Science.gov

Sample records for address translation unit

  1. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    effectively with the American debt and deficit, by first describing the background of our current government approach to the economy , then examining the...to address the problem of deficit financing and the associated debt in a positive manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States...current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining what

  2. Translation invariance in a network of oscillatory units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, A. Ravishankar; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Peck, Charles C.; Kozloski, James R.

    2006-02-01

    One of the important features of the human visual system is that it is able to recognize objects in a scale and translational invariant manner. However, achieving this desirable behavior through biologically realistic networks is a challenge. The synchronization of neuronal firing patterns has been suggested as a possible solution to the binding problem (where a biological mechanism is sought to explain how features that represent an object can be scattered across a network, and yet be unified). This observation has led to neurons being modeled as oscillatory dynamical units. It is possible for a network of these dynamical units to exhibit synchronized oscillations under the right conditions. These network models have been applied to solve signal deconvolution or blind source separation problems. However, the use of the same network to achieve properties that the visual sytem exhibits, such as scale and translational invariance have not been fully explored. Some approaches investigated in the literature (Wallis, 1996) involve the use of non-oscillatory elements that are arranged in a hierarchy of layers. The objects presented are allowed to move, and the network utilizes a trace learning rule, where a time averaged output value is used to perform Hebbian learning with respect to the input value. This is a modification of the standard Hebbian learning rule, which typically uses instantaneous values of the input and output. In this paper we present a network of oscillatory amplitude-phase units connected in two layers. The types of connections include feedforward, feedback and lateral. The network consists of amplitude-phase units that can exhibit synchronized oscillations. We have previously shown that such a network can segment the components of each input object that most contribute to its classification. Learning is unsupervised and based on a Hebbian update, and the architecture is very simple. We extend the ability of this network to address the problem of

  3. Fiber Optic Translator Unit (FOTU). Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    UAD-I V AREA ; WORK UNIT NUMBERS US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory 6.27.77A, 3E1S277A878, AD, Fort Rucker, Alabama 36362 132 1I. CONTROLLING ...these, the following locations are associated with the pilot: seat pad, seat structure, pilot foot rest, thrust control grip, cyclic grip, pilot... control stick, instrument panel, 9 I and pilot’s seat. The pilot’s head acceleration is measured only in the vertical axis. Statham* A52 and A6 strain

  4. Addressing the translational dilemma: dynamic knowledge representation of inflammation using agent-based modeling.

    PubMed

    An, Gary; Christley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Given the panoply of system-level diseases that result from disordered inflammation, such as sepsis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and autoimmune disorders, understanding and characterizing the inflammatory response is a key target of biomedical research. Untangling the complex behavioral configurations associated with a process as ubiquitous as inflammation represents a prototype of the translational dilemma: the ability to translate mechanistic knowledge into effective therapeutics. A critical failure point in the current research environment is a throughput bottleneck at the level of evaluating hypotheses of mechanistic causality; these hypotheses represent the key step toward the application of knowledge for therapy development and design. Addressing the translational dilemma will require utilizing the ever-increasing power of computers and computational modeling to increase the efficiency of the scientific method in the identification and evaluation of hypotheses of mechanistic causality. More specifically, development needs to focus on facilitating the ability of non-computer trained biomedical researchers to utilize and instantiate their knowledge in dynamic computational models. This is termed "dynamic knowledge representation." Agent-based modeling is an object-oriented, discrete-event, rule-based simulation method that is well suited for biomedical dynamic knowledge representation. Agent-based modeling has been used in the study of inflammation at multiple scales. The ability of agent-based modeling to encompass multiple scales of biological process as well as spatial considerations, coupled with an intuitive modeling paradigm, suggest that this modeling framework is well suited for addressing the translational dilemma. This review describes agent-based modeling, gives examples of its applications in the study of inflammation, and introduces a proposed general expansion of the use of modeling and simulation to augment the generation and evaluation of knowledge

  5. A Strategic Framework for Utilizing Late-Stage (T4) Translation Research to Address Health Inequities

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Class, Maria; Peprah, Emmanuel; Zhang, Xinzhi; Kaufmann, Peter G.; Engelgau, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Achieving health equity requires that every person has the opportunity to attain their full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of social position or other socially determined circumstances. Inequity experienced by populations of lower socioeconomic status is reflected in differences in health status and mortality rates, as well as in the distribution of disease, disability and illness across these population groups. This article gives an overview of the health inequities literature associated with heart, lung, blood and sleep (HLBS) disorders. We present an ecological framework that provides a theoretical foundation to study late-stage T4 translation research that studies implementation strategies for proven effective interventions to address health inequities. PMID:27440979

  6. Translating Research Into E/PO That Addresses Real Needs in K-12 Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Wil E.; Belbruno, E. A.; Roelofsen Moody, T.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges in NASA ROSES E/PO is translating cutting edge research into products for which there is a demonstrated need. Rather than working from the premise that the "research is so cool’ that K-12 students or the public should learn about it, it is key to consult with the target audience to identify what their needs really are. The partnership between NJACE, Innovative Orbital Design, Inc., and Princeton offered a unique opportunity to translate intriguing but theoretical and mathematical research related to low energy orbits into a valuable education product. NJACE worked with educators to identify several needs with an intellectual link to this research: 1) Understanding of Gravity and Newton's Laws, 2) Understanding of Energy and Energy Transformations, 3) Integration of the sciences with math and technology, and 4) Knowledge of NASA's past accomplishments (such as the moon landings). Based on these identified needs, two science units were developed for students in grades 5-12 that integrate astronomy, physics, and the life sciences with math and technology. In addition an engaging public lecture was developed that tells a personal story of the quest for more economic space travel. In the past year, the workshops have been presented on three occasions, reaching over 75 teachers and demand exceeded available space with numerous teachers on waiting lists. The lecture has been presented numerous times at planetariums, museums, amateur astronomy and other clubs. We hope that our partnership will serve as a useful example of how to translate cutting edge research into valuable education products with an identified need. We will provide handouts with links to a website where the products and training can be downloaded in hope that others will help disseminate our product.

  7. Rural Women Teachers in the United States. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Andrea

    This presentation examines the history of women teachers in the rural United States. The earliest classrooms in America were a male environment modeled after European schools. But in the mid-19th century, the Civil War and westward expansion depleted the number of male teachers and brought rural women teachers to the helm of American education.…

  8. Addressing the Urban Stream Syndrome in the Northeast United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast has become one of the most urbanized regions in the United States, following a long history of watershed alteration and development. Much of the historical drainage infrastructure was designed to transport wastewater and stormwater to streams and rivers as quickly a...

  9. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study.

  10. Enhancing Teacher Performance in Spanish Elementary Classes. Volume Two: Translated Units. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Barry-Craig P.; And Others

    Spanish translations of 19 of the Minneapolis (Minnesota) Public Schools' elementary school science units are presented. The materials were translated for use in a partial immersion program. Unit topics include, among others: magnets, organisms (grade 1), seeds and plants (grade 1), butterflies (grade 2), electricity (grade 3), the food chain…

  11. Stakeholder Meeting: Integrated Knowledge Translation Approach to Address the Caregiver Support Gap.

    PubMed

    Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M; McMillan, Jacqueline; Jette, Nathalie; Brémault-Phillips, Suzette C; Duggleby, Wendy; Hanson, Heather M; Parmar, Jasneet

    2017-03-01

    Family caregivers are an integral and increasingly overburdened part of the health care system. There is a gap between what research evidence shows is beneficial to caregivers and what is actually provided. Using an integrated knowledge translation approach, a stakeholder meeting was held among researchers, family caregivers, caregiver associations, clinicians, health care administrators, and policy makers. The objectives of the meeting were to review current research evidence and conduct multi-stakeholder dialogue on the potential gaps, facilitators, and barriers to the provision of caregiver supports. A two-day meeting was attended by 123 individuals. Three target populations of family caregivers were identified for discussion: caregivers of seniors with dementia, caregivers in end-of-life care, and caregivers of frail seniors with complex health needs. The results of this meeting can and are being used to inform the development of implementation research endeavours and policies targeted at providing evidence-informed caregiver supports.

  12. 75 FR 16837 - Public Review of Draft United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and Postal Address Data Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... exchange, and data quality. The Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA), in conjunction... Address Data Standard AGENCY: Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. ACTION: Notice; request for comments on draft United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and Postal Address Data Standard...

  13. English Phraseological Units with an Onomastic Element and their Translation Equivalents in Slovene.

    PubMed

    Vrbinc, Marjeta

    2016-04-01

    This article presents the findings of the study where 173 English onomastic phraseological units (PUs) were classified according to their translations into Slovene. Four groups were identified. More than 61% of all PUs belongs to the group where the translation equivalent is either descriptive or represented by a one-word equivalent. This group is followed by two groups amounting to 18.50%, i.e., a group where the English PU is translated idiomatically with a proper name and a group where it is translated idiomatically with the same proper name. The smallest group where the English PU istranslated by means of a different proper name amounts to less than 2%. It is evident that non-idiomatic descriptive translation or one-word equivalents exceed idiomatic translations of any kind, and that the majority of PUs in both languages are highly culture-specific, thus posing problems to non-native speakers in comprehension and translation.

  14. Designing a Multilingual Terminology Bank for United States Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Sara E.

    1978-01-01

    A multilingual terminology bank, a data base consisting of multilingual terminology which acts as a computerized dictionary, is accessible to translators on-line or through hard-copy printouts. Surveys, interviews, and reviews of the literature have been used to design a bank suitable for a small institution. Design specifications are discussed.…

  15. "Out of Fear and into Peace" President Eisenhower's Address of the United Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Presents a section of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's, "Atoms for Peace," 1953 address to the United Nations General Assembly. Suggests using the document for classroom discussions of nuclear proliferation, emphasizing that using primary sources develops research skills, activates classroom discussions, citizenship, and creative…

  16. 24 CFR 902.51 - Updating of public housing unit address information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Service and Satisfaction § 902.51 Updating of public housing unit address information. (a) Electronic updating. The survey process for the Resident Service and Satisfaction Indicator is dependent upon... any points for the PHAS Resident Service and Satisfaction Indicator. (c) Electronic updating of...

  17. BUILDING A PLATFORM FOR TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN CHRONIC NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES TO ADDRESS POPULATION HEALTH IN PERU

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Cardenas, María K.; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Pesantes, M. Amalia; Araya, Ricardo; Boggio, Oscar; Checkley, William; García, Patricia J.; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Lescano, Andrés G.; Montori, Victor; Pan, William; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Sacksteder, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the United States National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognised Centre of Excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The Centre’s identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organisation: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them, and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment is key to fostering innovation in research. PMID:25754562

  18. 40 CFR 267.101 - What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... action for solid waste management units? 267.101 Section 267.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Releases from Solid Waste Management Units § 267.101 What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units? (a) You must...

  19. 40 CFR 267.101 - What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... action for solid waste management units? 267.101 Section 267.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Releases from Solid Waste Management Units § 267.101 What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units? (a) You must...

  20. 40 CFR 267.101 - What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... action for solid waste management units? 267.101 Section 267.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Releases from Solid Waste Management Units § 267.101 What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units? (a) You must...

  1. 40 CFR 267.101 - What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... action for solid waste management units? 267.101 Section 267.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Releases from Solid Waste Management Units § 267.101 What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units? (a) You must...

  2. Prevalence and correlates of local health department activities to address mental health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Purtle, Jonathan; Klassen, Ann C; Kolker, Jennifer; Buehler, James W

    2016-01-01

    Mental health has been recognized as a public health priority for nearly a century. Little is known, however, about what local health departments (LHDs) do to address the mental health needs of the populations they serve. Using data from the 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments - a nationally representative survey of LHDs in the United States (N=505) - we characterized LHDs' engagement in eight mental health activities, factors associated with engagement, and estimated the proportion of the U.S. population residing in jurisdictions where these activities were performed. We used Handler's framework of the measurement of public health systems to select variables and examined associations between LHD characteristics and engagement in mental health activities using bivariate analyses and multilevel, multivariate logistic regression. Assessing gaps in access to mental healthcare services (39.3%) and implementing strategies to improve access to mental healthcare services (32.8%) were the most common mental health activities performed. LHDs that provided mental healthcare services were significantly more likely to perform population-based mental illness prevention activities (adjusted odds ratio: 7.1; 95% CI: 5.1, 10.0) and engage in policy/advocacy activities to address mental health (AOR: 3.9; 95% CI: 2.7, 5.6). Our study suggests that many LHDs are engaged in activities to address mental health, ranging from healthcare services to population-based interventions, and that LHDs that provide healthcare services are more likely than others to perform mental health activities. These findings have implications as LHDs reconsider their roles in the era of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and LHD accreditation.

  3. 37 CFR 1.1 - Addresses for non-trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses for non-trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. 1.1 Section 1.1 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence § 1.1 Addresses for...

  4. 37 CFR 1.1 - Addresses for non-trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses for non-trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. 1.1 Section 1.1 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence § 1.1 Addresses for...

  5. 37 CFR 2.190 - Addresses for trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. 2.190 Section 2.190 Patents, Trademarks, and... CASES General Information and Correspondence in Trademark Cases § 2.190 Addresses for trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. (a) Trademark correspondence. In general....

  6. 37 CFR 1.1 - Addresses for non-trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. 1.1 Section 1.1 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence § 1.1 Addresses for non-trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. (a) In general. Except as provided...

  7. 37 CFR 2.190 - Addresses for trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. 2.190 Section 2.190 Patents, Trademarks, and... CASES General Information and Correspondence in Trademark Cases § 2.190 Addresses for trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. (a) Trademark correspondence. In general....

  8. 37 CFR 1.1 - Addresses for non-trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. 1.1 Section 1.1 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence § 1.1 Addresses for non-trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. (a) In general. Except as provided...

  9. 37 CFR 1.1 - Addresses for non-trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. 1.1 Section 1.1 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence § 1.1 Addresses for non-trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. (a) In general. Except as provided...

  10. 37 CFR 2.190 - Addresses for trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. 2.190 Section 2.190 Patents, Trademarks, and... CASES General Information and Correspondence in Trademark Cases § 2.190 Addresses for trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. (a) Trademark correspondence. In general....

  11. 37 CFR 2.190 - Addresses for trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. 2.190 Section 2.190 Patents, Trademarks, and... CASES General Information and Correspondence in Trademark Cases § 2.190 Addresses for trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. (a) Trademark correspondence. In general....

  12. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    PubMed Central

    Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. We explored the meaning and outcomes of a 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners participating in a Community of Practice. METHOD. A one-group (N = 117) mixed-methods design using a pretest–posttest survey and qualitative analysis of written reflections was used to explore the meaning and outcomes of the building capacity process. RESULTS. Statistically significant improvements (p < .02) in pretest–posttest scores of knowledge, beliefs, and actions related to a public health approach to mental health were found. Qualitative findings suggest that participation resulted in a renewed commitment to addressing children’s mental health. CONCLUSION. The building capacity process expanded practitioner knowledge, renewed energy, and promoted confidence, resulting in change leaders empowered to articulate, advocate for, and implement practice changes reflecting occupational therapy’s role in addressing children’s mental health. PMID:26565099

  13. Knowledge translation: An interprofessional approach to integrating a pain consult team within an acute care unit.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Kira; Berall, Anna; Karuza, Jurgis; Senderovich, Helen; Perri, Giulia-Anna; Grossman, Daphna

    2016-11-01

    Management of pain in the frail elderly presents many challenges in both assessment and treatment, due to the presence of multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy, and cognitive impairment. At Baycrest Health Sciences, a geriatric care centre, pain in its acute care unit had been managed through consultations with the pain team on a case-by-case basis. In an intervention informed by knowledge translation (KT), the pain specialists integrated within the social network of the acute care team for 6 months to disseminate their expertise. A survey was administered to staff on the unit before and after the intervention of the pain team to understand staff perceptions of pain management. Pre- and post-comparisons of the survey responses were analysed by using t-tests. This study provided some evidence for the success of this interprofessional education initiative through changes in staff confidence with respect to pain management. It also showed that embedding the pain team into the acute care team supported the KT process as an effective method of interprofessional team building. Incorporating the pain team into the acute care unit to provide training and ongoing decision support was a feasible strategy for KT and could be replicated in other clinical settings.

  14. Addressing Child Poverty: How Does the United States Compare With Other Nations?

    PubMed

    Smeeding, Timothy; Thévenot, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Poverty during childhood raises a number of policy challenges. The earliest years are critical in terms of future cognitive and emotional development and early health outcomes, and have long-lasting consequences on future health. In this article child poverty in the United States is compared with a set of other developed countries. To the surprise of few, results show that child poverty is high in the United States. But why is poverty so much higher in the United States than in other rich nations? Among child poverty drivers, household composition and parent's labor market participation matter a great deal. But these are not insurmountable problems. Many of these disadvantages can be overcome by appropriate public policies. For example, single mothers have a very high probability of poverty in the United States, but this is not the case in other countries where the provision of work support increases mothers' labor earnings and together with strong public cash support effectively reduces child poverty. In this article we focus on the role and design of public expenditure to understand the functioning of the different national systems and highlight ways for improvements to reduce child poverty in the United States. We compare relative child poverty in the United States with poverty in a set of selected countries. The takeaway is that the United States underinvests in its children and their families and in so doing this leads to high child poverty and poor health and educational outcomes. If a nation like the United States wants to decrease poverty and improve health and life chances for poor children, it must support parental employment and incomes, and invest in children's futures as do other similar nations with less child poverty.

  15. General and Partial Equilibrium Modeling of Sectoral Policies to Address Climate Change in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Pizer, William; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Newell, Richard; Sanchirico, James; Toman, Michael

    2003-03-31

    This document provides technical documentation for work using detailed sectoral models to calibrate a general equilibrium analysis of market and non-market sectoral policies to address climate change. Results of this work can be found in the companion paper, "Modeling Costs of Economy-wide versus Sectoral Climate Policies Using Combined Aggregate-Sectoral Model".

  16. Strategies and resources to address colorectal cancer screening rates and disparities in the United States and globally.

    PubMed

    Potter, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a significant cause of mortality in the United States and globally. In the United States, increased access to screening and effective treatment has contributed to a reduction in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality for the general population, though significant disparities persist. Worldwide, the disparities are even more pronounced, with vastly different colorectal cancer mortality rates and trends among nations. Newly organized colorectal cancer screening programs in economically developed countries with a high burden of colorectal cancer may provide pathways to reduce these disparities over time. This article provides an overview of colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, screening, and disparities in the United States and other world populations. Promising strategies and resources are identified to address colorectal cancer screening rates and disparities in the United States and worldwide.

  17. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  18. 'Renewables-Friendly' Grid Development Strategies: Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China (Chinese Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, David; Zhou, Ella; Porter, Kevin; Arent, Douglas J.

    2015-10-03

    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64940. This report aims to help China's reform effort by providing a concise summary of experience in the United States with 'renewables-friendly' grid management, focusing on experiences that might be applicable to China. It focuses on utility-scale renewables and sets aside issues related to distributed generation.

