenzene detector located approximately 3 m from the scattering samples. Neutron scattering differential cross sections were deduced. These cross sections and their uncertainties are important for understanding neutron-induced reactions in fission reactors and are important for fission reactor criticality calculations.

  2. The Legacy of Nat Sternberg: The Genesis of Cre-lox Technology.

    PubMed

    Yarmolinsky, Michael; Hoess, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    Cre-lox of bacteriophage P1 has become one of the most widely used tools for genetic engineering in eukaryotes. The origins of this tool date to more than 30 years ago when Nat L. Sternberg discovered the recombinase, Cre, and its specific locus of crossover, lox, while studying the maintenance of bacteriophage P1 as a stable plasmid. Recombinations mediated by Cre assist in cyclization of the DNA of infecting phage and in resolution of prophage multimers created by generalized recombination. Early in vitro work demonstrated that, although it shares similarities with the well-characterized bacteriophage λ integration, Cre-lox is in many ways far simpler in its requirements for carrying out recombination. These features would prove critical for its development as a powerful and versatile tool in genetic engineering. We review the history of the discovery and characterization of Cre-lox and touch upon the present direction of Cre-lox research. PMID:26958905

  3. Measurement of excitation functions in alpha induced reactions on natCu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun; Zaman, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    The excitation functions of 66,67,68Ga, 62,63,65Zn, 61,64Cu, and 58,60Co radionuclides in the natCu(α, x) reaction were measured in the energy range from 15 to 42 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation method at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The measured results were compared with the literature data as well as the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2013 and TENDL-2014 libraries based on the TALYS-1.6 code. The integral yields for thick targets of the produced radionuclides were also determined from the measured excitation functions and the stopping power of natural copper.

  4. GSTM1 null and NAT2 slow acetylation genotypes, smoking intensity and bladder cancer risk: results from the New England bladder cancer study and NAT2 meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, L E; Baris, D R; Figueroa, J D; Garcia-Closas, M; Karagas, M R; Schwenn, M R; Johnson, A T; Lubin, J H; Hein, D W; Dagnall, C L; Colt, J S; Kida, M; Jones, M A; Schned, A R; Cherala, S S; Chanock, S J; Cantor, K P; Silverman, D T; Rothman, N

    2011-02-01

    Associations between bladder cancer risk and NAT2 and GSTM1 polymorphisms have emerged as some of the most consistent findings in the genetic epidemiology of common metabolic polymorphisms and cancer, but their interaction with tobacco use, intensity and duration remain unclear. In a New England population-based case-control study of urothelial carcinoma, we collected mouthwash samples from 1088 of 1171 cases (92.9%) and 1282 of 1418 controls (91.2%) for genotype analysis of GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of bladder cancer among New England Bladder Cancer Study subjects with one or two inactive GSTM1 alleles (i.e. the 'null' genotype) were 1.26 (0.85-1.88) and 1.54 (1.05-2.25), respectively (P-trend = 0.008), compared with those with two active copies. GSTT1 inactive alleles were not associated with risk. NAT2 slow acetylation status was not associated with risk among never (1.04; 0.71-1.51), former (0.95; 0.75-1.20) or current smokers (1.33; 0.91-1.95); however, a relationship emerged when smoking intensity was evaluated. Among slow acetylators who ever smoked at least 40 cigarettes/day, risk was elevated among ever (1.82; 1.14-2.91, P-interaction = 0.07) and current heavy smokers (3.16; 1.22-8.19, P-interaction = 0.03) compared with rapid acetylators in each category; but was not observed at lower intensities. In contrast, the effect of GSTM1-null genotype was not greater among smokers, regardless of intensity. Meta-analysis of the NAT2 associations with bladder cancer showed a highly significant relationship. Findings from this large USA population-based study provided evidence that the NAT2 slow acetylation genotype interacts with tobacco smoking as a function of exposure intensity. PMID:21037224

  5. Multiple Advantageous Amino Acid Variants in the NAT2 Gene in Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Francesca; Bubba, Giuseppina; Basile, Massimo; Brdicka, Radim; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel; Rickards, Olga; Vershubsky, Galina; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Kozlov, Andrey I.; Novelletto, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetic variation at NAT2 has been long recognized as the cause of differential ability to metabolize a wide variety of drugs of therapeutic use. Here, we explore the pattern of genetic variation in 12 human populations that significantly extend the geographic range and resolution of previous surveys, to test the hypothesis that different dietary regimens and lifestyles may explain inter-population differences in NAT2 variation. Methodology/Principal Findings The entire coding region was resequenced in 98 subjects and six polymorphic positions were genotyped in 150 additional subjects. A single previously undescribed variant was found (34T>C; 12Y>H). Several aspects of the data do not fit the expectations of a neutral model, as assessed by coalescent simulations. Tajima's D is positive in all populations, indicating an excess of intermediate alleles. The level of between-population differentiation is low, and is mainly accounted for by the proportion of fast vs. slow acetylators. However, haplotype frequencies significantly differ across groups of populations with different subsistence. Conclusions/Significance Data on the structure of haplotypes and their frequencies are compatible with a model in which slow-causing variants were present in widely dispersed populations before major shifts to pastoralism and/or agriculture. In this model, slow-causing mutations gained a selective advantage in populations shifting from hunting-gathering to pastoralism/agriculture. We suggest the diminished dietary availability of folates resulting from the nutritional shift, as the possible cause of the fitness increase associated to haplotypes carrying mutations that reduce enzymatic activity. PMID:18773084

  6. Experimental cross-sections for proton-induced nuclear reactions on natMo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Červenák, Jaroslav; Lebeda, Ondřej

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of the Co-ordinated Research Project of the IAEA, we measured in detail cross-sections of the nuclear reactions natMo(p,x)93gTc, 93mTc, 93m+gTc, 94gTc, 94mTc, 95gTc, 95mTc, 96m+gTc, 97mTc, 99mTc, 90Mo, 93mMo, 99Mo, 88gNb, 88mNb, 89gNb, 89mNb, 90m+gNb, 90m+gNbcum, 91mNb, 92mNb, 95gNb, 95mNb, 95m+gNb, 96Nb, 97m+gNb, 88m+gZrcum and 89m+gZrcum in the energy range of 6.9-35.8 MeV. The data for formation of 97mTc, 88gNb, 88mNb and 89mNb are reported for the first time. The obtained results were compared to the prediction of the nuclear reaction model code TALYS adopted from the TENDL-2015 library and to the previously published cross-sections. The thick target yields for all the radionuclides were calculated from the measured data. We suggest recommended cross-sections and thick target yields for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc, 100Mo(p,x)99Mo and natMo(p,x)96m+gTc nuclear reactions deduced from the selected experimental data.

  7. 75 FR 22814 - Guidance for Industry: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... (70 FR 43439), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance of the same title. FDA received...: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV): Testing, Product Disposition, and Donor...

  8. Evaluation of the Procleix Ultrio Plus ID NAT assay for detection of HIV 1, HBV and HCV in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Chowdhry, Mohit; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Antony, Minimol

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Procleix Ultrio Plusassay is a new-generation qualitative in vitro nucleic acid amplification test used to screen for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in blood donors. This study was performed to compare the Procleix Ultrio assay with the new-generation Procleix Ultrio Plus Nucleic Acid Test (NAT) assays. Materials and Methods: Ten thousand three hundred and two donor samples were run in parallel for ID NAT using the Procleix Ultrio and the Procleix Ultrio Plus assay. Simultaneously, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing was performed on an EVOLIS Walk away System for HIV, HCV, HBsAg and anti-HBc. Reactive samples were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction. Results: In the 10,302 samples tested during the study period, we identified 15 NAT yields, and all these revealed HBV DNA in the discriminatory assays. Eight of these were exclusive yields from the Ultrio Plus assay and the remaining seven cases were determined as HBV NAT yield, both by the Procleix Ultrio as well as the Ultrio Plus assays, i.e. “Combined” yields. No HCV or HIV 1 yields were detected during the study period by either of two assays. Conclusion: With an overall yield rate of 1 in 687 and an exclusive yield rate of 1 in 1287, the Procleix Ultrio Plus assay proved to be highly sensitive in detecting occult HBV infections. PMID:25722569

  9. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 91 - Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace C Appendix C to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 91 - Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace C Appendix C to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 91 - Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace C Appendix C to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND...

  12. N-acetyltransferase (nat) Is a Critical Conjunct of Photoperiodism between the Circadian System and Endocrine Axis in Antheraea pernyi

    PubMed Central

    Bembenek, Jadwiga; Hiragaki, Susumu; Suzuki, Takeshi; Takeda, Makio

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1923, the biology of photoperiodism remains a mystery in many ways. We sought the link connecting the circadian system to an endocrine switch, using Antheraea pernyi. PER-, CLK- and CYC-ir were co-expressed in two pairs of dorsolateral neurons of the protocerebrum, suggesting that these are the circadian neurons that also express melatonin-, NAT- and HIOMT-ir. The results suggest that a melatonin pathway is present in the circadian neurons. Melatonin receptor (MT2 or MEL-1B-R)-ir in PTTH-ir neurons juxtaposing clock neurons suggests that melatonin gates PTTH release. RIA showed a melatonin rhythm with a peak four hours after lights off in adult brain both under LD16∶8 (LD) and LD12∶12 (SD), and both the peak and the baseline levels were higher under LD than SD, suggesting a photoperiodic influence. When pupae in diapause were exposed to 10 cycles of LD, or stored at 4°C for 4 months under constant darkness, an increase of NAT activity was observed when PTTH released ecdysone. DNA sequence upstream of nat contained E-boxes to which CYC/CLK could bind, and nat transcription was turned off by clk or cyc dsRNA. dsRNANAT caused dysfunction of photoperiodism. dsRNAPER upregulated nat transcription as anticipated, based on findings in the Drosophila melanogaster circadian system. Transcription of nat, cyc and clk peaked at ZT12. RIA showed that dsRNANAT decreased melatonin while dsRNAPER increased melatonin. Thus nat, a clock controlled gene, is the critical link between the circadian clock and endocrine switch. MT-binding may release PTTH, resulting in termination of diapause. This study thus examined all of the basic functional units from the clock: a photoperiodic counter as an accumulator of mRNANAT, to endocrine switch for photoperiodism in A. pernyi showing this system is self-complete without additional device especially for photoperiodism. PMID:24667367

  13. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  14. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  15. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  16. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  17. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  18. Engaging basic scientists in translational research: identifying opportunities, overcoming obstacles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This report is based on the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s symposium, “Engaging basic Scientists in Translational Research: Identifying Opportunities, Overcoming Obstacles,” held in Chevy Chase, MD, March 24–25, 2011. Meeting participants examined the benefits of engaging basic scientists in translational research, the challenges to their participation in translational research, and the roles that research institutions, funding organizations, professional societies, and scientific publishers can play to address these challenges. PMID:22500917

  19. Homology modelling and structural analysis of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase NAT1: evidence for the conservation of a cysteine protease catalytic domain and an active-site loop.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Lima, F; Deloménie, C; Goodfellow, G H; Grant, D M; Dupret, J M

    2001-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (EC 2.3.1.5) (NATs) catalyse the biotransformation of many primary arylamines, hydrazines and their N-hydroxylated metabolites, thereby playing an important role in both the detoxification and metabolic activation of numerous xenobiotics. The recently published crystal structure of the Salmonella typhimurium NAT (StNAT) revealed the existence of a cysteine protease-like (Cys-His-Asp) catalytic triad. In the present study, a three-dimensional homology model of human NAT1, based upon the crystal structure of StNAT [Sinclair, Sandy, Delgoda, Sim and Noble (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 560-564], is demonstrated. Alignment of StNAT and NAT1, together with secondary structure predictions, have defined a consensus region (residues 29-131) in which 37% of the residues are conserved. Homology modelling provided a good quality model of the corresponding region in human NAT1. The location of the catalytic triad was found to be identical in StNAT and NAT1. Comparison of active-site structural elements revealed that a similar length loop is conserved in both species (residues 122-131 in NAT1 model and residues 122-133 in StNAT). This observation may explain the involvement of residues 125, 127 and 129 in human NAT substrate selectivity. Our model, and the fact that cysteine protease inhibitors do not affect the activity of NAT1, suggests that human NATs may have adapted a common catalytic mechanism from cysteine proteases to accommodate it for acetyl-transfer reactions. PMID:11368758

  20. Idioms and Back Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  1. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  2. Universal Semantics in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  3. Plurality in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farahzad, Farzaneh

    This paper discusses factors contributing to differing translations of the same source text, arguing that translation occurs on a continuum rather than having absolute criteria and procedures. Issues examined include the formal properties of the text, the text's "invariant core of meaning," stability in the semantic elements of the text, the text…

  4. Science Explorers Translation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Dolores

    This paper describes a pilot project of Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) to translate a science education curriculum for junior and senior high school students into Navajo. The project consisted of translating a video, a teacher's guide, and an interactive multimedia product on the 1993 hantavirus outbreak in the Four Corners area…

  5. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  6. Translation as (Global) Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  7. Text Coherence in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  8. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  9. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  10. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members. PMID:25189538

  11. Translational Genomics of Onion: Challenges of an Enormous Nuclear Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of high throughput DNA sequencing to address important production constraints has been termed “translational genomics”. Classical breeding of onion (Allium cepa) is expensive and slow due to a long generation time and the high costs of crossing with insects. Translational genomics should r...

  12. MeIQx-induced DNA adduct formation and mutagenesis in DNA repair deficient CHO cells expressing human CYP1A1 and rapid or slow acetylator NAT2

    PubMed Central

    Bendaly, Jean; Zhao, Shuang; Neale, Jason R.; Metry, Kristin J.; Doll, Mark A.; States, J. Christopher; Pierce, William M.; Hein, David W.

    2007-01-01

    2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) is one of the most potent and abundant mutagens in the western diet. Bioactivation includes N-hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450s followed by O-acetylation catalyzed by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). Nucleotide excision repair-deficient chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were constructed by stable transfection of human cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and a single copy of either NAT2*4 (rapid acetylator) or NAT2*5B (slow acetylator) alleles. CYP1A1 and NAT2 catalytic activities were undetectable in untransfected CHO cell lines. CYP1A1 activity did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) among the CYP1A1-transfected cell lines. Cells transfected with NAT2*4 had significantly higher levels of sulfamethazine N-acetyltransferase (p = 0.0001) and N-hydroxy-MeIQx O-acetyltransferase (p = 0.0093) catalytic activity than cells transfected with NAT2*5B. Only cells transfected with both CYP1A1 and NAT2*4 showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) mutagenesis following MeIQx treatment. dG-C8-MeIQx was the primary DNA adduct formed and levels were dose-dependent in each cell line and in the order: untransfected < transfected with CYP1A1 < transfected with CYP1A1 & NAT2*5B < transfected with CYP1A1 & NAT2*4. MeIQx DNA adduct levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in CYP1A1/NAT2*4 than CYP1A1/NAT2*5B cells at all concentrations of MeIQx tested. MeIQx-induced DNA adduct levels correlated very highly (r2 = 0.88) with MeIQx-induced mutants. These results strongly support extrahepatic activation of MeIQx by CYP1A1 and a robust effect of human NAT2 genetic polymorphism on MeIQx –induced DNA adducts and mutagenesis. The results provide laboratory-based support for epidemiological studies reporting higher frequency of heterocyclic amine-related cancers in rapid NAT2 acetylators. PMID:17627018

  13. Higher plant mitochondrial DNA: Genomes, genes, mutants, transcription, translation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains brief summaries of 63 presentations given at the International Workshop on Higher Plant Mitochondrial DNA. The presentations are organized into topical discussions addressing plant genomes, mitochondrial genes, cytoplasmic male sterility, transcription, translation, plasmids and tissue culture. (DT)

  14. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  15. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  16. Bilinguisme et traduction au Canada. Role sociolinguistique du traducteur. (Bilingualism and Translation in Canada. The Sociolinguistic Role of the Translator).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhel, Denis

    This study concerns the problems posed by modes of interlinguistic communication, translation, and individual bilingualism, on which depend the quality of relationships between two ethnic communities belonging to a single political entity. It also addresses a frequent question about the need for translation in a bilingual country like Canada. The…

  17. Theory of Test Translation Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  18. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  19. Implementation of an HIV-1 Triple-Target NAT Assay in the Routine Screening at Three German Red Cross Blood Centres

    PubMed Central

    Zolt, Silke De; Thermann, Rolf; Bangsow, Thorsten; Pichl, Lutz; Müller, Benjamin; Jork, Christine; Weber-Schehl, Marijke; Hedges, Doris; Schupp, Ingo; Unverzagt, Patrick; de Rue, Katrin; Roth, W. Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Blood product safety was significantly improved by the introduction of NAT testing in the late 1990s, resulting in a strong decrease of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). Due to the occurrence of HIV-1 NAT test failures as a consequence of mismatch mutations in the amplicon regions of mono-target NAT assays, the Paul Ehrlich Institute mandated the implementation of multi-target NAT assays for HIV-1 in 2014. Commercial suppliers mostly developed dual-target NAT assays, with only one implementing a triple-target NAT assay. Methods The HIV-1 triple-target NAT assay v3 (GFE Blut) was tested on mutated specimens and synthetic DNA bearing mutations that resulted in sample underquantification or false-negative test results. In addition, data from 2 years routine testing at three German Red Cross Blood centres were analysed. Results The HIV-1 triple-target PCR could compensate for all mutations tested and could compensate the loss of one amplicon without a significant loss of sensitivity. Data from 2 years routine testing showed a solid performance. Conclusion The HIV-1 triple-target v3 assay (GFE Blut) can compensate mutations in target sequences better than a dual-target assay and is applicable to high-throughput screening, thus increasing blood product safety. PMID:27403090

  20. The Molecular Basis for Histone H4- and H2A-Specific Amino-Terminal Acetylation by NatD

    PubMed Central

    Magin, Robert S.; Liszczak, Glen P.; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY N-terminal acetylation is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes and is mediated by evolutionarily conserved N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). NatD is among the most selective NATs; its only known substrates are histones H4 and H2A, containing the N-terminal sequence SGRGK in humans. Here we characterize the molecular basis for substrate-specific acetylation by NatD by reporting its crystal structure bound to cognate substrates and performing related biochemical studies. A novel N-terminal segment wraps around the catalytic core domain to make stabilizing interactions, and the α1-α2 and β6-β7 loops adopt novel conformations to properly orient the histone N termini in the binding site. Ser1 and Arg3 of the histone make extensive contacts to highly conserved NatD residues in the substrate binding pocket, and flanking glycine residues also appear to contribute to substrate-specific binding by NatD, together defining a Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly recognition sequence. These studies have implications for understanding substrate-specific acetylation by NAT enzymes. PMID:25619998

  1. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  2. Simulations of the Vertical Redistribution of HNO3 by NAT or NAD PSCs: The Sensitivity to the Number of Cloud Particles Formed and the Cloud Lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric J.; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Drdla, Katja; Toon, Owen B.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recent satellite and in situ measurements have indicated that limited denitrification can occur in the Arctic stratosphere. In situ measurements from the SOLVE campaign indicate polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) composed of small numbers (about 3 x 10^ -4 cm^-3) of 10-20 micron particles (probably NAT or NAD). These observations raise the issue of whether low number density NAT PSCs can substantially denitrify the air with reasonable cloud lifetimes. In this study, we use a one dimensional cloud model to investigate the verticle redistribution of HNO3 by NAT/NAD PSCs. The cloud formation is driven by a temperature oscillation which drops the temperature below the NAT/NAD formation threshold (about 195 K) for a few days. We assume that a small fraction of the available aerosols act as NAT nuclei when the saturation ratio of HNO3 over NAT(NAD) exceeds 10(l.5). The result is a cloud between about 16 and 20 km in the model, with NAT/NAD particle effective radii as large as about 10 microns (in agreement with the SOLVE data). We find that for typical cloud lifetimes of 2-3 days or less, the net depletion of HNO3 is no more than 1-2 ppbv, regardless of the NAT or NAD particle number density. Repeated passes of the air column through the cold pool build up the denitrification to 3-4 ppbv, and the cloud altitude steadily decreases due to the downward transport of nitric acid. Increasing the cloud lifetime results in considerably more effective denitrification, even with very low cloud particle number densities. As expected, the degree of denitrification by NAT clouds is much larger than that by NAD Clouds. Significant denitrification by NAD Clouds is only possible if the cloud lifetime is several days or more. The clouds also cause a local maximum HNO3 mixing ratio at cloud base where the cloud particles sublimate.

  3. Interaction between Red Meat Intake and NAT2 Genotype in Increasing the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansong; Iwasaki, Motoki; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kono, Suminori; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Keku, Temitope O.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines formed in cooked meat may be an underlying mechanism for the red meat-colorectal cancer (CRC) association. These compounds require bioactivaction by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). An interaction effect between red meat consumption and NAT2 in increasing CRC risk has been inconsistently reported in whites. We investigated this interaction in two populations in which the high-activity rapid NAT2 phenotype is 10- and 2-fold more common than in whites. We meta-analyzed four studies of Japanese (2,217 cases, 3,788 controls) and three studies of African Americans (527 cases, 4,527 controls). NAT2 phenotype was inferred from an optimized seven-SNP genotyping panel. Processed and total red meat intakes were associated with an increased CRC risk in Japanese and in both ethnic groups combined (P’s ≤ 0.002). We observed an interaction between processed meat intake and NAT2 in Japanese (P = 0.04), African Americans (P = 0.02), and in both groups combined (P = 0.006). The association of processed meat with CRC was strongest among individuals with the rapid NAT2 phenotype (combined analysis, OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.28–2.05; Ptrend = 8.0×10−5), intermediate among those with the intermediate NAT2 phenotype (1.29, 95% CI: 1.05–1.59; Ptrend = 0.05) and null among those with the slow phenotype (Ptrend = 0.45). A similar interaction was found for NAT2 and total red meat (Pinteraction = 0.03). Our findings support a role for NAT2 in modifying the association between red meat consumption and CRC in Japanese and African Americans. PMID:26683305

  4. Interaction between Red Meat Intake and NAT2 Genotype in Increasing the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hansong; Iwasaki, Motoki; Haiman, Christopher A; Kono, Suminori; Wilkens, Lynne R; Keku, Temitope O; Berndt, Sonja I; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines formed in cooked meat may be an underlying mechanism for the red meat-colorectal cancer (CRC) association. These compounds require bioactivaction by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). An interaction effect between red meat consumption and NAT2 in increasing CRC risk has been inconsistently reported in whites. We investigated this interaction in two populations in which the high-activity rapid NAT2 phenotype is 10- and 2-fold more common than in whites. We meta-analyzed four studies of Japanese (2,217 cases, 3,788 controls) and three studies of African Americans (527 cases, 4,527 controls). NAT2 phenotype was inferred from an optimized seven-SNP genotyping panel. Processed and total red meat intakes were associated with an increased CRC risk in Japanese and in both ethnic groups combined (P's ≤ 0.002). We observed an interaction between processed meat intake and NAT2 in Japanese (P = 0.04), African Americans (P = 0.02), and in both groups combined (P = 0.006). The association of processed meat with CRC was strongest among individuals with the rapid NAT2 phenotype (combined analysis, OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.28-2.05; Ptrend = 8.0×10-5), intermediate among those with the intermediate NAT2 phenotype (1.29, 95% CI: 1.05-1.59; Ptrend = 0.05) and null among those with the slow phenotype (Ptrend = 0.45). A similar interaction was found for NAT2 and total red meat (Pinteraction = 0.03). Our findings support a role for NAT2 in modifying the association between red meat consumption and CRC in Japanese and African Americans. PMID:26683305

  5. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  6. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  7. Enhancing international earth science competence in natural hazards through 'geoNatHaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Clague, John J.

    2010-05-01

    "geoNatHaz" is a Transatlantic Exchange Partnership project (TEP 2009-2012) within the framework of the EU-Canada programme for co-operation in higher education, training, and youth. The project is structured to improve knowledge and skills required to assess and manage natural hazards in mountain regions. It provides student exchanges between European and Canadian universities in order to enhance international competence in natural hazard research. The university consortium is led by Simon Fraser University (Canada) and Università degli studi di Torino (Italy). Partner universities include the University of British Columbia, Queen's University, Università di Bologna, Université de Savoie, and the University of Athens. Université de Lausanne (Switzerland) supports the geoNatHaz advisory board through its bilateral agreements with Canadian partner universities. The geoNatHaz project promotes cross-cultural understanding and internationalization of university natural hazard curricula through common lectures, laboratory exercises, and field activities. Forty graduate students from the seven Canadian and European partner universities will benefit from the project between 2009 and 2012. Some students enrolled in graduate-level earth science and geologic engineering programs spend up to five months at the partner universities, taking courses and participating in research teams under the direction of project scientists. Other students engage in short-term (four-week) exchanges involving training in classic natural hazard case-studies in mountain regions of Canada and Europe. Joint courses are delivered in English, but complementary cultural activities are offered in the languages of the host countries. Supporting organizations offer internships and technical and scientific support. Students benefit from work-study programs with industry partners. Supporting organizations include government departments and agencies (Geological Survey of Canada; CNR-IRPI National

  8. Subtitling: Diagonal Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the effects of translating televised foreign language materials, including changes in mode and timing. Outlines the necessary skills by which successful subtitlers overcome these complexities. Suggests nine basic fields to consider when creating and evaluating interlingual subtitles. (HB)

  9. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  10. Lost in Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  11. Machine Translation from Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  12. Translation readthrough mitigation.