  19. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast (SEUS; AL, AR, GA, FL, KY, LA, NC, SC, TN, E. TX) faces the greatest impacts as a result of climate change of any region in the U.S. which presents considerable and costly adaptation challenges. Paradoxically, people in the SEUS hold attitudes and perceptions that are more dismissive of climate change than those of any other region. An additional mismatch exists between the manner in which climate science is generally communicated and the underlying core values and beliefs held by a large segment of people in the SEUS. As a result, people frequently misinterpret and/or distrust information sources, inhibiting efforts to productively discuss and consider climate change and related impacts on human and environmental systems, and possible solutions and outcomes. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project includes an extensive network of partners throughout the SEUS from faith, agriculture, culturally diverse, leisure, and K-20 educator communities that aim to address this educational need through a shared vision. CLiPSE has conducted a Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in and beyond the CLiPSE network. The descriptive results of the CSS indicate that religion, predominantly Protestantism, plays a minor role in climate knowledge and perceptions. Likewise, political affiliation plays a minimal role in climate knowledge and perceptions between religions. However, when Protestants were broken out by political affiliation, statistically significant differences (t(30)=2.44, p=0.02) in knowledge related to the causes of climate change exist. Those Protestants affiliated with the Democratic Party (n=206) tended to maintain a statistically significant stronger knowledge of the causes of global climate change than their Republican counterparts. When SEUS educator (n=277) group was only considered, similar trends were evidenced, indicating that strongly held beliefs potentially

  20. Modularized architecture of address generation units suitable for real-time processing MR data on an FPGA.

    PubMed

    Li, Limin; Wyrwicz, Alice M

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a modular approach to the design of an Address Generation Unit (AGU). The approach consists of development of a generic Address Generation Core (AGC) as a basic building block and the construction of an AGU from the AGCs. We illustrate this concept with AGUs capable of handling 2D- and 3D-structured data, and as well as their setup for executing 2D and 3D FFT algorithms on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The AGUs developed using our proposed method are simple and easily expandable. Furthermore, they can potentially support irregularly structured data which are often generated from the wide variety of pulse sequences in magnetic resonance imaging. Our experimental results show that these AGUs are capable of generating addresses with a user-predefined pattern automatically at the speed of one address per clock cycle and operate at clock rates up to 80 MHz. They can operate concurrently with other processes and thus do not introduce additional operation latencies. Although we focus on applying the developed AGUs to executing 2D and 3D FFT, we expect that the modular design method should have much wider applications.

  1. Critical care medicine in the United States: addressing the intensivist shortage and image of the specialty.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Neil A; Pastores, Stephen M; Oropello, John M; Kvetan, Vladimir

    2013-12-01

    Intensivists are increasingly needed to care for the critically ill and manage ICUs as ICU beds, utilization, acuity of illness, complexity of care and costs continue to rise. However, there is a nationwide shortage of intensivists that has occurred despite years of well publicized warnings of an impending workforce crisis from specialty societies and the federal government. The magnitude of the intensivist shortfall, however, is difficult to determine because there are many perspectives of optimal ICU administration, patient coverage and intensivist availability and a lack of national data on intensivist practices. Nevertheless, the intensivist shortfall is quite real as evidenced by the alternative solutions that hospitals are deploying to provide care for their critically ill patients. In the midst of these manpower struggles, the critical care environment is dynamically changing and becoming more stressful. Severe hospital bed availability and fiscal constraints are forcing ICUs to alter their approaches to triage, throughput and unit staffing. National and local organizations are mandating that hospitals comply with resource intensive and arguably unproven initiatives to monitor and improve patient safety and quality, and informatics systems. Lastly, there is an ongoing sense of professional dissatisfaction among intensivists and a lack of public awareness that critical care medicine is even a distinct specialty. This article offers proposals to increase the adult intensivist workforce through expansion and enhancements of internal medicine based critical care training programs, incentives for recent graduates to enter the critical care medicine field, suggestions for improvements in the critical care profession and workplace to encourage senior intensivists to remain in the field, proactive marketing of critical care, and expanded engagement by the critical care societies in the challenges facing intensivists.

  2. Cost effectiveness of antimicrobial catheters in the intensive care unit: addressing uncertainty in the decision

    PubMed Central

    Halton, Kate A; Cook, David A; Whitby, Michael; Paterson, David L; Graves, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Some types of antimicrobial-coated central venous catheters (A-CVC) have been shown to be cost effective in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). However, not all types have been evaluated, and there are concerns over the quality and usefulness of these earlier studies. There is uncertainty amongst clinicians over which, if any, A-CVCs to use. We re-evaluated the cost effectiveness of all commercially available A-CVCs for prevention of CR-BSI in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods We used a Markov decision model to compare the cost effectiveness of A-CVCs relative to uncoated catheters. Four catheter types were evaluated: minocycline and rifampicin (MR)-coated catheters, silver, platinum and carbon (SPC)-impregnated catheters, and two chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine-coated catheters; one coated on the external surface (CH/SSD (ext)) and the other coated on both surfaces (CH/SSD (int/ext)). The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained and the expected net monetary benefits were estimated for each. Uncertainty arising from data estimates, data quality and heterogeneity was explored in sensitivity analyses. Results The baseline analysis, with no consideration of uncertainty, indicated all four types of A-CVC were cost-saving relative to uncoated catheters. MR-coated catheters prevented 15 infections per 1,000 catheters and generated the greatest health benefits, 1.6 quality-adjusted life years, and cost savings (AUD $130,289). After considering uncertainty in the current evidence, the MR-coated catheters returned the highest incremental monetary net benefits of AUD $948 per catheter; however there was a 62% probability of error in this conclusion. Although the MR-coated catheters had the highest monetary net benefits across multiple scenarios, the decision was always associated with high uncertainty. Conclusions Current evidence suggests that the cost effectiveness of using A-CVCs within the ICU is

  3. Unaccompanied Children at the United States Border, a Human Rights Crisis that can be Addressed with Policy Change.

    PubMed

    Ataiants, Janna; Cohen, Chari; Riley, Amy Henderson; Tellez Lieberman, Jamile; Reidy, Mary Clare; Chilton, Mariana

    2017-04-08

    In recent years, unaccompanied minors have been journeying to the United States (U.S.)-Mexico border in great numbers in order to escape violence, poverty and exploitation in their home countries. Yet, unaccompanied children attempting to cross the United States border face treatment at the hands of government representatives which violates their inherent rights as children. The result is a human rights crisis that has severe health consequences for the children. Their rights as children are clearly delineated in various, international human rights documents which merit increased understanding of and recognition by the U.S. government. This paper calls for the improvement of policies and procedures for addressing the rights of unaccompanied immigrant children; it provides specific, rights-based recommendations which work together to safeguard the rights of the child at the U.S. southwestern border.

  4. Rewarding Excellent Teaching: The Translation of a Policy Initiative in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Rebecca; Gosling, David

    2012-01-01

    The need to provide more significant rewards for "teaching excellence" in order to provide parity of status with research in higher education has often been asserted. This paper examines ways in which the idea of rewarding excellent teaching has been understood and translated within a large teaching and learning initiative that was…

  5. Developing and Pilot Testing a Spanish Translation of CollaboRATE for Use in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Forcino, Rachel C.; Bustamante, Nitzy; Thompson, Rachel; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Elwyn, Glyn; Pérez-Arechaederra, Diana; Barr, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Given the need for access to patient-facing materials in multiple languages, this study aimed to develop and pilot test an accurate and understandable translation of CollaboRATE, a three-item patient-reported measure of shared decision-making, for Spanish-speaking patients in the United States (US). Method We followed the Translate, Review, Adjudicate, Pre-test, Document (TRAPD) survey translation protocol. Cognitive interviews were conducted with Spanish-speaking adults within an urban Massachusetts internal medicine clinic. For the pilot test, all patients with weekday appointments between May 1 and May 29, 2015 were invited to complete CollaboRATE in either English or Spanish upon exit. We calculated the proportion of respondents giving the best score possible on CollaboRATE and compared scores across key patient subgroups. Results Four rounds of cognitive interviews with 26 people were completed between January and April 2015. Extensive, iterative refinements to survey items between interview rounds led to final items that were generally understood by participants with diverse educational backgrounds. Pilot data collection achieved an overall response rate of 73 percent, with 606 (49%) patients completing Spanish CollaboRATE questionnaires and 624 (51%) patients completing English CollaboRATE questionnaires. The proportion of respondents giving the best score possible on CollaboRATE was the same (86%) for both the English and Spanish versions of the instrument. Discussion Our translation method, guided by emerging best practices in survey and health measurement translation, encompassed multiple levels of review. By conducting four rounds of cognitive interviews with iterative item refinement between each round, we arrived at a Spanish language version of CollaboRATE that was understandable to a majority of cognitive interview participants and was completed by more than 600 pilot questionnaire respondents. PMID:28002422

  6. Toward core inter-professional health promotion competencies to address the non-communicable diseases and their risk factors through knowledge translation: Curriculum content assessment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To increase the global impact of health promotion related to non-communicable diseases, health professionals need evidence-based core competencies in health assessment and lifestyle behavior change. Assessment of health promotion curricula by health professional programs is a first step. Such program assessment is a means of 1. demonstrating collective commitment across health professionals to prevent non-communicable diseases; 2. addressing the knowledge translation gap between what is known about non-communicable diseases and their risk factors consistent with ‘best’ practice; and, 3. establishing core health-based competencies in the entry-level curricula of established health professions. Discussion Consistent with the World Health Organization’s definition of health (i.e., physical, emotional and social wellbeing) and the Ottawa Charter, health promotion competencies are those that support health rather than reduce signs and symptoms primarily. A process algorithm to guide the implementation of health promotion competencies by health professionals is described. The algorithm outlines steps from the initial assessment of a patient’s/client’s health and the indications for health behavior change, to the determination of whether that health professional assumes primary responsibility for implementing health behavior change interventions or refers the patient/client to others. An evidence-based template for assessment of the health promotion curriculum content of health professional education programs is outlined. It includes clinically-relevant behavior change theory; health assessment/examination tools; and health behavior change strategies/interventions that can be readily integrated into health professionals’ practices. Summary Assessment of the curricula in health professional education programs with respect to health promotion competencies is a compelling and potentially cost-effective initial means of preventing and reversing non

  7. Opioid abuse in the United States and Department of Health and Human Services actions to address opioid-drug-related overdoses and deaths.

    PubMed

    U S Department Of Health And Human Services

    2015-06-01

    On March 26, 2015, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HSS) published an online Issue Brief that addresses opioid abuse in the United States and (HHS) actions to address opioid-drug-related overdoses and deaths. This report, which contains the full content of the Issue Brief, is adapted from that document.

  8. 40 CFR 60.1550 - What municipal waste combustion units must I address in my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What municipal waste combustion units... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1550 What municipal waste combustion units...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1550 - What municipal waste combustion units must I address in my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What municipal waste combustion units... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1550 What municipal waste combustion units...

  10. Addressing the Challenge of Preparing Australian Pre-Service Primary Teachers in Environmental Education: An Evaluation of a Dedicated Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Maxwell, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns have been raised for some time about the preparation of Australian teachers in the area of environmental education. Few tertiary institutions that undertake teacher education in Australia have specific units or modules dedicated to environmental education. This article reports on an evaluation of such a dedicated unit recently introduced…

  11. Translation of health programs for American Indians in the United States.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jennifer B; Soto, Claradina; Thomas, Natalie

    2008-06-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) cultures in the United States include a diverse group of indigenous cultures that have been affected by their contact with European Americans and have suffered adverse psychological, physical, and economic consequences. AI/AN adolescents have the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking of all U.S. ethnic groups. Culturally competent health promotion programs are needed to enhance their resiliency and help them avoid recreational, addictive use of commercial tobacco. The authors describe the diverse AI/AN populations and their unique health and social issues, including adolescent smoking. They present examples of smoking prevention programs tailored or adapted for AI/AN adolescents and make recommendations for implementation and evaluation of prototype programs. Recommendations include involving the community, respecting tribes' wishes for confidentiality, being aware of IRB issues, beginning with formative and qualitative research, using culturally appropriate measures, understanding the diversity of AI/AN cultures, and involving multiple generations of the family.

  12. Building a platform for translational research in chronic noncommunicable diseases to address population health: lessons from NHLBI supported CRONICAS in Peru.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Cardenas, María K; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Pesantes, M Amalia; Araya, Ricardo; Boggio, Oscar; Checkley, William; García, Patricia J; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Lescano, Andrés G; Montori, Victor; Pan, William; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Sacksteder, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; García, Héctor H; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-03-01

    The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognized center of excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The center's identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity-building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organization: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment are key to fostering innovation in research.

  13. Two separate modules of the conserved regulatory RNA AbcR1 address multiple target mRNAs in and outside of the translation initiation region

    PubMed Central

    Overlöper, Aaron; Kraus, Alexander; Gurski, Rosemarie; Wright, Patrick R; Georg, Jens; Hess, Wolfgang R; Narberhaus, Franz

    2014-01-01

    The small RNA AbcR1 regulates the expression of ABC transporters in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, and the human pathogen Brucella abortus. A combination of proteomic and bioinformatic approaches suggested dozens of AbcR1 targets in A. tumefaciens. Several of these newly discovered targets are involved in the uptake of amino acids, their derivatives, and sugars. Among the latter is the periplasmic sugar-binding protein ChvE, a component of the virulence signal transduction system. We examined 16 targets and their interaction with AbcR1 in close detail. In addition to the previously described mRNA interaction site of AbcR1 (M1), the CopraRNA program predicted a second functional module (M2) as target-binding site. Both M1 and M2 contain single-stranded anti-SD motifs. Using mutated AbcR1 variants, we systematically tested by band shift experiments, which sRNA region is responsible for mRNA binding and gene regulation. On the target site, we find that AbcR1 interacts with some mRNAs in the translation initiation region and with others far into their coding sequence. Our data show that AbcR1 is a versatile master regulator of nutrient uptake systems in A. tumefaciens and related bacteria. PMID:24921646

  14. Active and Reserve Unit Costs: DOD Report to Congress Generally Addressed the Statutory Requirements but Lacks Detail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-31

    National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, Section 1080A, issued in January 2012, states that such reductions must be balanced with...preparation for future challenges and protection of the broad range of U.S. national security interests. One key to achieving this balance is determining the...addressed the statutory requirements, we used a scorecard methodology in which two analysts independently assessed the extent to which the report’s

  15. 2010 SSS Presidential Address: The Devolution of Risk and the Changing Life Course in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rand, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent patterns of labor exit in late life in the United States are increasingly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity stems from diverse employment careers that are emerging in the workplace where job security is declining. Individuals' structural locations in the labor market expose them to diverse risks for employment and income security at older…

  16. Teaching Note--No Peace without Justice: Addressing the United States' War on Drugs in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Elizabeth A.; Redmond, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The United States' War on Drugs encompasses a body of legislation characterized by punitive approaches to drug control. These policies have resulted in escalating incarceration rates and have extracted a particularly harsh toll on low-income people of color. This article argues that education on the War on Drugs is essential for effective practice…

  17. Addressing Adolescent Depression in Schools: Evaluation of an In-Service Training for School Staff in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Budge, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated an adolescent depression in-service training for school staff in the United States. A total of 252 school staff (e.g., teachers, principals, counselors) completed assessments prior to and following the in-service and a subsample of these staff participated in focus groups following the in-service and three months later.…

  18. Policy solutions to address the foreign-educated and foreign-born health care workforce in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peggy G; Auerbach, David I; Muench, Ulrike; Curry, Leslie A; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-11-01

    Foreign-educated and foreign-born health workers constitute a sizable and important portion of the US health care workforce. We review the distribution of these workers and their countries of origin, and we summarize the literature concerning their contributions to US health care. We also report on these workers' experiences in the United States and the impact their migration has on their home countries. Finally, we present policy strategies to increase the benefits of health care worker migration to the United States while mitigating its negative effects on the workers' home countries. These strategies include attracting more people with legal permanent residency status into the health workforce, reimbursing home countries for the cost of educating health workers who subsequently migrate to the United States, improving policies to facilitate the entry of direct care workers into the country, advancing efforts to promote and monitor ethical migration and recruitment practices, and encouraging the implementation of programs by US employers to improve the experience of immigrating health workers.

  19. Effectiveness of knowledge translation tools addressing multiple high-burden chronic diseases affecting older adults: protocol for a systematic review alongside a realist review

    PubMed Central

    Kastner, Monika; Perrier, Laure; Hamid, Jemila; Tricco, Andrea C; Cardoso, Roberta; Ivers, Noah M; Liu, Barbara; Marr, Sharon; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Wong, Geoff; Graves, Lisa; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The burden of chronic disease is a global phenomenon, particularly among people aged 65 years and older. More than half of older adults have more than one chronic disease and their care is not optimal. Chronic disease management (CDM) tools have the potential to meet this challenge but they are primarily focused on a single disease, which fails to address the growing number of seniors with multiple chronic conditions. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review alongside a realist review to identify effective CDM tools that integrate one or more high-burden chronic diseases affecting older adults and to better understand for whom, under what circumstances, how and why they produce their outcomes. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AgeLine and the Cochrane Library for experimental, quasi-experimental, observational and qualitative studies in any language investigating CDM tools that facilitate optimal disease management in one or more high-burden chronic diseases affecting adults aged ≥65 years. Study selection will involve calibration of reviewers to ensure reliability of screening and duplicate assessment of articles. Data abstraction and risk of bias assessment will also be performed independently. Analysis will include descriptive summaries of study and appraisal characteristics, effectiveness of each CDM tool (meta-analysis if appropriate); and a realist programme theory will be developed and refined to explain the outcome patterns within the included studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required for this study. We anticipate that our findings, pertaining to gaps in care across high-burden chronic diseases affecting seniors and highlighting specific areas that may require more research, will be of interest to a wide range of knowledge users and stakeholders. We will publish and present our findings widely, and also plan more active dissemination strategies such as workshops with our key stakeholders

  20. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  1. Increasing value: a research agenda for addressing the managerial and organizational challenges facing health care delivery in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shortell, Stephen M

    2004-09-01

    There is growing consensus that the U.S. health care system is not producing value relative to the resources invested. Unwarranted variation exists in quality and outcomes of care and underutilization of both evidence-based medicine and evidence-management practices. To address these issues, this article calls for a broad-based social science approach focused on obtaining a greater understanding of change at the individual, group, organizational, and environmental levels as they influence each other. Specific examples and questions for research are suggested with regard to the redesign of care systems, enhancing learning and transferring knowledge, and creating effective financial incentives. The specific measurement, analysis, and study design issues involved in under-taking such a research agenda are discussed.

  2. Translations and Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessity for stylistic appropriateness in translation as well as correct content is discussed. To acquire this skill, translators must be trained in stylistics through close examination of their own language and must have practice in translating for different audiences at different levels. (PMJ)

  3. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Although potential sources of aggregate are widespread throughout the United States, many sources may not meet certain physical property requirements, such as soundness, hardness, strength, porosity, and specific gravity, or they may contain contaminants or deleterious materials that render them unusable. Encroachment by conflicting land uses, permitting considerations, environmental issues, and societal pressures can prevent or limit development of otherwise suitable aggregate. The use of sustainable aggregate resource management can help ensure an economically viable supply of aggregate. Sustainable aggregate resource management techniques that have successfully been used include (1) protecting potential resources from encroachment; (2) using marginal-quality local aggregate for applications that do not demand a high-quality resource; (3) using substitute materials such as clinker, scoria, and recycled asphalt and concrete; and (4) using rail and water to transport aggregates from remote sources.

  4. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members.

  5. Understanding benefits and addressing misperceptions and barriers to intrauterine device access among populations in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yoost, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Three intrauterine devices (IUDs), one copper and two containing the progestin levonorgestrel, are available for use in the United States. IUDs offer higher rates of contraceptive efficacy than nonlong-acting methods, and several studies have demonstrated higher satisfaction rates and continuation rates of any birth control method. This efficacy is not affected by age or parity. The safety of IUDs is well studied, and the risks of pelvic inflammatory disease, perforation, expulsion, and ectopic pregnancy are all of very low incidence. Noncontraceptive benefits include decreased menstrual blood loss, improved dysmenorrhea, improved pelvic pain associated with endometriosis, and protection of the endometrium from hyperplasia. The use of IUDs is accepted in patients with multiple medical problems who may have contraindications to other birth control methods. Yet despite well-published data, concerns and misperceptions still persist, especially among younger populations and nulliparous women. Medical governing bodies advocate for use of IUDs in these populations, as safety and efficacy is unchanged, and IUDs have been shown to decrease unintended pregnancies. Dispersion of accurate information among patients and practitioners is needed to further increase the acceptability and use of IUDs. PMID:25050062

  6. The Role of Parents in Public Views of Strategies to Address Childhood Obesity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    WOLFSON, JULIA A; GOLLUST, SARAH E; NIEDERDEPPE, JEFF; BARRY, COLLEEN L

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points The American public—both men and women and those with and without children in the household—holds parents highly responsible and largely to blame for childhood obesity. High attributions of responsibility to parents for reducing childhood obesity did not universally undermine support for broader policy action. School-based obesity prevention policies were strongly supported, even among those viewing parents as mostly to blame for childhood obesity. Americans who viewed sectors outside the family (such as the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government) as helping address childhood obesity were more willing to support a wider range of population-based obesity prevention policies. Context The public's views of parents’ behaviors and choices—and the attitudes held by parents themselves—are likely to influence the success of efforts to reverse obesity rates. Methods We analyzed data from 2 US national public opinion surveys fielded in 2011 and 2012 to examine attributions of blame and responsibility to parents for obesity, both among the general public and parents themselves, and we also explored the relationship between views of parents and support for obesity prevention policies. Findings We found that attribution of blame and responsibility to parents was consistently high, regardless of parental status or gender. Support for policies to curb childhood obesity also did not differ notably by parental status or gender. Multivariable analyses revealed consistent patterns in the association between public attitudes toward parents’ responsibility and support for policies to curb childhood obesity. High parental responsibility was linked to higher support for school-targeted policies but generally was not associated with policies outside the school setting. Attribution of greater responsibility to entities external to children and their parents (schools, the food and beverage industry, and the government) was associated with greater

  7. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Translation, Adaptation and Invariance Testing of the Teaching Perspectives Inventory: Comparing Faculty of Malaysia and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misieng, Jecky

    2013-01-01

    As a result of growing attention in cross-cultural research, existing measurement instruments developed in one language are being translated and adapted for use in other languages and cultural contexts. Producing invariant measurement instruments that assess educational and psychological constructs provide a way of testing the cross-cultural…

  9. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  10. Life is translation

    PubMed Central

    Zagrovic, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary origin of translation represents one of the key questions that Carl Woese addressed in his work. Here we give a personal account of his results in this area and the effect they have had on the field. PMID:24572678

  11. Twelfth Annual Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address--the Influence of the NCRP on Radiation Protection in the United States: Guidance and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Kase, Kenneth R

    2016-02-01

    The Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address for the 2015 Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) describes the Council's influence in the development of radiation protection guidance in the United States since its founding in 1929 as the U.S. Advisory Committee on X-Ray and Radium Protection. The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) was the coordinating agency for the Advisory Committee, and its reports were published as NBS handbooks. In 1946, the Advisory Committee was renamed the National Committee on Radiation Protection and remained so until NCRP was chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1964. In 1931, the U.S. Advisory Committee on X-Ray and Radium Protection proposed the first formal standard for protecting people from radiation sources as NBS Handbook 15 and issued the first handbook on radium protection, NBS Handbook 18. Revised recommendations for external exposure were issued in 1936 and for radium protection in 1938 and remained in force until 1948. Throughout its 86 y history, the Council and its predecessors have functioned as effective advisors to the nation on radiation protection issues and have provided the fundamental guidance and recommendations necessary for the regulatory basis of the control of radiation exposure, radiation-producing devices, and radioactive materials in the United States.

  12. Translating sexual assault prevention from a college campus to a United States military installation: piloting the know-your-power bystander social marketing campaign.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G

    2012-05-01

    One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a major public health problem in the United States, and because of the similarities in the age group of college and military populations, the problems regarding sexual violence in both constituencies have been well-documented. In the current pilot study we seek to add to both current knowledge about and promising practices of translating prevention strategies from one target audience to another. We describe how we translated, administered, and evaluated a bystander intervention social marketing campaign focused on sexual assault prevention that had been found to significantly affect attitude change on a college campus for a U.S. Army installation in Europe. In addition to demonstrating the process of translating prevention strategies across target audiences, findings from this pilot study contribute to the evaluation data on the effectiveness of sexual violence prevention strategies implemented with members of the U.S. Military. From our analysis, we see that research participants indicate that the degree to which the images resonate with them and the familiarity of the context (i.e., social self-identification) significantly effect the participants' personal responsibility for reducing sexual assault, confidence in acting as a bystander, and reported engagement as a bystander.

  13. Translation and the Difference It Makes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulakis, Victoria

    2001-01-01

    Describes an English teacher's approach to teaching literature in translation at a community college, which included developing a translation Web site. Addresses issues of language choices in translation, the validity of translated works as literature, and differences among translations of the same work. (NB)

  14. Professional Preparation of Teachers for Rural Schools: Abstracts of Addresses Delivered at a Conference Called by the United States Commissioner of Education, at the Lenox Hotel, Boston, February 25, 1928. Bulletin, 1928, No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Katherine M.

    1928-01-01

    This bulletin contains abstracts of the addresses delivered at a conference called by the United States Commissioner of Education to consider problems concerned with the professional preparation of teachers for rural schools. They were prepared from copies of the addresses or abstracts of them furnished by the speakers who prepared or delivered…

  15. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria Fogaça; Nawa, Ricardo Kenji; Figueiredo, Thais Borgheti; Martins, Lourdes; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54%) of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44%) was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement (κ > 0.90) and reliability (α > 0.90) in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively). The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability. PMID:28117473

  16. Letter Report to Address Comments on the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-03-17

    The Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on November 01, 2007. The approval letter contained the following two comments: Comment 1--For 06-05-01, 06-17-04, 06-23-01 provide evidence that the 6 inch VCP pipe originating from building CP-2 is no longer active and sealed to prevent possible future contamination. Comment 2--For the area that includes 06-03-01, provide evidence that active lines are no longer feeding the North and South lagoons and have been sealed to prevent possible future contamination. To address these comments, closure documentation was reviewed, and site visits were conducted to locate and document the areas of concern. Additional fieldwork was conducted in March 2008 to seal the lines and openings described in the two comments. Photographs were taken of the closed drains and lines to document that the NDEP comments were adequately addressed and potential inadvertent discharge to the environment has been eliminated. Investigation and closure documentation was reviewed to identify the locations of potential drains, lines, and other features that could receive and/or transmit liquid. Based on the investigation findings and subsequent closure activities, no openings, distribution boxes, or other features (excluding known floor drains at CP-2) that could receive liquid were found at the CP-2 location (Figure 1), and potential manholes for the north and south sewage lagoons were identified for Corrective Action Site (CAS) 06-03-01 (Figure 2). The distribution box identified in Figure 1 was not located during the investigation and was assumed to have been previously removed.

  17. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  18. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  19. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development.

  20. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Love, David C.; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production. PMID:25415208

  1. Russian Translation.

    PubMed

    O'dette, R E

    1957-03-29

    This discussion has described the status of the large United States program for translation from the Russian. A partial description of what is being done or planned, and by whom, has been provided as a guide for those who wish to follow the subject further. The urge to pass on useful information has necessarily restricted the space which might also have been profitably devoted to the philosophic aspects of the problem. Although it is not said with any sense of pride in achievement-because much more remains to be done than has been done-it would seem fair to describe the current national translation activity, including all contributions to it, as a phenomenon. Phenomena in scientific communication are not common: a full appreciation of their significance requires more analysis than results from a simple listing of their outward characteristics. But a few observations might be made in conclusion. Most United States scientists probably feel that, as a nation, we are and should be world leaders in science, even though this feeling is neither nurtured nor expressed in a spirit of violent competition. If this assumption is allowed, the point which seems to remain is that the United States will not retain its position casually. Our scientists expect to maintain an awareness of the scientific achievements and failures of the other nations of the world. But we must especially become more aware of the advances of Soviet science, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The evidence points toward this last conclusion, regardless of whether one is concerned with the production of ideas or things, increase in man's knowledge of himself and his environment, conflict between idealisms, or simply the national security.

  2. Simultaneous Translation: Idiom Interpretation and Parsing Heuristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Janet L.; Carpenter, Patricia A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a model of interpretation, parsing and error recovery in simultaneous translation using two experts and two amateur German-English bilingual translators orally translating from English to German. Argues that the translator first comprehends the text in English and divides it into meaningful units before translating. Study also…

  3. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Test Utilization in the United States: A Case Study of T3 Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Julie A.; Khoury, Muin J.; Borzecki, Ann; Cromwell, Jerry; Hayman, Laura L.; Ponte, Pat Reid; Miller, Glenn A.; Lathan, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined hospital use of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) assay for lung cancer patients. Our goal was to inform the development of a model to predict T3 translation of guideline-directed, molecular diagnostic tests. Methods This was a retrospective observational study. Using logistic regression, we analyzed the association between likelihood to order the EGFR assay and hospital’s institutional and regional characteristics. Results Significant institutional predictors included: Affiliation with an academic medical center (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% CI, 1.20–1.83), Participation in an NCI clinical research cooperative group (OR, 2.06, 1.66–2.55), PET scan (OR, 1.44, 1.07–1.94) and cardio thoracic surgery (OR, 1.90, 1.52–2.37) services. Significant regional predictors included: Metropolitan county (OR, 2.08, 1.48 to 2.91), Above average education (OR, 1.46, 1.09 to 1.96), Above average income (OR, 1.46, 1.04–2.05). Distance from an NCI cancer center was a negative predictor (OR, 0.996, 0.995–0.998), a 34% decrease in likelihood for every 100 miles. Conclusion In 2010, 12% of US acute care hospitals ordered the EGFR assay, suggesting most lung cancer patients did not have access to this test. This case study illustrated the need for: 1) Increased dissemination and implementation research. 2) Interventions to improve adoption of guideline-directed, molecular diagnostic tests by community hospitals. PMID:23448725

  4. Formal verification of a set of memory management units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, K.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the verification of a set of memory management units (MMU). The verification effort demonstrates the use of hierarchical decomposition and abstract theories. The MMUs can be organized into a complexity hierarchy. Each new level in the hierarchy adds a few significant features or modifications to the lower level MMU. The units described include: (1) a page check translation look-aside module (TLM); (2) a page check TLM with supervisor line; (3) a base bounds MMU; (4) a virtual address translation MMU; and (5) a virtual address translation MMU with memory resident segment table.

  5. Keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, D.

    1997-12-31

    March 10th is an anniversary date for Dick Cheney. Eight years ago today President Bush asked him to be his Secretary of Defense. He was his second choice. John Tower was his first. On March 17, 1989, Cheney was confirmed and sworn into the office of Secretary of Defense. He quickly began closing down his office on Capital Hill and he reported to work on March 18. Much changed for him that day, but not everything. He still had constituents. But instead of the residents of Wyoming, he represented the entire Armed forces of the United States of America. For this convention, he was asked to discuss the worldwide reserves and associated development risks, the risks and rewards in the US industry and 21st Century vision for energy within the US. He discusses the Halliburton view on the natural gas energy future, the US role, implications for a new business model, and political risk.

  6. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  7. TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF TRANSLATING SERVICE AT NIH.

    PubMed

    MARTIN, J A; EVERHARDY, W H; ROGERS, P R

    1965-07-01

    The growth of the Translating Unit of the National Institutes of Health Library, founded in 1938, was slow until 1950, when seventeen translators and clerical assistants comprised its staff. Today eleven staff members translate, type, and distribute translations from eighteen European languages. Contract service is arranged for those languages for which the Unit has little or no competency. Three recent innovations have improved the translating service: (1) production standards, (2) fee for service, and (3) microfilmed translations. A monthly bulletin, Recent Translations, a Selected List, includes those articles translated by the Translating Unit of the NIH Library. An author index to all translations cited in the Selected List is now available upon request.

  8. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  9. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  10. Libros bilingues, traducciones desparpajadas y traducciones pobres: libros en espanol publicados en los Estados Unidos (Bilingual Books, Careless Translations, and Bad Translations: Books in Spanish Published in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing Spanish-speaking students with high-quality reading materials in Spanish and avoiding materials that have been badly translated into Spanish. Provides an annotated list of 10 books recommended for young children and a Spanish grammar for more advanced readers. Lists 29 badly translated books. Describes a Web…

  11. Translation Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurtleff, Richard

    2004-10-01

    Translation matrices together with rotation and boost matrices combine to represent spacetime symmetry transformations. A brief introduction to some of the properties of some not-so-well-known translation and momentum matrices is presented.

  12. Attributed Translations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P. M.; Rosenkrantz, D. J.; Stearns, R. E.

    Attributed translation grammars are introduced as a means of specifying a translation from strings of input symbols to strings of output symbols. Each of these symbols can have a finite set of attributes, each of which can take on a value from a possibly infinite set. Attributed translation grammars can be applied in depth to practical compiling problems.

  13. Addressing Sustainable International Branch Campus Development through an Organizational Structure Lens: A Comparative Analysis of China, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgos, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The growth of international branch campuses (IBCs) in China, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) accounts for a significant portion of the overall growth of IBCs globally. Conversely the largest exporter of IBCs globally is the United States, with several U.S. IBCs located in each of these importing countries. With the intention of focusing…

  14. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    representation of the mole. Most of you, I presume, are neo-Pythagoreans, and consequently believe that a new definition and, maybe, a new realization of the unit of mass will be based on a number of atoms of silicon, a view which will certainly lead you to cross swords with the "electrical party". The importance of NA is also linked to the considerable and far-reaching return in other scientific and industrial fields. Finally, let me add that, ethically, the work of many persons all over the world and the money and energy they spend in order to add a decimal figure, may be an example of commitment to be given to our students. Last but not least, my warm thanks to the Director of the Istituto di Metrologia "G Colonnetti", where the experiment has been in progress since 1971, and to all the researchers involved in this work. I do hope that the National Council of Research will continue to support this important project. While wishing you a pleasant stay in Turin, I express the hope that our meeting will prove a fruitful opportunity for discussion and exchange of views.

  15. Knowledge Translation in Global Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Shademani, Ramesh

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the "know-do gap," present a definition of knowledge translation, and discuss its relative importance in bridging the know-do gap. Some of the underlying causes of the know-do gap are listed, along with ongoing efforts to address them. Knowledge translation is considered a cross-cutting, nonlinear process that involves not only recent…

  16. Addressing the Intersection of HIV and Intimate Partner Violence Among Women with or at Risk for HIV in the United States.

    PubMed

    McCree, Donna Hubbard; Koenig, Linda J; Basile, Kathleen C; Fowler, Dawnovise; Green, Yvonne

    2015-05-01

    In 2012, the White House established a working group in recognition of the need to understand and address the intersection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and violence against women and girls. This report describes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s efforts for addressing intimate partner violence and HIV among women and provides suggestions for future prevention efforts. CDC's current efforts are focused on understanding these often co-occurring public health problems, identifying effective interventions, and ensuring that states and communities have the capacity and resources to implement prevention approaches based on the best available evidence. Additional research is needed on effective strategies for integrating violence prevention and HIV programming into health services targeting adolescent girls and women who experience intimate partner violence or are at risk for HIV.

  17. Address of the Honorable Edwin Meese III, Attorney General of the United States, before the National Conference on Juvenile Justice Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, Edwin, III

    Drug law enforcement has become the number one criminal justice priority of the United States Department of Justice and is an area of great concern to those involved in the juvenile justice system. The new philosophy of juvenile justice holds juveniles responsible for their conduct, emphasizing an accountability or justice model which focuses on…

  18. Preventing and Addressing Homophobic and Transphobic Bullying in Education: A Human Rights-Based Approach Using the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornu, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools can have a serious effect on children and young people subjected to it at a crucial moment in their lives. It is an obstacle to the right to education, which is one of the basic universal human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various United Nations Conventions. This…

  19. Linking HIV-positive adolescents to care in 15 different clinics across the United States: creating solutions to address structural barriers for linkage to care.

    PubMed

    Philbin, Morgan M; Tanner, Amanda E; Duval, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Linkage to care is a critical corollary to expanded HIV testing, but many adolescents are not successfully linked to care, in part due to fragmented care systems. Through a collaboration of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Adolescent Trials Network (ATN), a linkage to care outreach worker was provided to ATN clinics. Factors related to linkage were explored to better understand how to improve retention rates and health outcomes for HIV-positive adolescents. We conducted 124 interviews with staff at 15 Adolescent Trials Network clinics to better understand linkage to care processes, barriers, and facilitators. Content analysis was conducted focusing on structural barriers to care and potential solutions, specifically at the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Macro-level barriers included navigating health insurance policies, transportation to appointments, and ease of collecting and sharing client-level contact information between testing agencies, local health departments and clinics; meso-level barriers included lack of youth friendliness within clinic space and staff, and duplication of linkage services; micro-level barriers included adolescents' readiness for care and adolescent developmental capacity. Staff initiated solutions included providing transportation for appointments and funding clinic visits and tests with a range of grants and clinic funds while waiting for insurance approval. However, such solutions were often ad hoc and partial, using micro-level solutions to address macro-level barriers. Comprehensive initiatives to improve linkage to care are needed to address barriers to HIV-care for adolescents, whose unique developmental needs make accessing care particularly challenging. Matching the level of structural solution to the level of structural barriers (i.e., macro-level with macro-level), such as creating policy to address needed youth healthcare entitlements versus covering

  20. UHV piezoelectric translator

    SciTech Connect

    Oversluizen, T.; Watson, G.

    1985-01-01

    A UHV compatible piezoelectric translator has been developed to correct for angular misalignments in the crysals of a UHV x-ray monochromator. The unit is small, bakeable to 150/sup 0/C, and uses only ceramic materials for insulation. We report on the construction details, vacuum compatibility, mechanical properties, and uses of the device.

  1. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    DOEpatents

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  2. Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution, Energy Security, and Jobs with Roadmaps for Changing the All-Purpose Energy Infrastructure of the 50 United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses the development of technical and economic plans to convert the energy infrastructure of each of the 50 United States to those powered by 100% wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes, namely electricity, transportation, industry, and heating/cooling, after energy efficiency measures have been accounted for. The plans call for all new energy to be WWS by 2020, ~80% conversion of existing energy by 2030, and 100% by 2050 through aggressive policy measures and natural transition. Resource availability, footprint and spacing areas required, jobs created versus lost, energy costs, avoided costs from air pollution mortality and morbidity and climate damage, and methods of ensuring reliability of the grid are discussed. Please see http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/WWS-50-USState-plans.html

  3. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  4. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.; Crawford, D.W.

    1982-03-09

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  5. Integrating Research and Action: A Systematic Review of Community-based Participatory Research To Address Health Disparities In Environmental and Occupational Health in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Integrating research and action represents a goal and key principles of CBPR, but there has been little effort to synthesize the literature to evaluate if such integration is occurring. Objectives 1) To examine the extent to which CBPR integrates action to effect community-level change; and 2) to ascertain factors that facilitates such integration. Methods Original articles reporting on CBPR in environmental and occupational health in the United States were identified primarily through a MEDLINE search. Inceptions, processes, methods, and outcomes of the projects were reviewed. Results In fourteen of the twenty studies reviewed, CBPR led to community-level action to improve the health and well-being of the community members. Observational studies that investigated problems posed by the affected community and that incorporated qualitative methods were more likely to lead to action. The collaboration among government scientists, university researchers, and community partners emerged as a new model of CBPR partnerships that effectively integrates research and action. Conclusions To help CBPR better integrate research and action, a shift towards community-initiated and action-oriented observational studies might be needed. PMID:18621950

  6. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  7. Estimating return on investment in translational research: methods and protocols.

    PubMed

    Grazier, Kyle L; Trochim, William M; Dilts, David M; Kirk, Rosalind

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSAs). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program, and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This article provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities.

  8. Translating and Transforming Care

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Alex; Moore, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the Disability Living Allowance claim form, used in the United Kingdom to allocate £13 billion of disability benefits, translates and transforms disability and care. Twenty-two people with acquired brain injury and their main informal caregivers (n = 44) were video-recorded filling in the disability claim form. Participants disagreed on 26% of the questions, revealing two types of problems. Translation problems arose as participants struggled to provide categorical responses to ambiguous questions and were unable to report contextual variability in care needs or divergences of perception. Transformation problems arose as participants resisted the way in which the form positioned them, forcing them to conceptualize their relationship in terms of dependency and burden. The disability claim form co-opts claimants to translate care and disability into bureaucratically predefined categories, and it transforms the care relationship that it purports to document. PMID:25792487

  9. 50 CFR 14.104 - Translations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Translations. 14.104 Section 14.104... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States § 14.104 Translations. Any certificate or document required... foreign language must be accompanied by an accurate English translation....

  10. 50 CFR 14.104 - Translations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Translations. 14.104 Section 14.104... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States § 14.104 Translations. Any certificate or document required... foreign language must be accompanied by an accurate English translation....