    PubMed

    Arribere, Joshua A; Cenik, Elif S; Jain, Nimit; Hess, Gaelen T; Lee, Cameron H; Bassik, Michael C; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-06-30

    A fraction of ribosomes engaged in translation will fail to terminate when reaching a stop codon, yielding nascent proteins inappropriately extended on their C termini. Although such extended proteins can interfere with normal cellular processes, known mechanisms of translational surveillance are insufficient to protect cells from potential dominant consequences. Here, through a combination of transgenics and CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing in Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate a consistent ability of cells to block accumulation of C-terminal-extended proteins that result from failure to terminate at stop codons. Sequences encoded by the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) were sufficient to lower protein levels. Measurements of mRNA levels and translation suggested a co- or post-translational mechanism of action for these sequences in C. elegans. Similar mechanisms evidently operate in human cells, in which we observed a comparable tendency for translated human 3′ UTR sequences to reduce mature protein expression in tissue culture assays, including 3′ UTR sequences from the hypomorphic ‘Constant Spring’ haemoglobin stop codon variant. We suggest that 3′ UTRs may encode peptide sequences that destabilize the attached protein, providing mitigation of unwelcome and varied translation errors. PMID:27281202

  13. Translating Alcohol Research

    PubMed Central

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  14. Genotyping NAT2 with only two SNPs (rs1041983 and rs1801280) outperforms the tagging SNP rs1495741 and is equivalent to the conventional 7-SNP NAT2 genotype.

    PubMed

    Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Moormann, Oliver; Guballa, Christoph; Kress, Alexander; Truss, Michael C; Gerullis, Holger; Otto, Thomas; Barski, Dimitri; Niegisch, Günter; Albers, Peter; Frees, Sebastian; Brenner, Walburgis; Thüroff, Joachim W; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Seidel, Thilo; Roth, Gerhard; Dietrich, Holger; Ebbinghaus, Rainer; Prager, Hans M; Bolt, Hermann M; Falkenstein, Michael; Zimmermann, Anna; Klein, Torsten; Reckwitz, Thomas; Roemer, Hermann C; Löhlein, Dietrich; Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Schöps, Wolfgang; Hassan Rizvi, Syed Adibul; Aslam, Muhammad; Bánfi, Gergely; Romics, Imre; Steffens, Michael; Ekici, Arif B; Winterpacht, Andreas; Ickstadt, Katja; Schwender, Holger; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Genotyping N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is of high relevance for individualized dosing of antituberculosis drugs and bladder cancer epidemiology. In this study we compared a recently published tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1495741) to the conventional 7-SNP genotype (G191A, C282T, T341C, C481T, G590A, A803G and G857A haplotype pairs) and systematically analysed if novel SNP combinations outperform the latter. For this purpose, we studied 3177 individuals by PCR and phenotyped 344 individuals by the caffeine test. Although the tagSNP and the 7-SNP genotype showed a high degree of correlation (R=0.933, P<0.0001) the 7-SNP genotype nevertheless outperformed the tagging SNP with respect to specificity (1.0 vs. 0.9444, P=0.0065). Considering all possible SNP combinations in a receiver operating characteristic analysis we identified a 2-SNP genotype (C282T, T341C) that outperformed the tagging SNP and was equivalent to the 7-SNP genotype. The 2-SNP genotype predicted the correct phenotype with a sensitivity of 0.8643 and a specificity of 1.0. In addition, it predicted the 7-SNP genotype with sensitivity and specificity of 0.9993 and 0.9880, respectively. The prediction of the NAT2 genotype by the 2-SNP genotype performed similar in populations of Caucasian, Venezuelan and Pakistani background. A 2-SNP genotype predicts NAT2 phenotypes with similar sensitivity and specificity as the conventional 7-SNP genotype. This procedure represents a facilitation in individualized dosing of NAT2 substrates without losing sensitivity or specificity. PMID:21750470

  15. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  16. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  17. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  18. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  19. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) mutations and their allelic linkage in unrelated caucasian individuals: Correlation with phenotypic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Cascorbi, I.; Drakoulis, N.; Brockmoeller, J.

    1995-09-01

    The polymorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT2; EC2.3.1.5) is supposed to be a susceptibility factor for several drug side effects and certain malignancies. A group of 844 unrelated German subjects was genotyped for their acetylation type, and 563 of them were also phenotyped. Seven mutations of the NAT2 gene were evaluated by allele-specific PCR (mutation 341C to T) and PCR-RFLP for mutations at nt positions 191, 282, 481, 590, 803, and 857. From the mutation pattern eight different alleles, including the wild type coding for rapid acetylation and seven alleles coding for slow phenotype, were determined. Four hundred ninety-seven subjects had a genotype of slow acetylation (58.9%; 95% confidence limits 55.5%-62.2%). Phenotypic acetylation capacity was expressed as the ratio of 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil and 1-methylxanthine in urine after caffeine intake. Some 6.7% of the cases deviated in genotype and phenotype, but sequencing DNA of these probands revealed no new mutations. Furthermore, linkage pattern of the mutations was always confirmed, as tested in 533 subjects. In vivo acetylation capacity of homozygous wild-type subjects (NAT2{sup *}4/{sup *}4) was significantly higher than in heterozygous genotypes (P = .001). All mutant alleles showed low in vivo acetylation capacities, including the previously not-yet-defined alleles {sup *}5A, {sup *}5C, and {sup *}13. Moreover, distinct slow genotypes differed significantly among each other, as reflected in lower acetylation capacity of {sup *}6A, {sup *}7B, and {sup *}13 alleles than the group of {sup *}5 alleles. The study demonstrated differential phenotypic activity of various NAT2 genes and gives a solid basis for clinical and molecular-epidemiological investigations. 34 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Contribution of liquid, NAT and ice particles to chlorine activation and ozone depletion in Antarctic winter and spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirner, O.; Müller, R.; Ruhnke, R.; Fischer, H.

    2015-02-01

    Heterogeneous reactions in the Antarctic stratosphere are the cause of chlorine activation and ozone depletion, but the relative roles of different types of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in chlorine activation is an open question. We use multi-year simulations of the chemistry-climate model ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) to investigate the impact that the various types of PSCs have on Antarctic chlorine activation and ozone loss. One standard and three sensitivity EMAC simulations have been performed. In all simulations a Newtonian relaxation technique using the ERA-Interim reanalysis was applied to simulate realistic synoptic conditions. In the three sensitivity simulations, we only changed the heterogeneous chemistry on PSC particles by switching the chemistry on liquid, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and ice particles on and off. The results of these simulations show that the significance of heterogeneous reactions on NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation and ozone depletion in Antarctic winter and spring is small in comparison to the significance of heterogeneous reactions on liquid particles. Liquid particles alone are sufficient to activate almost all of the available chlorine, with the exception of the upper PSC regions between 10 and 30 hPa, where temporarily ice particles show a relevant contribution. Shortly after the first PSC occurrence, NAT particles contribute a small fraction to chlorine activation. Heterogeneous chemistry on liquid particles is responsible for more than 90% of the ozone depletion in Antarctic spring in the model simulations. In high southern latitudes, heterogeneous chemistry on ice particles causes only up to 5 DU of additional ozone depletion in the column and heterogeneous chemistry on NAT particles less than 0.5 DU. The simulated HNO3, ClO and O3 results agree closely with observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) onboard NASA's Aura satellite.

  1. MT1 receptor expression and AA-NAT activity in lymphatic tissue following melatonin administration in male golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Vishwas, Dipanshu Kumar; Haldar, Chandana

    2014-09-01

    Exogenous melatonin as a marker of the chemical expression of darkness is playing a key role in the synchronization of circadian functions and seasonal biological rhythms. Our study was designed to elucidate whether melatonin treatment can modulate the melatonin synthesis via the rate limiting enzyme arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) in spleen, thymus and bone marrow thereby the proliferation rate of splenocytes, thymocytes and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) of golden hamsters. The AA-NAT activity in different lymphoid tissue documented the synthesis of melatonin in those organs. Exogenous melatonin treatment to hamsters enhanced the AA-NAT activity in spleen and thymus along with an increase in the inflammatory response by DTH reactions that could be related to the increased level of interleukin-2 and IFN-γ by T lymphocytes in serum/culture medium, proliferation rate and expression of melatonin membrane receptor MT(1). Thus, the relevance of melatonin synthesis by lymphatic tissues might be maintaining surveillance and local defence responses. PMID:25023124

  2. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; Li, Mei-Jun; Tan, Kemin; Yang, Xiaohan; Yun, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine Nε-acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that may contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity. PMID:27550639

  3. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; Li, Mei-Jun; Tan, Kemin; Yang, Xiaohan; Yun, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine N(ε)-acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that may contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity. PMID:27550639

  4. Mutation of an Arabidopsis NatB N-Alpha-Terminal Acetylation Complex Component Causes Pleiotropic Developmental Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Alonso-Peral, María Magdalena; Micol, José Luis; Ponce, María Rosa

    2013-01-01

    N-α-terminal acetylation is one of the most common, but least understood modifications of eukaryotic proteins. Although a high degree of conservation exists between the N-α-terminal acetylomes of plants and animals, very little information is available on this modification in plants. In yeast and humans, N-α-acetyltransferase complexes include a single catalytic subunit and one or two auxiliary subunits. Here, we report the positional cloning of TRANSCURVATA2 (TCU2), which encodes the auxiliary subunit of the NatB N-α-acetyltransferase complex in Arabidopsis. The phenotypes of loss-of-function tcu2 alleles indicate that NatB complex activity is required for flowering time regulation and for leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and embryonic development. In double mutants, tcu2 alleles synergistically interact with alleles of ARGONAUTE10, which encodes a component of the microRNA machinery. In summary, NatB-mediated N-α-terminal acetylation of proteins is pleiotropically required for Arabidopsis development and seems to be functionally related to the microRNA pathway. PMID:24244708

  5. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  6. Mismatch Negativity: Translating the Potential

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Juanita; Harms, Lauren; Schall, Ulrich; Michie, Patricia T.

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential has become a valuable tool in cognitive neuroscience. Its reduced size in persons with schizophrenia is of unknown origin but theories proposed include links to problems in experience-dependent plasticity reliant on N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors. In this review we address the utility of this tool in revealing the nature and time course of problems in perceptual inference in this illness together with its potential for use in translational research testing animal models of schizophrenia-related phenotypes. Specifically, we review the reasons for interest in MMN in schizophrenia, issues pertaining to the measurement of MMN, its use as a vulnerability index for the development of schizophrenia, the pharmacological sensitivity of MMN and the progress in developing animal models of MMN. Within this process we highlight the challenges posed by knowledge gaps pertaining to the tool and the pharmacology of the underlying system. PMID:24391602

  7. Translation in a Borderless World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that in a world of interlinked economies and communication networks, the translation of pragmatic documents is prevalent, important, and costly. Treats concepts and practices of pragmatic translation, summarizes interviews with translators and translation professors (conducted in Morocco), and makes recommendations regarding language…

  8. The Translation Profession. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Deanna Lindberg

    The demand for competent translators is at an all-time high. Translators work with written language, and generally work either in-house for a business, translation agency, or other institution, or as free-lancers. Leading employers of translators in the United States are the federal government, domestic and multinational corporations and…

  9. Translation: Elements of a Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiderson, Mazin A.

    An overview of the skills, techniques, tools, and compensation of language translators and interpreters is offered. It begins with a definition of translation and a brief history of translation in the western world. Basic principles of translation dating back to Roman writers are also outlined. A five-step process in producing a good translation…

  10. Old genes experience stronger translational selection than young genes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongyan; Ma, Lina; Wang, Guangyu; Li, Mengwei; Zhang, Zhang

    2016-09-15

    Selection on synonymous codon usage for translation efficiency and/or accuracy has been identified as a widespread mechanism in many living organisms. However, it remains unknown whether translational selection associates closely with gene age and acts differentially on genes with different evolutionary ages. To address this issue, here we investigate the strength of translational selection acting on different aged genes in human. Our results show that old genes present stronger translational selection than young genes, demonstrating that translational selection correlates positively with gene age. We further explore the difference of translational selection in duplicates vs. singletons and in housekeeping vs. tissue-specific genes. We find that translational selection acts comparably in old singletons and old duplicates and stronger translational selection in old genes is contributed primarily by housekeeping genes. For young genes, contrastingly, singletons experience stronger translational selection than duplicates, presumably due to redundant function of duplicated genes during their early evolutionary stage. Taken together, our results indicate that translational selection acting on a gene would not be constant during all stages of evolution, associating closely with gene age. PMID:27259662

  11. Evaluation of the Procleix Ultrio Elite Assay and the Panther-System for Individual NAT Screening of Blood, Hematopoietic Stem Cell, Tissue and Organ Donors

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The performance of the multiplex Procleix Ultrio Elite assay as individual donor nucleic acid test (ID-NAT) for the detection of HIV-1, HIV-2, HCV, and HBV was evaluated in a retrospective, single center study. Methods ID-NAT results of 21,181 blood donors, 984 tissue donors, 293 hematopoietic stem cell donors and 4 organ donors were reviewed in synopsis with results of serological screening and additional discriminatory and repetitive NAT in case of positive donors. Results Specificity of the initial Procleix Ultrio Elite assay was 99.98% and after discriminatory testing 100.00%. Initially invalid results were observed in 75 of 21,181 blood donors (0.35%) but 16 of 984 tissue donors (1.62%, p < 0.001) which included non-heart-beating (‘cadaveric’) donors. All these had valid negative ID-NAT results after repeated testing or testing of 1:5 diluted specimens in case of tissue donors. Occult hepatitis B (defined here as HBV DNAemia without HBsAg detection) was demonstrated by ID-NAT in two anti-HBc-positive tissue donors and suspected in two other tissue donors, where a definite diagnosis was not achieved due to the insufficient sample volumes available. Conclusion The Procleix Ultrio Elite assay proved to be specific, robust and rapid. Therefore, routine ID-NAT may also be feasible for organ and granulocyte donors.

  12. Translating and Transforming Care

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Alex; Moore, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the Disability Living Allowance claim form, used in the United Kingdom to allocate £13 billion of disability benefits, translates and transforms disability and care. Twenty-two people with acquired brain injury and their main informal caregivers (n = 44) were video-recorded filling in the disability claim form. Participants disagreed on 26% of the questions, revealing two types of problems. Translation problems arose as participants struggled to provide categorical responses to ambiguous questions and were unable to report contextual variability in care needs or divergences of perception. Transformation problems arose as participants resisted the way in which the form positioned them, forcing them to conceptualize their relationship in terms of dependency and burden. The disability claim form co-opts claimants to translate care and disability into bureaucratically predefined categories, and it transforms the care relationship that it purports to document. PMID:25792487

  13. The Culture of Translational Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Kotarba, Joseph A.; Wooten, Kevin; Freeman, Jean; Brasier, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    We apply a symbolic interactionist framework and a qualitative methodology to the examination of the everyday reality of translational science research (TSR). This is a growing scientific movement that aims to facilitate the efficient application of basic research to clinical service design and delivery. We describe the emerging culture of translational research at a mid-size medical center that received a Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health. The stories related by scientists, clinicians, and students in interviews indicate that they make sense of the emerging inter- and cross-disciplinary, team-oriented culture of TSR through the refinement and redefinition of the significant symbols that inform their work while they attempt to master translational research by addressing the dilemmas it produces for them and their work. We see the strength, currency, adaptability, and energy of the core self-definition of “scientist” to be significant in shaping the emerging culture of translational research. We conclude by celebrating the value of interpretive ethnography for evaluation research. PMID:25685253

  14. Data format translation routines

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base.

  15. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  16. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  17. Translational contributions of the experimental analysis of behavior.

    PubMed

    Critchfield, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that to increase societal impact behavioral researchers must do more to address problems of obvious practical importance. The basic science wing of behavior analysis has been described as especially detached from this goal, but is it really necessary that basic science demonstrate social relevance? If so, why hasn't this occurred more often, and what can be done to improve the status quo? To address these questions and to stimulate discussion about the future of basic behavior science, I describe two widely embraced arguments in favor of pure basic science (that which is undertaken without concern for practical applications); explain why a translational research agenda is likely to better recruit tangible support for basic science; propose that addressing practical problems does not require basic science to abandon its focus on fundamental principles; and identify some possible impediments to translational innovation that may need to be addressed for basic behavior science to increase its translational footprint. PMID:22532723

  18. Translational Contributions of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Critchfield, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that to increase societal impact behavioral researchers must do more to address problems of obvious practical importance. The basic science wing of behavior analysis has been described as especially detached from this goal, but is it really necessary that basic science demonstrate social relevance? If so, why hasn't this occurred more often, and what can be done to improve the status quo? To address these questions and to stimulate discussion about the future of basic behavior science, I describe two widely embraced arguments in favor of pure basic science (that which is undertaken without concern for practical applications); explain why a translational research agenda is likely to better recruit tangible support for basic science; propose that addressing practical problems does not require basic science to abandon its focus on fundamental principles; and identify some possible impediments to translational innovation that may need to be addressed for basic behavior science to increase its translational footprint. PMID:22532723

  19. Towards flash flood disaster prevention: the SciNetNat Haz proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinos, Papatheodorou; Elena, Tzanou; Carmen, Maftei; Ozgur, Kirca; Hafzullah, Aksoy

    2015-04-01

    Floods occur with a continuously increasing frequency due to climatic changes and cause serious damage in the wider Black Sea area, endangering human life and property. As societies continuously expand, these phenomena are expected to play an increasingly important role, blocking sustainable development unless properly tackled. Flash flood prevention seems at this point, to be the target of effectively mitigating the potential threat. Since in many cases, there is a cross-border character of the problem, collaborative efforts have to be made involving cooperation between countries. To this end, a variety of problems exist, including the "information gap" related to the unavailability of data and the multitude of methodologies used to assess flood hazard; a fact that renders comparison of hazard assessment results and cross border cooperation ineffective. An effort made within the context of the SciNetNatHaz project, suggests a two step approach to produce reliable the results which can lead to decision making regarding designing preventive measures. The first step aims at defining the flood prone areas on a regional scale, using geomorphometric models and readily available topographic data; thus overcoming the problem of data availability for any region of interest. The second step follows a vulnerability and risk assessment of the flood prone areas of interest and focuses on the calculation of flood parameters on a local scale using hydraulic models. Implementation of the full process is based on Open Source software tools so that it can be implemented with minimal costs by anyone interested. Implementation of the proposed procedure in three different cases in Greece and in Romania shows that it can provide accurate and reliable results to support decision making regarding the design of preventive measures. Keywords: Flash floods, hazard assessment, flood disaster prevention, HEC-RAS, SAGA GIS . Acknowledgements: This work is partially funded by the EU through the

  20. NAT1, NOS3, and TYMS Genotypes and the Risk of Conotruncal Cardiac Defects

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Philip J.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Although congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a common and serious group of birth defects, relatively little is known about the causes of these conditions, and there are no established prevention strategies. There is, however, evidence suggesting that the risk of CHDs in general, and conotruncal and related defects (CTRDs) in particular, may be associated with maternal folate status and genetic variants of folate-related genes. Although several folate-related genes have been studied as they relate to CHDs and CTRDs (e.g., MTHFR), others have not been adequately assessed. Methods Case-parent triads were examined using log-linear analyses to assess the associations between CTRDs and both the genotype inherited by the case and the maternal genotype for the following variants: NAT1 1095C>A, NOS3 894G>T, and TYMS 1494del6. Subgroup analyses were also conducted among cases with classic conotruncal defects and cases with normally related great arteries. Results The results provided little evidence that CTRD risk was associated with the genotype inherited by the case for any of the analyzed variants. However, our results suggest that CTRD risk may be associated with the maternal genotype for NOS3 894G>T (p = 0.024 in the subgroup with normally related great arteries) and TYMS 1494del6 (p = 0.048 in the subgroup with classic conotruncal defects). However, these results were not significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that CTRD risk may be related to variation within folate-pathway genes and suggests that these associations are, at least in part, mediated through the maternal genotype. PMID:21254360

  1. UHV piezoelectric translator

    SciTech Connect

    Oversluizen, T.; Watson, G.

    1985-01-01

    A UHV compatible piezoelectric translator has been developed to correct for angular misalignments in the crysals of a UHV x-ray monochromator. The unit is small, bakeable to 150/sup 0/C, and uses only ceramic materials for insulation. We report on the construction details, vacuum compatibility, mechanical properties, and uses of the device.

  2. "Rose Blanche" in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stan, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study focuses on three editions of "Rose Blanche," Roberto Innocenti's picturebook portrayal of a young girl who discovers a Nazi concentration camp on the outskirts of her German city. The original text, written in French by Christophe Gallaz to accompany Innocenti's illustrations, was translated into English and published in the…

  3. Innovation, Translation, and Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    The 9th Wound Healing and Tissue Repair and Regeneration Annual Meeting of Chinese Tissue Repair Society was hold in Wuhan, China. This meeting was focused on the innovation, translation application, and cooperation in wound care both in China and other countries. More than 400 delegates took part in this meeting and communicated successfully. PMID:25515372

  4. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  5. [Topics for translational research].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    This report focused on translational research presented in ASBMR 2015 held in Seattle, WA in October 2015. Comorbidity with chronic diseases such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease and the relationship between skeletal and extraskeltal tissues give us more complexed pathophysiological issues to be clarified in superaged society. PMID:26728541

  6. Cultural Knowledge in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olk, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study exploring the influence of cultural knowledge on the translation performance of German students of English. Found that the students often lacked sufficient knowledge about British culture to deal with widely-used cultural concepts. Findings suggest that factual reference sources have an important role to play in translation…

  7. Evaluation of polymorphisms in the sulfonamide detoxification genes NAT2, CYB5A, and CYB5R3 in patients with sulfonamide hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, James; Abouraya, Mahmoud; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Yale, Steven; McCarty, Catherine; Trepanier, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether polymorphisms in the sulfonamide detoxification genes, CYB5A (encoding cytochrome b5), CYB5R3 (encoding cytochrome b5 reductase), or NAT2 (encoding N-acetyltransferase 2) were over-represented in patients with delayed sulfonamide drug hypersensitivity, compared to control patients that tolerated a therapeutic course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole without adverse event. Methods DNA from 99 non-immunocompromised patients with sulfonamide hypersensitivity that were identified from the Personalized Medicine Research Project at the Marshfield Clinic, and from 99 age-, race-, and gender-matched drug-tolerant controls, were genotyped for four CYB5A and five CYB5R3 polymorphisms, and for all coding NAT2 SNPs. Results CYB5A and CYB5R3 SNPs were found at low allele frequencies (less than 3–4%), which did not differ between hypersensitive and tolerant patients. NAT2 allele and haplotype frequencies, as well as inferred NAT2 phenotypes, also did not differ between groups (60% vs. 59% slow acetylators). Finally, no difference in NAT2 status was found in a subset of patients with more severe hypersensitivity signs (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms; DRESS) compared to tolerant patients. Conclusions We found no evidence for a substantial involvement of these 9 CYB5A or CYB5R3 polymorphisms in sulfonamide HS risk, although minor effects cannot be completely ruled out. Despite careful medical record review and full re-sequencing of the NAT2 coding region, we found no association of NAT2 coding alleles with sulfonamide hypersensitivity (predominantly cutaneous eruptions) in this adult Caucasian population. PMID:22850190

  8. Arylamine N-acetyl Transferase (NAT) in the blue secretion of Telescopium telescopium: xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme as a biomarker for detection of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gorain, Bapi; Chakraborty, Sumon; Pal, Murari Mohan; Sarkar, Ratul; Samanta, Samir Kumar; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Sen, Tuhinadri

    2014-01-01

    Telescopium telescopium, a marine mollusc collected from Sundarban mangrove, belongs to the largest mollusca phylum in the world and exudes a blue secretion when stimulated mechanically. The blue secretion was found to metabolize (preferentially) para-amino benzoic acid, a substrate for N-acetyl transferase (NAT), thereby indicating acetyl transferase like activity of the secretion. Attempts were also made to characterise bioactive fraction of the blue secretion and to further use this as a biomarker for monitoring of marine pollution. NAT like enzyme from marine mollusc is a potential candidate for detoxification of different harmful chemicals. A partially purified extract of blue secretion was obtained by fractional precipitation with (NH4)2SO4. From different fractions obtained by precipitation, the 0-30% fraction (30S) displayed NAT like activity (using para amino benzoic acid as a substrate with para nitrophenyl phosphate or acetyl coenzyme A as acetyl group donors). Maximum NAT like enzyme activity was attained at 25°C and at a pH of 6. The enzyme activity was found to be inhibited by 5 mM phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride. The divalent metal ions reduced NAT like activity of 30S. Moreover, Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) (at concentration of 1 mM) completely inhibited NAT activity. The thermal stability and bench-top stability studies were performed and it was found that the enzyme was stable at room temperature for more than 24 hours. Results from the present study further indicate that heavy metal content in blue secretion gradually decreased from pre-monsoon to post-monsoon season, which also corresponded to the change in NAT like activity. Therefore, this article stresses the importance of biomarker research for monitoring pollution. PMID:26034680

  9. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene polymorphism as a predisposing factor for phenytoin intoxication in tuberculous meningitis or tuberculoma patients having seizures - A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Adole, Prashant S.; Kharbanda, Parampreet S.; Sharma, Sadhna