  11. Basic Training Course in Systematic Curriculum Development. Course Two: Introduction to Methods and Processes of Curriculum Development. Unit 3: Translating National Goals Into Educational Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matiru, Barbara, Ed.; Sachsenmeier, Peter, Ed.

    Curriculum developers have a responsibility to fully understand national goals and to translate them into educational programs that will equip citizens to realize these goals. This topic is discussed in this manual for a basic training course in systematic curriculum development, designed for students in developing nations. A brief description of…

  12. 76 FR 27020 - Representative and Address Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Representative and Address Provisions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of...

  13. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  14. IFPA Meeting 2011 workshop report I: Placenta: Predicting future health; roles of lipids in the growth and development of feto-placental unit; placental nutrient sensing; placental research to solve clinical problems--a translational approach.

    PubMed

    Acharya, G; Albrecht, C; Benton, S J; Cotechini, T; Dechend, R; Dilworth, M R; Duttaroy, A K; Grotmol, T; Heazell, A E; Jansson, T; Johnstone, E D; Jones, H N; Jones, R L; Lager, S; Laine, K; Nagirnaja, L; Nystad, M; Powell, T; Redman, C; Sadovsky, Y; Sibley, C; Troisi, R; Wadsack, C; Westwood, M; Lash, G E

    2012-02-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2011 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to both basic science and clinical research into placental growth and nutrient sensing and were divided into 1) placenta: predicting future health; 2) roles of lipids in the growth and development of feto-placental unit; 3) placental nutrient sensing; 4) placental research to solve clinical problems: a translational approach.

  15. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  16. Translator's preface.

    PubMed

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Thanksgiving Address of the North American Indian Ohenton Kariwatehkwen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Watenriio (Michael), Comp.; And Others

    Translated by the North American Indian Travelling College, this traditional Thanksgiving Address is delivered before and after all meetings and ceremonies of the Iroquois people. Through this address, the Creator is introduced into a ceremony, social dance, or council, and, at the end of the meeting, the address brings the minds of the people…

  18. Translating Translations: Selecting and Using Translated Early Childhood Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Rosa Milagros; Lee, Sung Yoon; Valdivia, Rebeca; Zhang, Chun

    2001-01-01

    This article provides early intervention professionals with strategies for selecting and using translated materials. It stresses the importance of considering both the intended audience of the material and the quality of the translation itself. The article notes that many Web-based translator programs fail to capture the idiomatic usage or…

  19. Microscale Curveballs: Translational and Rotational Coupling of Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Stephen; Kim, Minsu; Granick, Steve

    2007-03-01

    Optically anisotropic MOON particles (modulated optical nanoparticles) allow the simultaneous measurement of translation and rotation for individual particles. Through chemical modification, these particles can be made hydrophilic, amphiphilic, or hydrophobic. Among those three, the boundary condition exhibits varying amounts of slip, which registers in the value of the rotational diffusion constant. Additionally, for the amphiphilic case, the translational and rotational motions are no longer independent of each other, exhibiting coupling due to the asymmetric hydrodynamic drag. Understanding these processes is fundamental to particle dynamics, with implications to kinetically limited processes such as the self-assembly of multi-unit proteins. Addressing the influence of these varied boundary conditions, this study presents single-particle tracking of micron-sized spherical colloids suspended in deionized water, tracked and quantified using home-written algorithms.

  20. Knowledge translation of research findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by

  1. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  2. Lost in Translation? Challenges and Opportunities for Raising Health and Safety Awareness among a Multinational Workforce in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Cooling, Robert Fletcher; Aw, Tar-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has experienced tremendous economic and industrial growth in the petroleum, airline, maritime and construction sectors, especially since the discovery of oil reserves. Mass recruitment of low skilled or unskilled laborers from less-developed countries has been utilized to satisfy the manpower demands of these fast paced industrial developments. Such workforce recruitment has created an unusual populace demographic, with the total UAE population estimated at 8.3 million, composed of 950,000 Emiratis, with the remainder being multinational expatriate workers, with varying educational qualifications, work experience, religious beliefs, cultural practices, and native languages. These unique characteristics pose a challenge for health and safety professionals tasked with ensuring the UAE workforce adheres to specific occupational health and safety procedures. The paper discusses two case studies that employ a novel multimedia approach to raising health and safety awareness among a multinational workforce. PMID:23251846

  3. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  4. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  5. Translational informatics: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health.

  6. Translational informatics: an industry perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health. PMID:22237867

  7. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  8. Literature in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

    An examination of literature in translation is vital to literary interpretation and, ultimately, essential to mutual understanding among peoples from different cultures. Teaching translations requires consideration of linguistic, social, and temporal areas. Translations require alterations in language since languages never translate precisely from…

  9. Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop: Meeting Report.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark Steven; Allen, Peter; Brentnall, Teresa A; Goggins, Michael; Hruban, Ralph H; Petersen, Gloria M; Rao, Chinthalapally V; Whitcomb, David C; Brand, Randall E; Chari, Suresh T; Klein, Alison P; Lubman, David M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Wolpin, Brian M; Umar, Asad; Srivastava, Sudhir; Steele, Vernon E; Rinaudo, Jo Ann S

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. The Division of Cancer Prevention of the National Cancer Institute sponsored the Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop on September 10 to 11, 2015. The goal of the workshop was to obtain information regarding the current state of the science and future scientific areas that should be prioritized for pancreatic cancer prevention research, including early detection and intervention for high-risk precancerous lesions. The workshop addressed the molecular/genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer and precursor lesions, high-risk populations and criteria to identify a high-risk population for potential chemoprevention trials, identification of chemopreventative/immunopreventative agents, and use of potential biomarkers and imaging for assessing short-term efficacy of a preventative agent. The field of chemoprevention for pancreatic cancer is emerging, and this workshop was organized to begin to address these important issues and promote multi-institutional efforts in this area. The meeting participants recommended the development of an National Cancer Institute working group to coordinate efforts, provide a framework, and identify opportunities for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer.

  10. Communicating the Past via Translation: The Manipulation of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdeon, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the connection between translation and narratives of history, with particular attention to Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" and its Spanish version, "La otra historia de los Estados Unidos". It is argued that translation interacts with history in many ways: translation is fundamental to history and, in…

  11. Challenges of T3 and T4 Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukotich, Charles J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Translational research is a new and important way of thinking about research. It is a major priority of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States. NIH has created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards to promote this priority. NIH has defined T1 and T2 phases of translational research in the medical field, in order to…

  12. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  13. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  14. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  15. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  16. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  17. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  18. GPCR signalling to the translation machinery.

    PubMed

    Musnier, Astrid; Blanchot, Benoît; Reiter, Eric; Crépieux, Pascale

    2010-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in most physiological processes, many of them being engaged in fully differentiated cells. These receptors couple to transducers of their own, primarily G proteins and beta-arrestins, which launch intracellular signalling cascades. Some of these signalling events regulate the translational machinery to fine-tune general cell metabolism or to alter protein expression pattern. Though extensively documented for tyrosine kinase receptors, translational regulation by GPCRs is still poorly appreciated. The objective of this review paper is to address the following questions: i) is there a "GPCR signature" impacting on the translational machinery, and ultimately on the type of mRNA translated? ii) are the regulatory networks involved similar as those utilized by tyrosine kinase receptors? In particular, we will discuss the specific features of translational control mediated by GPCRs and highlight the intrinsic properties of GPCRs these mechanisms could rely on.

  19. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component "hepatitis c virus" separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such "Ab.IgG", "DNA", and "RNA". We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into nine languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC's open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange.

  20. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  1. Translation between representation languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  2. Scaffold Translation: Barriers Between Concept and Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Translation of scaffold-based bone tissue engineering (BTE) therapies to clinical use remains, bluntly, a failure. This dearth of translated tissue engineering therapies (including scaffolds) remains despite 25 years of research, research funding totaling hundreds of millions of dollars, over 12,000 papers on BTE and over 2000 papers on BTE scaffolds alone in the past 10 years (PubMed search). Enabling scaffold translation requires first an understanding of the challenges, and second, addressing the complete range of these challenges. There are the obvious technical challenges of designing, manufacturing, and functionalizing scaffolds to fill the Form, Fixation, Function, and Formation needs of bone defect repair. However, these technical solutions should be targeted to specific clinical indications (e.g., mandibular defects, spine fusion, long bone defects, etc.). Further, technical solutions should also address business challenges, including the need to obtain regulatory approval, meet specific market needs, and obtain private investment to develop products, again for specific clinical indications. Finally, these business and technical challenges present a much different model than the typical research paradigm, presenting the field with philosophical challenges in terms of publishing and funding priorities that should be addressed as well. In this article, we review in detail the technical, business, and philosophical barriers of translating scaffolds from Concept to Clinic. We argue that envisioning and engineering scaffolds as modular systems with a sliding scale of complexity offers the best path to addressing these translational challenges. PMID:21902613

  3. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  4. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  5. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it.

  6. Generalizing Word Lattice Translation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    demonstrate substantial gains for Chinese -English and Arabic -English translation. Keywords: word lattice translation, phrase-based and hierarchical...introduce in reordering models. Our experiments evaluating the approach demonstrate substantial gains for Chinese -English and Arabic -English translation. 15...Section 4 presents two applications of the noisier channel paradigm, demonstrating substantial performance gains in Arabic -English and Chinese -English

  7. For "Translation and Theories"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…

  8. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  9. Workshop in Translating Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Michael; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A workshop dealing with literature in translation took place in 1974 at the German Department of the University of Cincinnati. This is a report on its procedures and methods. The workshop dealt with discussion of texts, translation of texts, critique of existing translations and interpretation of content. (TL)

  10. Annual Volume of Proceedings, Addresses, and Research Papers [of the] Association of School Business Officials of the United States and Canada (62nd, Boston, Massachusetts, October 2-6, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Charles W., Ed.; Esau, Dwight B., Ed.

    This publication presents a comprehensive record of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the Association of School Business Officials, which was held in October 1976 in Boston. Included are transcripts of the meeting's three general sessions, including keynote addresses by Dr. Paul Salmon and Senator Edward Kennedy, as well as reports summarizing the…

  11. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  12. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  13. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  14. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  15. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  16. Rare diseases research: expanding collaborative translational research opportunities.

    PubMed

    Groft, Stephen C

    2013-07-01

    Extensive public-private partnerships, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the rare diseases community, which is seeing a renewed industry interest in smaller niche markets, have resulted in an increase of interventions for rare diseases. Significant collaborative efforts are required among the pharmaceutical industry, foundations, patient-advocacy groups, academic and government investigators and funding programs, regulatory scientists, and reimbursement agencies to meet the unmet diagnostic and treatment needs for approximately 25 million people in the United States with 7,000 rare diseases. The expanding role and outreach activities of patient-advocacy groups have increased public awareness. In the United States, a rare disease is defined as a disorder or condition with a prevalence of <200,000 people. In 2011, the NIH provided >$3.5 billion for rare diseases research, including $750 million for orphan product development activities, nearly 11.4% of the NIH research budget. Several research institutes and centers of the NIH, including the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, have initiated varied translational research efforts to address the absence of preclinical and clinical data required for regulatory review purposes. Clinicians can expect to see significant increases in requests from patients and their families to participate in patient registries and natural history or observational studies to gather specific information from a larger pool of patients on the progression of the disease or response to treatments. An expanding emphasis on rare diseases provides hope for the millions of patients with rare diseases.

  17. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  18. 50 CFR 18.78 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 18.78 Section 18.78 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.78 Mailing...

  19. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  20. [Translational research: an interpretation].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2013-06-01

    Translational Research (TR) appears to be developing into the key health research issue of the beginning of this century. Initially proposed in the United States, TR is spread rapidly throughout both the developed and the developing world. This article discusses the main topics it covers, such as its definition and scope and the reasons why it has emerged in the USA and in this century. It examines the relationship between TR and the basic principles of US scientific policy established at the end of World War II. It sees the demands of a mighty pharmaceutical industry, currently facing a major crisis, linked to scientific genomic and post-genomic output impairments in terms of real innovative products and processes as being the explanation for US government intervention in biomedical research via the NIH. It realizes that it is not easy to predict the future of TR and suggests that it is not sustained by a solid conceptual and theoretical framework. It also discusses the opportunities and possibilities of TR in countries with nascent national innovative systems, such as Brazil. Lastly, it suggests that the existence of a universal health system can be an important tool to provide potential research answers tin health for the demands of innovation on the part of society.

  1. Translating ecological risk to ecosystem service loss.

    PubMed

    Munns, Wayne R; Helm, Roger C; Adams, William J; Clements, William H; Cramer, Martin A; Curry, Mark; DiPinto, Lisa M; Johns, D Michael; Seiler, Richard; Williams, Lisa L; Young, Dale

    2009-10-01

    Hazardous site management in the United States includes remediation of contaminated environmental media and restoration of injured natural resources. Site remediation decisions are informed by ecological risk assessment (ERA), whereas restoration and compensation decisions are informed by the natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) process. Despite similarities in many of their data needs and the advantages of more closely linking their analyses, ERA and NRDA have been conducted largely independently of one another. This is the 4th in a series of papers reporting the results of a recent workshop that explored how ERA and NRDA data needs and assessment processes could be more closely linked. Our objective is to evaluate the technical underpinnings of recentmethods used to translate natural resource injuries into ecological service losses and to propose ways to enhance the usefulness of data obtained in ERAs to the NRDA process. Three aspects are addressed: 1) improving the linkage among ERA assessment endpoints and ecological services evaluated in the NRDA process, 2) enhancing ERA data collection and interpretation approaches to improve translation of ERA measurements in damage assessments, and 3) highlighting methods that can be used to aggregate service losses across contaminants and across natural resources. We propose that ERA and NRDA both would benefit by focusing ecological assessment endpoints on the ecosystem services that correspond most directly to restoration and damage compensation decisions, and we encourage development of generic ecosystem service assessment endpoints for application in hazardous site investigations. To facilitate their use in NRDA, ERA measurements should focus on natural resource species that affect the flow of ecosystem services most directly, should encompass levels of biological organization above organisms, and should be made with the use of experimental designs that support description of responses to contaminants as

  2. Engaging basic scientists in translational research: identifying opportunities, overcoming obstacles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This report is based on the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s symposium, “Engaging basic Scientists in Translational Research: Identifying Opportunities, Overcoming Obstacles,” held in Chevy Chase, MD, March 24–25, 2011. Meeting participants examined the benefits of engaging basic scientists in translational research, the challenges to their participation in translational research, and the roles that research institutions, funding organizations, professional societies, and scientific publishers can play to address these challenges. PMID:22500917

  3. TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH AND THE EVOLVING LANDSCAPE FOR BIOMEDICAL INNOVATION

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses current challenges facing pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical developers, including the expiration of patents on many high revenue generating products, increasing competition of the marketplace, low public support, high regulatory hurdles, and the increasing time, cost, and risk of new product development. To meet these challenges, drug developers are looking to new models of innovation to improve efficiency, lower risk, and increase output. These new models include co-development agreements with small companies, multi-company consortia, and strategic partnerships with academic research centers. In the United States and the European Union, the government is supporting these efforts by creating incentives for academic centers to foster translational research and become more “commercially minded”. The goal for all stakeholders is to reduce the barriers to product development and bring new medicines to market in a timely and cost-efficient manner. PMID:22918200

  4. Translational research and the evolving landscape for biomedical innovation.

    PubMed

    Kaitin, Kenneth I

    2012-10-01

    This article addresses current challenges facing pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical developers, including the expiration of patents on many high-revenue-generating products, increasing competition in the marketplace, low public support, high regulatory hurdles, and the increasing time, cost, and risk of new product development. To meet these challenges, drug developers are looking to new models of innovation to improve efficiency, lower risk, and increase output. These new models include codevelopment agreements with small companies, multicompany consortia, and strategic partnerships with academic research centers. In the United States and the European Union, the government is supporting these efforts by creating incentives for academic centers to foster translational research and become more "commercially minded". The goal for all stakeholders is to reduce the barriers to product development and bring new medicines to market in a timely and cost-efficient manner.

  5. Trusted Translation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  6. Translation Quality Assessment in Health Research: A Functionalist Alternative to Back-Translation.

    PubMed

    Colina, Sonia; Marrone, Nicole; Ingram, Maia; Sánchez, Daisey

    2016-05-19

    As international research studies become more commonplace, the importance of developing multilingual research instruments continues to increase and with it that of translated materials. It is therefore not unexpected that assessing the quality of translated materials (e.g., research instruments, questionnaires, etc.) has become essential to cross-cultural research, given that the reliability and validity of the research findings crucially depend on the translated instruments. In some fields (e.g., public health and medicine), the quality of translated instruments can also impact the effectiveness and success of interventions and public campaigns. Back-translation (BT) is a commonly used quality assessment tool in cross-cultural research. This quality assurance technique consists of (a) translation (target text [TT1]) of the source text (ST), (b) translation (TT2) of TT1 back into the source language, and (c) comparison of TT2 with ST to make sure there are no discrepancies. The accuracy of the BT with respect to the source is supposed to reflect equivalence/accuracy of the TT. This article shows how the use of BT as a translation quality assessment method can have a detrimental effect on a research study and proposes alternatives to BT. One alternative is illustrated on the basis of the translation and quality assessment methods used in a research study on hearing loss carried out in a border community in the southwest of the United States.

  7. The Online Translator: Implementing National Standard 4.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Christine

    2003-01-01

    A pedagogical idea for addressing National Standard 4.1 (Students demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of language studied and their own) suggests the deliberate use of the online translator to illustrate to students the syntactical errors that occur when translating idioms from one language to another. (VWL)

  8. Translational Genomics of Onion: Challenges of an Enormous Nuclear Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of high throughput DNA sequencing to address important production constraints has been termed “translational genomics”. Classical breeding of onion (Allium cepa) is expensive and slow due to a long generation time and the high costs of crossing with insects. Translational genomics should r...

  9. Higher plant mitochondrial DNA: Genomes, genes, mutants, transcription, translation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains brief summaries of 63 presentations given at the International Workshop on Higher Plant Mitochondrial DNA. The presentations are organized into topical discussions addressing plant genomes, mitochondrial genes, cytoplasmic male sterility, transcription, translation, plasmids and tissue culture. (DT)

  10. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The participants include 48 freshmen from the United States Military Academy enrolled in the General Psychology course, PL100. Results of this study…

  11. Translational research: understanding the continuum from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Brian C; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2011-01-01

    The process of translating basic scientific discoveries to clinical applications, and ultimately to public health improvements, has emerged as an important, but difficult, objective in biomedical research. The process is best described as a "translation continuum" because various resources and actions are involved in this progression of knowledge, which advances discoveries from the bench to the bedside. The current model of this continuum focuses primarily on translational research, which is merely one component of the overall translation process. This approach is ineffective. A revised model to address the entire continuum would provide a methodology to identify and describe all translational activities (eg, implementation, adoption translational research, etc) as well their place within the continuum. This manuscript reviews and synthesizes the literature to provide an overview of the current terminology and model for translation. A modification of the existing model is proposed to create a framework called the Biomedical Research Translation Continuum, which defines the translation process and describes the progression of knowledge from laboratory to health gains. This framework clarifies translation for readers who have not followed the evolving and complicated models currently described. Authors and researchers may use the continuum to understand and describe their research better as well as the translational activities within a conceptual framework. Additionally, the framework may increase the advancement of knowledge by refining discussions of translation and allowing more precise identification of barriers to progress.

  12. Translating civilian and defense technologies for pediatric critical care and rehabilitation research.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nicholas J; Quatrano, Louis A; Nicholson, Carol E

    2006-01-01

    A conference sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) titled "Translating Civilian and Defense Technologies for Pediatric Critical Care and Rehabilitation Research" was held on May 16th and 17th, 2005 in Rockville, Maryland. A summary of presentations from the conference is provided. Topics presented addressed: advances in monitoring and imaging devices used in the pediatric intensive care unit, regulatory issues and recent technological developments relating to medical devices for children, the new role that virtual reality is playing in rehabilitation medicine, and the evolving future of assistive devices for rehabilitation.

  13. Defense Acquisitions: CH-53K Helicopter Program has Addressed Early Difficulties and Adopted Strategies to Address Future Risks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    United States Government Accountability Office GAO Report to the Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Defense, Committee on...Appropriations, House of Representatives DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS CH-53K Helicopter Program Has Addressed Early Difficulties and Adopted Strategies to...S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Government Accountability Office,441 G Street NW,Washington,DC,20548 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  14. In vitro translation of plant viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Browning, Karen S; Mayberry, Laura

    2006-06-01

    This unit describes the preparation of a wheat germ extract that provides all the soluble components of the plant translational machinery. Many RNA plant viruses have positive-strand genomes and the viral RNA serves as messenger RNA (mRNA). The preparation of mRNA by in vitro transcription is also described. The translation assay requires optimization of the amount of wheat germ extract, level of mRNA, and the concentration of Mg(2+) and K(+) for each mRNA. The translational efficiency of RNAs or mutants may be compared (e.g., capped versus uncapped RNAs to measure cap-independent translation) or the amount/size of the protein product may be determined.

  15. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  16. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  17. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  18. Terminology, a Translational Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Helga

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of qualified terminology and its implications for terminological activity. Argues that students have to learn how to organize their terminological activity. Suggests that translation is a special kind of intercultural communication and is an indispensable part of translational action. Argues that terminology be examined…

  19. Computer Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krollmann, Friedrich

    1981-01-01

    Describes the structure and modes of operation of the Bundessprachenamt's (BSprA: Federal Office of Languages of the Federal Republic of Germany) terminology data bank as an aid to translation. Analyzes advantages and disadvantages of each user mode, and discusses probable developments in the immediate future of machine-aided translation. (MES)

  20. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  1. Translations toward Connected Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2010-01-01

    The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…

  2. Idioms and Back Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  3. Advanced Translation Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokkan, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    The process of translating demands an attempt to draw on contextual knowledge on all relevant areas of society: literature and the study of society together with the use of idiomatic language. Students can be shown this by direct translations which appear incomprehensible. English-to-Norwegian-to-English examples are given. (Author/PJM)

  4. The Problems of Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsman, Jeffrey F.

    The problems confronting the translator of American Indian literature are immense. The history of European Indian relations has obscured many original Indian values and attitudes and has substituted a set of simplistic and unreal Anglo attitudes that translators must transcend. Unlike most Western literature, Indian literature does not instruct,…

  5. Plurality in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farahzad, Farzaneh

    This paper discusses factors contributing to differing translations of the same source text, arguing that translation occurs on a continuum rather than having absolute criteria and procedures. Issues examined include the formal properties of the text, the text's "invariant core of meaning," stability in the semantic elements of the text, the text…

  6. A Translation Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadie, Jacqueline

    1999-01-01

    Encourages readers to look at traditional translation activities in a positive and innovative light. A detailed lesson plan is offered, showing how back translation can be exploited with a monolingual class, whether or not the teacher speaks the students' mother tongue. (Author/VWL)

  7. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  8. Translation as (Global) Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  9. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  10. The Teaching of Old English in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuso, Joseph F.

    Advantage should be taken of the increased interest in teaching Old English literature, in translation, at the college and high school levels. The study of "Beowulf" and other Old English literature has proved to be a stimulating experience for students at the United States Air Force Academy and at Georgia College. At the academy, the…

  11. Theory of Test Translation Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  12. [Application of morpheme translation method in english translation of TCM].

    PubMed

    Diao, Xiang; Hu, You-Ping

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, application of morpheme translation method in English translation of TCM was introduced, and its superiorities and limitations were analyzed in order to promote the standardization and improve the confused current status of the English translation of TCM.

  13. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  14. Bilingual Text Messaging Translation: Translating Text Messages From English Into Spanish for the Text4Walking Program

    PubMed Central

    Sandi, Giselle; Ingram, Diana; Welch, Mary Jane; Ocampo, Edith V

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanic adults in the United States are at particular risk for diabetes and inadequate blood pressure control. Physical activity improves these health problems; however Hispanic adults also have a low rate of recommended aerobic physical activity. To address improving physical inactivity, one area of rapidly growing technology that can be utilized is text messaging (short message service, SMS). A physical activity research team, Text4Walking, had previously developed an initial database of motivational physical activity text messages in English that could be used for physical activity text messaging interventions. However, the team needed to translate these existing English physical activity text messages into Spanish in order to have culturally meaningful and useful text messages for those adults within the Hispanic population who would prefer to receive text messages in Spanish. Objective The aim of this study was to translate a database of English motivational physical activity messages into Spanish and review these text messages with a group of Spanish speaking adults to inform the use of these text messages in an intervention study. Methods The consent form and study documents, including the existing English physical activity text messages, were translated from English into Spanish, and received translation certification as well as Institutional Review Board approval. The translated text messages were placed into PowerPoint, accompanied by a set of culturally appropriate photos depicting barriers to walking, as well as walking scenarios. At the focus group, eligibility criteria for this study included being an adult between 30 to 65 years old who spoke Spanish as their primary language. After a general group introduction, participants were placed into smaller groups of two or three. Each small group was asked to review a segment of the translated text messages for accuracy and meaningfulness. After the break out, the group was brought back together

  15. A translational research niche for small business innovation research grants.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, Karl

    2009-11-04

    The United States Congress will decide the future of the Small Business Innovation Research program in the coming months. Essential changes needed in the program and its unique role in translational research are discussed.

  16. The Arabic Hyperbolic Pattern "Fa??al" in Two Recent Translations of the Qur'an

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Zawawy, Amr M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the problem of rendering the ?? ?? 'fa??al' hyperbolic pattern into English in two recent translations of the Qur'an. Due to the variety of Qur'an translations and the large amount of hyperbolic forms of Arabic verbs recorded in the Qur'an, only two translations of the Qur'an are consulted and analyzed: these two…

  17. Lost in Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  18. CDC’s Health Equity Resource Toolkit: Disseminating Guidance for State Practitioners to Address Obesity Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Gayle Holmes; James, Stephen D.; Hawley, Lisa; Corrigan, Bethany; Kramer, Rachel E.; Overton, Samantha N.; Farris, Rosanne P.; Wasilewski, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been on the rise in the United States over the past three decades, and is high. In addition to population-wide trends, it is clear that obesity affects some groups more than others and can be associated with age, income, education, gender, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. To reverse the obesity epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) promotes evidence-based and practice-informed strategies to address nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors. These public health strategies require translation into actionable approaches that can be implemented by state and local entities to address disparities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used findings from an expert panel meeting to guide the development and dissemination of the Health Equity Resource Toolkit for State Practitioners Addressing Obesity Disparities (available at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/health_equity/toolkit.html). The Toolkit helps public health practitioners take a systematic approach to program planning using a health equity lens. The Toolkit provides a six-step process for planning, implementing, and evaluating strategies to address obesity disparities. Each section contains (a) a basic description of the steps of the process and suggested evidence-informed actions to help address obesity disparities, (b) practical tools for carrying out activities to help reduce obesity disparities, and (c) a “real-world” case study of a successful state-level effort to address obesity with a focus on health equity that is particularly relevant to the content in that section. Hyperlinks to additional resources are included throughout. PMID:24962967

  19. CDC's Health Equity Resource Toolkit: disseminating guidance for state practitioners to address obesity disparities.

    PubMed

    Payne, Gayle Holmes; James, Stephen D; Hawley, Lisa; Corrigan, Bethany; Kramer, Rachel E; Overton, Samantha N; Farris, Rosanne P; Wasilewski, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been on the rise in the United States over the past three decades, and is high. In addition to population-wide trends, it is clear that obesity affects some groups more than others and can be associated with age, income, education, gender, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. To reverse the obesity epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) promotes evidence-based and practice-informed strategies to address nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors. These public health strategies require translation into actionable approaches that can be implemented by state and local entities to address disparities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used findings from an expert panel meeting to guide the development and dissemination of the Health Equity Resource Toolkit for State Practitioners Addressing Obesity Disparities (available at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/health_equity/toolkit.html). The Toolkit helps public health practitioners take a systematic approach to program planning using a health equity lens. The Toolkit provides a six-step process for planning, implementing, and evaluating strategies to address obesity disparities. Each section contains (a) a basic description of the steps of the process and suggested evidence-informed actions to help address obesity disparities, (b) practical tools for carrying out activities to help reduce obesity disparities, and (c) a "real-world" case study of a successful state-level effort to address obesity with a focus on health equity that is particularly relevant to the content in that section. Hyperlinks to additional resources are included throughout.

  20. Translation readthrough mitigation.

    PubMed

    Arribere, Joshua A; Cenik, Elif S; Jain, Nimit; Hess, Gaelen T; Lee, Cameron H; Bassik, Michael C; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-06-30

    A fraction of ribosomes engaged in translation will fail to terminate when reaching a stop codon, yielding nascent proteins inappropriately extended on their C termini. Although such extended proteins can interfere with normal cellular processes, known mechanisms of translational surveillance are insufficient to protect cells from potential dominant consequences. Here, through a combination of transgenics and CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing in Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate a consistent ability of cells to block accumulation of C-terminal-extended proteins that result from failure to terminate at stop codons. Sequences encoded by the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) were sufficient to lower protein levels. Measurements of mRNA levels and translation suggested a co- or post-translational mechanism of action for these sequences in C. elegans. Similar mechanisms evidently operate in human cells, in which we observed a comparable tendency for translated human 3′ UTR sequences to reduce mature protein expression in tissue culture assays, including 3′ UTR sequences from the hypomorphic ‘Constant Spring’ haemoglobin stop codon variant. We suggest that 3′ UTRs may encode peptide sequences that destabilize the attached protein, providing mitigation of unwelcome and varied translation errors.

  1. Translation Readthrough Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Arribere, Joshua A.; Cenik, Elif S.; Jain, Nimit; Hess, Gaelen T.; Lee, Cameron H.; Bassik, Michael C.; Fire, Andrew Z.

    2016-01-01

    A fraction of ribosomes engaged in translation will fail to terminate when reaching a stop codon, yielding nascent proteins inappropriately extended on their C-termini. Although such extended proteins can interfere with normal cellular processes, known mechanisms of translational surveillance are insufficient to protect cells from potential dominant consequences. Through a combination of transgenics and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in C. elegans, we demonstrate a consistent ability of cells to block accumulation of C-terminal extended proteins that result from failure to terminate at stop codons. 3’UTR-encoded sequences were sufficient to lower protein levels. Measurements of mRNA levels and translation suggested a co- or post-translational mechanism of action for these sequences in C. elegans. Similar mechanisms evidently operate in human cells, where we observed a comparable tendency for translated human 3’UTR sequences to reduce mature protein expression in tissue culture assays, including 3' sequences from the hypomorphic “Constant Spring” hemoglobin stop codon variant. We suggest 3’UTRs may encode peptide sequences that destabilize the attached protein, providing mitigation of unwelcome and varied translation errors. PMID:27281202

  2. State of the Union Address, 1997. Remarks by the President in State of the Union Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the text of President Clinton's State of the Union Address, delivered on February 4, 1997. The President issues a call to action to work together to prepare America for the twenty-first century. The United States must attend to the unfinished business of balancing the budget, enacting bipartisan campaign-finance reform, and…

  3. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  4. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  5. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  6. Translational Contributions of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Critchfield, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that to increase societal impact behavioral researchers must do more to address problems of obvious practical importance. The basic science wing of behavior analysis has been described as especially detached from this goal, but is it really necessary that basic science demonstrate social relevance? If so, why hasn't this occurred more often, and what can be done to improve the status quo? To address these questions and to stimulate discussion about the future of basic behavior science, I describe two widely embraced arguments in favor of pure basic science (that which is undertaken without concern for practical applications); explain why a translational research agenda is likely to better recruit tangible support for basic science; propose that addressing practical problems does not require basic science to abandon its focus on fundamental principles; and identify some possible impediments to translational innovation that may need to be addressed for basic behavior science to increase its translational footprint. PMID:22532723

  7. Addressing Uncertainty in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Dark Inactivation Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination is a leading cause of surface water quality degradation. Roughly 20% of all total maximum daily load assessments approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency since 1995, for example, address water bodies with unacceptably high fecal indicator...

  8. Lost in translation: what is limiting cardiomyoplasty and can tissue engineering help?

    PubMed

    Simpson, David; Dudley, Samuel C

    2009-09-01

    Heart failure accounts for more deaths in the United States than any other detrimental human pathology. Recently, repairing the heart after seemingly irreversible injury leading to heart failure appears to have come within reach. Cellular cardiomyoplasty, transplanting viable cell alternatives into the diseased myocardium, has emerged as a promising possible solution. Translating this approach from the laboratory to the clinic, however, has been met with several challenges, leaving many questions unanswered. This review assesses the state of investigation of several progenitor cell sources, including induced pluripotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, adipose-derived adult stem cells, amniotic fluid stem cells, skeletal muscle progenitors, induced pluripotent stem cells and cardiac progenitors. Several current roadblocks to maximum success are discussed. These include understanding the need for cardiomyocyte differentiation, appreciating the role of paracrine factors, and addressing the low engraftment rates using current techniques. Tissue engineering strategies to address these obstacles and to help maximize cellular cardiomyoplasty success are reviewed.

  9. The Culture of Translational Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Kotarba, Joseph A.; Wooten, Kevin; Freeman, Jean; Brasier, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    We apply a symbolic interactionist framework and a qualitative methodology to the examination of the everyday reality of translational science research (TSR). This is a growing scientific movement that aims to facilitate the efficient application of basic research to clinical service design and delivery. We describe the emerging culture of translational research at a mid-size medical center that received a Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health. The stories related by scientists, clinicians, and students in interviews indicate that they make sense of the emerging inter- and cross-disciplinary, team-oriented culture of TSR through the refinement and redefinition of the significant symbols that inform their work while they attempt to master translational research by addressing the dilemmas it produces for them and their work. We see the strength, currency, adaptability, and energy of the core self-definition of “scientist” to be significant in shaping the emerging culture of translational research. We conclude by celebrating the value of interpretive ethnography for evaluation research. PMID:25685253

  10. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  11. Translation: Elements of a Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiderson, Mazin A.

    An overview of the skills, techniques, tools, and compensation of language translators and interpreters is offered. It begins with a definition of translation and a brief history of translation in the western world. Basic principles of translation dating back to Roman writers are also outlined. A five-step process in producing a good translation…

  12. Translational Educational Research

    PubMed Central

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  13. 46 CFR 107.117 - Coast Guard addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard addresses. 107.117 Section 107.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General § 107.117 Coast Guard addresses. When approval of the Commandant is required under...

  14. 46 CFR 107.117 - Coast Guard addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard addresses. 107.117 Section 107.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General § 107.117 Coast Guard addresses. When approval of the Commandant is required under...

  15. 46 CFR 107.117 - Coast Guard addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard addresses. 107.117 Section 107.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General § 107.117 Coast Guard addresses. When approval of the Commandant is required under...

  16. 46 CFR 107.117 - Coast Guard addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard addresses. 107.117 Section 107.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General § 107.117 Coast Guard addresses. When approval of the Commandant is required under...

  17. The 2012 NCTE Presidential Address: Literacy, Rhetoric, Education, Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilyard, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the text of Keith Gilyard's presidential address, delivered at the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Annual Convention in Las Vegas, Nevada, on November 18, 2012. In his address he proposes several core elements that he believes will instrumentally improve the education system in the United States: a rich…

  18. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  19. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  20. Cultural Constellations in Translated Children's Literature: Evidence from the Mildred L. Batchelder Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Joan Sticham

    The Mildred L. Batchelder Award is presented annually to the United States publisher of an outstanding translated children's book. Translation is a difficult art that requires the translator to convey the spirit as well as the letter of the original work, represent another culture, and remain inconspicuous in the work. An analysis of the 42 books…

  1. Addressing Illegal Immigrants Inside the United States: A Policy Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    20 Ibid., 1–44. 21 Roberto Suro , “Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy: Surveys among Latinos in the U.S. and in Mexico,” Pew...February 16, 2007. Suro , Roberto. “Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy: Surveys among Latinos in the U.S. and in Mexico.” Pew Hispanic

  2. The Practical Value of Translation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komissarov, Vilen

    1985-01-01

    Discusses why translation theory has had an inadequate impact on translation practice and gives specific examples of ways in which translation theory can provide the translator with general principles and methods of translating idioms. (SED)

  3. Machine Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  4. [Topics for translational research].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    This report focused on translational research presented in ASBMR 2015 held in Seattle, WA in October 2015. Comorbidity with chronic diseases such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease and the relationship between skeletal and extraskeltal tissues give us more complexed pathophysiological issues to be clarified in superaged society.

  5. "Rose Blanche" in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stan, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study focuses on three editions of "Rose Blanche," Roberto Innocenti's picturebook portrayal of a young girl who discovers a Nazi concentration camp on the outskirts of her German city. The original text, written in French by Christophe Gallaz to accompany Innocenti's illustrations, was translated into English and published in the…

  6. Translating Dyslexia across Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Lisa A.; Manglani, Monica; Escalona, Nicholas; Cysner, Jessica; Hamilton, Rachel; Pfaffmann, Jeffrey; Johnson, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Direct relationships between induced mutation in the "DCDC2" candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene in mice and changes in behavioral measures of visual spatial learning have been reported. We were interested in determining whether performance on a visual-spatial learning and memory task could be translated across species (study 1) and…

  7. Translation and Transliteration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanakaraj, S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Makes a case for using transliteration in order to avoid wholesale translation of new words from the natural sciences and technology into Indian languages. Proposes introduction of the Roman alphabet (in a modified form), so that the Indian languages can accommodate new loans within their own phonetic systems without any substantial changes. (SR)

  8. Rhythm in Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This research is an attempt at the elucidation of the significance of rhythmic in translations. According to Eugene A. Nada's functional equivalence, the comprehensive effect which the receptors of the versions get should be the same as the one the readers of the original get, and since rhythm is an integral part of the style, rhythm should be…

  9. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  10. Cultural Knowledge in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olk, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study exploring the influence of cultural knowledge on the translation performance of German students of English. Found that the students often lacked sufficient knowledge about British culture to deal with widely-used cultural concepts. Findings suggest that factual reference sources have an important role to play in translation…

  11. Lost in the Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Karl

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for working with translators in training situations include meeting them beforehand, identifying their comfort level, clearing jokes, giving them copies of handouts, acknowledging their presence, trying a brief introduction in the local language, speaking slowly, and using simple sentence structure. (JOW)

  12. Methods for identifying translational researchers.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary K; Johnson, Timothy; Welch, Eric W

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no generally accepted method for identifying the community of translational researchers when evaluating Clinical and Translational Science Centers. We use data from the multiyear evaluation of the University of Illinois at Chicago Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) to investigate the complexities of reliably identifying translational researchers. We use three methods to identify translational researchers: (1) participating in CCTS services and programs; (2) self-identifying as a translational researcher; and (3) engaging in activities that are characteristic of translational science. We find little overlap of these differently defined research groups. We conclude with a discussion of how the findings suggest challenges for evaluating translational science programs and the need for better definition, communication, and demonstration of translational science for scientists and evaluators.

  13. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  14. Translational science: a catalyst for real world applications?

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Adrien K

    2014-01-01

    Science is the systemic search for new knowledge and innovative ideas. Scientific knowledge is empirically based and successful replication of the results is a crucial component of it. Translational science connects this knowledge with real world applications in order to address societal challenges and problems, under the condition that the science-policy interface is taken into account. The aim of this communication is to examine if translational science can be applied to research settings other than health care.

  15. Addressing tomorrow's DMO technical challenges today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, James R.

    2009-05-01

    Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) is essentially a type of networked training that pulls in participants from all the armed services and, increasingly, allies to permit them to "game" and rehearse highly complex campaigns, using a mix of local, distant, and virtual players. The United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is pursuing Science and Technology (S&T) solutions to address technical challenges associated with distributed communications and information management as DMO continues to progressively scale up the number, diversity, and geographic dispersal of participants in training and rehearsal exercises.