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Simultaneous administration of phenytoin and isoniazid (INH) in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) or tuberculoma patients with seizures results in higher plasma phenytoin level and thus phenytoin intoxication. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) enzyme catalyses two acetylation reactions in INH metabolism and NAT2 gene polymorphism leads to slow and rapid acetylators. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of allelic variants of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene as a predisposing factor for phenytoin toxicity in patients with TBM or tuberculoma having seizures, and taking INH and phenytoin simultaneously. Methods: Sixty patients with TBM or tuberculoma with seizures and taking INH and phenytoin simultaneously for a minimum period of seven days were included in study. Plasma phenytoin was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. NAT2 gene polymorphism was studied using restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele specific PCR. Results: The patients were grouped into those having phenytoin intoxication and those with normal phenytoin level, and also classified as rapid or slow acetylators by NAT2 genotyping. Genotypic analysis showed that of the seven SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of NAT2 gene studied, six mutations were found to be associated with phenytoin intoxication. For rs1041983 (C282T), rs1799929 (C481T), rs1799931 (G857A), rs1799930 (G590A), rs1208 (A803G) and rs1801280 (T341C) allelic variants, the proportion of homozygous mutant was higher in phenytoin intoxicated group than in phenytoin non-intoxicated group. Interpretation & conclusions: Homozygous mutant allele of NAT2 gene at 481site may act as a predisposing factor for phenytoin intoxication among TBM or tuberculoma patients having seizures. PMID:27488001

  10. Progress in Documentation: Machine Translation and Machine-Aided Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the prospects for fully automatic machine translation of good quality. Sections include history and background, operational and experimental machine translation systems of recent years, descriptions of interactive systems and machine-assisted translation, and a general survey of present problems and future possibilities. (VT)

  11. Lost in Translation: Examining Translation Errors Associated with Mathematical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Stiff, Lee V.; Bosse, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation errors and conceptual misunderstandings made by students translating among graphical, tabular, and symbolic representations of linear functions were examined. The study situated student errors in the context of the "Translation-Verification Model" developed specifically for the purpose of explaining student behavior during the process…

  12. Cross-Cultural Instrument Translation: Assessment, Translation, and Statistical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Teresa Crowe

    2005-01-01

    This article has four major sections: (a) general issues of assessment; (b) assessment of ethnic-group members, including those who are deaf; (c) translation of assessment tools, emphasizing translation into American Sign Language (ASL); and (d) statistical applications for translated instruments. The purpose of the article is to provide insight…

  13. Talc use, variants of the GSTM1, GSTT1, and NAT2 genes, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gates, Margaret A; Tworoger, Shelley S; Terry, Kathryn L; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Rosner, Bernard; De Vivo, Immaculata; Cramer, Daniel W; Hankinson, Susan E

    2008-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests a possible association between genital use of talcum powder and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer; however, the biological basis for this association is not clear. We analyzed interactions between talc use and genes in detoxification pathways [glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1), and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2)] to assess whether the talc/ovarian cancer association is modified by variants of genes potentially involved in the response to talc. Our analysis included 1,175 cases and 1,202 controls from a New England-based case-control study and 210 cases and 600 controls from the prospective Nurses' Health Study. We genotyped participants for the GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions and three NAT2 polymorphisms. We used logistic regression to analyze the main effect of talc use, genotype, and gene-talc interactions in each population and pooled the estimates using a random-effects model. Regular talc use was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk in the combined study population (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.63; P(trend) < 0.001). Independent of talc, the genes examined were not clearly associated with risk. However, the talc/ovarian cancer association varied by GSTT1 genotype and combined GSTM1/GSTT1 genotype. In the pooled analysis, the association with talc was stronger among women with the GSTT1-null genotype (P(interaction) = 0.03), particularly in combination with the GSTM1-present genotype (P(interaction) = 0.03). There was no clear evidence of an interaction with GSTM1 alone or NAT2. These results suggest that women with certain genetic variants may have a higher risk of ovarian cancer associated with genital talc use. Additional research is needed on these interactions and the underlying biological mechanisms. PMID:18768514

  14. Characterization of ARGON-40 + Silver-Nat Reactions: Timescales and Emission Orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderloos, Carl James

    Studies have been made of ejectile coincidences resulting from ^{40}Ar + ^{nat}Ag reactions at bombarding energies of 17A-34A MeV. Correlations at both large and small relative angles are used to characterize the emission of light charged particles and fragments on a timescale of ~10^ {-22} s. Average delay times and emission orders between ejectiles are inferred by comparison to simulation calculations. Correlation functions in relative momentum, and spectra of the velocity differences between ejectiles emitted at small relative angles have been used to infer reaction dynamics. Trajectories of ejectile coincidences are particularly sensitive to the initial spatial and temporal relationship between the ejectiles and source. As the excitation energy of the emitter increases, the time delays between emissions decrease. The excitation energy deposited in central collisions increases from ~3 MeV per emitter nucleon at 17A MeV to nearly 6A MeV at 34A MeV. The measured delay times between ejectiles decrease steadily over this range. A simulation was developed to probe the degree of equilibration that is achieved by the composite nuclear system. It consists of a statistical model description of the emission of particles and a trajectory model calculation of the three-body interactions. Empirical lifetimes are substantially shorter than those predicted by model calculations, suggesting a regime in which partial, but not complete, equilibration is achieved. A novel method is also developed for measuring the average emission order for different ejectile pairs. The interactions between ejectiles differentiate between coincident events with different velocity relationships. At small relative angles these interactions are sufficiently strong to preferentially select events of a particular emission order. This method provides a new experimental observable with which to further constrain model descriptions. It is implemented to test for differences in average emission order

  15. Translational Research in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyengar, M. Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's role in medical translational research, and the importance in research for space exploration. The application of medical research for space exploration translates to health care in space medicine, and on earth.

  16. Multiple Conformations of the Loop Region Confers Heat-Resistance on SsArd1, a Thermophilic NatA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Yung; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Structural comparison indicates that the loop region between β3 and β4 of SsArd1 is extended relative to the corresponding region in mesophilic Nats, and forms a plastic hydrogen-bond network mainly at two serine residues. Strikingly, two single-point mutants showed ∼3 °C decrease in melting temperature, and two other variants showed ∼7 °C decrease; this correlated with significantly reduced enzymatic activity. To our knowledge, this is the first discovery of a loop region capable of remarkably improving protein thermostability. This provides a novel route to engineer heat-resistant proteins. PMID:26593285

  17. Spectroscopic evidence of large aspherical β-NAT particles involved in denitrification in the December 2011 Arctic stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, Wolfgang; Höpfner, Michael; Bi, Lei; Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.; Oelhaf, Hermann; Molleker, Sergej; Borrmann, Stephan; Klingebiel, Marcus; Belyaev, Gennady; Ebersoldt, Andreas; Griessbach, Sabine; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Gulde, Thomas; Krämer, Martina; Maucher, Guido; Piesch, Christof; Rolf, Christian; Sartorius, Christian; Spang, Reinhold; Orphal, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    We analyze polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) signatures in airborne MIPAS-STR (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - STRatospheric aircraft) observations in the spectral regions from 725 to 990 and 1150 to 1350 cm-1 under conditions suitable for the existence of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) above northern Scandinavia on 11 December 2011. The high-resolution infrared limb emission spectra of MIPAS-STR show a characteristic "shoulder-like" signature in the spectral region around 820 cm-1, which is attributed to the ν2 symmetric deformation mode of NO3- in β-NAT. Using radiative transfer calculations involving Mie and T-Matrix methods, the spectral signatures of spherical and aspherical particles are simulated. The simulations are constrained using collocated in situ particle measurements. Simulations assuming highly aspherical spheroids with aspect ratios (AR) of 0.1 or 10.0 and a lognormal particle mode with a mode radius of 4.8 µm reproduce the observed spectra to a high degree. A smaller lognormal mode with a mode radius of 2.0 µm, which is also taken into account, plays only a minor role. Within the scenarios analyzed, the best overall agreement is found for elongated spheroids with AR = 0.1. Simulations of spherical particles and spheroids with AR = 0.5 and 2.0 return results very similar to each other and do not allow us to reproduce the signature around 820 cm-1. The observed "shoulder-like" signature is explained by the combination of the absorption/emission and scattering characteristics of large highly aspherical β-NAT particles. The size distribution supported by our results corresponds to ˜ 9 ppbv of gas-phase equivalent HNO3 at the flight altitude of ˜ 18.5 km. The results are compared with the size distributions derived from the in situ observations, a corresponding Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) simulation, and excess gas-phase HNO3 observed in a nitrification layer directly below the observed PSC. The

  18. 2014 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  19. 2013 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  20. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  1. Knowledge Translation: Implications for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Translation theory originates in the field of applied linguistics and communication. The term knowledge translation has been adopted in health and other fields to refer to the exchange, synthesis, and application of knowledge. The logic model is a circular or iterative loop among various knowledge translation actors (knowledge producers and users)…

  2. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  3. Discourse Analysis and the Translator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Margaret

    Discourse analysis, as an approach to text, provides the teacher, student, and professional translator with resources for achieving objectivity and for making and justifying translation decisions. It offers a strategy for relating the problems and processes and discourse and the specific concerns to the objectives of the translator. It can be…

  4. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  5. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  6. Phosphoproteomics in translational research: a sarcoma perspective.

    PubMed

    Noujaim, J; Payne, L S; Judson, I; Jones, R L; Huang, P H

    2016-05-01

    Phosphoproteomics has been extensively used as a preclinical research tool to characterize the phosphorylated components of the cancer proteome. Advances in the field have yielded insights into new drug targets, mechanisms of disease progression and drug resistance, and biomarker discovery. However, application of this technology to clinical research has been challenging because of practical issues relating to specimen integrity and tumour heterogeneity. Beyond these limitations, phosphoproteomics has the potential to play a pivotal role in translational studies and contribute to advances in different tumour groups, including rare disease sites like sarcoma. In this review, we propose that deploying phosphoproteomic technologies in translational research may facilitate the identification of better defined predictive biomarkers for patient stratification, inform drug selection in umbrella trials and identify new combinations to overcome drug resistance. We provide an overview of current phosphoproteomic technologies, such as affinity-based assays and mass spectrometry-based approaches, and discuss their advantages and limitations. We use sarcoma as an example to illustrate the current challenges in evaluating targeted kinase therapies in clinical trials. We then highlight useful lessons from preclinical studies in sarcoma biology to demonstrate how phosphoproteomics may address some of these challenges. Finally, we conclude by offering a perspective and list the key measures required to translate and benchmark a largely preclinical technology into a useful tool for translational research. PMID:26802162

  7. My Fats Translator

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  8. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    PubMed

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  9. Excitation functions for production of 46Sc by deuteron and proton beams in natTi: A basis for additional monitor reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Amjed, N.

    2014-11-01

    An objective of a new Coordinated Research Program launched recently by IAEA is to strengthen and broaden the cross section database for monitoring of charged particle beams given in IAEA-TECDOC-1211. One of the suggestions is to complement the widely used natTi(d,x)48V monitor reaction by the natTi(d,x)46Sc reaction having a maximum in a somewhat higher energy. After compilation of the data sets for this reaction available in literature and unpublished data from our earlier experiments, a selection of 20 sets is proposed for statistical fitting and extraction of recommended values. A similar analysis is presented for the natTi(p,x)46Sc reaction where 16 datasets are finally selected.

  10. Decreased DNA Methylation in the Shati/Nat8l Promoter in Both Patients with Schizophrenia and a Methamphetamine-Induced Murine Model of Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kyosuke; Kikuchi, Yuu; Iwata, Mina; Uehara, Takashi; Matsuoka, Tadasu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Jinno, Hideto; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with schizophrenia has increased over the past decade. Previously, many studies have been performed to establish its diagnostic criteria, prophylactic methods, and effective therapies. In this study, we analyzed whether the ratios of DNA methylation in CpG islands of the Shati/Nat8l is decreased in model mice of schizophrenia-like phenotype using genomic DNA collected from brain regions and peripheral blood, since the mouse model of schizophrenia-like phenotype, mice treated repeatedly with methamphetamine showed increase of Shati/Nat8l mRNA expression in our previous experiment. The ratios of Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation were significantly decreased in both the nucleus accumbens and the peripheral blood of model mice compared with those of control mice. We also investigated Shati/Nat8l methylation in the blood of patients with schizophrenia. We found that Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation ratios were lower in the patients with schizophrenia than in the healthy controls, which is consistent with our findings in the mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show similar alterations in methylation status of a particular genomic DNA site in both the brain and peripheral blood of mice. Furthermore, the same phenomenon was observed in corresponding human genomic sequences of the DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of patients with schizophrenia. Based on our findings, DNA methylation profiles of the CpG island of Shati/Nat8l might be a diagnostic biomarker of schizophrenia. PMID:27348532

  11. Decreased DNA Methylation in the Shati/Nat8l Promoter in Both Patients with Schizophrenia and a Methamphetamine-Induced Murine Model of Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Uno, Kyosuke; Kikuchi, Yuu; Iwata, Mina; Uehara, Takashi; Matsuoka, Tadasu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Jinno, Hideto; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Nitta, Atsumi

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with schizophrenia has increased over the past decade. Previously, many studies have been performed to establish its diagnostic criteria, prophylactic methods, and effective therapies. In this study, we analyzed whether the ratios of DNA methylation in CpG islands of the Shati/Nat8l is decreased in model mice of schizophrenia-like phenotype using genomic DNA collected from brain regions and peripheral blood, since the mouse model of schizophrenia-like phenotype, mice treated repeatedly with methamphetamine showed increase of Shati/Nat8l mRNA expression in our previous experiment. The ratios of Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation were significantly decreased in both the nucleus accumbens and the peripheral blood of model mice compared with those of control mice. We also investigated Shati/Nat8l methylation in the blood of patients with schizophrenia. We found that Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation ratios were lower in the patients with schizophrenia than in the healthy controls, which is consistent with our findings in the mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show similar alterations in methylation status of a particular genomic DNA site in both the brain and peripheral blood of mice. Furthermore, the same phenomenon was observed in corresponding human genomic sequences of the DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of patients with schizophrenia. Based on our findings, DNA methylation profiles of the CpG island of Shati/Nat8l might be a diagnostic biomarker of schizophrenia. PMID:27348532

  12. Molecular basis of essential amino acid transport from studies of insect nutrient amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family (NAT-SLC6)

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.

    2012-01-01

    Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). Members of these families have been identified as important apical and basolateral parts of transepithelial essential amino acid absorption in the metazoan alimentary canal. Synergistically, they play critical physiological roles as essential substrate providers to diverse metabolic processes, including generic protein synthesis. This review briefly clarifies the requirements for amino acid transport and a variety of amino acid transport mechanisms, including the aforementioned families. Further it focuses on the large group of Nutrient Amino acid Transporters (NATs), which comprise a recently identified subfamily of the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporter family (NSS or SLC6). The first insect NAT, cloned from the caterpillar gut, has a broad substrate spectrum similar to mammalian B0 transporters. Several new NAT-SLC6 members have been characterized in an effort to explore mechanisms for the essential amino acid absorption in model dipteran insects. The identification and functional characterization of new B0-like and narrow specificity transporters of essential amino acids in fruit fly and mosquitoes leads to a fundamentally important insight: that NATs evolved and act together as the integrated active core of a transport network that mediates active alimentary absorption and systemic distribution of essential amino acids. This role of NATs is projected from the most primitive prokaryotes to the most complex metazoan organisms, and represents an interesting platform for unraveling the molecular evolution of amino acid transport and modeling amino acid transport disorders. The comparative study of NATs elucidates important adaptive differences between essential amino acid transportomes

  13. Translation dynamics of single mRNAs in live cells and neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Eliscovich, Carolina; Yoon, Young J.; Singer, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Translation is the fundamental biological process converting mRNA information into proteins. Single-molecule imaging in live cells has illuminated the dynamics of RNA transcription; however, it is not yet applicable to translation. Here, we report single-molecule imaging of nascent peptides (SINAPS) to assess translation in live cells. The approach provides direct readout of initiation, elongation, and location of translation. We show that mRNAs coding for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are translated when they encounter the ER membrane. Single-molecule fluorescence recovery after photobleaching provides direct measurement of elongation speed (5 amino acids per second). In primary neurons, mRNAs are translated in proximal dendrites but repressed in distal dendrites and display “bursting” translation. This technology provides a tool with which to address the spatiotemporal translation mechanism of single mRNAs in living cells. PMID:27313041

  14. Translation dynamics of single mRNAs in live cells and neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Eliscovich, Carolina; Yoon, Young J; Singer, Robert H

    2016-06-17

    Translation is the fundamental biological process converting mRNA information into proteins. Single-molecule imaging in live cells has illuminated the dynamics of RNA transcription; however, it is not yet applicable to translation. Here, we report single-molecule imaging of nascent peptides (SINAPS) to assess translation in live cells. The approach provides direct readout of initiation, elongation, and location of translation. We show that mRNAs coding for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are translated when they encounter the ER membrane. Single-molecule fluorescence recovery after photobleaching provides direct measurement of elongation speed (5 amino acids per second). In primary neurons, mRNAs are translated in proximal dendrites but repressed in distal dendrites and display "bursting" translation. This technology provides a tool with which to address the spatiotemporal translation mechanism of single mRNAs in living cells. PMID:27313041

  15. Magnetic translator bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  16. Review: Translational GTPases.

    PubMed

    Maracci, Cristina; Rodnina, Marina V

    2016-08-01

    Translational GTPases (trGTPases) play key roles in facilitating protein synthesis on the ribosome. Despite the high degree of evolutionary conservation in the sequences of their GTP-binding domains, the rates of GTP hydrolysis and nucleotide exchange vary broadly between different trGTPases. EF-Tu, one of the best-characterized model G proteins, evolved an exceptionally rapid and tightly regulated GTPase activity, which ensures rapid and accurate incorporation of amino acids into the nascent chain. Other trGTPases instead use the energy of GTP hydrolysis to promote movement or to ensure the forward commitment of translation reactions. Recent data suggest the GTPase mechanism of EF-Tu and provide an insight in the catalysis of GTP hydrolysis by its unusual activator, the ribosome. Here we summarize these advances in understanding the functional cycle and the regulation of trGTPases, stimulated by the elucidation of their structures on the ribosome and the progress in dissecting the reaction mechanism of GTPases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 463-475, 2016. PMID:26971860

  17. Raster Metafile and Raster Metafile Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Nancy L.; Everton, Eric L.; Randall, Donald P.; Gates, Raymond L.; Skeens, Kristi M.

    1989-01-01

    The intent is to present an effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center to design a generic raster image format and to develop tools for processing images prepared in this format. Both the Raster Metafile (RM) format and the Raster Metafile Translator (RMT) are addressed. This document is intended to serve a varied audience including: users wishing to display and manipulate raster image data, programmers responsible for either interfacing the RM format with other raster formats or for developing new RMT device drivers, and programmers charged with installing the software on a host platform.

  18. The Translation and the Translator of the Peshitta of Hosea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive examination of the Syriac Peshitta of Hosea (P-Hosea) is the first study of the Peshitta conducted via insights and methods from the discipline of Translation Studies. It uses in particular Andrew Chesterman's Causal Model and Gideon Toury's descriptive approach. Every translator leaves residue of his or her…

  19. Excitation functions of (nat)Zn(p,x) nuclear reactions with proton beam energy below 18 MeV.

    PubMed

    Asad, Ali H; Chan, Sun; Morandeau, Laurence; Cryer, David; Smith, Suzanne V; Price, Roger I

    2014-12-01

    We measured the excitation functions of (nat)Zn (p,x) reactions up to 17.6MeV, using the stacked-foils activation technique. High-purity natural zinc (and copper) foils were irradiated with proton beams generated by an 18MeV isochronous cyclotron. Activated foils were measured using high-purity Ge gamma spectroscopy to quantify the radionuclides (61)Cu, (66)Ga, (67)Ga, and (65)Zn produced from the reactions. Thick-target integral yields were also deduced from the measured excitation functions of the produced radioisotopes. These results were compared with the published literature and were found to be in good agreement with most reports, particularly those most recently compiled. PMID:25108597

  20. Measurement and theoretical analysis of the excitation functions for 3He induced reactions on natSn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, B. M.; Al-Abyad, M.; Seddik, U.; El-Kameesy, S. U.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F.

    2015-11-01

    Excitation functions of 3He induced nuclear reactions on natSn were measured up to 26 MeV using the stacked-foil technique, utilizing the MGC-20E cyclotron of ATOMKI. Using HPGe detector the following radioisotopes were identified: 116,117,118,119g,119m,121g,121m,123mTe, 115g,116m,117,118m,120m,122g,124gSb and 113g,117mSn. The experimental results are presented for the first time in this energy range. The results of theoretical calculations based on EMPIRE and TENDL library were compared with the present data. Integral yields for some isotopes were calculated.

  1. Nonhuman primate models in translational regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Daadi, Marcel M; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell-based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena. PMID:25457970

  2. Nonhuman Primate Models in Translational Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Daadi, Marcel M.; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell–based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena. PMID:25457970

  3. Experiments in Language Translation: Technical English-to-Vietnamese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinaiko, H. Wallace; Brislin, Richard W.

    This paper documents the results of a series of experiments conducted by the Institute for Defense Analyses on translating technical material from English to Vietnamese. The work was accomplished in support of the Office of the Deputy Director, Research and Engineering, Deputy Director for Southeast Asia Matters. The paper addresses the question…

  4. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  5. Knowledge for Knowledge Translation: The Role of the Cochrane Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Santesso, Nancy; Cumpston, Miranda; Mayhew, Alain; McGowan, Jessie

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge-translation (KT) activities, including continuing education, should be informed by the totality of available research evidence. Systematic reviews are a generic methodology used to synthesize evidence from a broad range of research methods addressing different questions. Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the…

  6. Cinema and Choric Connection: "Lost in Translation" as Sensual Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Brian L.; Keeling, Diane Marie

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the new information technologies, and corresponding proliferation of signs, images, and information, has contributed to a growing sense of alienation and dislocation. For many, the contemporary moment is an unending and disorienting sea of sensory-symbolic excesses. "Lost in Translation" is a film addressed to these anxieties. Engaging…

  7. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  8. Comparative genomic survey, exon-intron annotation and phylogenetic analysis of NAT-homologous sequences in archaea, protists, fungi, viruses, and invertebrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously published extensive genomic surveys [1-3], reporting NAT-homologous sequences in hundreds of sequenced bacterial, fungal and vertebrate genomes. We present here the results of our latest search of 2445 genomes, representing 1532 (70 archaeal, 1210 bacterial, 43 protist, 97 fungal,...

  9. The Hamburg Selection Procedure for Dental Students – Introduction of the HAM-Nat as subject-specific test for study aptitude

    PubMed Central

    Kothe, Christian; Hissbach, Johanna; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study examines the question whether the selection of dental students should be based solely on average school-leaving grades (GPA) or whether it could be improved by using a subject-specific aptitude test. Methods: The HAM-Nat Natural Sciences Test was piloted with freshmen during their first study week in 2006 and 2007. In 2009 and 2010 it was used in the dental student selection process. The sample size in the regression models varies between 32 and 55 students. Results: Used as a supplement to the German GPA, the HAM-Nat test explained up to 12% of the variance in preclinical examination performance. We confirmed the prognostic validity of GPA reported in earlier studies in some, but not all of the individual preclinical examination results. Conclusion: The HAM-Nat test is a reliable selection tool for dental students. Use of the HAM-Nat yielded a significant improvement in prediction of preclinical academic success in dentistry. PMID:24282449

  10. A new parameterization of polar stratospheric clouds based on the effective growth of NAT particles in the chemistry-climate-model EMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirner, Ole; Ruhnke, Roland; Hoepfner, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), consisting of STS, NAT and ice particles, play a major role in polar ozone depletion. On the one hand there is the activation of chlorine reservoirs at the surface of the PSCs, on the other hand PSCs lead to the stratospheric denitrification with the effect of a delay in the deactivation of active chlorine in polar spring. Due to the relevance of a good representation of these PSCs in global chemistry-climate-models (CCMs) a new algorithm based on efficient growth of NAT particles, developed by van den Broek et al. [2004], has been implemented into the submodel PSC of the CCM ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). We present results of an EMAC simulation from 2000 to 2012, performed with the new NAT parameterization. The simulated results are analyzed regarding the composition of PSCs and their distribution in the polar regions as well as their influence to the ozone related chemistry. The new results are compared with an EMAC simulation with the old standard thermodynamical NAT parameterization. A comparison with PSC measurements retrieved by the satellite instrument MIPAS on ENVISAT [Höpfner et al., 2006] show the quality of the new PSC scheme in EMAC. With the help of an additional sensitivity simulation it can be shown that the significance of heterogeneous reactions on ice particles, in comparison to liquid particles, is subordinate regarding chlorine activation and ozone depletion in Antarctic winter and spring as noted in Drdla and Mueller [2012].

  11. The Impact of NAT2 Acetylator Genotype on Mutagenesis and DNA Adducts from 2-Amino-9H-Pyrido[2,3-b]Indole

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Robert J.; Bendaly, Jean; Yasa, Isil; Doll, Mark A.; Hein, David W.