  16. Translating Katherine Paterson into Japanese: A Conversation about the Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, Judith V.; Okamoto, Hamae

    2006-01-01

    How others see the United States will always be influenced by its actions abroad, but through well-written books, children in other countries can gain a more balanced view of America. Translators play a crucial role in transmitting a more realistic and balanced view of the United States to other parts of the world. In Japan, the role of the…

  17. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  18. Lost in Translation: Examining Translation Errors Associated with Mathematical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Stiff, Lee V.; Bosse, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation errors and conceptual misunderstandings made by students translating among graphical, tabular, and symbolic representations of linear functions were examined. The study situated student errors in the context of the "Translation-Verification Model" developed specifically for the purpose of explaining student behavior during the process…

  19. A Writer's Thoughts on Translation and Always Living in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosin, Marjorie; Jones, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how it feels to be a poet who writes in Spanish and has her work translated, examining the author's immigration experiences and noting the translator's contributions in making her work accessible across languages, borders, and cultures. Explains that writing in Spanish is a gesture of survival, and translation allows her memories to…

  20. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes.

  1. Translational Research in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyengar, M. Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's role in medical translational research, and the importance in research for space exploration. The application of medical research for space exploration translates to health care in space medicine, and on earth.

  2. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  3. Translational benchmark risk analysis

    PubMed Central

    Piegorsch, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    Translational development – in the sense of translating a mature methodology from one area of application to another, evolving area – is discussed for the use of benchmark doses in quantitative risk assessment. Illustrations are presented with traditional applications of the benchmark paradigm in biology and toxicology, and also with risk endpoints that differ from traditional toxicological archetypes. It is seen that the benchmark approach can apply to a diverse spectrum of risk management settings. This suggests a promising future for this important risk-analytic tool. Extensions of the method to a wider variety of applications represent a significant opportunity for enhancing environmental, biomedical, industrial, and socio-economic risk assessments. PMID:20953283

  4. The mechanism of translation

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Translation of the genetic code on the ribosome into protein is a process of extraordinary complexity, and understanding its mechanism has remained one of the major challenges even though x-ray structures have been available since 2000. In the past two decades, single-particle cryo-electron microscopy has contributed a major share of information on structure, binding modes, and conformational changes of the ribosome during its work cycle, but the contributions of this technique in the translation field have recently skyrocketed after the introduction of a new recording medium capable of detecting individual electrons. As many examples in the recent literature over the past three years show, the impact of this development on the advancement of knowledge in this field has been transformative and promises to be lasting. PMID:28344776

  5. Literary Translation: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincotta, Madeleine Strong

    The nature of literary translation and ways in which it differs from other forms of translation are examined, looking at practical difficulties, challenges, and satisfaction in the profession of literary translation. The difficulties discussed include suggestions about how to get started, legal questions of copyright, and choice of text.…

  6. Discourse Analysis and the Translator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Margaret

    Discourse analysis, as an approach to text, provides the teacher, student, and professional translator with resources for achieving objectivity and for making and justifying translation decisions. It offers a strategy for relating the problems and processes and discourse and the specific concerns to the objectives of the translator. It can be…

  7. Knowledge Translation: Implications for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Translation theory originates in the field of applied linguistics and communication. The term knowledge translation has been adopted in health and other fields to refer to the exchange, synthesis, and application of knowledge. The logic model is a circular or iterative loop among various knowledge translation actors (knowledge producers and users)…

  8. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  9. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  10. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  11. Translational Implications of Tamil "Hamlets."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanakaraj, S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of translation when teaching English as a Second Language in a Tamil context. Singles out the fencing episode in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" to illustrate the difficulties of translating cultural aspects. Concludes that successful translations of Shakespeare into Indian languages should involve collaboration between…

  12. Stem cell hype: media portrayal of therapy translation.

    PubMed

    Kamenova, Kalina; Caulfield, Timothy

    2015-03-11

    In this Perspective, we examine the portrayal of translational stem cell research in major daily newspapers in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom between 2010 and 2013, focusing on how timelines for stem cell therapies were represented before and after Geron terminated its pioneering stem cell program. Our content analysis reveals that press coverage has shifted from ethical, legal, and social issues to clinical translation issues, and highly optimistic timelines were provided with no substantial change in representation over time. Scientists were the dominant voice with respect to translation timelines. The findings raise questions about the degree to which the media's overly optimistic slant fosters unrealistic expectations regarding the speed of clinical translation and highlight the ethical responsibility of stem cell researchers as public communicators.

  13. Translation dynamics of single mRNAs in live cells and neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Eliscovich, Carolina; Yoon, Young J; Singer, Robert H

    2016-06-17

    Translation is the fundamental biological process converting mRNA information into proteins. Single-molecule imaging in live cells has illuminated the dynamics of RNA transcription; however, it is not yet applicable to translation. Here, we report single-molecule imaging of nascent peptides (SINAPS) to assess translation in live cells. The approach provides direct readout of initiation, elongation, and location of translation. We show that mRNAs coding for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are translated when they encounter the ER membrane. Single-molecule fluorescence recovery after photobleaching provides direct measurement of elongation speed (5 amino acids per second). In primary neurons, mRNAs are translated in proximal dendrites but repressed in distal dendrites and display "bursting" translation. This technology provides a tool with which to address the spatiotemporal translation mechanism of single mRNAs in living cells.

  14. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  15. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  16. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  17. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  18. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  19. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  20. An upstream open reading frame modulates ebola virus polymerase translation and virus replication.

    PubMed

    Shabman, Reed S; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Jabado, Omar; Binning, Jennifer M; Amarasinghe, Gaya K; Feldmann, Heinz; Basler, Christopher F

    2013-01-01

    Ebolaviruses, highly lethal zoonotic pathogens, possess longer genomes than most other non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses due in part to long 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) present in the seven viral transcriptional units. To date, specific functions have not been assigned to these UTRs. With reporter assays, we demonstrated that the Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) 5'-UTRs lack internal ribosomal entry site function. However, the 5'-UTRs do differentially regulate cap-dependent translation when placed upstream of a GFP reporter gene. Most dramatically, the 5'-UTR derived from the viral polymerase (L) mRNA strongly suppressed translation of GFP compared to a β-actin 5'-UTR. The L 5'-UTR is one of four viral genes to possess upstream AUGs (uAUGs), and ablation of each uAUG enhanced translation of the primary ORF (pORF), most dramatically in the case of the L 5'-UTR. The L uAUG was sufficient to initiate translation, is surrounded by a "weak" Kozak sequence and suppressed pORF translation in a position-dependent manner. Under conditions where eIF2α was phosphorylated, the presence of the uORF maintained translation of the L pORF, indicating that the uORF modulates L translation in response to cellular stress. To directly address the role of the L uAUG in virus replication, a recombinant EBOV was generated in which the L uAUG was mutated to UCG. Strikingly, mutating two nucleotides outside of previously-defined protein coding and cis-acting regulatory sequences attenuated virus growth to titers 10-100-fold lower than a wild-type virus in Vero and A549 cells. The mutant virus also exhibited decreased viral RNA synthesis as early as 6 hours post-infection and enhanced sensitivity to the stress inducer thapsigargin. Cumulatively, these data identify novel mechanisms by which EBOV regulates its polymerase expression, demonstrate their relevance to virus replication and identify a potential therapeutic target.

  1. My Fats Translator

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  2. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for the Office of Pesticide Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses for the Office of Pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GENERAL § 150.17 Addresses for the Office of Pesticide Programs. The official addresses...) United States Postal Service mailing address. Office of Pesticide Programs (7510P),...

  3. 40 CFR 700.17 - Addresses for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Addresses for the Office of Pollution... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Addresses § 700.17 Addresses for the Office of Pollution... non-docket materials—(1) United States Postal Service mailing address. Office of Pollution...

  4. Knowledge translation research: the science of moving research into policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Curran, Janet A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hayden, Jill A; Campbell, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research findings will not change health outcomes unless health care organizations, systems, and professionals adopt them in practice. Knowledge translation research is the scientific study of the methods to promote the uptake of research findings by patients, health care providers, managers, and policy makers. Many forms of enquiry addressing different questions are needed to develop the evidence base for knowledge translation. In this paper we will present a description of the broad scope of knowledge translation research with a reflection on activities needed to further develop the science of knowledge translation. Consideration of some of the shared research challenges facing the fields of knowledge translation and continuing professional development will also be presented.

  5. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  6. Raster Metafile and Raster Metafile Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Nancy L.; Everton, Eric L.; Randall, Donald P.; Gates, Raymond L.; Skeens, Kristi M.

    1989-01-01

    The intent is to present an effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center to design a generic raster image format and to develop tools for processing images prepared in this format. Both the Raster Metafile (RM) format and the Raster Metafile Translator (RMT) are addressed. This document is intended to serve a varied audience including: users wishing to display and manipulate raster image data, programmers responsible for either interfacing the RM format with other raster formats or for developing new RMT device drivers, and programmers charged with installing the software on a host platform.

  7. Magnetic translator bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  8. Unit Reconstitutions: Combat Stress as an Indicator of Unit Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    UNIT RECONSTITUTIONS: COMBAT STRESS AS AN INDICATOR OF UNIT EFFECTIVENESS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...Unit Effectiveness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Portis, Stoney L., Major, U.S. Army...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Command and General

  9. Machine Translation of Public Health Materials From English to Chinese: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Loma

    2015-01-01

    Background Chinese is the second most common language spoken by limited English proficiency individuals in the United States, yet there are few public health materials available in Chinese. Previous studies have indicated that use of machine translation plus postediting by bilingual translators generated quality translations in a lower time and at a lower cost than human translations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using machine translation (MT) tools (eg, Google Translate) followed by human postediting (PE) to produce quality Chinese translations of public health materials. Methods From state and national public health websites, we collected 60 health promotion documents that had been translated from English to Chinese through human translation. The English version of the documents were then translated to Chinese using Google Translate. The MTs were analyzed for translation errors. A subset of the MT documents was postedited by native Chinese speakers with health backgrounds. Postediting time was measured. Postedited versions were then blindly compared against human translations by bilingual native Chinese quality raters. Results The most common machine translation errors were errors of word sense (40%) and word order (22%). Posteditors corrected the MTs at a rate of approximately 41 characters per minute. Raters, blinded to the source of translation, consistently selected the human translation over the MT+PE. Initial investigation to determine the reasons for the lower quality of MT+PE indicate that poor MT quality, lack of posteditor expertise, and insufficient posteditor instructions can be barriers to producing quality Chinese translations. Conclusions Our results revealed problems with using MT tools plus human postediting for translating public health materials from English to Chinese. Additional work is needed to improve MT and to carefully design postediting processes before the MT+PE approach can be used

  10. Quantitative systems pharmacology: a promising approach for translational pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Gadkar, K; Kirouac, D; Parrott, N; Ramanujan, S

    Biopharmaceutical companies have increasingly been exploring Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) as a potential avenue to address current challenges in drug development. In this paper, we discuss the application of QSP modeling approaches to address challenges in the translational of preclinical findings to the clinic, a high risk area of drug development. Three cases have been highlighted with QSP models utilized to inform different questions in translational pharmacology. In the first, a mechanism based asthma model is used to evaluate efficacy and inform biomarker strategy for a novel bispecific antibody. In the second case study, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling model is used to make translational predictions on clinical response and evaluate novel combination therapies. In the third case study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model it used to guide administration of oseltamivir in pediatric patients.

  11. Insights and limits of translational research in critical care medicine.

    PubMed

    Pène, Frédéric; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Monneret, Guillaume; Sharshar, Tarek; Tamion, Fabienne; Mira, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has always been the cornerstone of pathophysiological and therapeutic advances in critical care medicine, where clinical observations and basic research mutually fed each other in a so-called translational approach. The objective of this review is to address the different aspects of translational research in the field of critical care medicine. We herein highlighted some demonstrative examples including the animal-to-human approach to study host-pathogen interactions, the human-to-animal approach for sepsis-induced immunosuppression, the still restrictive human approach to study critical illness-related neuromyopathy, and the technological developments to assess the microcirculatory changes in critically ill patients. These examples not only emphasize how translational research resulted in major improvements in the comprehension of the pathophysiology of severe clinical conditions and offered promising perspectives in critical care medicine but also point out the obstacles to translate such achievements into clinical practice.

  12. Translational Control of Autophagy by Orb in the Drosophila Germline.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Ríos, Patricia; Chartier, Aymeric; Pierson, Stéphanie; Séverac, Dany; Dantec, Christelle; Busseau, Isabelle; Simonelig, Martine

    2015-12-07

    Drosophila Orb, the homolog of vertebrate CPEB, is a key translational regulator involved in oocyte polarity and maturation through poly(A) tail elongation of specific mRNAs. orb also has an essential function during early oogenesis that has not been addressed at the molecular level. Here, we show that orb prevents cell death during early oogenesis, thus allowing oogenesis to progress. It does so through the repression of autophagy by directly repressing, together with the CCR4 deadenylase, the translation of Autophagy-specific gene 12 (Atg12) mRNA. Autophagy and cell death observed in orb mutant ovaries are reduced by decreasing Atg12 or other Atg mRNA levels. These results reveal a role of Orb in translational repression and identify autophagy as an essential pathway regulated by Orb during early oogenesis. Importantly, they also establish translational regulation as a major mode of control of autophagy, a key process in cell homeostasis in response to environmental cues.

  13. Addressing Health Disparities through Multi-institutional, Multidisciplinary Collaboratories

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Erik S.; Perkins, James; Easa, David; Conde, José G.; Baker, Richard S.; Southerland, William M.; Dottin, Robert; Benabe, Julio E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Bond, Vincent C.; McClure, Shelia A.; Sayre, Michael H.; Beanan, Maureen J.; Norris, Keith C.

    2009-01-01

    The national research leadership has recently become aware of the tremendous potential of translational research as an approach to address health disparities. The Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) is a research network that supports multi-institutional, multidisciplinary collaboration with a focus on key diseases and conditions for which disproportionately adverse racial and ethnic health disparities exist. The RTRN is designed to facilitate the movement of scientific advances across the translational research spectrum by providing researchers at different institutions with the infrastructure and tools necessary to collaborate on interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research projects relating to specific health outcomes for which major racial/ethnic disparities exist. In the past, the difficulty of overcoming the restrictions imposed by time and space have made it difficult to carry out this type of large-scale, multilevel collaboration efficiently. To address this formidable challenge, the RTRN will deploy a translational research cluster system that uses “cyber workspaces” to bring researchers with similar interests together by using online collaboratory technology. These virtual meeting environments will provide a number of tools, including videoconferences (seminars, works in progress, meetings); project management tools (WebCT, Microsoft Share Point); and posting areas for projects, concepts, and other research and educational activities. This technology will help enhance access to resources across institutions with a common mission, minimize many of the logistical hurdles that impede intellectual exchange, streamline the planning and implementation of innovative interdisciplinary research, and assess the use of protocols and practices to assist researchers in interacting across and within cyber workspaces. PMID:18646341

  14. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  15. Outstanding Translated Children's Books: Birth of a Bibliography by Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitler, Roslyn; Bush, Margaret; Gebel, Doris; Mavrogenes, Sylvia; Pelan, Louise; Peterman, Hedra; Smuda, Janice; Sommer, Judith; Trevino, Rose; White, Maureen

    1998-01-01

    In addition to providing an annotated bibliography and a set of criteria for selecting outstanding translated children's books, this article addresses the collaborative process by the International Relations Committee (IRC) of the Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) of producing such a bibliography. Sources include…

  16. Cinema and Choric Connection: "Lost in Translation" as Sensual Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Brian L.; Keeling, Diane Marie

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the new information technologies, and corresponding proliferation of signs, images, and information, has contributed to a growing sense of alienation and dislocation. For many, the contemporary moment is an unending and disorienting sea of sensory-symbolic excesses. "Lost in Translation" is a film addressed to these anxieties. Engaging…

  17. Experiments in Language Translation: Technical English-to-Vietnamese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinaiko, H. Wallace; Brislin, Richard W.

    This paper documents the results of a series of experiments conducted by the Institute for Defense Analyses on translating technical material from English to Vietnamese. The work was accomplished in support of the Office of the Deputy Director, Research and Engineering, Deputy Director for Southeast Asia Matters. The paper addresses the question…

  18. Knowledge for Knowledge Translation: The Role of the Cochrane Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Santesso, Nancy; Cumpston, Miranda; Mayhew, Alain; McGowan, Jessie

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge-translation (KT) activities, including continuing education, should be informed by the totality of available research evidence. Systematic reviews are a generic methodology used to synthesize evidence from a broad range of research methods addressing different questions. Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the…

  19. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  20. U. S. Colleges and Universities Offering Training for Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Translators Association, Croton-on-Hudson, NY.

    Twenty-four U.S. institutions and six Canadian institutions offering training for translators are listed here. Each citation contains the name and address of the school, the director's name, and a brief description of the program or courses. (PMP)

  1. Translation and Its Discontents II: A German Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Körber, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    International cooperation in history teaching and related teacher education requires clarification of terminology as well as of underlying concepts and theoretical foundations, since these levels are fundamentally intertwining. If these levels are addressed, both comparison and translation do not only make cooperation possible, but promise…

  2. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  3. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  4. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  5. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  6. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  7. [Google translate is not sufficient to overcome language barriers in neonatal medicine].

    PubMed

    Börner, N; Sponholz, S; König, K; Brodkorb, S; Bührer, C; Roehr, C C

    2013-12-01

    Language barriers hinder the interaction with patients and relatives. The use of language services increases knowledge, satisfaction and the use of medical care and thus improves patient's clinical outcome. The recommended use of professional interpreters (PI) is not always feasible. We tested an online translation tool as an alternative for PI for the transla-tion of standardized sentences from a neonatal doctor-/nurse-relative-interview.Translation of 20 sentences from a German neonatal intensive care unit parent information brochure to English, Portuguese and Arabic, using Google Translate (GT). Assessment of accuracy concerning grammar and content, in a second step simplification of all incorrect sentences, translation by GT and critical re-assessment and evaluation.An average of 42% of the sentences was correctly translated concerning grammar and content. The proportion of incorrectly translated sentences varied between 45-70%. By simpli-fication another 23% were translated correctly.Translations by GT were often incorrect in content and grammar. We suppose that the design of GT, which is a statistical translation engine, might be an explanation for this phenomenon. Presently, GT cannot guarantee unambiguous translations and cannot substitute PIs, only in particular circumstances, the use of GT or similar engines may be justified. For future use of electronic translation services, we suggest to compile a catalogue of sentences containing central information, which can be translated into defined foreign languages without misinterpretation or loss of information.

  8. 24 CFR 990.135 - Eligible unit months (EUMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the status of all units, including, but not limited to, a listing of the units, street addresses or physical address, and project/management control numbers. (d) Any unit months that do not meet...

  9. Translated chemical reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Many biochemical and industrial applications involve complicated networks of simultaneously occurring chemical reactions. Under the assumption of mass action kinetics, the dynamics of these chemical reaction networks are governed by systems of polynomial ordinary differential equations. The steady states of these mass action systems have been analyzed via a variety of techniques, including stoichiometric network analysis, deficiency theory, and algebraic techniques (e.g., Gröbner bases). In this paper, we present a novel method for characterizing the steady states of mass action systems. Our method explicitly links a network's capacity to permit a particular class of steady states, called toric steady states, to topological properties of a generalized network called a translated chemical reaction network. These networks share their reaction vectors with their source network but are permitted to have different complex stoichiometries and different network topologies. We apply the results to examples drawn from the biochemical literature.

  10. Nonhuman primate models in translational regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Daadi, Marcel M; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell-based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena.

  11. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond.

    PubMed

    McKone, James R; Crans, Debbie C; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R; Gray, Harry B

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research-defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development-in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond.

  12. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, James R.; Crans, Debbie C.; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R.; Gray, Harry B.

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research -- defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development -- in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond.

  13. The Myopic American: Literature in Translation Can Break down Barriers between Cultures. so Why Is Our Nation so Resistant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roxburgh, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Publishing literature in translation in the United States is, generally, a fool's game. Publishing literature in translation for young readers is lunatic. The sad fact is that very few publishers are commissioning translations because they tend to be expensive, time-consuming, and unsuccessful in the marketplace. This article discusses the…

  14. 26 CFR 1.905-5T - Foreign tax redeterminations and currency translation rules for foreign tax redeterminations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... translation rules for foreign tax redeterminations occurring in taxable years beginning prior to January 1... the United States § 1.905-5T Foreign tax redeterminations and currency translation rules for foreign... translation rules—(1) Foreign taxes paid by the taxpayer and certain foreign taxes deemed paid. Foreign...