    2009-01-01

    2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that is produced in high quantities in tobacco smoke, and also forms in charred meats. The bioactivation of AαC occurs by cytochrome P450-mediated (P450 1A2) N-oxidation of the exocyclic amine group, to form 2-hydroxyamino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (HONH-AαC). The HONH-AαC metabolite can then undergo further activation by phase II enzymes to form the penultimate ester species, which bind to DNA. Some epidemiological studies suggest a role for NAT2 genetic polymorphisms in human susceptibilities to various cancers from tobacco smoke and from consumption of well-done meats, where the exposures to AαC can be substantial. In this investigation, we have measured the genotoxicity of AαC in nucleotide excision repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with human P450 1A2 and either the NAT2*4 (rapid, wild-type acetylator) or the NAT2*5B (the most common slow acetylator) allele, to determine the role of NAT2 phenotype in the biological effects of AαC. Mutations at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus were induced in a dose-dependent manner by AαC, and were found to be highest in cells transfected with P450 1A2 and NAT2*4, followed by cells transfected with P450 1A2 and NAT2*5B. The level of formation of the deoxyguanosine (dG) adduct N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (dG-C8-AαC) paralleled the mutagenic potency, in these cell lines. However, AαC did not form DNA adducts or induce mutations in untransfected CHO cells, or in cells only expressing P450 1A2. These findings clearly demonstrate that NAT2 genetic polymorphism plays a major role in the genotoxic potency of AαC. PMID:19243127

  12. Excitation functions of the natTa(p,x)178m2Hf and natW(p,x)178m2Hf reactions at energies up to 2600 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.; Zhivun, V. M.; Chauzova, M. V.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Leray, S.; Boudard, A.; David, J. -C.; Mancusi, D.; Cugnon, J.; Yariv, Y.; Nishihara, K.; Matsuda, N.; Kumawat, H.; Stankovskiy, A. Yu.

    2015-04-29

    Due to potential level of energy intensity 178m2Hf is an extremely interesting isomer. One possible way to produce this isomer is irradiation of natTa or natW samples with high energy protons. Irradiation of natTa or natW samples performed for other purposes provides an opportunity to study the corresponding reactions. This paper presents the 178m2Hf independent production cross sections for both targets measured by the gamma-ray spectrometry method. The reaction excitation functions have been obtained for the proton energies from 40 up to 2600 MeV. The experimental results were compared with calculations by various versions of the intranuclear cascade model in the well-known codes: ISABEL, Bertini, INCL4.5+ABLA07, PHITS, CASCADE07 and CEM03.02. The isomer ratio for the natTa(p,x) 178m2Hf reaction is evaluated on the basis of the available data.

  13. Translation as a Teaching Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Klaus

    This paper describes and explains a classroom exercise in French translation, with a view to promoting translation as an integral part of language instruction, particularly at the third-year college level when the student can be expected to have acquired an advanced knowledge of the parts of speech, of the grammatical distribution and their…

  14. Translational control in cancer etiology.

    PubMed

    Ruggero, Davide

    2013-02-01

    The link between perturbations in translational control and cancer etiology is becoming a primary focus in cancer research. It has now been established that genetic alterations in several components of the translational apparatus underlie spontaneous cancers as well as an entire class of inherited syndromes known as "ribosomopathies" associated with increased cancer susceptibility. These discoveries have illuminated the importance of deregulations in translational control to very specific cellular processes that contribute to cancer etiology. In addition, a growing body of evidence supports the view that deregulation of translational control is a common mechanism by which diverse oncogenic pathways promote cellular transformation and tumor development. Indeed, activation of these key oncogenic pathways induces rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming both by increasing overall protein synthesis and by modulating specific mRNA networks. These translational changes promote cellular transformation, impacting almost every phase of tumor development. This paradigm represents a new frontier in the multihit model of cancer formation and offers significant promise for innovative cancer therapies. Current research, in conjunction with cutting edge technologies, will further enable us to explore novel mechanisms of translational control, functionally identify translationally controlled mRNA groups, and unravel their impact on cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. PMID:22767671

  15. Translation as a Psycholinguistic Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zasyekin, Serhiy

    2010-01-01

    The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human…

  16. Rescuing the Lost in Translation.

    PubMed

    Gehr, Sinje; Garner, Craig C

    2016-05-01

    The translation of medically relevant academic inventions that could transform public health has been notoriously difficult, stemming largely from cultural differences been academia and industry. New initiatives to kindle academic entrepreneurship and establish stronger public/private partnerships are helping to align these differences and accelerating the translation of promising new therapies. PMID:27153487

  17. Translational Control in Cancer Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Ruggero, Davide

    2013-01-01

    The link between perturbations in translational control and cancer etiology is becoming a primary focus in cancer research. It has now been established that genetic alterations in several components of the translational apparatus underlie spontaneous cancers as well as an entire class of inherited syndromes known as “ribosomopathies” associated with increased cancer susceptibility. These discoveries have illuminated the importance of deregulations in translational control to very specific cellular processes that contribute to cancer etiology. In addition, a growing body of evidence supports the view that deregulation of translational control is a common mechanism by which diverse oncogenic pathways promote cellular transformation and tumor development. Indeed, activation of these key oncogenic pathways induces rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming both by increasing overall protein synthesis and by modulating specific mRNA networks. These translational changes promote cellular transformation, impacting almost every phase of tumor development. This paradigm represents a new frontier in the multihit model of cancer formation and offers significant promise for innovative cancer therapies. Current research, in conjunction with cutting edge technologies, will further enable us to explore novel mechanisms of translational control, functionally identify translationally controlled mRNA groups, and unravel their impact on cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. PMID:22767671

  18. Translation: in retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Woese, C R

    2001-01-01

    This review is occasioned by the fact that the problem of translation, which has simmered on the biological sidelines for the last 40 years, is about to erupt center stage--thanks to the recent spectacular advances in ribosome structure. This most complex, beautiful, and fascinating of cellular mechanisms, the translation apparatus, is also the most important. Translation not only defines gene expression, but it is the sine qua non without which modern (protein-based) cells would not have come into existence. Yet from the start, the problem of translation has been misunderstood--a reflection of the molecular perspective that dominated Biology of the last century. In that the our conception of translation will play a significant role in creating the structure that is 21st century Biology, it is critical that our current (and fundamentally flawed) view of translation be understood for what it is and be reformulated to become an all-embracing perspective about which 21st century Biology can develop. Therefore, the present review is both a retrospective and a plea to biologists to establish a new evolutionary, RNA-World-centered concept of translation. What is needed is an evolutionarily oriented perspective that, first and foremost, focuses on the nature (and origin) of a primitive translation apparatus, the apparatus that transformed an ancient evolutionary era of nucleic acid life, the RNA World, into the world of modern cells. PMID:11497425

  19. The ultra-slow NAT2*6A haplotype is associated with reduced higher cognitive functions in an elderly study group.

    PubMed

    Selinski, Silvia; Getzmann, Stephan; Gajewski, Patrick D; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Falkenstein, Michael; Golka, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype is associated with age-related declines in basic sensory hearing functions. However, the possible modulatory role of NAT2 for higher cognitive functions has not yet been studied. We tested auditory goal-directed behavior and attentional control in 120 NAT2 genotyped subjects (63-88 years), using an auditory distraction paradigm in which participants responded to the duration of long and short tone stimuli. We studied involuntary shifts in attention to task-irrelevant deviant stimuli and applied event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine which cognitive subprocesses are affected by NAT2 status on a neurophysiological level. Relative to the standard stimuli, deviant stimuli decreased performance in the recently described ultra-slow acetylators (NAT2*6A and *7B): The increase in error-corrected reaction times (a combined measure of response speed and accuracy) in ultra-slow acetylators (254 ms increase) was more than twice as high as in the rapid acetylator reference group (111 ms increase; p < 0.01). The increase was still higher than in the other slow acetylators (149 ms increase, p < 0.05). In addition, clear differences were found in the ERP results: Ultra-slow acetylators showed deficits specifically in the automatic detection of changes in the acoustic environment as evidenced by reduced mismatch negativity (MMN, p < 0.005 compared to rapid acetylators). Refocussing of attention after a distracting event was also impaired in the ultra-slow acetylators as evidenced by a reduced re-orienting negativity (RON, p < 0.01 compared to rapid acetylators). In conclusion, the ultra-slow acetylation status was associated with reduced higher cognitive functions. PMID:26615528

  20. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  1. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams. PMID:20187952

  2. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  3. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Docket No. 03-185, FCC 04-220, 69 FR 69325, November 29, 2004. Synopsis As required by the Paperwork... (``LPTV'') and television translator (``TV translator'') stations and modifies certain rules applicable to digital Class A TV stations (``Class A''). The Commission addresses important issues such as: (1)...

  4. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  5. Integrating Content Learning and ESL Writing in a Translation Commentary Writing Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shei, Chi-Chiang

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of second language writing, with English as a second language, for advanced learners in a UK university. Confirming research findings about the limitations of second language writing, we examine the translation commentaries written by 14 Chinese students on a MA translation programme and find learner problems in…

  6. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  7. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  8. 78 FR 66021 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... NCATS might optimally exercise its flexible research authority by using transactions other than grants... include the name, address, telephone number and when applicable, the business or professional affiliation... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Advancing Translational...

  9. Knowledge translation of research findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by

  10. 22 CFR 92.78 - Translating documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Service are not authorized to translate documents or to certify to the correctness of translations... of a translation; to take an acknowledgment of the preparation of a translation; and to authenticate the seal and signature of a local official affixed to a translation. Separate fees should be...

  11. 22 CFR 92.78 - Translating documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Service are not authorized to translate documents or to certify to the correctness of translations... of a translation; to take an acknowledgment of the preparation of a translation; and to authenticate the seal and signature of a local official affixed to a translation. Separate fees should be...

  12. The "Pedagogue as Translator" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Translation theory has faced criticism from professional translators for adopting an ivory tower stance to the "real world" challenges of translation. This article argues that a case can be made for considering the challenges of translation as it takes place in the school classroom. In support of such an argument the pedagogue as translator is…

  13. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  14. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  15. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  16. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  17. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  18. A European framework to address psychosocial hazards.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Kortum, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decades, emphasis has been placed on the changing nature of work and new forms of risk that could negatively affect employee health and safety. These are mainly associated with new types of occupational hazards that have been termed psychosocial. Issues such as work-related stress, bullying and harassment are now receiving attention on a global basis and efforts have been made to address them at the workplace level. However, it has been acknowledged that despite developments of policy in this area, there still appear to be a broad science-policy gap and an even broader one between policy and practice. The WHO Network of Collaborating Centers in Occupational Health has, since the late 1990s, been supporting a dedicated program of work on psychosocial factors and work-related stress. Part of the Network's work is currently focusing on the translation of existing knowledge into practice in the area of psychosocial risk management. This program has identified that the optimum way forward lies in the development of a European framework for psychosocial risk management. This framework will serve as the basis for coordination of research activities and preventive action with an emphasis on evidence based interventions and best practice on an international basis. PMID:18408344

  19. Translational approach to address therapy in myotonia permanens due to a new SCN4A mutation

    PubMed Central

    Carbonara, Roberta; D'Amico, Adele; Modoni, Anna; Roussel, Julien; Imbrici, Paola; Pagliarani, Serena; Lucchiari, Sabrina; Lo Monaco, Mauro; Conte Camerino, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We performed a clinical, functional, and pharmacologic characterization of the novel p.P1158L Nav1.4 mutation identified in a young girl presenting a severe myotonic phenotype. Methods: Wild-type hNav1.4 channel and P1158L mutant were expressed in tsA201 cells for functional and pharmacologic studies using patch-clamp. Results: The patient shows pronounced myotonia, slowness of movements, and generalized muscle hypertrophy. Because of general discomfort with mexiletine, she was given flecainide with satisfactory response. In vitro, mutant channels show a slower current decay and a rightward shift of the voltage dependence of fast inactivation. The voltage dependence of activation and slow inactivation were not altered. Mutant channels were less sensitive to mexiletine, whereas sensitivity to flecainide was not altered. The reduced inhibition of mutant channels by mexiletine was also observed using clinically relevant drug concentrations in a myotonic-like condition. Conclusions: Clinical phenotype and functional alterations of P1158L support the diagnosis of myotonia permanens. Impairment of fast inactivation is consistent with the possible role of the channel domain III S4-S5 loop in the inactivation gate docking site. The reduced sensitivity of P1158L to mexiletine may have contributed to the unsatisfactory response of the patient. The success of flecainide therapy underscores the usefulness of in vitro functional studies to help in the choice of the best drug for each individual. PMID:27164696

  20. Translating the covenant: The behavior analyst as ambassador and translator

    PubMed Central

    Foxx, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Behavior analysts should be sensitive to how others react to and interpret our language because it is inextricably related to our image. Our use of conceptual revision, with such terms as punishment, has created communicative confusion and hostility on the part of general and professional audiences we have attempted to influence. We must, therefore, adopt the role of ambassador and translator in the nonbehavioral world. A number of recommendations are offered for promoting, translating, and disseminating behavior analysis. PMID:22478256

  1. Automatically structuring and translating CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geissman, James R.

    1990-01-01

    Expert systems become more valuable when they can be integrated into production environments. Code that is written for easy maintainability and that can be ported to different machines can be easily integrated. This paper discusses two ports of CLIPS, implemented using the Metapack translation system developed by Abacus Programming Corporation. One translation converts positional form CLIPS into 'structured' or 'template' CLIPS, a form that is more easily maintained. The other translation converts either form of CLIPS into OPS83, a semantically similar forward-chaining language that has somewhat higher performance resulting from its being compiled.

  2. Overexpression of Shati/Nat8l, an N-acetyltransferase, in the nucleus accumbens attenuates the response to methamphetamine via activation of group II mGluRs in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Ishikawa, Yudai; Iegaki, Noriyuki; Sumi, Kazuyuki; Fu, Kequan; Sato, Keiji; Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Uno, Kyosuke; Nitta, Atsumi

    2014-08-01

    A novel N-acetyltransferase, Shati/Nat8l, was identified in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice with methamphetamine (METH) treatment. Previously we reported that suppression of Shati/Nat8l enhanced METH-induced behavioral alterations via dopaminergic neuronal regulation. However, the physiological mechanisms of Shati/Nat8l on the dopaminergic system in the brain are unclear. In this study, we injected adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector containing Shati/Nat8l into the NAc or dorsal striatum (dS) of mice, to increase Shati/Nat8l expression. Overexpression of Shati/Nat8l in the NAc, but not in the dS, attenuated METH-induced hyperlocomotion, locomotor sensitization, and conditioned place preference in mice. Moreover, the Shati/Nat8l overexpression in the NAc attenuated the elevation of extracellular dopamine levels induced by METH in in vivo microdialysis experiments. These behavioral and neurochemical alterations due to Shati/Nat8l overexpression in the NAc were inhibited by treatment with selective group II metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 and 3 (mGluR2/3) antagonist LY341495. In the AAV vector-injected NAc, the tissue contents of both N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), endogenous mGluR3 agonist, were elevated. The injection of peptidase inhibitor of NAAG or the perfusion of NAAG itself reduced the basal levels of extracellular dopamine in the NAc of naive mice. These results indicate that Shati/Nat8l in the NAc, but not in the dS, plays an important suppressive role in the behavioral responses to METH by controlling the dopaminergic system via activation of group II mGluRs. PMID:24559655

  3. Excitation functions of the natCr(p,x)44Ti, 56Fe(p,x)44Ti, natNi(p,x)44Ti and 93Nb(p,x)44Ti reactions at energies up to 2.6 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.; Zhivun, V. M.; Chauzova, M. V.; Balyuk, S. A.; Bebenin, P. V.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Mashnik, S. G.; Leray, S.; Boudard, A.; David, J. C.; Mancusi, D.; Cugnon, J.; Yariv, Y.; Nishihara, K.; Matsuda, N.; Kumawat, H.; Stankovskiy, A. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the measured cumulative yields of 44Ti for natCr, 56Fe, natNi and 93Nb samples irradiated by protons at the energy range 0.04-2.6 GeV. The obtained excitation functions are compared with calculations of the well-known codes: ISABEL, Bertini, INCL4.2+ABLA, INCL4.5+ABLA07, PHITS, CASCADE07 and CEM03.02. The predictive power of these codes regarding the studied nuclides is analyzed.

  4. A Translational Model of Research-Practice Integration

    PubMed Central

    Vivian, Dina; Hershenberg, Rachel; Teachman, Bethany A.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Wolfe, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-level, recursive Research-Practice Integration framework as a heuristic to (a) integrate and reflect on the articles in this Special Section as contributing to a bidirectional bridge between research and practice, and (b) consider additional opportunities to address the research–practice gap. Level 1 addresses Treatment Validation studies and includes an article by Lochman and colleagues concerning the programmatic adaptation, implementation, and dissemination of the empirically supported Coping Power treatment program for youth aggression. Level 2 translation, Training in Evidence-Based Practice, includes a paper by Hershenberg, Drabick, and Vivian, which focuses on the critical role that predoctoral training plays in bridging the research–practice gap. Level 3 addresses the Assessment of Clinical Utility and Feedback to Research aspects of translation. The articles by Lambert and Youn, Kraus, and Castonguay illustrate the use of commercial outcome packages that enable psychotherapists to integrate ongoing client assessment, thus enhancing the effectiveness of treatment implementation and providing data that can be fed back to researchers. Lastly, Level 4 translation, the Cross-Level Integrative Research and Communication, concerns research efforts that integrate data from clinical practice and all other levels of translation, as well as communication efforts among all stakeholders, such as researchers, psychotherapists, and clients. Using a two-chair technique as a framework for his discussion, Wolfe's article depicts the struggle inherent in research–practice integration efforts and proposes a rapprochement that highlights advancements in the field. PMID:22642522

  5. Translational pathology of neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Grizzle, William E.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Manne, Upender

    2012-01-01

    this manuscript is to introduce the reader to how biomarkers may be used and the limitations on the uses of biomarkers in translational research. PMID:22112467

  6. Translational pathology of neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Grizzle, William E; Srivastava, Sudhir; Manne, Upender

    2010-01-01

    this manuscript is to introduce the reader to how biomarkers may be used and the limitations on the uses of biomarkers in translational research. PMID:22112467

  7. Functional Integration of mRNA Translational Control Programs.

    PubMed

    MacNicol, Melanie C; Cragle, Chad E; Arumugam, Karthik; Fosso, Bruno; Pesole, Graziano; MacNicol, Angus M

    2015-01-01

    Regulated mRNA translation plays a key role in control of cell cycle progression in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in the self-renewal and survival of stem cells and cancer stem cells. While targeting mRNA translation presents an attractive strategy for control of aberrant cell cycle progression, mRNA translation is an underdeveloped therapeutic target. Regulated mRNAs are typically controlled through interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins (RBPs) but the mechanisms by which the functions of distinct RBPs bound to a common target mRNA are coordinated are poorly understood. The challenge now is to gain insight into these mechanisms of coordination and to identify the molecular mediators that integrate multiple, often conflicting, inputs. A first step includes the identification of altered mRNA ribonucleoprotein complex components that assemble on mRNAs bound by multiple, distinct RBPs compared to those recruited by individual RBPs. This review builds upon our knowledge of combinatorial control of mRNA translation during the maturation of oocytes from Xenopus laevis, to address molecular strategies that may mediate RBP diplomacy and conflict resolution for coordinated control of mRNA translational output. Continued study of regulated ribonucleoprotein complex dynamics promises valuable new insights into mRNA translational control and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease. PMID:26197342

  8. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. PMID:26282436

  9. Clinical translation of controlled protein delivery systems for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, Kara L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Strategies that utilize controlled release of drugs and proteins for tissue engineering have enormous potential to regenerate damaged organs and tissues. The multiple advantages of controlled release strategies merit overcoming the significant challenges to translation, including high costs and long, difficult regulatory pathways. This review highlights the potential of controlled release of proteins for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We specifically discuss treatment modalities that have reached preclinical and clinical trials, with emphasis on controlled release systems for bone tissue engineering, the most advanced application with several products already in clinic. Possible strategies to address translational and regulatory concerns are also discussed. PMID:25787736

  10. Technical Translation and Industrial Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longyka, Tomaz

    1973-01-01

    Paper presented at the symposium on The Importance and Problems of Translation in Sciences, Technology, and Economic Life.'' in Ohrid, Yugoslavia. Argues for the adoption of artificial languages as an international terminological means in science and technology. (RS)

  11. Translational Control in Oocyte Development

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Joel D.; Lasko, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Translational control of specific mRNAs is a widespread mechanism of gene regulation, and it is especially important in pattern formation in the oocytes of organisms in which the embryonic axes are established maternally. Drosophila and Xenopus have been especially valuable in elucidating the relevant molecular mechanisms. Here, we comprehensively review what is known about translational control in these two systems, focusing on examples that illustrate key concepts that have emerged. We focus on protein-mediated translational control, rather than regulation mediated by small RNAs, as the former appears to be predominant in controlling these developmental events. Mechanisms that modulate the ability of the specific mRNAs to be recruited to the ribosome, that regulate polyadenylation of specific mRNAs, or that control the association of particular mRNAs into translationally inert ribonucleoprotein complexes will all be discussed. PMID:21690213

  12. Charting the dynamics of translation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dominique; Thompson, James; von der Haar, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    Codon usage bias (CUB) is the well-known phenomenon that the frequency of synonymous codons is unequal. This is presumably the result of adaptive pressures favouring some codons over others. The underlying reason for this pressure is unknown, although a large number of possible driver mechanisms have been proposed. According to one hypothesis, the decoding time could be such a driver. A tacit assumption of this hypothesis is that faster codons lead to a higher translation rate which in turn is more resource efficient. While it is generally assumed that there is such a link, there are no rigorous studies to establish under which conditions the link between translation speed and rate actually exists. Using a computational simulation model and explicitly calculated codon decoding times, this contribution maps the entire range of dynamical regimes of translation. These simulations make it possible to understand precisely under which conditions translation speed and rate are linked. PMID:24631460

  13. Pseudonymization of patient identifiers for translational research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    person-centricity issues, a collision-resistant function is incorporated into the method. These two facts combined enable us to address essential challenges in translational research. A productive software prototype was implemented to prove the functionality of the suggested translational, data privacy-preserving method. Eventually, we performed a threat analysis to evaluate potential hazards connected with this pseudonymization method. Conclusions The proposed method offers sustainable organizational simplification regarding an ethically indicated, but secure and controlled process of de-pseudonymizing patients. A pseudonym is patient-centered to allow correlating separate datasets from one patient. Therefore, this method bridges the gap between bench and bedside in translational research while preserving patient privacy. Assigned ombudsmen are able to de-pseudonymize a patient, if an individual research result is clinically relevant. PMID:23883409

  14. Developing a Process-Oriented Translation Test for Assessing English-Arabic Basic Translation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdellah, Antar Solhy

    2007-01-01

    The study reviews translation validated tests and proposes a process-oriented translation test for assessing basic translation skills for freshmen English majors at the faculty of Education. The proposed test is developed based on the process approach to translating and translation teaching, and is confined to translation from English to Arabic.…

  15. Addressing Health Disparities through Multi-institutional, Multidisciplinary Collaboratories

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Erik S.; Perkins, James; Easa, David; Conde, José G.; Baker, Richard S.; Southerland, William M.; Dottin, Robert; Benabe, Julio E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Bond, Vincent C.; McClure, Shelia A.; Sayre, Michael H.; Beanan, Maureen J.; Norris, Keith C.

    2009-01-01

    The national research leadership has recently become aware of the tremendous potential of translational research as an approach to address health disparities. The Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) is a research network that supports multi-institutional, multidisciplinary collaboration with a focus on key diseases and conditions for which disproportionately adverse racial and ethnic health disparities exist. The RTRN is designed to facilitate the movement of scientific advances across the translational research spectrum by providing researchers at different institutions with the infrastructure and tools necessary to collaborate on interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research projects relating to specific health outcomes for which major racial/ethnic disparities exist. In the past, the difficulty of overcoming the restrictions imposed by time and space have made it difficult to carry out this type of large-scale, multilevel collaboration efficiently. To address this formidable challenge, the RTRN will deploy a translational research cluster system that uses “cyber workspaces” to bring researchers with similar interests together by using online collaboratory technology. These virtual meeting environments will provide a number of tools, including videoconferences (seminars, works in progress, meetings); project management tools (WebCT, Microsoft Share Point); and posting areas for projects, concepts, and other research and educational activities. This technology will help enhance access to resources across institutions with a common mission, minimize many of the logistical hurdles that impede intellectual exchange, streamline the planning and implementation of innovative interdisciplinary research, and assess the use of protocols and practices to assist researchers in interacting across and within cyber workspaces. PMID:18646341

  16. Hepatitis C Virus Translation Preferentially Depends on Active RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Helene Minyi; Aizaki, Hideki; Machida, Keigo; Ou, J.-H. James; Lai, Michael M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA initiates its replication on a detergent-resistant membrane structure derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the HCV replicon cells. By performing a pulse-chase study of BrU-labeled HCV RNA, we found that the newly-synthesized HCV RNA traveled along the anterograde-membrane traffic and moved away from the ER. Presumably, the RNA moved to the site of translation or virion assembly in the later steps of viral life cycle. In this study, we further addressed how HCV RNA translation was regulated by HCV RNA trafficking. When the movement of HCV RNA from the site of RNA synthesis to the Golgi complex was blocked by nocodazole, an inhibitor of ER-Golgi transport, HCV protein translation was surprisingly enhanced, suggesting that the translation of viral proteins occurred near the site of RNA synthesis. We also found that the translation of HCV proteins was dependent on active RNA synthesis: inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by an NS5B inhibitor resulted in decreased HCV viral protein synthesis even when the total amount of intracellular HCV RNA remained unchanged. Furthermore, the translation activity of the replication-defective HCV replicons or viral RNA with an NS5B mutation was greatly reduced as compared to that of the corresponding wildtype RNA. By performing live cell labeling of newly synthesized HCV RNA and proteins, we further showed that the newly synthesized HCV proteins colocalized with the newly synthesized viral RNA, suggesting that HCV RNA replication and protein translation take place at or near the same site. Our findings together indicate that the translation of HCV RNA is coupled to RNA replication and that the both processes may occur at the same subcellular membrane compartments, which we term the replicasome. PMID:22937067

  17. International Technical Communication: Beyond Translation, Localization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Offers a personal view of international technical communication. Discusses computer-assisted translation, machine translation, machine interpreting, and the future of international technical communication. (SR)

  18. Presidential address: imagination trumps knowledge.

    PubMed

    Moore, Frederick A

    2010-12-01

    Multiple organ failure (MOF) emerged 30 years ago and became our research focus. Over the years, we have proposed a series of cartoons that rallied multidisciplinary translational research teams around common themes to generate "win-win" hypotheses that when tested (right or wrong) have advanced our understanding of MOF. MOF has a bimodal trajectory, and the gut plays a role in both trajectories. Early MOF occurs because of excessive proinflammation (ie, systemic inflammatory response syndrome [SIRS]), and early gut ischemia-reperfusion can amplify SIRS and contribute to the early fulminant SIRS-MOF trajectory. Fortunately, most patients survive early SIRS, but some develop excessive anti-inflammation (ie, compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome). The gut also plays a role in this late indolent compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome-MOF trajectory. Multiple factors cause progressive gut dysfunction such that the gut (an important immunologic organ) worsens compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome and becomes the reservoir for pathogens and toxins that cause late sepsis. PMID:21146000

  19. A simple and cost-saving approach to optimize the production of subtilisin NAT by submerged cultivation of Bacillus subtilis natto.

    PubMed

    Ku, Ting-Wei; Tsai, Ruei-Lan; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2009-01-14

    Subtilisin NAT, formerly designated nattokinase or subtilisin BSP, is a potent cardiovascular drug because of its strong fibrinolytic activity and safety. In this study, one Bacillus subtilis natto strain with high fibrinolytic activity was isolated. We further studied the optimal conditions for subtilisin NAT production by submerged cultivation and three variables/three levels of response surface methodology (RSM) using various inoculum densities, glucose concentrations, and defatted soybean concentrations as the three variables. According to the RSM analysis, while culturing by 2.93% defatted soybean, 1.75% glucose, and 4.00% inoculum density, we obtained an activity of 13.78 SU/mL. Processing the batch fermentation with this optimal condition, the activity reached 13.69 SU/mL, which is equal to 99.3% of the predicted value. PMID:19063639

  20. Independent isotopic yields in 25 MeV and 50 MeV proton-induced fission of natU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, H.; Gorelov, D.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Moore, I. D.; Parkkonen, J.; Peräjärvi, K.; Pohjalainen, I.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Rubchenya, V. A.; Saastamoinen, A.; Simutkin, V.; Sonoda, T.; Weber, C.; Voss, A.; Äystö, J.

    2016-04-01

    Independent isotopic yields for elements from Zn to La in the 25 MeV proton-induced fission of {}^{nat}U were determined with the JYFLTRAP facility. In addition, isotopic yields for Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pd and Xe in the 50 MeV proton-induced fission of {}^{nat}U were measured. The deduced isotopic yield distributions are compared with a Rubchenya model, the GEF model with universal parameters and the semi-empirical Wahl model. Of these, the Rubchenya model gives the best overall agreement with the obtained data. Combining the isotopic yield data with mass yield data to obtain the absolute independent yields was attempted. The result depends on the mass yield distribution.

  1. Inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme by subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) in natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keiko; Yamanaka, Naoki; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Fukayama, Minoru; Yoshino, Masataka

    2012-06-01

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was inhibited by the culture medium of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto, which ferments boiled soy beans to natto, a Japanese traditional food. Subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) produced by B. subtilis also inhibited ACE, and the inhibition was markedly stimulated by heat treatment of subtilisin at 120 °C for 15 min. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin was of a mixed type: the decrease in V(max) and the increase in K(m) value. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that heat treatment of subtilisin caused inactivation with fragmentation of the enzyme protein into small peptides. The inhibitory action of subtilisin was not due to an enzymatic action of protease, but may be ascribed to the potent ACE-inhibitory peptides such as LY and FY, amino acid sequences in subtilisin. HPLC-MS analysis of heat-inactivated subtilisin confirmed that LY and FY were liberated by fragmentation of the enzyme. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin and its degradation peptides such as LY and FY may participate in the suppression of blood pressure by ingestion of natto. PMID:22453301

  2. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  3. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  4. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  5. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  6. Active cigarette smoking and the risk of breast cancer at the level of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Kasajova, Petra; Holubekova, Veronika; Mendelova, Andrea; Lasabova, Zora; Zubor, Pavol; Kudela, Erik; Biskupska-Bodova, Kristina; Danko, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the correlation between the tobacco exposure and NAT2 gene (rs1041983 C/T, rs1801280 T/C, rs1799930 G/A) polymorphisms in association with breast cancer development. We wanted to determine the prognostic clinical importance of these polymorphisms in association with smoking and breast cancer. For the detection of possible association between smoking, NAT2 gene polymorphisms, and the risk of breast cancer, we designed a case-controlled study with 198 patients enrolled, 98 breast cancer patients and 100 healthy controls. Ten milliliters of peripheral blood from the cubital vein was withdrawn from every patient. The HRM (high resolution melting) analysis was used for the detection of three abovementioned NAT2 gene polymorphisms. When comparing a group of women smoking more than 5 cigarettes a day with the patients smoking fewer than 5 cigarettes a day, we found out that if women were the carriers of aberrant AA genotype for rs1799930, the first group of women had higher risk of breast carcinoma than the second group. If patients were the carriers of aberrant TT genotype for rs1041983, for rs1801280CC genotype, and rs1799930AA genotype and they smoked more than 5 cigarettes a day, they had higher risk of malignant breast disease than never-smoking women. Our results confirm the hypothesis that NAT2 gene polymorphisms (rs1041983 C/T, rs1801280 T/C, and rs1799930 G/A) in association with long-period active smoking could be the possible individual risk-predicting factors for breast cancer development in the population of Slovak women. PMID:26700672

  7. Refinement of the prediction of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) phenotypes with respect to enzyme activity and urinary bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Ickstadt, Katja; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) are well known to modify urinary bladder cancer risk as well as efficacy and toxicity of pharmaceuticals via reduction in the enzyme's acetylation capacity. Nevertheless, the discussion about optimal NAT2 phenotype prediction, particularly differentiation between different degrees of slow acetylation, is still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms and their haplotypes on slow acetylation in vivo and on bladder cancer risk. For this purpose, we used a study cohort of 1,712 bladder cancer cases and 2,020 controls genotyped for NAT2 by RFLP-PCR and for the tagSNP rs1495741 by TaqMan(®) assay. A subgroup of 344 individuals was phenotyped by the caffeine test in vivo. We identified an 'ultra-slow' acetylator phenotype based on combined *6A/*6A, *6A/*7B and *7B/*7B genotypes containing the homozygous minor alleles of C282T (rs1041983, *6A, *7B) and G590A (rs1799930, *6A). 'Ultra-slow' acetylators have significantly about 32 and 46 % lower activities of caffeine metabolism compared with other slow acetylators and with the *5B/*5B genotypes, respectively (P < 0.01, both). The 'ultra-slow' genotype showed an association with bladder cancer risk in the univariate analysis (OR = 1.31, P = 0.012) and a trend adjusted for age, gender and smoking habits (OR = 1.22, P = 0.082). In contrast, slow acetylators in general were not associated with bladder cancer risk, neither in the univariate (OR = 1.02, P = 0.78) nor in the adjusted (OR = 0.98, P = 0.77) analysis. In conclusion, this study suggests that NAT2 phenotype prediction should be refined by consideration of an 'ultra-slow' acetylation genotype. PMID:24221535

  8. Coffee and tea consumption, genotype-based CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity and colorectal cancer risk-results from the EPIC cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dik, Vincent K; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Van Oijen, Martijn G H; Siersema, Peter D; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Van Gils, Carla H; Van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Cauchi, Stéphane; Yengo, Loic; Froguel, Philippe; Overvad, Kim; Bech, Bodil H; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kühn, Tilman; Campa, Daniele; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peppa, Eleni; Oikonomou, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosaria; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Argüelles, Marcial; Jirström, Karin; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena M; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Freisling, Heinz; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Riboli, Elio

    2014-07-15

    Coffee and tea contain numerous antimutagenic and antioxidant components and high levels of caffeine that may protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the association between coffee and tea consumption and CRC risk and studied potential effect modification by CYP1A2 and NAT2 genotypes, enzymes involved in the metabolization of caffeine. Data from 477,071 participants (70.2% female) of the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study were analyzed. At baseline (1992-2000) habitual (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) coffee and tea consumption was assessed with dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio's (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Potential effect modification by genotype-based CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity was studied in a nested case-control set of 1,252 cases and 2,175 controls. After a median follow-up of 11.6 years, 4,234 participants developed CRC (mean age 64.7 ± 8.3 years). Total coffee consumption (high vs. non/low) was not associated with CRC risk (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.95-1.18) or subsite cancers, and no significant associations were found for caffeinated (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.97-1.26) and decaffeinated coffee (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.84-1.11) and tea (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86-1.09). High coffee and tea consuming subjects with slow CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity had a similar CRC risk compared to non/low coffee and tea consuming subjects with a fast CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity, which suggests that caffeine metabolism does not affect the link between coffee and tea consumption and CRC risk. This study shows that coffee and tea consumption is not likely to be associated with overall CRC. PMID:24318358

  9. Metabolic activation and analgesic effect of flupirtine in healthy subjects, influence of the polymorphic NAT2, UGT1A1 and GSTP1

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Werner; Modess, Christiane; Scheuch, Eberhard; Methling, Karen; Keiser, Markus; Nassif, Ali; Rosskopf, Dieter; Bednarski, Patrick J; Borlak, Jürgen; Terhaag, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Aims The rare association of flupirtine with liver injury is most likely caused by reactive quinone diimines and their oxidative formation may be influenced by the activities of N-acetyltransferases (NAT) that conjugate the less toxic metabolite D13223, and by glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) that generate stable terminal glucuronides and mercapturic acid derivatives, respectively. The influence of genetic polymorphisms of NAT2, UGT1A1 and GSTP1 on generation of the terminal mercapturic acid derivatives and analgesic effects was evaluated to identify potential genetic risk factors for hepatotoxicity of flupirtine. Methods Metabolic disposition of flupirtine was measured after intravenous administration (100 mg), after swallowing an immediate-release (IR) tablet (100 mg) and after repeated administration of modified release (MR) tablets (400 mg once daily 8 days) in 36 selected healthy subjects. Analgesic effects were measured using pain models (delayed onset of muscle soreness, electric pain). Results Flupirtine IR was rapidly but incompletely absorbed (∼72%). Repeated administration of flupirtine MR showed lower bioavailability (∼60%). Approximately 12% of bioavailable flupirtine IR and 8% of bioavailable flupiritine MR was eliminated as mercapturic acid derivatives into the urine independent of the UGT1A1, NAT2 and GSTP1 genotype. Carriers of variant GSTP1 alleles showed lower bioavailability but increased intestinal secretion of flupirtine and increased efficiency in experimental pain. Flupirtine was not a substrate for ABCB1 and ABCC2. Conclusions Formation of mercapturic acid derivatives is a major elimination route for flupirtine in man. However, the theoretically toxic pathway is not influenced by the frequent polymorphisms of UGT1A1, NAT2 and GSTP1. PMID:25264565

  10. Identification of ta-siRNAs and cis-nat-siRNAs in cassava and their roles in response to cassava bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Andrés; Pérez-Quintero, Alvaro L; López, Camilo

    2013-06-01

    Trans-acting small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) and natural cis-antisense siRNAs (cis-nat-siRNAs) are recently discovered small RNAs (sRNAs) involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing. ta-siRNAs are transcribed from genomic loci and require processing by microRNAs (miRNAs). cis-nat-siRNAs are derived from antisense RNAs produced by the simultaneous transcription of overlapping antisense genes. Their roles in many plant processes, including pathogen response, are mostly unknown. In this work, we employed a bioinformatic approach to identify ta-siRNAs and cis-nat-siRNAs in cassava from two sRNA libraries, one constructed from healthy cassava plants and one from plants inoculated with the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam). A total of 54 possible ta-siRNA loci were identified in cassava, including a homolog of TAS3, the best studied plant ta-siRNA. Fifteen of these loci were induced, while 39 were repressed in response to Xam infection. In addition, 15 possible cis-natural antisense transcript (cis-NAT) loci producing siRNAs were identified from overlapping antisense regions in the genome, and were found to be differentially expressed upon Xam infection. Roles of sRNAs were predicted by sequence complementarity and our results showed that many sRNAs identified in this work might be directed against various transcription factors. This work represents a significant step toward understanding the roles of sRNAs in the immune response of cassava. PMID:23665476

  11. New Paradigms in Translational Science Research in Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Paul D.; Srivastava, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant investments in basic science by the US National Institutes of Health, there is a concern that the return on this investment has been limited in terms of clinical utility. In the field of biomarkers, translational research is used to bridge the gap between the results of basic research that identify biomolecules involved in or the consequence of carcinogenesis and their incorporation into medical application. The cultural separation between different scientific disciplines often makes it difficult to establish the multidisciplinary and multi-skilled teams that are necessary for successful translational research. The field of biomarker research requires extensive interactions between academic researchers and industrial developers, and clinicians are needed to help shape the research direction that can only be addressed by multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional approach. In this article, we provide our perspective on the relatively slow pace of cancer biomarker translation, especially those for early detection and screening. PMID:22424436

  12. A critical review on the translational journey of cardioprotective therapies!

    PubMed

    Rossello, Xavier; Yellon, Derek M

    2016-10-01

    The failure to translate novel cardioprotective therapies tested in pre-clinical studies into the clinical setting for patient benefit can be attributed to a number of factors at different stages of the research process. This review focuses on the evidences and the gaps with regard to the translational journey of cardioprotective interventions. Gaps are classified into 3 main groups: 1) those related to pre-clinical studies, 2) those associated with the validation of infarct size as a good surrogate and 3) those based on design and interpretation of randomized clinical trials on cardioprotection. Addressing these gaps might increase the chances to successfully translate cardioprotective therapies into improving both post-STEMI heart failure and cardiovascular death rates. PMID:27379920

  13. Looking for French-English translations in comparable medical corpora.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Yun-Chuang; Zweigenbaum, P

    2002-01-01

    Cross-language retrieval of medical information needs to translate input queries into target language queries. It must be prepared to cope with 'new' words not yet listed in a multilingual lexicon. We address the issue of finding translational equivalents of such 'unknown' words from French to English in the medical domain. We rely on non-parallel, comparable corpora and an initial bilingual medical lexicon. We compare the distributional contexts of source and target words, testing several weighting factors and similarity measures. For the best combination (the Jaccard similarity measure with or without weighting), the correct translation is found in the top 10 candidates for more than 60% of the test words. This shows the potential of this technique to help extending bilingual medical lexicons. PMID:12463805

  14. Estimating Return on Investment in Translational Research: Methods and Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Trochim, William; Dilts, David M.; Kirk, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSA). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This paper provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities. PMID:23925706

  15. Virtual reality disaster training: translation to practice.

    PubMed

    Farra, Sharon L; Miller, Elaine T; Hodgson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Disaster training is crucial to the mitigation of both mortality and morbidity associated with disasters. Just as clinical practice needs to be grounded in evidence, effective disaster education is dependent upon the development and use of andragogic and pedagogic evidence. Educational research findings must be transformed into useable education strategies. Virtual reality simulation is a teaching methodology that has the potential to be a powerful educational tool. The purpose of this article is to translate research findings related to the use of virtual reality simulation in disaster training into education practice. The Ace Star Model serves as a valuable framework to translate the VRS teaching methodology and improve disaster training of healthcare professionals. Using the Ace Star Model as a framework to put evidence into practice, strategies for implementing a virtual reality simulation are addressed. Practice guidelines, implementation recommendations, integration to practice and evaluation are discussed. It is imperative that health educators provide more exemplars of how research evidence can be moved through the various stages of the model to advance practice and sustain learning outcomes. PMID:24063793

  16. Production of ⁶¹Cu by the natZn(p,α) reaction: Improved separation and specific activity determination by titration with three chelators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Asad, Ali H.; Smith, Suzanne V.; Morandeau, Laurence M.; Chan, Sun; Jeffery, Charmaine M.; Price, Roger I.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the cyclotron-based production of position-emitting ⁶¹Cu using the (p,α) reaction at 11.7 MeV was investigated starting from natural-zinc (natZn) and enriched ⁶⁴Zn-foil targets, as well as its subsequent purification. For natZn, a combination of three resins were assessed to separate ⁶¹Cu from contaminating 66,67,68Ga and natZn. The specific activity of the purified ⁶¹Cu determined using ICP-MS analysis ranged from 143.3±14.3(SD) to 506.2±50.6 MBq/μg while the titration method using p-SCN-Bn-DOTA, p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and diamsar gave variable results (4.7±0.2 to 412.5±15.3 MBq/μg), with diamsar lying closest to the ICP-MS values. Results suggest that the p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and p-SCN-Bn-NOTA titration methods aremore » significantly affected by the presence of trace-metal contaminants.« less

  17. Production of ⁶¹Cu by the natZn(p,α) reaction: Improved separation and specific activity determination by titration with three chelators

    SciTech Connect

    Asad, Ali H.; Smith, Suzanne V.; Morandeau, Laurence M.; Chan, Sun; Jeffery, Charmaine M.; Price, Roger I.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the cyclotron-based production of position-emitting ⁶¹Cu using the (p,α) reaction at 11.7 MeV was investigated starting from natural-zinc (natZn) and enriched ⁶⁴Zn-foil targets, as well as its subsequent purification. For natZn, a combination of three resins were assessed to separate ⁶¹Cu from contaminating 66,67,68Ga and natZn. The specific activity of the purified ⁶¹Cu determined using ICP-MS analysis ranged from 143.3±14.3(SD) to 506.2±50.6 MBq/μg while the titration method using p-SCN-Bn-DOTA, p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and diamsar gave variable results (4.7±0.2 to 412.5±15.3 MBq/μg), with diamsar lying closest to the ICP-MS values. Results suggest that the p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and p-SCN-Bn-NOTA titration methods are significantly affected by the presence of trace-metal contaminants.

  18. Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on natOs up to 65 MeV: Experiments and comparison with results from theoretical codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Adam Rebeles, R.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.

    2015-02-01

    Activation of thin natOs targets, electrodeposited on Ni backings, was investigated for the first time in stacked foil irradiations with 65 MeV and 34 MeV proton beams. Assessments of the produced radionuclides by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy yielded excitation functions for formation of 184, 185, 186m,m+g, 187m+g, 188m+g, 189m2+m1+g, 190m2,m1+g, 192m1+gIr and 185cum, 191m+gOs, 183m+gRe. Where available comparisons with the reaction cross sections obtained in 2 earlier studies on enriched 192Os were made. Reduced uncertainty on cross sections is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the 27Al(p,x)22,24Na, natNi(p,x)57Ni and natTi(p,x)48V monitor reactions over wide relevant energy ranges. Confirmation of monitoring took place by assessment of excitation functions of 61Cu, 56Ni, 55,56,57,58Co and 52Mn induced in the Ni backings and comparison with a recent compilation for most of these radionuclides. Contributing reactions and overall cross sections are discussed and were evaluated in comparison with the results of the theoretical code TALYS 1.6 (values from the on-line library TENDL-2013).

  19. The Mystro system: A comprehensive translator toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. R.; Noonan, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Mystro is a system that facilities the construction of compilers, assemblers, code generators, query interpretors, and similar programs. It provides features to encourage the use of iterative enhancement. Mystro was developed in response to the needs of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and enjoys a number of advantages over similar systems. There are other programs available that can be used in building translators. These typically build parser tables, usually supply the source of a parser and parts of a lexical analyzer, but provide little or no aid for code generation. In general, only the front end of the compiler is addressed. Mystro, on the other hand, emphasizes tools for both ends of a compiler.

  20. Human cortical prostheses: lost in translation?

    PubMed

    Ryu, Stephen I; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2009-07-01

    Direct brain control of a prosthetic system is the subject of much popular and scientific news. Neural technology and science have advanced to the point that proof-of-concept systems exist for cortically-controlled prostheses in rats, monkeys, and even humans. However, realizing the dream of making such technology available to everyone is still far off. Fortunately today there is great public and scientific interest in making this happen, but it will only occur when the functional benefits of such systems outweigh the risks. In this article, the authors briefly summarize the state of the art and then highlight many issues that will directly limit clinical translation, including system durability, system performance, and patient risk. Despite the challenges, scientists and clinicians are in the desirable position of having both public and fiscal support to begin addressing these issues directly. The ultimate challenge now is to determine definitively whether these prosthetic systems will become clinical reality or forever unrealized. PMID:19569893

  1. The bacterial translation stress response

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Agata L.; Lassak, Jürgen; Jung, Kirsten; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their life, bacteria need to sense and respond to environmental stress. Thus, such stress responses can require dramatic cellular reprogramming, both at the transcriptional as well as the translational level. This review focuses on the protein factors that interact with the bacterial translational apparatus in order to respond to and cope with different types of environmental stress. For example, the stringent factor RelA interacts with the ribosome to generate ppGpp under nutrient deprivation, whereas a variety of factors have been identified that bind to the ribosome under unfavorable growth conditions to shut-down (RelE, pY, RMF, HPF and EttA) or re-program (MazF, EF4 and BipA) translation. Additional factors have been identified that rescue ribosomes stalled due to stress-induced mRNA truncation (tmRNA, ArfA, ArfB), translation of unfavorable protein sequences (EF-P), heat shock induced subunit dissociation (Hsp15) or antibiotic inhibition (TetM, FusB). Understanding the mechanism of how the bacterial cell responds to stress will not only provide fundamental insight into translation regulation, but will also be an important step to identifying new targets for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. PMID:25135187

  2. Power Relations and Translational Inequality in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xianbin, He

    2007-01-01

    Chinese translation to and from Japanese and English verifies the hypothesis that power differentials influence the flow and reception of translations. The Chinese tradition of translation has been characterised by fluency, but some scholars have recently advocated foreignisation for English to Chinese translation, and domestication for Chinese to…

  3. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  4. Foreign Language Careers: Translation. Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Jeanne

    Translation skills require the ability to interpret information from a source language into the native tongue without distortion of emotional or written content. A broad knowledge of several subject areas, plus schooling in a special translator-training program, are prerequisites for a career in translation. Nonliterary translation offers the most…

  5. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  6. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  7. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  8. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  9. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  11. Redox Regulation of Cytosolic Translation in Plants.