  15. All in the Family?--Translating Names and Honorifics in Chinese Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Eva

    1993-01-01

    Notes that the practice of borrowing kinship terms to address people outside the extended Chinese families, heavily reflected in modern Chinese fiction, causes much difficulty for the English translator. Reviews common translation approaches to such culture-related problems and possible distortions resulting from such practices. (NKA)

  16. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  17. NEW APPROACHES: The importance of non-inertial reference systems in some problems of translational dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, R.; Mendialdua, J.

    1997-11-01

    The importance of using non-inertial reference systems in some problems of translational dynamics is addressed. For this, a problem is presented with its detailed solution. Typical misconceptions and preconceptions of students in this subject are discussed.

  18. The Translation and the Translator of the Peshitta of Hosea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive examination of the Syriac Peshitta of Hosea (P-Hosea) is the first study of the Peshitta conducted via insights and methods from the discipline of Translation Studies. It uses in particular Andrew Chesterman's Causal Model and Gideon Toury's descriptive approach. Every translator leaves residue of his or her…

  19. Adding Statistical Machine Translation Adaptation to Computer-Assisted Translation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    on Telecommunications. Tehran, 2012, 822–826. Bertoldi, N.; Federico, M. Domain Adaptation for Statistical Machine Translation with Monolingual ...for Interactive Machine Translation. ICMI’11. Alicante, Spain: ACM, 2011, 197–200. 14 Haffari, G.; Sarkar, A. Active Learning for Multilingual

  20. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  1. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  2. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  3. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  4. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Translational control genes in the sea urchin genome.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julia; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Cosson, Bertrand; Morin, Emmanuelle; Bellé, Robert; Bradham, Cynthia A; Beane, Wendy S; Cormier, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    Sea urchin eggs and early cleavage stage embryos provide an example of regulated gene expression at the level of translation. The availability of the sea urchin genome offers the opportunity to investigate the "translational control" toolkit of this model system. The annotation of the genome reveals that most of the factors implicated in translational control are encoded by nonredundant genes in echinoderm, an advantage for future functional studies. In this paper, we focus on translation factors that have been shown or suggested to play crucial role in cell cycle and development of sea urchin embryos. Addressing the cap-binding translational control, three closely related eIF4E genes (class I, II, III) are present, whereas its repressor 4E-BP and its activator eIF4G are both encoded by one gene. Analysis of the class III eIF4E proteins in various phyla shows an echinoderm-specific amino acid substitution. Furthermore, an interaction site between eIF4G and poly(A)-binding protein is uncovered in the sea urchin eIF4G proteins and is conserved in metazoan evolution. In silico screening of the sea urchin genome has uncovered potential new regulators of eIF4E sharing the common eIF4E recognition motif. Taking together, these data provide new insights regarding the strong requirement of cap-dependent translation following fertilization. The genome analysis gives insights on the complexity of eEF1B structure and motifs of functional relevance, involved in the translational control of gene expression at the level of elongation. Finally, because deregulation of translation process can lead to diseases and tumor formation in humans, the sea urchin orthologs of human genes implicated in human diseases and signaling pathways regulating translation were also discussed.

  6. Student Perceptions of Using Games to Address Science Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Cara M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative evaluative case study was to gain insight into how students perceived the efficacy of using games to address their science literacy concerns. Scientists in the United States are concerned with the lack of science literacy. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires proficiency in reading, mathematics, language…

  7. EPA Addresses Environmental Justice in Espaola, N.M.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 8, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced TEWA Woman United was selected as a grant recipient to address environmental justice (EJ) issues in Española, N. M. The grant enables the organization to cond

  8. Challenges in an Aging Society: Presidential Address to APPAM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The United States is at a critical crossroads in its history right now. The public policy problems that the people are facing are complex and interrelated, and the demographic changes that are about to significantly change their country are not well understood by large numbers of people. In this presidential address to the Association for Public…

  9. Statistical methods in translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Chow, Shein-Chung; Tse, Siu-Keung; Lin, Min

    2008-12-01

    This study focuses on strategies and statistical considerations for assessment of translation in language (e.g. translation of case report forms in multinational clinical trials), information (e.g. translation of basic discoveries to the clinic) and technology (e.g. translation of Chinese diagnostic techniques to well-established clinical study endpoints) in pharmaceutical/clinical research and development. However, most of our efforts will be directed to statistical considerations for translation in information. Translational medicine has been defined as bench-to-bedside research, where a basic laboratory discovery becomes applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease, and is brought forth by either a physicianscientist who works at the interface between the research laboratory and patient care, or by a team of basic and clinical science investigators. Statistics plays an important role in translational medicine to ensure that the translational process is accurate and reliable with certain statistical assurance. Statistical inference for the applicability of an animal model to a human model is also discussed. Strategies for selection of clinical study endpoints (e.g. absolute changes, relative changes, or responder-defined, based on either absolute or relative change) are reviewed.

  10. Translation: in retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Woese, C R

    2001-01-01

    This review is occasioned by the fact that the problem of translation, which has simmered on the biological sidelines for the last 40 years, is about to erupt center stage--thanks to the recent spectacular advances in ribosome structure. This most complex, beautiful, and fascinating of cellular mechanisms, the translation apparatus, is also the most important. Translation not only defines gene expression, but it is the sine qua non without which modern (protein-based) cells would not have come into existence. Yet from the start, the problem of translation has been misunderstood--a reflection of the molecular perspective that dominated Biology of the last century. In that the our conception of translation will play a significant role in creating the structure that is 21st century Biology, it is critical that our current (and fundamentally flawed) view of translation be understood for what it is and be reformulated to become an all-embracing perspective about which 21st century Biology can develop. Therefore, the present review is both a retrospective and a plea to biologists to establish a new evolutionary, RNA-World-centered concept of translation. What is needed is an evolutionarily oriented perspective that, first and foremost, focuses on the nature (and origin) of a primitive translation apparatus, the apparatus that transformed an ancient evolutionary era of nucleic acid life, the RNA World, into the world of modern cells. PMID:11497425

  11. Translation as a Psycholinguistic Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zasyekin, Serhiy

    2010-01-01

    The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human…

  12. Translation as a Teaching Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Klaus

    This paper describes and explains a classroom exercise in French translation, with a view to promoting translation as an integral part of language instruction, particularly at the third-year college level when the student can be expected to have acquired an advanced knowledge of the parts of speech, of the grammatical distribution and their…

  13. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-02-26

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  14. Does translation involve structural priming?

    PubMed

    Maier, Robert M; Pickering, Martin J; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2017-08-01

    When asked to translate utterances, people might merely make sure that their translations have the same meaning as the source, but they might also maintain aspects of sentence form across languages. We report two experiments in which English-German and German-English bilinguals (without specialist translator training) repeated German ditransitive sentences whose meaning was compatible with more than one grammatical form or translated them into English. Participants almost invariably repeated the sentences accurately, thereby retaining the grammatical structure. Importantly, Experiment 1 found that they tended to repeat grammatical form across languages. Experiment 2 included a condition with sentences that had no grammatical equivalent form in English; here participants tended to persist in the order of thematic roles. We argue that cross-linguistic structural priming plays a major role in the act of translation.

  15. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  16. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  17. Validity of Translations of a Cosmetology Licensure Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, David L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to assess the validity of translations of two different forms of a licensing examination for cosmetologists in Florida to ensure that both Spanish and English candidates have equal chances of being licensed. The LISREL computer program was used to test the equivalence of factor structure, units of measurement, and standard…

  18. The "Pedagogue as Translator" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Translation theory has faced criticism from professional translators for adopting an ivory tower stance to the "real world" challenges of translation. This article argues that a case can be made for considering the challenges of translation as it takes place in the school classroom. In support of such an argument the pedagogue as translator is…

  19. 22 CFR 92.78 - Translating documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Service are not authorized to translate documents or to certify to the correctness of translations... of a translation; to take an acknowledgment of the preparation of a translation; and to authenticate the seal and signature of a local official affixed to a translation. Separate fees should be...

  20. 22 CFR 92.78 - Translating documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Service are not authorized to translate documents or to certify to the correctness of translations... of a translation; to take an acknowledgment of the preparation of a translation; and to authenticate the seal and signature of a local official affixed to a translation. Separate fees should be...

  1. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology.

  2. Challenges in Translational Research: The Views of Addiction Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Ostergren, Jenny E.; Hammer, Rachel R.; Dingel, Molly J.; Koenig, Barbara A.; McCormick, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction. Results Most scientists described a direct translational route for their research, positing that their research will have significant societal benefits, leading to advances in treatment and novel prevention strategies. However, scientists also pointed to the inherent pressures they feel to quickly translate their research findings into actual clinical or public health use. They stressed the importance of allowing the scientific process to play out, voicing ambivalence about the recent push to speed translation. Conclusions High expectations have been raised that biomedical science will lead to new prevention and treatment modalities, exerting pressure on scientists. Our data suggest that scientists feel caught in the push for immediate applications. This overemphasis on rapid translation can lead to technologies and applications being rushed into use without critical evaluation of ethical, policy, and social implications, and without balancing their value compared to public health policies and interventions currently in place. PMID:24705385

  3. Functional Integration of mRNA Translational Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    MacNicol, Melanie C.; Cragle, Chad E.; Arumugam, Karthik; Fosso, Bruno; Pesole, Graziano; MacNicol, Angus M.

    2015-01-01

    Regulated mRNA translation plays a key role in control of cell cycle progression in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in the self-renewal and survival of stem cells and cancer stem cells. While targeting mRNA translation presents an attractive strategy for control of aberrant cell cycle progression, mRNA translation is an underdeveloped therapeutic target. Regulated mRNAs are typically controlled through interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins (RBPs) but the mechanisms by which the functions of distinct RBPs bound to a common target mRNA are coordinated are poorly understood. The challenge now is to gain insight into these mechanisms of coordination and to identify the molecular mediators that integrate multiple, often conflicting, inputs. A first step includes the identification of altered mRNA ribonucleoprotein complex components that assemble on mRNAs bound by multiple, distinct RBPs compared to those recruited by individual RBPs. This review builds upon our knowledge of combinatorial control of mRNA translation during the maturation of oocytes from Xenopus laevis, to address molecular strategies that may mediate RBP diplomacy and conflict resolution for coordinated control of mRNA translational output. Continued study of regulated ribonucleoprotein complex dynamics promises valuable new insights into mRNA translational control and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease. PMID:26197342

  4. Clinical translation of controlled protein delivery systems for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, Kara L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Strategies that utilize controlled release of drugs and proteins for tissue engineering have enormous potential to regenerate damaged organs and tissues. The multiple advantages of controlled release strategies merit overcoming the significant challenges to translation, including high costs and long, difficult regulatory pathways. This review highlights the potential of controlled release of proteins for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We specifically discuss treatment modalities that have reached preclinical and clinical trials, with emphasis on controlled release systems for bone tissue engineering, the most advanced application with several products already in clinic. Possible strategies to address translational and regulatory concerns are also discussed. PMID:25787736

  5. Addressing risk factors for child abuse among high risk pregnant women: design of a randomised controlled trial of the nurse family partnership in Dutch preventive health care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s). Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117 PMID:22017924

  6. 75 FR 17324 - Communication Management Units

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... were monitored, Ajaj and Yousef spoke in code when discussing the bomb plot.''); United States v... minutes. The Warden may require such communication to be in English, or translated by an approved... Warden may require such visits to be conducted in English, or simultaneously translated by an...

  7. Validation of a Tibetan Translation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lhewa, Dechen; Banu, Sophia; Rosenfeld, Barry; Keller, Allen

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to translate and validate the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) in a Tibetan population. Translated questionnaires were administered to 57 Tibetan survivors of torture/human rights abuses living in the United States and receiving services in a torture treatment program. Participants…

  8. Translating the covenant: The behavior analyst as ambassador and translator

    PubMed Central

    Foxx, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Behavior analysts should be sensitive to how others react to and interpret our language because it is inextricably related to our image. Our use of conceptual revision, with such terms as punishment, has created communicative confusion and hostility on the part of general and professional audiences we have attempted to influence. We must, therefore, adopt the role of ambassador and translator in the nonbehavioral world. A number of recommendations are offered for promoting, translating, and disseminating behavior analysis. PMID:22478256

  9. Developing a Process-Oriented Translation Test for Assessing English-Arabic Basic Translation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdellah, Antar Solhy

    2007-01-01

    The study reviews translation validated tests and proposes a process-oriented translation test for assessing basic translation skills for freshmen English majors at the faculty of Education. The proposed test is developed based on the process approach to translating and translation teaching, and is confined to translation from English to Arabic.…

  10. Technical Translation and Industrial Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longyka, Tomaz

    1973-01-01

    Paper presented at the symposium on The Importance and Problems of Translation in Sciences, Technology, and Economic Life.'' in Ohrid, Yugoslavia. Argues for the adoption of artificial languages as an international terminological means in science and technology. (RS)

  11. Motor cortical representation of hand translation and rotation during reaching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Chan, Sherwin S; Heldman, Dustin A; Moran, Daniel W

    2010-01-20

    Previous studies have shown that hand translation is well represented by neuronal activity in the proximal arm area of primary motor cortex (M1). However, little is known about cortical representation of hand rotation in M1. In this study, single-unit activity was recorded from monkeys while they performed a "center-out with rotation" task. When reaching for a target, subjects had to match four separate kinematic parameters: three-dimensional location and one-dimensional orientation of the target. Among the 512 neurons modulated by hand movement, 446 were tuned to hand translation, 326 were tuned to hand rotation, and 260 neurons were tuned to both hand translation and hand rotation. Approximately half of the neurons that encoded both translation and rotation did so in a nonlinear manner. This nonlinear interaction can be modeled as a gain-field type of encoding whereby hand rotational velocity modulated the hand translational cosine tuning curves in a multiplicative manner. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that both hand translation and hand rotation can be decoded simultaneously from a population of motor cortical neurons.

  12. Translational Research for Muscular Dystrophy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 MAR 2011 - 30 APR 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Translational Research for Muscular Dystrophy 5a. CONTRACT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this work is to increase the availability of critical mouse models of human muscular dystrophy (MD...3 W81XWH-11-1-0330 Cox, Gregory A 4 4 11 11 12 Translational Research for Muscular Dystrophy W81XWH-11-1-0330 Gregory A

  13. Beyond translation ... cultural fit.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Sherry Garrett

    2003-08-01

    Reaching non-English-speaking families, the economically disadvantaged, and those who are disproportionately represented in disease and injury statistics is challenging. This article describes the process of making a questionnaire developed in English, culturally appropriate for low-income, monolingual, Mexican and Mexican American mothers. The questionnaire, guided by the Health Belief Model, assesses maternal childhood injury health beliefs and was originally used with a 96% African American, English-speaking sample in the Eastern United States. Two research assistants from the target population worked with the non-Hispanic, bilingual investigator to redesign the questionnaire's language and presentation and to collect data. Sixty monolingual Latina mothers participated in the study to determine the internal consistency of the 42-item Spanish language Maternal Childhood Injury Health Belief Questionnaire (MCIHB). Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from .76 (Benefits subscale) to .90 (Consequences subscale).

  14. Translational Repression in Malaria Sporozoites

    PubMed Central

    Turque, Oliver; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Thomas; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α) leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1), is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host.

  15. New Paradigms in Translational Science Research in Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Paul D.; Srivastava, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant investments in basic science by the US National Institutes of Health, there is a concern that the return on this investment has been limited in terms of clinical utility. In the field of biomarkers, translational research is used to bridge the gap between the results of basic research that identify biomolecules involved in or the consequence of carcinogenesis and their incorporation into medical application. The cultural separation between different scientific disciplines often makes it difficult to establish the multidisciplinary and multi-skilled teams that are necessary for successful translational research. The field of biomarker research requires extensive interactions between academic researchers and industrial developers, and clinicians are needed to help shape the research direction that can only be addressed by multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional approach. In this article, we provide our perspective on the relatively slow pace of cancer biomarker translation, especially those for early detection and screening. PMID:22424436

  16. 75 FR 41279 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Send comments to: United States Sentencing Commission, One Columbus Circle, NE., Suite...

  17. Translating learning into practice

    PubMed Central

    Armson, Heather; Kinzie, Sarah; Hawes, Dawnelle; Roder, Stefanie; Wakefield, Jacqueline; Elmslie, Tom

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED The need for effective and accessible educational approaches by which family physicians can maintain practice competence in the face of an overwhelming amount of medical information. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM The practice-based small group (PBSG) learning program encourages practice changes through a process of small-group peer discussion—identifying practice gaps and reviewing clinical approaches in light of evidence. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The PBSG uses an interactive educational approach to continuing professional development. In small, self-formed groups within their local communities, family physicians discuss clinical topics using prepared modules that provide sample patient cases and accompanying information that distils the best evidence. Participants are guided by peer facilitators to reflect on the discussion and commit to appropriate practice changes. CONCLUSION The PBSG has evolved over the past 15 years in response to feedback from members and reflections of the developers. The success of the program is evidenced in effect on clinical practice, a large and increasing number of members, and the growth of interest internationally. PMID:17872876

  18. Virtual reality disaster training: translation to practice.

    PubMed

    Farra, Sharon L; Miller, Elaine T; Hodgson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Disaster training is crucial to the mitigation of both mortality and morbidity associated with disasters. Just as clinical practice needs to be grounded in evidence, effective disaster education is dependent upon the development and use of andragogic and pedagogic evidence. Educational research findings must be transformed into useable education strategies. Virtual reality simulation is a teaching methodology that has the potential to be a powerful educational tool. The purpose of this article is to translate research findings related to the use of virtual reality simulation in disaster training into education practice. The Ace Star Model serves as a valuable framework to translate the VRS teaching methodology and improve disaster training of healthcare professionals. Using the Ace Star Model as a framework to put evidence into practice, strategies for implementing a virtual reality simulation are addressed. Practice guidelines, implementation recommendations, integration to practice and evaluation are discussed. It is imperative that health educators provide more exemplars of how research evidence can be moved through the various stages of the model to advance practice and sustain learning outcomes.

  19. FutureTox III: Bridges for Translation.

    PubMed

    Juberg, Daland R; Knudsen, Thomas B; Sander, Miriam; Beck, Nancy B; Faustman, Elaine M; Mendrick, Donna L; Fowle, John R; Hartung, Thomas; Tice, Raymond R; Lemazurier, Emmanuel; Becker, Richard A; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne Compton; Daston, George P; Harrill, Alison; Hines, Ronald N; Keller, Douglas A; Lipscomb, John C; Watson, David; Bahadori, Tina; Crofton, Kevin M

    2017-01-01

    Future Tox III, a Society of Toxicology Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology workshop, was held in November 2015. Building upon Future Tox I and II, Future Tox III was focused on developing the high throughput risk assessment paradigm and taking the science of in vitro data and in silico models forward to explore the question-what progress is being made to address challenges in implementing the emerging big-data toolbox for risk assessment and regulatory decision-making. This article reports on the outcome of the workshop including 2 examples of where advancements in predictive toxicology approaches are being applied within Federal agencies, where opportunities remain within the exposome and AOP domains, and how collectively the toxicology community across multiple sectors can continue to bridge the translation from historical approaches to Tox21 implementation relative to risk assessment and regulatory decision-making.

  20. The Mystro system: A comprehensive translator toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. R.; Noonan, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Mystro is a system that facilities the construction of compilers, assemblers, code generators, query interpretors, and similar programs. It provides features to encourage the use of iterative enhancement. Mystro was developed in response to the needs of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and enjoys a number of advantages over similar systems. There are other programs available that can be used in building translators. These typically build parser tables, usually supply the source of a parser and parts of a lexical analyzer, but provide little or no aid for code generation. In general, only the front end of the compiler is addressed. Mystro, on the other hand, emphasizes tools for both ends of a compiler.