    PubMed

    Moore, Marten; Gossmann, Nikolaj; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2016-05-01

    Control of protein homeostasis is crucial for environmental acclimation of plants. In this context, translational control is receiving increasing attention, particularly since post-translational modifications of the translational apparatus allow very fast and highly effective control of protein synthesis. Reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions decisively control translation by modifying initiation, elongation, and termination of translation. This opinion article compiles information on the redox sensitivity of cytosolic translation factors and the significance of redox regulation as a key modulator of translation for efficient acclimation to changing environmental conditions. PMID:26706442

  12. Translation initiation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Parsyan, Armen; Hernández, Greco; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRC) are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Targeted screening programs have resulted in early treatment and a substantial decrease in mortality. However, treatment strategies for CRC still require improvement. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of CRC would provide tools for improving treatment of patients with this disease. It is only recently that deregulation of the protein synthesis apparatus has begun to gain attention as a major player in cancer development and progression. Among the numerous steps of protein synthesis, deregulation of the process of translation initiation appears to play a key role in cancer growth and proliferation. This manuscript discusses a fascinating and rapidly growing field exploring translation initiation as a fundamental component in CRC development and progression and summarizing CRC treatment perspectives based on agents targeting translation initiation. PMID:22418835

  13. Translation as a psycholinguistic phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Zasyekin, Serhiy

    2010-06-01

    The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human cerebral hemisphere functional asymmetry somehow plays a role in structuring the fictional text by its author and in its processing by the interpreter. It is argued that the texts of modernism and post-modernism contain information blocks describing a character's perception of events in altered states of consciousness. This model helps to explain how a translator's inappropriate linguistic choice may influence the target language reader's aesthetic reaction. PMID:19894118

  14. Knowledge mapping as a technique to support knowledge translation.

    PubMed Central

    Ebener, S.; Khan, A.; Shademani, R.; Compernolle, L.; Beltran, M.; Lansang, Ma; Lippman, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of integrating knowledge mapping into a conceptual framework that could serve as a tool for understanding the many complex processes, resources and people involved in a health system, and for identifying potential gaps within knowledge translation processes in order to address them. After defining knowledge mapping, this paper presents various examples of the application of this process in health, before looking at the steps that need to be taken to identify potential gaps, to determine to what extent these gaps affect the knowledge translation process and to establish their cause. This is followed by proposals for interventions aimed at strengthening the overall process. Finally, potential limitations on the application of this framework at the country level are addressed. PMID:16917651

  15. Cell-based therapy technology classifications and translational challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mount, Natalie M.; Ward, Stephen J.; Kefalas, Panos; Hyllner, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapies offer the promise of treating and altering the course of diseases which cannot be addressed adequately by existing pharmaceuticals. Cell therapies are a diverse group across cell types and therapeutic indications and have been an active area of research for many years but are now strongly emerging through translation and towards successful commercial development and patient access. In this article, we present a description of a classification of cell therapies on the basis of their underlying technologies rather than the more commonly used classification by cell type because the regulatory path and manufacturing solutions are often similar within a technology area due to the nature of the methods used. We analyse the progress of new cell therapies towards clinical translation, examine how they are addressing the clinical, regulatory, manufacturing and reimbursement requirements, describe some of the remaining challenges and provide perspectives on how the field may progress for the future. PMID:26416686

  16. Immunocapture strategies in translational proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Fredolini, Claudia; Byström, Sanna; Pin, Elisa; Edfors, Fredrik; Tamburro, Davide; Iglesias, Maria Jesus; Häggmark, Anna; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Uhlen, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at clinical studies of human diseases, antibody-assisted assays have been applied to biomarker discovery and toward a streamlined translation from patient profiling to assays supporting personalized treatments. In recent years, integrated strategies to couple and combine antibodies with mass spectrometry-based proteomic efforts have emerged, allowing for novel possibilities in basic and clinical research. Described in this review are some of the field’s current and emerging immunocapture approaches from an affinity proteomics perspective. Discussed are some of their advantages, pitfalls and opportunities for the next phase in clinical and translational proteomics. PMID:26558424

  17. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  18. Dealing with publication bias in translational stroke research

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shimin

    2010-01-01

    Publication bias has been around for about 50 years. It has become a concern for almost 20 years in the medical research community. This review briefly summarizes the current status of publication bias, potential sources where bias may arise from, and its common evaluation methods. In the field of translational stroke research, publication bias has long been suspected; however, it has not been addressed with sufficient efforts. Its status has remained the same during the last decade. The author emphasizes the important role that publishers might play in addressing publication bias. PMID:20431704

  19. Dimensionality and predictive validity of the HAM-Nat, a test of natural sciences for medical school admission

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Knowledge in natural sciences generally predicts study performance in the first two years of the medical curriculum. In order to reduce delay and dropout in the preclinical years, Hamburg Medical School decided to develop a natural science test (HAM-Nat) for student selection. In the present study, two different approaches to scale construction are presented: a unidimensional scale and a scale composed of three subject specific dimensions. Their psychometric properties and relations to academic success are compared. Methods 334 first year medical students of the 2006 cohort responded to 52 multiple choice items from biology, physics, and chemistry. For the construction of scales we generated two random subsamples, one for development and one for validation. In the development sample, unidimensional item sets were extracted from the item pool by means of weighted least squares (WLS) factor analysis, and subsequently fitted to the Rasch model. In the validation sample, the scales were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and, again, Rasch modelling. The outcome measure was academic success after two years. Results Although the correlational structure within the item set is weak, a unidimensional scale could be fitted to the Rasch model. However, psychometric properties of this scale deteriorated in the validation sample. A model with three highly correlated subject specific factors performed better. All summary scales predicted academic success with an odds ratio of about 2.0. Prediction was independent of high school grades and there was a slight tendency for prediction to be better in females than in males. Conclusions A model separating biology, physics, and chemistry into different Rasch scales seems to be more suitable for item bank development than a unidimensional model, even when these scales are highly correlated and enter into a global score. When such a combination scale is used to select the upper quartile of applicants, the proportion of

  20. Scientific and Technical Translation and the All-Union Translation Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchuk, Yuri Nikolaevich

    1984-01-01

    The investigation and use of machine translation as an adjunct to human translation at the Soviet Union's All-Union Translation Center, a centralized scientific and technical translation facility, is examined. The issues of error correction, the variety of translation types needed, and special lexical considerations are discussed. (MSE)

  1. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  2. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  3. Reengineering the national clinical and translational research enterprise: the strategic plan of the National Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium.

    PubMed

    Reis, Steven E; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R; Califf, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Garret A; Johnson, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process, in turn, depends on observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation's academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding.To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006 the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program's overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation's academic health centers. PMID:20182119

  4. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. PMID:25991694

  5. Recent Discoveries and Bible Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent discoveries for "Bible" translation with a focus on the "Dead Sea Scrolls." Examines recent discoveries that provide direct support for alternative reading of biblical passages and those discoveries that have contributed additional insight to knowledge of cultural practices, especially legal and religious practices. (DB)

  6. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  7. Translational Research and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  8. Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kurt; Brown, Pat; Harniss, Mark; Schomer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The process and importance of Knowledge Translation (KT) for the field of rehabilitation counseling is described. One element of the KT process, systematic reviews of the literature, is described along with several strategies for grading evidence. Practicing clinicians, as do consumers, encounter a number of barriers to using primary source…

  9. Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

  10. Stroke-Related Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Louis R.; Arenillas, Juan; Cramer, Steven C.; Joutel, Anne; Lo, Eng H.; Meschia, James; Savitz, Sean; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. PMID:21555605

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop: Meeting Report.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark Steven; Allen, Peter; Brentnall, Teresa A; Goggins, Michael; Hruban, Ralph H; Petersen, Gloria M; Rao, Chinthalapally V; Whitcomb, David C; Brand, Randall E; Chari, Suresh T; Klein, Alison P; Lubman, David M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Wolpin, Brian M; Umar, Asad; Srivastava, Sudhir; Steele, Vernon E; Rinaudo, Jo Ann S

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. The Division of Cancer Prevention of the National Cancer Institute sponsored the Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop on September 10 to 11, 2015. The goal of the workshop was to obtain information regarding the current state of the science and future scientific areas that should be prioritized for pancreatic cancer prevention research, including early detection and intervention for high-risk precancerous lesions. The workshop addressed the molecular/genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer and precursor lesions, high-risk populations and criteria to identify a high-risk population for potential chemoprevention trials, identification of chemopreventative/immunopreventative agents, and use of potential biomarkers and imaging for assessing short-term efficacy of a preventative agent. The field of chemoprevention for pancreatic cancer is emerging, and this workshop was organized to begin to address these important issues and promote multi-institutional efforts in this area. The meeting participants recommended the development of an National Cancer Institute working group to coordinate efforts, provide a framework, and identify opportunities for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27518363

  12. Genetic Analysis of Chloroplast Translation

    SciTech Connect

    Barkan, Alice

    2005-08-15

    The assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus requires the concerted action of hundreds of genes distributed between the two physically separate genomes in the nucleus and chloroplast. Nuclear genes coordinate this process by controlling the expression of chloroplast genes in response to developmental and environmental cues. However, few regulatory factors have been identified. We used mutant phenotypes to identify nuclear genes in maize that modulate chloroplast translation, a key control point in chloroplast gene expression. This project focused on the nuclear gene crp1, required for the translation of two chloroplast mRNAs. CRP1 is related to fungal proteins involved in the translation of mitochondrial mRNAs, and is the founding member of a large gene family in plants, with {approx}450 members. Members of the CRP1 family are defined by a repeated 35 amino acid motif called a ''PPR'' motif. The PPR motif is closely related to the TPR motif, which mediates protein-protein interactions. We and others have speculated that PPR tracts adopt a structure similar to that of TPR tracts, but with a substrate binding surface adapted to bind RNA instead of protein. To understand how CRP1 influences the translation of specific chloroplast mRNAs, we sought proteins that interact with CRP1, and identified the RNAs associated with CRP1 in vivo. We showed that CRP1 is associated in vivo with the mRNAs whose translation it activates. To explore the functions of PPR proteins more generally, we sought mutations in other PPR-encoding genes: mutations in the maize PPR2 and PPR4 were shown to disrupt chloroplast ribosome biogenesis and chloroplast trans-splicing, respectively. These and other results suggest that the nuclear-encoded PPR family plays a major role in modulating the expression of the chloroplast genome in higher plants.

  13. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  14. Goals of a grant funded by the Specialty Crops Research Initiative Grant on translational genomics and pest resistances in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of high throughput DNA sequencing to address important production constraints has been termed translational genomics. Classical breeding of onion is expensive and slow due to a long generation time and the high costs of crossing with insects. Translational genomics will revolutionize onion...

  15. A MEMS Micro-Translation Stage with Long Linear Translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Cynthia K.; English, J. M.; Nordin, G. P.; Ashley, P. R.; Abushagur, M. A. G.

    2004-01-01

    A MEMS Micro-Translation Stage (MTS) actuator concept has been developed that is capable of traveling long distances, while maintaining low power, low voltage, and accuracy as required by many applications, including optical coupling. The Micro-Translation Stage (MTS) uses capacitive electrostatic forces in a linear motor application, with stationary stators arranged linearly on both sides of a channel, and matching rotors on a moveable shuttle. This creates a force that allows the shuttle to be pulled along the channel. It is designed to carry 100 micron-sized elements on the top surface, and can travel back and forth in the channel, either in a stepping fashion allowing many interim stops, or it can maintain constant adjustable speeds for a controlled scanning motion. The MTS travel range is limited only by the size of the fabrication wafer. Analytical modeling and simulations were performed based on the fabrication process, to assure the stresses, friction and electrostatic forces were acceptable to allow successful operation of this device. The translation forces were analyzed to be near 0.5 micron N, with a 300 micron N stop-to-stop time of 11.8 ms.

  16. Translating genomics in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Yvonne; Bach, Peter B; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for genomics and its promise in advancing personalized medicine. Genomic information has been used to personalize health care for decades, spanning the fields of cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, endocrinology, metabolic medicine, and hematology. However, oncology has often been the first test bed for the clinical translation of genomics for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Notable hereditary cancer examples include testing for mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 in unaffected women to identify those at significantly elevated risk for developing breast and ovarian cancers, and screening patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer for mutations in 4 mismatch repair genes to reduce morbidity and mortality in their relatives. Somatic genomic testing is also increasingly used in oncology, with gene expression profiling of breast tumors and EGFR testing to predict treatment response representing commonly used examples. Health technology assessment provides a rigorous means to inform clinical and policy decision-making through systematic assessment of the evidentiary base, along with precepts of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and consideration of risks and benefits for health care delivery and society. Although this evaluation is a fundamental step in the translation of any new therapeutic, procedure, or diagnostic test into clinical care, emerging developments may threaten this standard. These include "direct to consumer" genomic risk assessment services and the challenges posed by incidental results generated from next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. This article presents a review of the evidentiary standards and knowledge base supporting the translation of key cancer genomic technologies along the continuum of validity, utility, cost-effectiveness, health service impacts, and ethical and societal issues, and offers future research considerations to guide the responsible introduction of

  17. Accurate Estimation of the Entropy of Rotation-Translation Probability Distributions.

    PubMed

    Fogolari, Federico; Dongmo Foumthuim, Cedrix Jurgal; Fortuna, Sara; Soler, Miguel Angel; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2016-01-12

    The estimation of rotational and translational entropies in the context of ligand binding has been the subject of long-time investigations. The high dimensionality (six) of the problem and the limited amount of sampling often prevent the required resolution to provide accurate estimates by the histogram method. Recently, the nearest-neighbor distance method has been applied to the problem, but the solutions provided either address rotation and translation separately, therefore lacking correlations, or use a heuristic approach. Here we address rotational-translational entropy estimation in the context of nearest-neighbor-based entropy estimation, solve the problem numerically, and provide an exact and an approximate method to estimate the full rotational-translational entropy. PMID:26605696

  18. ERBE S7 NAT

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-15

    ... scanner instruments on board the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 satellites provide global coverage, while the ERBE scanner instrument onboard ... have 136-degree FOV on ERBS and 126-degree FOV on the NOAA satellites. The MFOV instruments have footprints of approximately 5 geocentric ...

  19. ERBE S8 NAT

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-15

    ... ERBE instruments on board the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 satellites provide global spatial coverage, while the scanner instruments on ... have 136-degree FOV on ERBS and 126-degree FOV on the NOAA satellites. The MFOV instruments have footprints of approximately 5 geocentric ...

  20. Remembering Nat Schoenfeld

    PubMed Central

    Catania, A. Charles

    1997-01-01

    William Nathan Schoenfeld was born in New York City on December 6, 1915, and died in Sun City West, Arizona, on August 3, 1996. He was an undergraduate at the College of the City of New York, where he received a BS degree in 1937. He received his PhD from Columbia University in 1942 and then continued there as a faculty member, advancing from lecturer to full professor. In 1966 he moved to Queens College of the City University of New York, where he remained until his retirement in 1983. During his years at Queens, he also took on visiting appointments in Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. In retirement, he spent roughly a decade in Israel, where he occasionally taught as a visiting professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He returned to the United States for his final years. He is survived by his wife, Melanie, their three children, Rivka, Joshua and Naomi, and a son, Mark, from a previous marriage.

  1. Translation techniques for distributed-shared memory programming models

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Douglas James

    2005-08-01

    The high performance computing community has experienced an explosive improvement in distributed-shared memory hardware. Driven by increasing real-world problem complexity, this explosion has ushered in vast numbers of new systems. Each new system presents new challenges to programmers and application developers. Part of the challenge is adapting to new architectures with new performance characteristics. Different vendors release systems with widely varying architectures that perform differently in different situations. Furthermore, since vendors need only provide a single performance number (total MFLOPS, typically for a single benchmark), they only have strong incentive initially to optimize the API of their choice. Consequently, only a fraction of the available APIs are well optimized on most systems. This causes issues porting and writing maintainable software, let alone issues for programmers burdened with mastering each new API as it is released. Also, programmers wishing to use a certain machine must choose their API based on the underlying hardware instead of the application. This thesis argues that a flexible, extensible translator for distributed-shared memory APIs can help address some of these issues. For example, a translator might take as input code in one API and output an equivalent program in another. Such a translator could provide instant porting for applications to new systems that do not support the application's library or language natively. While open-source APIs are abundant, they do not perform optimally everywhere. A translator would also allow performance testing using a single base code translated to a number of different APIs. Most significantly, this type of translator frees programmers to select the most appropriate API for a given application based on the application (and developer) itself instead of the underlying hardware.

  2. The cancer translational research informatics platform

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Patrick; Dash, Rajesh C; Chilukuri, Ram; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Johnson, Kimberly; Annechiarico, Robert; Cuticchia, A Jamie

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™) has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform) tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes. PMID:19108734

  3. Translation Competence and Translation Performance: Lexical, Syntactic and Textual Patterns in Student Translations of a Specialized EU Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made…

  4. Translating connexin biology into therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Becker, David L; Phillips, Anthony R; Duft, Bradford J; Kim, Yeri; Green, Colin R

    2016-02-01

    It is 45 years since gap junctions were first described. Universities face increasing commercial pressures and declining federal funding, with governments and funding foundations showing greater interest in gaining return on their investments. This review outlines approaches taken to translate gap junction research to clinical application and the challenges faced. The need for commercialisation is discussed and key concepts behind research patenting briefly described. Connexin channel roles in disease and injury are also discussed, as is identification of the connexin hemichannel as a therapeutic target which appears to play a role in both the start and perpetuation of the inflammasome pathway. Furthermore connexin hemichannel opening results in vascular dieback in acute injury and chronic disease. Translation to human indications is illustrated from the perspective of one connexin biotechnology company, CoDa Therapeutics, Inc. PMID:26688335

  5. Induced Pluripotency for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Menghua; Chen, Guilai; Hu, Baoyang

    2013-01-01

    The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the concept of cellular reprogramming and potentially will solve the immunological compatibility issues that have so far hindered the application of human pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine. Recent findings showed that pluripotency is defined by a state of balanced lineage potency, which can be artificially instated through various procedures, including the conventional Yamanaka strategy. As a type of pluripotent stem cell, iPSCs are subject to the usual concerns over purity of differentiated derivatives and risks of tumor formation when used for cell-based therapy, though they provide certain advantages in translational research, especially in the areas of personalized medicine, disease modeling and drug screening. iPSC-based technology, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and direct lineage conversion each will play distinct roles in specific aspects of translational medicine, and continue yielding surprises for scientists and the public. PMID:24056061

  6. Communicating Science: Translation and Tangibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brian

    2009-02-01

    Until last summer, I thought communicating science was just a matter of translation. When my friends' eyes glazed over as I explained, for example, how a productivity crisis and planktrophism could have caused the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, I thought they simply needed these terms translated. While cutting through potentially difficult terminology is a key part of communicating science to the public, I now know that it is only the first of two parts. The second part is making one's subject matter tangible. Finding that out was my most important lesson last summer as an AGU-sponsored fellow in the Mass Media Fellowship program run by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Understanding this journalistic two-step has helped me become a better science communicator and comprehend more fully why the Earth sciences fascinate me in the first place.

  7. Taking risks with translational research.

    PubMed

    Mills, Ian G; Sykes, Richard B

    2010-03-24

    The recent bankruptcy filing by deCODE, a company with an exceptional pedigree in associating genetic variance with disease onset, highlights the commercial risks of translational research. Indeed, deCODE's approach was similar to that adapted by academic researchers who seek to connect genetics and disease. We argue here that neither a purely corporate nor purely academic model is entirely appropriate for such research. Instead, we suggest that the private sector undertake the high-throughput elements of translational research, while the public sector and governments assume the role of providing long-term funding to develop gifted scientists with the confidence to attempt to use genetic data as a stepping stone to a truly mechanistic understanding of complex disease. PMID:20375005

  8. CPEB: a life in translation.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel D

    2007-06-01

    Nearly two decades ago, Xenopus oocytes were found to contain mRNAs harboring a small sequence in their 3' untranslated regions that control cytoplasmic polyadenylation and translational activation during development. This cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE) is the binding platform for CPE-binding protein (CPEB), which promotes polyadenylation-induced translation. Since then, the biochemistry and biology of CPEB has grown rather substantially: mechanistically, CPEB nucleates a complex of factors that regulates poly(A) elongation through, of all things, a deadenylating enzyme; biologically, CPEB mediates many processes including germ-cell development, cell division and cellular senescence, and synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These observations underscore the growing complexities of CPEB involvement in cell function. PMID:17481902

  9. Analysis of mRNA translation states in Arabidopsis over the diurnal cycle by polysome microarray.

    PubMed

    Missra, Anamika; von Arnim, Albrecht G

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulation at the level of translation occurs in response to environmental perturbation and is increasingly recognized as a factor affecting plant development. Despite extensive knowledge of transcriptional control, very little is known about translational regulation of genes in response to the daily light/dark cycles. Here we describe the experimental layout designed to address how the translation states of genes change at various times during a diurnal cycle in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. We have adopted a strategy combining sucrose-gradient profiling of ribosomes and high-throughput microarray analysis of the ribosome-associated mRNA to investigate the translational landscape of the Arabidopsis genome. This is a powerful technique that can be easily extended to study translation regulation in different genetic backgrounds and under various environmental conditions. PMID:24792050

  10. Kinetic modelling of mitochondrial translation.

    PubMed

    Korla, Kalyani; Mitra, Chanchal K

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein coding genes, all being part of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. The process of translation of these protein coding mRNAs in mitochondrial matrix is a good miniature model of translation in cytoplasm. In this work, we have simulated three phases of mitochondrial translation viz. initiation, elongation and termination (including ribosome recycling). The kinetic equations for these phases have been deduced based on the information available in literature. Various factors involved in the process have been included explicitly. Kinetic simulation was done using Octave, open source software. Scripts were written individually for each phase. Initiation begins with mitoribosome, mRNA, fMet-tRNA and initiation factors. The final product of the initiation script, the initiation complex, was introduced as the start point in the successive step, i.e. elongation. Elongation is a particular extensive process where the various aminoacyl-tRNAs already present in the matrix check for matching with the triplet codon in A-site of mitoribosome. This script consists of two parts: one with the time behaviour of the factors involved in the molecular process (using ordinary differential equation solver) and the other including the reading of triplet codon on the mRNA and incorporating the corresponding aminoacyl-tRNA, and then at each step elongating the peptide chain (using loops and conditions). The peptide chain thus formed in the elongation step (in the loops and conditions segment) was released in the termination step. This was followed by mitoribosome recycling where the mitoribosome reached the native state and was ready for the next cycle of translation. PMID:24028553

  11. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  12. Systematic reviews and knowledge translation.

    PubMed Central

    Tugwell, Peter; Robinson, Vivian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Proven effective interventions exist that would enable all countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. However, uptake and use of these interventions in the poorest populations is at least 50% less than in the richest populations within each country. Also, we have recently shown that community effectiveness of interventions is lower for the poorest populations due to a "staircase" effect of lower coverage/access, worse diagnostic accuracy, less provider compliance and less consumer adherence. We propose an evidence-based framework for equity-oriented knowledge translation to enhance community effectiveness and health equity. This framework is represented as a cascade of steps to assess and prioritize barriers and thus choose effective knowledge translation interventions that are tailored for relevant audiences (public, patient, practitioner, policy-maker, press and private sector), as well as the evaluation, monitoring and sharing of these strategies. We have used two examples of effective interventions (insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and childhood immunization) to illustrate how this framework can provide a systematic method for decision-makers to ensure the application of evidence-based knowledge in disadvantaged populations. Future work to empirically validate and evaluate the usefulness of this framework is needed. We invite researchers and implementers to use the cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation as a guide when planning implementation strategies for proven effective interventions. We also encourage policy-makers and health-care managers to use this framework when deciding how effective interventions can be implemented in their own settings. PMID:16917652

  13. Translational Control during Calicivirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Royall, Elizabeth; Locker, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the strategies developed by caliciviruses to subvert or regulate the host protein synthesis machinery to their advantage. As intracellular obligate parasites, viruses strictly depend on the host cell resources to produce viral proteins. Thus, many viruses have developed strategies that regulate the function of the host protein synthesis machinery, often leading to preferential translation of viral mRNAs. Caliciviruses lack a 5′ cap structure but instead have a virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to the 5′ end of their mRNAs. Furthermore, they encode 2–4 open reading frames within their genomic and subgenomic RNAs. Therefore, they use alternative mechanisms for translation whereby VPg interacts with eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) to act as a proteinaceous cap-substitute, and some structural proteins are produced by reinitiation of translation events. This review discusses our understanding of these key mechanisms during caliciviruses infection as well as recent insights into the global regulation of eIF4E activity. PMID:27104553

  14. Major milestones in translational oncology.

    PubMed

    Dragani, Tommaso A; Castells, Antoni; Kulasingam, Vathany; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Earl, Helena; Iams, Wade T; Lovly, Christine M; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Schalken, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Translational oncology represents a bridge between basic research and clinical practice in cancer medicine. Today, translational research in oncology benefits from an abundance of knowledge resulting from genome-scale studies regarding the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis. In this Forum article, we highlight the state of the art of translational oncology in five major cancer types. We illustrate the use of molecular profiling to subtype colorectal cancer for both diagnosis and treatment, and summarize the results of a nationwide screening program for ovarian cancer based on detection of a tumor biomarker in serum. Additionally, we discuss how circulating tumor DNA can be assayed to safely monitor breast cancer over the course of treatment, and report on how therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors is proving effective in advanced lung cancer. Finally, we summarize efforts to use molecular profiling of prostate cancer biopsy specimens to support treatment decisions. Despite encouraging early successes, we cannot disregard the complex genetics of individual susceptibility to cancer nor the enormous complexity of the somatic changes observed in tumors, which urge particular attention to the development of personalized therapies. PMID:27469586

  15. The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Lewis

    2015-02-01

    The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice. PMID:25220412

  16. TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN NEUROLOGY: DEMENTIA

    PubMed Central

    Honig, Lawrence S.

    2013-01-01

    Dementia disorders are characterized by clinicopathological criteria. Molecular understandings of these disorders, based on immunohistochemical studies, biochemical investigations, genetic approaches, and animal models have resulted in advances in diagnosis. Likewise translational research has allowed application of increasing basic scientific knowledge regarding neurodegeneration, to the rational development of new investigational therapies based on current understanding of disease pathogenesis. This review discusses application of translational research to both diagnosis and treatment of dementia disorders. The development of biomarkers has yielded imaging and biochemical methods that more assist in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias, especially Alzheimer’s disease. New diagnostic criteria for disease are based on these molecular-based techniques. And these biomarkers are of potential use in monitoring disease activity during therapeutic trials. Translational investigations likewise have led towards new avenues in targeted dementia research. This is particularly so in the development and testing of disease-modifying treatments that might slow or deter progressive deterioration. Recent clinical trials have not been based on empiric trial of established drugs, but rather upon trial of drugs shown through culture and animal models to interfere with known elements of the pathogenetic cascade of Alzheimer disease. PMID:22473767

  17. Translational Control during Calicivirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Royall, Elizabeth; Locker, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the strategies developed by caliciviruses to subvert or regulate the host protein synthesis machinery to their advantage. As intracellular obligate parasites, viruses strictly depend on the host cell resources to produce viral proteins. Thus, many viruses have developed strategies that regulate the function of the host protein synthesis machinery, often leading to preferential translation of viral mRNAs. Caliciviruses lack a 5' cap structure but instead have a virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to the 5' end of their mRNAs. Furthermore, they encode 2-4 open reading frames within their genomic and subgenomic RNAs. Therefore, they use alternative mechanisms for translation whereby VPg interacts with eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) to act as a proteinaceous cap-substitute, and some structural proteins are produced by reinitiation of translation events. This review discusses our understanding of these key mechanisms during caliciviruses infection as well as recent insights into the global regulation of eIF4E activity. PMID:27104553

  18. Fragment charge and energy distributions in the 1.8-4.8 GeV {sup 3}He + {sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, D.S.; Foxford, E.R.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1995-10-01

    Moving source fits have been performed for IMFs as a function of observables related to collision violence in the 1.8-4.8 GeV {sup 3}He +{sup nat}Ag, {sup l97}Au reactions. The systematic behavior of the source properties and fragment charge distributions will be reviewed. The evolution of the spectral Coulomb parameters provides evidence for nuclear expansion prior to multifragmentation, suggesting a breakup density of p/p{sub o} {approximately} 1/3. The charge distributions will be examined in terms of power-law fits and moment analyses.

  19. Computational investigation of ⁹⁹Mo production yield via proton irradiation of natU and ²³²Th targets.

    PubMed

    Mirvakili, Seyed Mohammad; Alizadeh, Masoumeh; Vaziri, Atyeh Joze; Gholamzadeh, Zohreh; Davari, Amin

    2015-07-01

    Accelerators have some advantages such as safety and cheaper operating and decommissioning costs for (99)Mo production. Yield theoretical calculation using computational codes can powerfully estimate usefulness of a proposed nuclear reaction for a routine manufacturing. In this work, Monte Carlo-based code was used to compute (99)Mo yield in (232)Th and (nat)U proton-irradiated targets, as well as maximum applicable beam current. Results showed that the code well agrees with published experimental data. The targets can bear maximum beam current of 30 µA. Targets from (232)Th provides higher (99)Mo yield. PMID:25898237

  20. GST, NAT, SULT1A1, CYP1B1 genetic polymorphisms, interactions with environmental exposures and bladder cancer risk in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Malaveille, Christian; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Donato, Francesco; Gelatti, Umberto; Spaliviero, Massimiliano; Placidi, Donatella; Carta, Angela; Scotto di Carlo, Antonio; Porru, Stefano

    2004-07-01

    Tobacco smoking and occupation are major risk factors of bladder cancer via exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic amines. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, T1 and P1 are involved in the detoxification of PAH reactive metabolites. Two N-acetyltransferase isozymes, NAT2 and NAT1, have major roles in catalyzing the N-acetylation and O-acetylation of aromatic amines. Cytochrome p450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) are also involved in the metabolism of PAHs and aromatic amines. It is hypothesized that the genetic polymorphisms of these metabolic enzymes have an effect on the individual susceptibility to bladder cancer in particular by interacting with relevant environmental exposures. A hospital-based case-control study among men in Brescia, Northern Italy recruited 201 incidence cases and 214 controls from 1997-2000. Occupational exposures were blindly coded by occupational physicians. Genotyping of polymorphisms were carried out with PCR-RFLP method. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was applied to model the association between genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Effect modifications by age of onset, smoking and occupational exposures to PAHs and aromatic amines were evaluated. We also conducted an analysis of interaction between genetic factors. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype were associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-2.56) and 1.74 (95% CI = 1.02-2.95), respectively. The effect of GSTM1 null was seen particularly in heavy smokers, and there was a combined effect with occupational exposure of aromatic amines (OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.08-7.10). We observed a trend (p-value < 0.01) of increasing cancer risk comparing subjects with normal GSTM1 and T1 activity to subjects with one (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.16-2.85) or both null genotypes (OR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.27-5.23). NAT2 slow acetylator was associated with marginally

  1. Preserved Network Metrics across Translated Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabatbat, Josephine Jill T.; Monsanto, Jica P.; Tapang, Giovanni A.

    2014-09-01

    Co-occurrence language networks based on Bible translations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) translations in different languages were constructed and compared with random text networks. Among the considered network metrics, the network size, N, the normalized betweenness centrality (BC), and the average k-nearest neighbors, knn, were found to be the most preserved across translations. Moreover, similar frequency distributions of co-occurring network motifs were observed for translated texts networks.

  2. Staging "Swissness": Inter- and Intracultural Theatre Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jane

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the choice to translate plays from "Hochdeutsch" (the standard form of the German language) into local dialect in German-speaking Switzerland. It first looks at the creative process of translating for the amateur stage and then at the reasons behind the choice to translate. It argues that this choice reflects a desire to…

  3. Collaborative Translations: Designing Bilingual Instructional Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Christopher S.; Puzio, Kelly; Jiménez, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the role of collaboration and multilingual literacy as 21st-century skills, the authors used design research methods to present, analyze, and refine a strategic reading approach for bilingual students. The collaborative translation strategy involves reading an academic text, translating key passages, and evaluating these translations.…

  4. Traveling Chaucer: Comparative Translation and Cosmopolitan Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrington, Candace

    2014-01-01

    Through the comparative study of non-Anglophone translations of Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," we can achieve the progressive goals of Emily Apter's "translational transnationalism" and Edward Said's "cosmopolitan humanism." Both translation and humanism were intrinsic to Chaucer's…

  5. Reader, Text, Translation, and Interpretive Potentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    No matter what pains translators take to produce a target-language text "identical" to the source-language text, criticism and/or translation of an original literary work cannot be the same in different language communities. That translation may change potentialities in the textual experience is particularly obvious in literature with a strong…

  6. Translation Factors Specify Cellular Metabolic State.

    PubMed

    Mata, Juan

    2016-08-16

    In this issue of Cell Reports, Shah et al. present evidence that a subcomplex of the eIF3 translation initiation factor regulates translation of mRNAs encoding components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and glycolytic enzymes, thus linking translational control with energy metabolism. PMID:27533178

  7. Towards a Pedagogy of "Translation in Situation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vienne, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the method of translation of pragmatic texts from Finnish into French developed at the Department of Translation Studies of the University of Turku in Finland since the early 1980s. Focuses on the concept of the translation of texts in their real communicative situation. (HB)

  8. Development and Validation of a Translation Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad

    1993-01-01

    Translation testing methodology has been criticized for its subjective character. No real strides have so far been made in developing an objective translation test. In this paper, certain detailed procedures including various phases of pretesting have been performed to achieve objectivity and scorability in translation testing methodology. In…

  9. Machine Translation in Post-Contemporary Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2010-01-01

    This article focusing on translating techniques via personal computer or laptop reports updated artificial intelligence progresses before 2010. Based on interpretations and information for field of MT [Machine Translation] by Yorick Wilks' book, "Machine Translation, Its scope and limits," this paper displays understandable theoretical frameworks…

  10. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: new translational therapies.

    PubMed

    Prince, Anthony; Aguirre-Ghizo, Julio; Genden, Eric; Posner, Marshall; Sikora, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma includes cancers of the mouth, throat, larynx, and lymph nodes of the neck. Although early disease is amenable to single-modality treatment with surgery or radiation, patients with advanced disease have a dramatically worse prognosis, despite potentially morbid/toxic treatment regimens involving surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or all 3 modalities. The present review seeks to provide an overview of current understanding and treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma for the nonspecialist clinician or basic/translational researcher, followed by an overview of major translational approaches to the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Translational research topics addressed include targeted molecular therapy, immunotherapy, minimally invasive robotic surgery, and ablation of dormant/residual tumor cells. Despite the many potentially promising avenues of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma research, only 2 new treatment approaches (antiepidermal growth factor receptor therapy and robotic surgery) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in the past 30 years. Focused research programs involving integrated teams of clinicians, basic scientists, and translational clinician-researchers have the potential to accelerate discovery and change treatment paradigms for patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:21105129

  11. Translational informatics: enabling high-throughput research paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Embi, Peter J.; Sen, Chandan K.

    2009-01-01

    A common thread throughout the clinical and translational research domains is the need to collect, manage, integrate, analyze, and disseminate large-scale, heterogeneous biomedical data sets. However, well-established and broadly adopted theoretical and practical frameworks and models intended to address such needs are conspicuously absent in the published literature or other reputable knowledge sources. Instead, the development and execution of multidisciplinary, clinical, or translational studies are significantly limited by the propagation of “silos” of both data and expertise. Motivated by this fundamental challenge, we report upon the current state and evolution of biomedical informatics as it pertains to the conduct of high-throughput clinical and translational research and will present both a conceptual and practical framework for the design and execution of informatics-enabled studies. The objective of presenting such findings and constructs is to provide the clinical and translational research community with a common frame of reference for discussing and expanding upon such models and methodologies. PMID:19737991

  12. Process of discovery: A fourth-year translational science course

    PubMed Central

    DiGiovanni, Benedict F.; Ward, Denham S.; O'Donnell, Steven M.; Fong, Chin-To; Gross, Robert A.; Grady-Weliky, Tana; Lambert, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Liaison Committee on Medical Education notes the importance of educating medical students on clinical and translational research principles. Purpose To describe a fourth-year course, “Process of discovery,” which addresses teaching these principles, and to discuss students’ perceptions of the course. Methods Core components and pedagogical methods of this course are presented. Course assessment was performed with specific pre- and post-course assessments. Results During academic years 2004 to 2009, 562 students were enrolled, with assessment response rate of 94% pre-course and 85% post-course. The students’ self-assessment of their current understanding of clinical and translation research significantly increased, as well as their understanding of how clinical advances will take place over the next decade. Conclusions A fourth-year course teaching clinical and translational research is successful, is seen as a positive experience and can meet the requirements for including clinical and translational research in the medical school curriculum. PMID:22190847

  13. Translation research: from accurate diagnosis to appropriate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Craig P; Pass, Harvey I

    2004-01-01

    This review article focuses on the various aspects of translational research, where research on human subjects can ultimately enhance the diagnosis and treatment of future patients. While we will use specific examples relating to the asbestos related cancer mesothelioma, it should be stressed that the general approach outlined throughout this review is readily applicable to other diseases with an underlying molecular basis. Through the integration of molecular-based technologies, systematic tissue procurement and medical informatics, we now have the ability to identify clinically applicable "genotype"-"phenotype" associations across cohorts of patients that can rapidly be translated into useful diagnostic and treatment strategies. This review will touch on the various steps in the translational pipeline, and highlight some of the most essential elements as well as possible roadblocks that can impact success of the program. Critical issues with regard to Institutional Review Board (IRB) and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliance, data standardization, sample procurement, quality control (QC), quality assurance (QA), data analysis, preclinical models and clinical trials are addressed. The various facets of the translational pipeline have been incorporated into a fully integrated computational system, appropriately named Dx2Tx. This system readily allows for the identification of new diagnostic tests, the discovery of biomarkers and drugable targets, and prediction of optimal treatments based upon the underlying molecular basis of the disease. PMID:15496233

  14. Translational Control of Autophagy by Orb in the Drosophila Germline.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Ríos, Patricia; Chartier, Aymeric; Pierson, Stéphanie; Séverac, Dany; Dantec, Christelle; Busseau, Isabelle; Simonelig, Martine

    2015-12-01

    Drosophila Orb, the homolog of vertebrate CPEB, is a key translational regulator involved in oocyte polarity and maturation through poly(A) tail elongation of specific mRNAs. orb also has an essential function during early oogenesis that has not been addressed at the molecular level. Here, we show that orb prevents cell death during early oogenesis, thus allowing oogenesis to progress. It does so through the repression of autophagy by directly repressing, together with the CCR4 deadenylase, the translation of Autophagy-specific gene 12 (Atg12) mRNA. Autophagy and cell death observed in orb mutant ovaries are reduced by decreasing Atg12 or other Atg mRNA levels. These results reveal a role of Orb in translational repression and identify autophagy as an essential pathway regulated by Orb during early oogenesis. Importantly, they also establish translational regulation as a major mode of control of autophagy, a key process in cell homeostasis in response to environmental cues. PMID:26625957

  15. Knowledge translation versus knowledge integration: a "funder's" perspective.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Jon F

    2006-01-01

    Each year, billions of US tax dollars are spent on basic discovery, intervention development, and efficacy research, while hundreds of billions of US tax dollars are also spent on health service delivery programs. However, little is spent on or known about how best to ensure that the lessons learned from science inform and improve the quality of health services and the availability of evidence-based approaches. To close this discovery-delivery gap, researchers and their funding agencies not only must recognize the gap between basic discovery and intervention development, addressed in part through translational research investments, but they must also work together with practitioners and their funding agencies to recognize the growing gap between innovative interventions developed through research and what is actually delivered to reduce the burden of chronic disease within the United States. From a funding-agency perspective, the complexity of the challenges of translating lessons learned from science to public health, primary care, or disease specialty service settings requires a multifaceted partnership approach to accelerate the translation of research into practice. This essay reviews the background and challenges of closing the development-to-delivery gap and some exemplar strategies that have been used by funding agencies to address these challenges to date. PMID:16557513

  16. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  17. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  18. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  19. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  20. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  1. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  2. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  3. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  4. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  5. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  6. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  7. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  8. How Do English Translation Majors Use Translation Strategies? A Survey of the Iranian EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asgarian, Amir; Vefali, Gülsen Musayeva

    2015-01-01

    Translation language learning strategies, especially in relation to translation students, have not received adequate attention in the research to date. Therefore, the present study attempted to explore Iranian translation students' use of translation strategies, related beliefs, and academic achievement. It was a survey study involving…

  9. Machine-Aided Translation: From Terminology Banks to Interactive Translation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Concetta C.; Serain, Daniel

    The rapid growth of the need for technical translations in recent years has led specialists to utilize computer technology to improve the efficiency and quality of translation. The two approaches considered were automatic translation and terminology banks. Since the results of fully automatic translation were considered unsatisfactory by various…

  10. The Nucleus of Translating as One Critical Concern in Translation Pedagogy and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen Chau

    1999-01-01

    Studies the translation of nonliterary texts. The objective is to associate the nucleus of translating with the value of a source-language text, advancing the claim that appropriately translating the nucleus is among the most important concerns, and to propose an approach to assessment for translation quality based on how the nucleus is rendered.…

  11. The Translated Dowling Polynomials and Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Mangontarum, Mahid M.; Macodi-Ringia, Amila P.; Abdulcarim, Normalah S.

    2014-01-01

    More properties for the translated Whitney numbers of the second kind such as horizontal generating function, explicit formula, and exponential generating function are proposed. Using the translated Whitney numbers of the second kind, we will define the translated Dowling polynomials and numbers. Basic properties such as exponential generating functions and explicit formula for the translated Dowling polynomials and numbers are obtained. Convexity, integral representation, and other interesting identities are also investigated and presented. We show that the properties obtained are generalizations of some of the known results involving the classical Bell polynomials and numbers. Lastly, we established the Hankel transform of the translated Dowling numbers.

  12. Confinement of translated field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Armstrong, W. T.; Chrien, R. E.; Klingner, P. L.; McKenna, K. F.; Rej, D. J.; Sherwood, E. G.; Siemon, R. E.

    1986-03-01

    The confinement properties of translating field-reversed configurations (FRC) in the FRX-C/T device [Phys. Fluids 29, (1986)] are analyzed and compared to previous data without translation and to available theory. Translation dynamics do not appear to appreciably modify the FRC confinement. Some empirical scaling laws with respect to various plasma parameters are extracted from the data. These are qualitatively similar to those obtained in the TRX-1 device [Phys. Fluids 28, 888 (1985)] without translation and with a different formation method. Translation with a static gas fill offers new opportunities such as improved particle confinement or refueling of the FRC particle inventory.

  13. Hybrid Formulations of Liposomes and Bioadhesive Polymers Improve the Hypotensive Effect of the Melatonin Analogue 5-MCA-NAT in Rabbit Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío; Molina-Martínez, Irene T.

    2014-01-01

    For the treatment of chronic ocular diseases such as glaucoma, continuous instillations of eye drops are needed. However, frequent administrations of hypotensive topical formulations can produce adverse ocular surface effects due to the active substance or other components of the formulation, such as preservatives or other excipients. Thus the development of unpreserved formulations that are well tolerated after frequent instillations is an important challenge to improve ophthalmic chronic topical therapies. Furthermore, several components can improve the properties of the formulation in terms of efficacy. In order to achieve the mentioned objectives, we have developed formulations of liposomes (150–200 nm) containing components similar to those in the tear film and loaded with the hypotensive melatonin analog 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (5-MCA-NAT, 100 µM). These formulations were combined with mucoadhesive (sodium hyaluronate or carboxymethylcellulose) or amphiphilic block thermosensitive (poloxamer) polymers to prolong the hypotensive efficacy of the drug. In rabbit eyes, the decrease of intraocular pressure with 5-MCA-NAT-loaded liposomes that were dispersed with 0.2% sodium hyaluronate, 39.1±2.2%, was remarkably higher compared to other liposomes formulated without or with other bioadhesive polymers, and the effect lasted more than 8 hours. According to the results obtained in the present work, these technological strategies could provide an improved modality for delivering therapeutic agents in patients with glaucoma. PMID:25329636

  14. Affinity of (nat/68)Ga-Labelled Curcumin and Curcuminoid Complexes for β-Amyloid Plaques: Towards the Development of New Metal-Curcumin Based Radiotracers.

    PubMed

    Rubagotti, Sara; Croci, Stefania; Ferrari, Erika; Iori, Michele; Capponi, Pier C; Lorenzini, Luca; Calzà, Laura; Versari, Annibale; Asti, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin derivatives labelled with fluorine-18 or technetium-99m have recently shown their potential as diagnostic tools for Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, no study by exploiting the labelling with gallium-68 has been performed so far, in spite of its suitable properties (positron emitter, generator produced radionuclide). Herein, an evaluation of the affinity for synthetic β-amyloid fibrils and for amyloid plaques of three (nat/68)Ga-labelled curcumin analogues, namely curcumin curcumin (CUR), bis-dehydroxy-curcumin (bDHC) and diacetyl-curcumin (DAC), was performed. Affinity and specificity were tested in vitro on amyloid synthetic fibrils by using gallium-68 labelled compounds. Post-mortem brain cryosections from Tg2576 mice were used for the ex vivo visualization of amyloid plaques. The affinity of (68)Ga(CUR)₂⁺, (68)Ga(DAC)₂⁺, and (68)Ga(bDHC)₂⁺ for synthetic β-amyloid fibrils was moderate and their uptake could be observed in vitro. On the other hand, amyloid plaques could not be visualized on brain sections of Tg2576 mice after injection, probably due to the low stability of the complexes in vivo and of a hampered passage through the blood-brain barrier. Like curcumin, all (nat/68)Ga-curcuminoid complexes maintain a high affinity for β-amyloid plaques. However, structural modifications are still needed to improve their applicability as radiotracers in vivo. PMID:27608011

  15. The Transcription and Translation Landscapes during Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Reveal Novel Host-Pathogen Interactions.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Osnat; Cohen, Yifat; Shitrit, Alina; Shani, Odem; Le-Trilling, Vu Thuy Khanh; Trilling, Mirko; Friedlander, Gilgi; Tanenbaum, Marvin; Stern-Ginossar, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are by definition fully dependent on the cellular translation machinery, and develop diverse mechanisms to co-opt this machinery for their own benefit. Unlike many viruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) does suppress the host translation machinery, and the extent to which translation machinery contributes to the overall pattern of viral replication and pathogenesis remains elusive. Here, we combine RNA sequencing and ribosomal profiling analyses to systematically address this question. By simultaneously examining the changes in transcription and translation along HCMV infection, we uncover extensive transcriptional control that dominates the response to infection, but also diverse and dynamic translational regulation for subsets of host genes. We were also able to show that, at late time points in infection, translation of viral mRNAs is higher than that of cellular mRNAs. Lastly, integration of our translation measurements with recent measurements of protein abundance enabled comprehensive identification of dozens of host proteins that are targeted for degradation during HCMV infection. Since targeted degradation indicates a strong biological importance, this approach should be applicable for discovering central host functions during viral infection. Our work provides a framework for studying the contribution of transcription, translation and degradation during infection with any virus. PMID:26599541

  16. Ribosome profiling reveals an important role for translational control in circadian gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Christopher; Lahens, Nicholas F.; Hogenesch, John B.; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms are driven by a conserved transcriptional/translational negative feedback loop in mammals. Although most core clock factors are transcription factors, post-transcriptional control introduces delays that are critical for circadian oscillations. Little work has been done on circadian regulation of translation, so to address this deficit we conducted ribosome profiling experiments in a human cell model for an autonomous clock. We found that most rhythmic gene expression occurs with little delay between transcription and translation, suggesting that the lag in the accumulation of some clock proteins relative to their mRNAs does not arise from regulated translation. Nevertheless, we found that translation occurs in a circadian fashion for many genes, sometimes imposing an additional level of control on rhythmically expressed mRNAs and, in other cases, conferring rhythms on noncycling mRNAs. Most cyclically transcribed RNAs are translated at one of two major times in a 24-h day, while rhythmic translation of most noncyclic RNAs is phased to a single time of day. Unexpectedly, we found that the clock also regulates the formation of cytoplasmic processing (P) bodies, which control the fate of mRNAs, suggesting circadian coordination of mRNA metabolism and translation. PMID:26338483

  17. The Transcription and Translation Landscapes during Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Reveal Novel Host-Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shitrit, Alina; Shani, Odem; Le-Trilling, Vu Thuy Khanh; Trilling, Mirko; Friedlander, Gilgi; Tanenbaum, Marvin; Stern-Ginossar, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are by definition fully dependent on the cellular translation machinery, and develop diverse mechanisms to co-opt this machinery for their own benefit. Unlike many viruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) does suppress the host translation machinery, and the extent to which translation machinery contributes to the overall pattern of viral replication and pathogenesis remains elusive. Here, we combine RNA sequencing and ribosomal profiling analyses to systematically address this question. By simultaneously examining the changes in transcription and translation along HCMV infection, we uncover extensive transcriptional control that dominates the response to infection, but also diverse and dynamic translational regulation for subsets of host genes. We were also able to show that, at late time points in infection, translation of viral mRNAs is higher than that of cellular mRNAs. Lastly, integration of our translation measurements with recent measurements of protein abundance enabled comprehensive identification of dozens of host proteins that are targeted for degradation during HCMV infection. Since targeted degradation indicates a strong biological importance, this approach should be applicable for discovering central host functions during viral infection. Our work provides a framework for studying the contribution of transcription, translation and degradation during infection with any virus. PMID:26599541

  18. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging. PMID:25610649

  19. Exploring Ribosome Positioning on Translating Transcripts with Ribosome Profiling.

    PubMed

    Spealman, Pieter; Wang, Hao; May, Gemma; Kingsford, Carl; McManus, C Joel

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advances (e.g., microarrays and massively parallel sequencing) have facilitated genome-wide measurement of many aspects of gene regulation. Ribosome profiling is a high-throughput sequencing method used to measure gene expression at the level of translation. This is accomplished by quantifying both the number of translating ribosomes and their locations on mRNA transcripts. The inventors of this approach have published several methods papers detailing its implementation and addressing the basics of ribosome profiling data analysis. Here we describe our lab's procedure, which differs in some respects from those published previously. In addition, we describe a data analysis pipeline, Ribomap, for ribosome profiling data. Ribomap allocates sequence reads to alternative mRNA isoforms, normalizes sequencing bias along transcripts using RNA-seq data, and outputs count vectors of per-codon ribosome occupancy for each transcript. PMID:26463378

  20. Personalized medicine: challenges and opportunities for translational bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Overby, Casey Lynnette; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Personalized medicine can be defined broadly as a model of healthcare that is predictive, personalized, preventive and participatory. Two US President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology reports illustrate challenges in personalized medicine (in a 2008 report) and in use of health information technology (in a 2010 report). Translational bioinformatics is a field that can help address these challenges and is defined by the American Medical Informatics Association as “the development of storage, analytic and interpretive methods to optimize the transformation of increasing voluminous biomedical data into proactive, predictive, preventative and participatory health.” This article discusses barriers to implementing genomics applications and current progress toward overcoming barriers, describes lessons learned from early experiences of institutions engaged in personalized medicine and provides example areas for translational bioinformatics research inquiry. PMID:24039624

  1. Clinical and Translational Scientist Career Success: Metrics for Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda S.; Pusek, Susan N.; McCormack, Wayne T.; Helitzer, Deborah L.; Martina, Camille A.; Dozier, Ann; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Schwartz, Lisa; McManus, Linda M.; Reynolds, Brian; Haynes, Erin; Rubio, Doris M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased emphasis on formal training in clinical and translational research and the growth in the number and scope of training programs over the past decade, the impact of training on research productivity and career success has yet to be fully evaluated at the institutional level. In this article, the Education Evaluation Working Group of the Clinical and Translational Science Award Consortium introduces selected metrics and methods associated with the assessment of key factors that affect research career success. The goals in providing this information are to encourage more consistent data collection across training sites, to foster more rigorous and systematic exploration of factors associated with career success, and to help address previously identified difficulties in program evaluation. PMID:23067352

  2. Future Translational Applications From the Contemporary Genomics Era

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Caroline S.; Hall, Jennifer L.; Arnett, Donna K.; Ashley, Euan A.; Delles, Christian; Engler, Mary B.; Freeman, Mason W.; Johnson, Julie A.; Lanfear, David E.; Liggett, Stephen B.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Loscalzo, Joseph; MacRae, Calum A.; Musunuru, Kiran; Newby, L. Kristin; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Rich, Stephen S.; Terzic, Andre

    2016-01-01

    The field of genetics and genomics has advanced considerably with the achievement of recent milestones encompassing the identification of many loci for cardiovascular disease and variable drug responses. Despite this achievement, a gap exists in the understanding and advancement to meaningful translation that directly affects disease prevention and clinical care. The purpose of this scientific statement is to address the gap between genetic discoveries and their practical application to cardiovascular clinical care. In brief, this scientific statement assesses the current timeline for effective translation of basic discoveries to clinical advances, highlighting past successes. Current discoveries in the area of genetics and genomics are covered next, followed by future expectations, tools, and competencies for achieving the goal of improving clinical care. PMID:25882488

  3. Translational models of ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Zeiss, Caroline J

    2013-07-01

    Animals provide indispensable models to translate basic mechanistic discoveries and realize their therapeutic potential in humans. Conversely, advances in human medicine often inform management of similar conditions in clinical veterinary medicine. In this paper, key experimental model species are introduced, with emphasis on genetic contributions of the mouse. Its role and those of larger animal models are described in common ocular research areas including intraocular neoplasia, corneal epithelial and stromal disease, cataract, uveitis, glaucoma, and retinal dystrophies. Emphasis is placed on those conditions shared by humans and domestic animals, with the intent of exploring how the study of comparable conditions in humans, domestic animals, and laboratory animals informs one another. PMID:23750503

  4. Genetic analysis in translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Patrinos, George P.; Innocenti, Federico; Cox, Nancy; Fortina, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 GOLDEN HELIX Symposium ‘Genetic Analysis in Translational Medicine' was held in Athens, Greece, Athens, Greece, 1-4 December 2010. The scientific program covered all aspects of this discipline, including genome-wide association studies, genomics of cancer and human disorders, molecular cytogenetics, advances in genomic technology, next-generation sequencing applications, pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics. In addition, various topics on genetics and society and genetic analysis in clinical practice were discussed. Here, we provide an overview of the plenary lectures and the topics discussed in the symposium. PMID:21438074

  5. The Contribution of Conceptual Frameworks to Knowledge Translation Interventions in Physical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gervais, Mathieu-Joël; Hunt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of knowledge translation activities in physical therapy to ensure that research findings are integrated into clinical practice, and increasing numbers of knowledge translation interventions are being conducted. Although various frameworks have been developed to guide and facilitate the process of translating knowledge into practice, these tools have been infrequently used in physical therapy knowledge translation studies to date. Knowledge translation in physical therapy implicates multiple stakeholders and environments and involves numerous steps. In light of this complexity, the use of explicit conceptual frameworks by clinicians and researchers conducting knowledge translation interventions is associated with a range of potential benefits. This perspective article argues that such frameworks are important resources to promote the uptake of new evidence in physical therapist practice settings. Four key benefits associated with the use of conceptual frameworks in designing and implementing knowledge translation interventions are identified, and limits related to their use are considered. A sample of 5 conceptual frameworks is evaluated, and how they address common barriers to knowledge translation in physical therapy is assessed. The goal of this analysis is to provide guidance to physical therapists seeking to identify a framework to support the design and implementation of a knowledge translation intervention. Finally, the use of a conceptual framework is illustrated through a case example. Increased use of conceptual frameworks can have a positive impact on the field of knowledge translation in physical therapy and support the development and implementation of robust and effective knowledge translation interventions that help span the research-practice gap. PMID:25060959

  6. A coupled decadal-scale air-sea interaction theory: the NAT-NAO-AMO-AMOC coupled mode and its global impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2016-04-01

    Observational analysis shows that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) leads the oceanic Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) by 15-20 years and the latter also leads the former by around 15 years. The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) version 4 is employed to investigate the relevant mechanism in the linkage between the NAO and AMO. The results show that the positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) forces the strengthening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and induces a basin-wide uniform sea surface temperature (SST) warming that corresponds to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The SST field exhibits a delayed response to the preceding enhanced AMOC, and shows a pattern similar to the North Atlantic tripole (NAT), with SST warming in the northern North Atlantic and cooling in the southern part. This SST pattern (negative NAT phase) may lead to an atmospheric response that resembles the negative NAO phase, and subsequently the oscillation proceeds, but in the opposite sense. This implies a NAO-AMO-AMOC coupled mode in decadal scale. Based on these mechanisms, a simple delayed oscillator model is established to explain the quasi-periodic multidecadal variability of the NAO. The magnitude of the NAO forcing of the AMOC/AMO and the time delay of the AMOC/AMO feedback are two key parameters of the delayed oscillator. For a given set of parameters, the quasi 60-year cycle of the NAO can be well predicted. This delayed oscillator model is useful for understanding of the oscillatory mechanism of the NAO, which has significant potential for decadal predictions as well as the interpretation of proxy data records. The NAT-NAO-AMO-AMOC coupled mode has important influences on global and regional climate. The twentieth century Northern Hemisphere mean surface temperature (NHT) is characterized by a multidecadal warming-cooling-warming pattern followed by a flat trend since about 2000 (recent warming hiatus). Here we demonstrate that

  7. Internal translational dynamics of large icy bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escapa, A.

    2012-09-01

    Rotational dynamics is broadly used as a way to obtain some insight into the interior of solar system celestial bodies (e.g., see [4]). This is due to the fact that, to some extent, the rotational motion is affected by the internal characteristics of the body like its stratification, rheological properties, etc. Running a parallel way, some interior models of the celestial bodies also lead to the existence of another different rigid motion related with the translations of the body constituents with respect to its barycenter. It is the case, for example, of differentiated bodies containing a fluid layer enclosed between two solid layers. These kind of motions, like the rotational ones, might provide some constrains on the physical properties of the body, hence the interest in their study. This question has been recently addressed in [1] within the context of icy bodies. In that work it was established a mathematical framework, based on Lagrangian mechanics methods, that allowed the analytical modeling of the internal translational motions of a simple body differentiated into three homogeneous layers: an external ice-I layer, a subsurface ammonia-water ocean, and a rocky inner core. It was shown that the nature of the motion is oscillatory, with a single frequency, analogous to the Earth Slichter mode, that depends on the densities and masses of the layers. Although this three-layer internal structure represents a good approximation for some possible models of the interior of medium-sized icy bodies containing a subsurface ocean (e.g., see [2]), it is not the case when considering other models of larger icy bodies like Ganymede or Titan, since for them the subsurface ocean is not in contact with the rocky inner core but with a high-pressure ice layer (e.g., see [3], [5] or [6]). Bearing in mind these considerations, we aim at modeling the internal translational motions of a body composed of an ice crust, a subsurface ocean, and an inner core differentiated in two

  8. Tissue Engineered Constructs: Perspectives on Clinical Translation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lichun; Arbit, Harvey M.; Herrick, James L.; Segovis, Suzanne Glass; Maran, Avudaiappan; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a “bedside to bench and back” approach for developing tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs) for clinical applications is reviewed. The driving force behind this approach is unmet clinical needs. Preclinical research, both in vitro and in vivo using small and large animal models, will help find solutions to key research questions. In clinical research, ethical issues regarding the use of cells and tissues, their sources, donor consent, as well as clinical trials are important considerations. Regulatory issues, at both institutional and government levels, must be addressed prior to the translation of TEMPs to clinical practice. TEMPs are regulated as drugs, biologics, devices, or combination products by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Depending on the mode of regulation, applications for TEMP introduction must be filed with the FDA to demonstrate safety and effectiveness in premarket clinical studies, followed by 510(k) premarket clearance or premarket approval (for medical devices), biologics license application approval (for biologics), or New Drug Application approval (for drugs). A case study on nerve cuffs is presented to illustrate the regulatory process. Finally, perspectives on commercialization such as finding a company partner and funding issues, as well as physician culture change, are presented. PMID:25711151

  9. Translational Development Strategy for Magnetic Seizure Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rowny, Stefan; Benzl, Karla; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2009-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has unparalleled antidepressant efficacy, but its cognitive side effects may be persistent. Research suggests that the side effects may be at least partially dissociable from the therapeutic effects of ECT, suggesting that distinct cortical networks may underlie them and introducing a role for focal seizure induction as a means of minimizing side effects. In magnetic seizure therapy (MST), magnetic fields avoid tissue impedance and induce electrical currents confined to superficial cortex, facilitating focal seizure induction. The translational development strategy for MST has included: (1) device development, (2) feasibility in animals and initial human trials, (3) testing in nonhuman primates on safety and mechanisms of action (with neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and cognitive endpoints), (4) safety testing in patients, (5) initial efficacy testing in patients, (6) dosage optimization, and (7) randomized comparison with ECT. These stages have been iterative, with results of early clinical testing prompting device enhancements that were, in turn, tested in nonhuman primates prior to human trials. Safety testing was aided by development of a nonhuman primate model of human ECT, and the validation of a cognitive battery for the monkey that is sensitive to the range of effects of ECT on human memory. Human testing has been facilitated by the development of an international consortium of centers addressing various aspects of technique and dose/response relationships. Challenges facing MST are common to other device based therapies: characterizing dose/response relationships, optimizing efficacy, and developing efficient and reliable methods to induce lasting therapeutic change in the circuitry underlying depression. PMID:19348798

  10. Translational In Vivo Models for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fliegner, Daniela; Gerdes, Christoph; Meding, Jörg; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are still the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. Experimental cardiology research and preclinical drug development in cardiology call for appropriate and especially clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo studies. The use of animal models has contributed to expand our knowledge and our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and accordingly provided new approaches focused on the improvement of diagnostic and treatment strategies of various cardiac pathologies.Numerous animal models in different species as well as in small and large animals have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and thrombotic diseases. However, a perfect model of heart failure or other indications that reproduces every aspect of the natural disease does not exist. The complexity and heterogeneity of cardiac diseases plus the influence of genetic and environmental factors limit to mirror a particular disease with a single experimental model.Thus, drug development in the field of cardiology is not only very challenging but also inspiring; therefore animal models should be selected that reflect as best as possible the disease being investigated. Given the wide range of animal models, reflecting critical features of the human pathophysiology available nowadays increases the likelihood of the translation to the patients. Furthermore, this knowledge and the increase of the predictive value of preclinical models help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions as well as better and innovative treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26552402

  11. Tissue engineered constructs: perspectives on clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lichun; Arbit, Harvey M; Herrick, James L; Segovis, Suzanne Glass; Maran, Avudaiappan; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    In this article, a "bedside to bench and back" approach for developing tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs) for clinical applications is reviewed. The driving force behind this approach is unmet clinical needs. Preclinical research, both in vitro and in vivo using small and large animal models, will help find solutions to key research questions. In clinical research, ethical issues regarding the use of cells and tissues, their sources, donor consent, as well as clinical trials are important considerations. Regulatory issues, at both institutional and government levels, must be addressed prior to the translation of TEMPs to clinical practice. TEMPs are regulated as drugs, biologics, devices, or combination products by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Depending on the mode of regulation, applications for TEMP introduction must be filed with the FDA to demonstrate safety and effectiveness in premarket clinical studies, followed by 510(k) premarket clearance or premarket approval (for medical devices), biologics license application approval (for biologics), or new drug application approval (for drugs). A case study on nerve cuffs is presented to illustrate the regulatory process. Finally, perspectives on commercialization such as finding a company partner and funding issues, as well as physician culture change, are presented. PMID:25711151

  12. HDL to verification logic translator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  13. RAN Translation in Huntington Disease.

    PubMed

    Bañez-Coronel, Monica; Ayhan, Fatma; Tarabochia, Alex D; Zu, Tao; Perez, Barbara A; Tusi, Solaleh Khoramian; Pletnikova, Olga; Borchelt, David R; Ross, Christopher A; Margolis, Russell L; Yachnis, Anthony T; Troncoso, Juan C; Ranum, Laura P W

    2015-11-18

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG ⋅ CTG expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. While most research has focused on the HTT polyGln-expansion protein, we demonstrate that four additional, novel, homopolymeric expansion proteins (polyAla, polySer, polyLeu, and polyCys) accumulate in HD human brains. These sense and antisense repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation proteins accumulate most abundantly in brain regions with neuronal loss, microglial activation and apoptosis, including caudate/putamen, white matter, and, in juvenile-onset cases, also the cerebellum. RAN protein accumulation and aggregation are length dependent, and individual RAN proteins are toxic to neural cells independent of RNA effects. These data suggest RAN proteins contribute to HD and that therapeutic strategies targeting both sense and antisense genes may be required for efficacy in HD patients. This is the first demonstration that RAN proteins are expressed across an expansion located in an open reading frame and suggests RAN translation may also contribute to other polyglutamine diseases. PMID:26590344

  14. Energy flows, metabolism and translation

    PubMed Central

    Pascal, Robert; Boiteau, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamics provides an essential approach to understanding how living organisms survive in an organized state despite the second law. Exchanges with the environment constantly produce large amounts of entropy compensating for their own organized state. In addition to this constraint on self-organization, the free energy delivered to the system, in terms of potential, is essential to understand how a complex chemistry based on carbon has emerged. Accordingly, the amount of free energy brought about through discrete events must reach the strength needed to induce chemical changes in which covalent bonds are reorganized. The consequence of this constraint was scrutinized in relation to both the development of a carbon metabolism and that of translation. Amino acyl adenylates involved as aminoacylation intermediates of the latter process reach one of the higher free energy levels found in biochemistry, which may be informative on the range in which energy was exchanged in essential early biochemical processes. The consistency of this range with the amount of energy needed to weaken covalent bonds involving carbon may not be accidental but the consequence of the abovementioned thermodynamic constraints. This could be useful in building scenarios for the emergence and early development of translation. PMID:21930587

  15. Optical-to-Tactile Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langevin, Maurice L. (Inventor); Moynihan, Philip I. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An optical-to-tactile translator provides an aid for the visually impaired by translating a near-field scene to a tactile signal corresponding to said near-field scene. An optical sensor using a plurality of active pixel sensors (APS) converts the optical image within the near-field scene to a digital signal. The digital signal is then processed by a microprocessor and a simple shape signal is generated based on the digital signal. The shape signal is then communicated to a tactile transmitter where the shape signal is converted into a tactile signal using a series of contacts. The shape signal may be an outline of the significant shapes determined in the near-field scene, or the shape signal may comprise a simple symbolic representation of common items encountered repeatedly. The user is thus made aware of the unseen near-field scene, including potential obstacles and dangers, through a series of tactile contacts. In a preferred embodiment, a range determining device such as those commonly found on auto-focusing cameras is included to limit the distance that the optical sensor interprets the near-field scene.

  16. HDL to verification logic translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  17. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  18. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  19. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  20. Methodological considerations when translating “burnout”☆

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Finlayson, Catherine; Gerchow, Lauren; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Matthews, Anne; Schwendimann, Rene; Griffiths, Peter; Busse, Reinhard; Heinen, Maude; Brzostek, Tomasz; Moreno-Casbas, Maria Teresa; Aiken, Linda H.; Sermeus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross-cultural instrument analysis, 7 out of 22 items on the instrument received an extremely low kappa score. Investigators may need to employ more rigorous cross-cultural adaptation methods when attempting to measure burnout. PMID:25343131

  1. Quantifying PV module microclimates and translation into accelerated weathering protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Nancy H.; Scott, Kurt P.

    2014-10-01

    Long term reliability is not well addressed by current standards for PV modules or components, and developing accelerated weathering stress protocols to test the resistance of key components to wear-out is an active area of research. A first step is to understand and quantify the range of actual stresses modules will encounter in the various mounting configurations and in-service environments. In this paper, we use real-world data to benchmark PV module service environments in hot/dry, hot/wet, and temperate environments, with subsequent analysis to translate the microclimate data into a portfolio of practical weathering instrument settings.

  2. Mechanism of Cytoplasmic mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a fundamental process in gene expression that depends upon the abundance and accessibility of the mRNA transcript as well as the activity of many protein and RNA-protein complexes. Here we focus on the intricate mechanics of mRNA translation in the cytoplasm of higher plants. This chapter includes an inventory of the plant translational apparatus and a detailed review of the translational processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. The majority of mechanistic studies of cytoplasmic translation have been carried out in yeast and mammalian systems. The factors and mechanisms of translation are for the most part conserved across eukaryotes; however, some distinctions are known to exist in plants. A comprehensive understanding of the complex translational apparatus and its regulation in plants is warranted, as the modulation of protein production is critical to development, environmental plasticity and biomass yield in diverse ecosystems and agricultural settings. PMID:26019692

  3. Animal virus schemes for translation dominance

    PubMed Central

    Reineke, Lucas C.; Lloyd, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Viruses have adapted a broad range of unique mechanisms to modulate the cellular translational machinery to ensure viral translation at the expense of cellular protein synthesis. Many of these promote virus-specific translation by use of molecular tags on viral mRNA such as internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) and genome-linked viral proteins (VPg) that bind translation machinery components in unusual ways and promote RNA circularization. This review describes recent advances in understanding some of the mechanisms in which animal virus mRNAs gain an advantage over cellular transcripts, including new structural and biochemical insights into IRES function and novel proteins that function as alternate met-tRNAimet carriers in translation initiation. Comparisons between animal and plant virus mechanisms that promote translation of viral mRNAs are discussed. PMID:22319551

  4. Translational Science: Epistemology and the Investigative Process

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2009-01-01

    The term “translational science” has recently become very popular with its usage appearing to be almost exclusively related to medicine, in particular, the “translation” of biological knowledge into medical practice. Taking the perspective that translational science is somehow different than science and that sound science is grounded in an epistemology developed over millennia, it seems imperative that the meaning of translational science be carefully examined, especially how the scientific epistemology manifests itself in translational science. This paper examines epistemological issues relating mainly to modeling in translational science, with a focus on optimal operator synthesis. It goes on to discuss the implications of epistemology on the nature of collaborations conducive to the translational investigative process. The philosophical concepts are illustrated by considering intervention in gene regulatory networks. PMID:19794882

  5. Criticality Safety Analysis on the Mixed Be, Nat-U, and C (Graphite) Reflectors in 55-Gallon Waste Drums and Their Equivalents for HWM Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The objective of this analysis is to develop and establish the technical basis on the criticality safety controls for the storage of mixed beryllium (Be), natural uranium (Nat-U), and carbon (C)/graphite reflectors in 55-gallon waste containers and/or their equivalents in Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. Based on the criticality safety limits and controls outlined in Section 3.0, the operations involving the use of mixed-reflector drums satisfy the double-contingency principle as required by DOE Order 420.1 and are therefore criticality safe. The mixed-reflector mass limit is 120 grams for each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent. a reflector waiver of 50 grams is allowed for Be, Nat-U, or C/graphite combined. The waived reflectors may be excluded from the reflector mass calculations when determining if a drum is compliant. The mixed-reflector drums are allowed to mix with the typical 55-gallon one-reflector drums with a Pu mass limit of 120 grams. The fissile mass limit for the mixed-reflector container is 65 grams of Pu equivalent each. The corresponding reflector mass limits are 300 grams of Be, and/or 100 kilograms of Nat-U, and/or 110 kilograms of C/graphite for each container. All other unaffected control parameters for the one-reflector containers remain in effect for the mixed-reflector drums. For instance, Superior moderators, such as TrimSol, Superla white mineral oil No. 9, paraffin, and polyethylene, are allowed in unlimited quantities. Hydrogenous materials with a hydrogen density greater than 0.133 gram/cc are not allowed. Also, an isolation separation of no less than 76.2 cm (30-inch) is required between a mixed array and any other array. Waste containers in the action of being transported are exempted from this 76.2-cm (30-inch) separation requirement. All deviations from the CS controls and mass limits listed in Section 3.0 will require individual criticality safety analyses on a case-by-case basis for each of them to confirm their

  6. Translation Against An Applied Force.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Gary M.; Seol, Yeonee; Visscher, Koen

    2008-02-01

    Ribosome structure and mechanism are largely conserved among all known forms of life. Therefore, the motions associated with translation may be among the most ancient and fundamental in biology. However, the molecular mechanism of translocation, the coordinated movement of tRNAs and associated mRNA on the ribosome, has eluded scientists and remains obscure. Single-molecule experiments using optical tweezers and fluorescence microscope are starting to shed new light on these questions. For example, we have observed that moderate forces reverse direction of motion and ribosomes seem to slip backward into the 5' direction along a poly(U) message. Although the detailed molecular mechanism for ribosome slippage is not fully understood, these observations raise interesting biological questions about e.g. -1 frameshifting. Is the -1 frameshift essential for HIV-1 replication a result of tension in the message? Single-molecule experiments open the way towards quantitative modeling of ribosome motion and related phenomena such as -1 frameshifting.

  7. Relative motion: translation and therapy.

    PubMed

    Craig, George

    2010-08-01

    The central argument is that analysts/therapists and translators/interpreters have a great deal more in common than is commonly supposed. The key element in this sharing is their essential aloneness in the moment and act of interpreting, and their intellectual and affective response to that aloneness. What marks this off as both important and exceptional is its contrast with the untroubling world of study and the comforting world of professional membership and practice. The professional worlds are abundantly documented; the individual experience has had nothing like so much attention. The focus of the argument is on how significant meanings are established, in a context in which no meanings can be taken for granted. The purpose of the argument is to show that each kind of practitioner may have much to learn from the other. PMID:20840635

  8. NDAS Hardware Translation Layer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazaretian, Ryan N.; Holladay, Wendy T.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) project is aimed to replace all DAS software for NASA s Rocket Testing Facilities. There must be a software-hardware translation layer so the software can properly talk to the hardware. Since the hardware from each test stand varies, drivers for each stand have to be made. These drivers will act more like plugins for the software. If the software is being used in E3, then the software should point to the E3 driver package. If the software is being used at B2, then the software should point to the B2 driver package. The driver packages should also be filled with hardware drivers that are universal to the DAS system. For example, since A1, A2, and B2 all use the Preston 8300AU signal conditioners, then the driver for those three stands should be the same and updated collectively.

  9. Functional Translational Readthrough: A Systems Biology Perspective.

    PubMed

    Schueren, Fabian; Thoms, Sven

    2016-08-01

    Translational readthrough (TR) has come into renewed focus because systems biology approaches have identified the first human genes undergoing functional translational readthrough (FTR). FTR creates functional extensions to proteins by continuing translation of the mRNA downstream of the stop codon. Here we review recent developments in TR research with a focus on the identification of FTR in humans and the systems biology methods that have spurred these discoveries. PMID:27490485

  10. Functional Translational Readthrough: A Systems Biology Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Schueren, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Translational readthrough (TR) has come into renewed focus because systems biology approaches have identified the first human genes undergoing functional translational readthrough (FTR). FTR creates functional extensions to proteins by continuing translation of the mRNA downstream of the stop codon. Here we review recent developments in TR research with a focus on the identification of FTR in humans and the systems biology methods that have spurred these discoveries. PMID:27490485

  11. Boot Camp Translation: A Method For Building a Community of Solution

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Ned; Bennett, Chris; Cowart, Shirley; Felzien, Maret; Flores, Martha; Flores, Rafael; Haynes, Connie; Hernandez, Mike; Rodriquez, Mary Petra; Sanchez, Norah; Sanchez, Sergio; Winkelman, Kathy; Winkelman, Steve; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The National Institutes of Health (NIH) spend billions of dollars annually on biomedical research. A crucial, yet currently insufficient step is the translation of scientific evidence-based guidelines and recommendations into constructs and language accessible to every-day patients and community members. By building a community of solution that integrates primary care with public health and community-based organizations, evidence-based medical care can be translated into language and constructs accessible to community members and readily implemented to improve health. Methods Using a community-based participatory research approach, the High Plains Research Network (HPRN) and its Community Advisory Council developed a multi-component process to translate evidence into messages and dissemination methods to improve health in rural Colorado. This process, called Boot Camp Translation has brought together various community members, organizations, and primary care to build a community of solution to address local health problems. Results The HPRN has conducted 4 Boot Camp Translations on topics including colon cancer prevention, asthma diagnosis and management, hypertension treatment and management, and the patient-centered medical home. Each Boot Camp follows a standard agenda that requires flexibility and creativity. Thus far, the HPRN has used Boot Camp Translation to engage over a thousand rural community members and providers. Dissemination of Boot Camp messaging through the community of solution has led to increased colon cancer screening, improved care for asthma, and increased rates of controlled blood pressure. Conclusions Boot Camp translation successfully engages community members in a process to translate evidence-based medical care into locally relevant, culturally appropriate language and constructs. Boot Camp Translation is an appropriate method for engaging community members in patient-centered outcomes research. Boot Camp Translation may be an

  12. [The role of Hunayn, physician and translator].

    PubMed

    Habbi, J

    1994-01-01

    Hunayn ibn Ishāq is one of the most important translators of scientific and medical texts in the 'abbāsid era. He played a fundamental role in the transmission of Greek medical science to the Arab world, because of his deep knowledge of the Syriac, Arabic and Persian languages. He translated about 300 texts, especially medical ones, and he founded a school in which many disciples were instructed in the art of translation, like his son Ishāq and his nephew Hubays. Hunayn composed a lexicon of scientific terminology, using a new method of translation which represents his great innovation. PMID:11623411

  13. An Image Processing Approach to Linguistic Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubatur, Shruthi; Sreehari, Suhas; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    The art of translation is as old as written literature. Developments since the Industrial Revolution have influenced the practice of translation, nurturing schools, professional associations, and standard. In this paper, we propose a method of translation of typed Kannada text (taken as an image) into its equivalent English text. The National Instruments (NI) Vision Assistant (version 8.5) has been used for Optical character Recognition (OCR). We developed a new way of transliteration (which we call NIV transliteration) to simplify the training of characters. Also, we build a special type of dictionary for the purpose of translation.

  14. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  15. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to...

  16. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  17. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  18. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  19. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and...

  20. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  1. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  2. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 80.174 Section 80.174... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample required under § 80.161(b)(2) shall be sent to: Manager, Fuels and Technical Analysis Group,...

  3. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain forms referred to in this part...

  4. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  5. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  6. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  7. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  8. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  9. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  10. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  11. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  12. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  13. Tradition and Change in Swedish Address Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Stephen A.

    In most European languages, choice of address form classifies the relation between speakers. The first theoretical framework for analyzing address form usage was established by Brown and Gilman (1960) in their investigation of the semantics of pronoun use in a wide variety of Indo-European languages, which concluded that Europeans use the informal…

  14. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  15. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  16. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  17. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  18. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  19. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  20. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...