  1. Translating Stem Cell Biology Into Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Singeç, Ilyas; Simeonov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cell research has made extraordinary progress over the last decade. The robustness of nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has created entirely novel opportunities for drug discovery and personalized regenerative medicine. Patient- and disease-specific iPSCs can be expanded indefinitely and differentiated into relevant cell types of different organ systems. As the utilization of iPSCs is becoming a key enabling technology across various scientific disciplines, there are still important challenges that need to be addressed. Here we review the current state and reflect on the issues that the stem cell and translational communities are facing in bringing iPSCs closer to clinical application. PMID:27774310

  2. A methodology for successfully producing global translations of patient reported outcome measures for use in multiple countries.

    PubMed

    Two, Rebecca; Verjee-Lorenz, Aneesa; Clayson, Darren; Dalal, Mehul; Grotzinger, Kelly; Younossi, Zobair M

    2010-01-01

    The production of accurate and culturally relevant translations of patient reported outcome (PRO) measures is essential for the success of international clinical trials. Although there are many reports in publication regarding the translation of PRO measures, the techniques used to produce single translations for use in multiple countries (global translations) are not well documented. This article addresses this apparent lack of documentation and presents the methodology used to create global translations of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-Hepatitis C Virus (CLDQ-HCV). The challenges of creating a translation for use in multiple countries are discussed, and the criteria for a global translation project explained. Based on a thorough translation and linguistic validation methodology including a concept elaboration, multiple forward translations, two back translations, reviews by in-country clinicians and the instrument developer, pilot testing in each target country and multiple sets of proofreading, the key concept of the global translation methodology is consistent international harmonization, achieved through the involvement of linguists from each target country at every stage of the process. This methodology enabled the successful resolution of the translation issues encountered, and resulted in consistent translations of the CLDQ-HCV that were linguistically and culturally appropriate for all target countries.

  3. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  4. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  5. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  6. Practical advice for conducting ethical online experiments and questionnaires for United States psychologists.

    PubMed

    Barchard, Kimberly A; Williams, John

    2008-11-01

    It is increasingly easy and, therefore, increasingly common to conduct experiments and questionnaire studies in online environments. However, the online environment is not a data collection medium that is familiar to many researchers or to many research methods instructors. Because of this, researchers have received little information about how to address ethical issues when conducting online research. Researchers need practical suggestions on how to translate federal and professional ethics codes into this new data collection medium. This article assists United States psychologists in designing online studies that meet accepted standards for informed consent, deception, debriefing, the right to withdraw, security of test materials, copyright of participants' materials, confidentiality and anonymity, and avoiding harm.

  7. Cell-based therapy technology classifications and translational challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mount, Natalie M.; Ward, Stephen J.; Kefalas, Panos; Hyllner, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapies offer the promise of treating and altering the course of diseases which cannot be addressed adequately by existing pharmaceuticals. Cell therapies are a diverse group across cell types and therapeutic indications and have been an active area of research for many years but are now strongly emerging through translation and towards successful commercial development and patient access. In this article, we present a description of a classification of cell therapies on the basis of their underlying technologies rather than the more commonly used classification by cell type because the regulatory path and manufacturing solutions are often similar within a technology area due to the nature of the methods used. We analyse the progress of new cell therapies towards clinical translation, examine how they are addressing the clinical, regulatory, manufacturing and reimbursement requirements, describe some of the remaining challenges and provide perspectives on how the field may progress for the future. PMID:26416686

  8. Knowledge mapping as a technique to support knowledge translation.

    PubMed Central

    Ebener, S.; Khan, A.; Shademani, R.; Compernolle, L.; Beltran, M.; Lansang, Ma; Lippman, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of integrating knowledge mapping into a conceptual framework that could serve as a tool for understanding the many complex processes, resources and people involved in a health system, and for identifying potential gaps within knowledge translation processes in order to address them. After defining knowledge mapping, this paper presents various examples of the application of this process in health, before looking at the steps that need to be taken to identify potential gaps, to determine to what extent these gaps affect the knowledge translation process and to establish their cause. This is followed by proposals for interventions aimed at strengthening the overall process. Finally, potential limitations on the application of this framework at the country level are addressed. PMID:16917651

  9. Content-addressable memory based enforcement of configurable policies

    DOEpatents

    Berg, Michael J

    2014-05-06

    A monitoring device for monitoring transactions on a bus includes content-addressable memory ("CAM") and a response policy unit. The CAM includes an input coupled to receive a bus transaction tag based on bus traffic on the bus. The CAM stores data tags associated with rules of a security policy to compare the bus transaction tag to the data tags. The CAM generates an output signal indicating whether one or more matches occurred. The response policy unit is coupled to the CAM to receive the output signal from the CAM and to execute a policy action in response to the output signal.

  10. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  11. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  12. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  14. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  15. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  16. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  17. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  18. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  19. Translational spinal cord injury research: preclinical guidelines and challenges.

    PubMed

    Reier, Paul J; Lane, Michael A; Hall, Edward D; Teng, Y D; Howland, Dena R

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the neurobiology of spinal cord injury (SCI) have prompted increasing attention to opportunities for moving experimental strategies towards clinical applications. Preclinical studies are the centerpiece of the translational process. A major challenge is to establish strategies for achieving optimal translational progression while minimizing potential repetition of previous disappointments associated with clinical trials. This chapter reviews and expands upon views pertaining to preclinical design reported in recently published opinion surveys. Subsequent discussion addresses other preclinical considerations more specifically related to current and potentially imminent cellular and pharmacological approaches to acute/subacute and chronic SCI. Lastly, a retrospective and prospective analysis examines how guidelines currently under discussion relate to select examples of past, current, and future clinical translations. Although achieving definition of the "perfect" preclinical scenario is difficult to envision, this review identifies therapeutic robustness and independent replication of promising experimental findings as absolutely critical prerequisites for clinical translation. Unfortunately, neither has been fully embraced thus far. Accordingly, this review challenges the notion "everything works in animals and nothing in humans", since more rigor must first be incorporated into the bench-to-bedside translational process by all concerned, whether in academia, clinical medicine, or corporate circles.

  20. Power Relations and Translational Inequality in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xianbin, He

    2007-01-01

    Chinese translation to and from Japanese and English verifies the hypothesis that power differentials influence the flow and reception of translations. The Chinese tradition of translation has been characterised by fluency, but some scholars have recently advocated foreignisation for English to Chinese translation, and domestication for Chinese to…

  1. Barriers vs Creativity in Translator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Mine

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses translation problems awaiting Turkish students as well as the creative solutions they develop in overcoming them. It consists of two parts; The first part studies the barriers concerning translation procedures from the perspective of translation theory and Turkish translation history; The second parts analyses the impact of…

  2. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  3. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  4. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  5. [GTPases of prokaryotic translational apparatus].

    PubMed

    Hauryliuk, V V

    2006-01-01

    Four protein factors, belonging to the GTPase superfamily, participate in bacterial biosynthesis: IF2, EF-G, EF-Tu and RF3. The exact role and mechanism of action of these proteins was of particular interest over the last several decades. Recent advances in structural methods of ribosomal research, especially application of cryoelectron microscopy, provided powerful experimental tools for the investigation of ribosomal dynamics during translation. Simultaneously, progress in the biochemical investigation of translation allowed us to link structural rearrangements occurring in the ribosome to functional changes in the ribosome-bound translational GTPases--GDP/GTP exchange, GTPase activation and its conformational changes. Accumulated data have lead to formulation of current models of mechanisms of translation. More and more facts testify in favor of the idea that the ribosome plays a prominent role both in the nucleotide exchange and in GTPase activation, thus playing the role both of GAP and GEF for RF3, IF2 and EF-G. In our work we attempted to systematize the most important experimental findings and models for mechanisms of GTPases function and regulation in prokaryotic translation.

  6. A WiFi Public Address System for Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A.; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas. PMID:17238466

  7. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  8. All Majorana Models with Translation Symmetry are Supersymmetric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Timothy H.; Halász, Gábor B.; Grover, Tarun

    2016-10-01

    We establish results similar to Kramers and Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorems but involving only translation symmetry and for Majorana modes. In particular, we show that all states are at least doubly degenerate in any one- and two-dimensional array of Majorana modes with translation symmetry, periodic boundary conditions, and an odd number of modes per unit cell. Moreover, we show that all such systems have an underlying N =2 supersymmetry and explicitly construct the generator of the supersymmetry. Furthermore, we establish that there cannot be a unique gapped ground state in such one-dimensional systems with antiperiodic boundary conditions. These general results are fundamentally a consequence of the fact that translations for Majorana modes are represented projectively, which in turn stems from the anomalous nature of a single Majorana mode. An experimental signature of the degeneracy arising from supersymmetry is a zero-bias peak in tunneling conductance.

  9. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  10. Translation as a psycholinguistic phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Zasyekin, Serhiy

    2010-06-01

    The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human cerebral hemisphere functional asymmetry somehow plays a role in structuring the fictional text by its author and in its processing by the interpreter. It is argued that the texts of modernism and post-modernism contain information blocks describing a character's perception of events in altered states of consciousness. This model helps to explain how a translator's inappropriate linguistic choice may influence the target language reader's aesthetic reaction.

  11. Clinical and Translational Science Awards: can they increase the efficiency and speed of clinical and translational research?

    PubMed

    Heller, Caren; de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

    2009-04-01

    Most agree that the recent decades-long boom in biomedical research discoveries has not had a sufficient effect on the public's health. To overcome some of the barriers to speeding clinical and translational (C/T) research, the National Institutes of Health has established the Institutional Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). To explore whether the CTSA proposal addresses major C/T barriers and whether funded institutions offer adequate solutions, the authors reviewed the obstacles to C/T research described in the literature and examined the completeness of the solutions offered by the 12 initial CTSA awardees. Through an analysis of the literature, the authors categorized C/T barriers into three categories (research workforce, research operations, and organizational silos). They then analyzed each CTSA proposal regarding the types of programs offered to address these barriers. They found that, in general, institutions developed detailed programs to address research workforce and research operations barriers but had limited to no solutions for organizational silos. The authors suggest that differences in how barriers are addressed are consistent with the degree of control that CTSA centers have over these obstacles and solutions. They argue that although CTSA centers might have an important role in successfully addressing some of the barriers to C/T research, CTSA centers might ultimately have difficulties achieving their purported goal of facilitating and increasing the efficiency and speed of C/T research because of a lack of control over solutions to some important obstacles facing such research.

  12. The Pragmatics of Translation. Topics in Translation 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Leo, Ed.

    Pragmatics, often defined as the study of language use and language users, sets out to explain what people wish to achieve and how they go about achieving it using language. The thirteen chapters in this volume show how translation (skill, art, process, and product) is affected by pragmatic factors such as the acts performed by people when they…

  13. JavaScript DNA translator: DNA-aligned protein translations.

    PubMed

    Perry, William L

    2002-12-01

    There are many instances in molecular biology when it is necessary to identify ORFs in a DNA sequence. While programs exist for displaying protein translations in multiple ORFs in alignment with a DNA sequence, they are often expensive, exist as add-ons to software that must be purchased, or are only compatible with a particular operating system. JavaScript DNA Translator is a shareware application written in JavaScript, a scripting language interpreted by the Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer Web browsers, which makes it compatible with several different operating systems. While the program uses a familiar Web page interface, it requires no connection to the Internet since calculations are performed on the user's own computer. The program analyzes one or multiple DNA sequences and generates translations in up to six reading frames aligned to a DNA sequence, in addition to displaying translations as separate sequences in FASTA format. ORFs within a reading frame can also be displayed as separate sequences. Flexible formatting options are provided, including the ability to hide ORFs below a minimum size specified by the user. The program is available free of charge at the BioTechniques Software Library (www.Biotechniques.com).

  14. Translation Technologies: A Dilemma between Translation Industry and Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakul, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Today, physical and virtual borders are shrinking thanks to technology whose footprints are greater and faster than one can imagine. Beyond the shadow of a doubt, technology is associated with the areas for which it offers solutions such as education technologies, health technologies and translation technologies. Nowadays using translation…

  15. Diglossia in Literary Translation: Accommodation into Translation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zughoul, Muhammad Raji; El-Badarien, Mohammed Nasser

    Sociolinguistic research on varieties of language and language variation, along with the necessity for meeting "equivalence" in terms of the appropriateness of the variety to the context have been well recognized in the formulation of a translation theory. However, the treatment of variation has always been restricted to dialect and has not…

  16. Aviation Medicine Translations: Annotated Bibliography of Recently Translated Material. IX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    concerned with studies of cardiology; aviation vestibular testing and vestibular factors in accidents ; use of bones in identification of remains...stimulation, and expert testimony in aircraft accident investigation. Procedures for obtaining copies of the translations are included. 17. Key Words 18...Magdalena, F. M. Postural changes in air accidents ----------------- 4 Nainys, I. V. Identification of persons according to the proximal bones of the

  17. Nurturing and Testing Translation Competence for Text-Translating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubakirova, Karlygash Adilkhanovna

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the problems of contemporary professional education. As its instance, we examine the developmental scheme for training professional translators. Optimal ways of organizing the learning process are suggested from the point of view of the competence approach, which is widely recognized for training a modern specialist. The…

  18. Immunocapture strategies in translational proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Fredolini, Claudia; Byström, Sanna; Pin, Elisa; Edfors, Fredrik; Tamburro, Davide; Iglesias, Maria Jesus; Häggmark, Anna; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Uhlen, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at clinical studies of human diseases, antibody-assisted assays have been applied to biomarker discovery and toward a streamlined translation from patient profiling to assays supporting personalized treatments. In recent years, integrated strategies to couple and combine antibodies with mass spectrometry-based proteomic efforts have emerged, allowing for novel possibilities in basic and clinical research. Described in this review are some of the field’s current and emerging immunocapture approaches from an affinity proteomics perspective. Discussed are some of their advantages, pitfalls and opportunities for the next phase in clinical and translational proteomics. PMID:26558424

  19. Techniques for Screening Translation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, Ilya A.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Dontsova, Olga A.; Sergiev, Petr V.

    2016-01-01

    The machinery of translation is one of the most common targets of antibiotics. The development and screening of new antibiotics usually proceeds by testing antimicrobial activity followed by laborious studies of the mechanism of action. High-throughput methods for new antibiotic screening based on antimicrobial activity have become routine; however, identification of molecular targets is usually a challenge. Therefore, it is highly beneficial to combine primary screening with the identification of the mechanism of action. In this review, we describe a collection of methods for screening translation inhibitors, with a special emphasis on methods which can be performed in a high-throughput manner. PMID:27348012

  20. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  1. Dynamics of Chloroplast Translation during Chloroplast Differentiation in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Chotewutmontri, Prakitchai; Barkan, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast genomes in land plants contain approximately 100 genes, the majority of which reside in polycistronic transcription units derived from cyanobacterial operons. The expression of chloroplast genes is integrated into developmental programs underlying the differentiation of photosynthetic cells from non-photosynthetic progenitors. In C4 plants, the partitioning of photosynthesis between two cell types, bundle sheath and mesophyll, adds an additional layer of complexity. We used ribosome profiling and RNA-seq to generate a comprehensive description of chloroplast gene expression at four stages of chloroplast differentiation, as displayed along the maize seedling leaf blade. The rate of protein output of most genes increases early in development and declines once the photosynthetic apparatus is mature. The developmental dynamics of protein output fall into several patterns. Programmed changes in mRNA abundance make a strong contribution to the developmental shifts in protein output, but output is further adjusted by changes in translational efficiency. RNAs with prioritized translation early in development are largely involved in chloroplast gene expression, whereas those with prioritized translation in photosynthetic tissues are generally involved in photosynthesis. Differential gene expression in bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts results primarily from differences in mRNA abundance, but differences in translational efficiency amplify mRNA-level effects in some instances. In most cases, rates of protein output approximate steady-state protein stoichiometries, implying a limited role for proteolysis in eliminating unassembled or damaged proteins under non-stress conditions. Tuned protein output results from gene-specific trade-offs between translational efficiency and mRNA abundance, both of which span a large dynamic range. Analysis of ribosome footprints at sites of RNA editing showed that the chloroplast translation machinery does not generally

  2. Accurate Estimation of the Entropy of Rotation-Translation Probability Distributions.

    PubMed

    Fogolari, Federico; Dongmo Foumthuim, Cedrix Jurgal; Fortuna, Sara; Soler, Miguel Angel; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2016-01-12

    The estimation of rotational and translational entropies in the context of ligand binding has been the subject of long-time investigations. The high dimensionality (six) of the problem and the limited amount of sampling often prevent the required resolution to provide accurate estimates by the histogram method. Recently, the nearest-neighbor distance method has been applied to the problem, but the solutions provided either address rotation and translation separately, therefore lacking correlations, or use a heuristic approach. Here we address rotational-translational entropy estimation in the context of nearest-neighbor-based entropy estimation, solve the problem numerically, and provide an exact and an approximate method to estimate the full rotational-translational entropy.

  3. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  4. Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

  5. Recent Discoveries and Bible Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent discoveries for "Bible" translation with a focus on the "Dead Sea Scrolls." Examines recent discoveries that provide direct support for alternative reading of biblical passages and those discoveries that have contributed additional insight to knowledge of cultural practices, especially legal and religious…

  6. Advancing neurosurgery through translational research.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems.

  7. Delivering an Online Translation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dermot F.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is a discursive treatment of the migration of a classroom based translation class to online delivery using the Virtual Learning Environment WebCT. The main focus is not on the VLE itself, but on the pedagogical challenges posed by the move to online delivery and the course structure developed to retain as many of the advantages…

  8. Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kurt; Brown, Pat; Harniss, Mark; Schomer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The process and importance of Knowledge Translation (KT) for the field of rehabilitation counseling is described. One element of the KT process, systematic reviews of the literature, is described along with several strategies for grading evidence. Practicing clinicians, as do consumers, encounter a number of barriers to using primary source…

  9. Translational Research and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  10. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories.

  11. Stroke-Related Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Louis R.; Arenillas, Juan; Cramer, Steven C.; Joutel, Anne; Lo, Eng H.; Meschia, James; Savitz, Sean; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. PMID:21555605

  12. Advanced extravehicular mobility unit study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, W.

    1982-01-01

    Components of the advanced extravehicular mobility unit (suit) are described. Design considerations for radiation protection, extravehicular operational pressure, mobility effects, tool/glove/effector, anthropometric definition, lighting, and equipment turnaround are addressed.

  13. Genetic Analysis of Chloroplast Translation

    SciTech Connect

    Barkan, Alice

    2005-08-15

    The assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus requires the concerted action of hundreds of genes distributed between the two physically separate genomes in the nucleus and chloroplast. Nuclear genes coordinate this process by controlling the expression of chloroplast genes in response to developmental and environmental cues. However, few regulatory factors have been identified. We used mutant phenotypes to identify nuclear genes in maize that modulate chloroplast translation, a key control point in chloroplast gene expression. This project focused on the nuclear gene crp1, required for the translation of two chloroplast mRNAs. CRP1 is related to fungal proteins involved in the translation of mitochondrial mRNAs, and is the founding member of a large gene family in plants, with {approx}450 members. Members of the CRP1 family are defined by a repeated 35 amino acid motif called a ''PPR'' motif. The PPR motif is closely related to the TPR motif, which mediates protein-protein interactions. We and others have speculated that PPR tracts adopt a structure similar to that of TPR tracts, but with a substrate binding surface adapted to bind RNA instead of protein. To understand how CRP1 influences the translation of specific chloroplast mRNAs, we sought proteins that interact with CRP1, and identified the RNAs associated with CRP1 in vivo. We showed that CRP1 is associated in vivo with the mRNAs whose translation it activates. To explore the functions of PPR proteins more generally, we sought mutations in other PPR-encoding genes: mutations in the maize PPR2 and PPR4 were shown to disrupt chloroplast ribosome biogenesis and chloroplast trans-splicing, respectively. These and other results suggest that the nuclear-encoded PPR family plays a major role in modulating the expression of the chloroplast genome in higher plants.

  14. In vitro analysis of translation enhancers.

    PubMed

    Rakotondrafara, Aurélie M; Miller, W Allen

    2008-01-01

    The genomes of many plant viruses contain translation-enhancing sequences that allow them to compete successfully with host messenger RNAs for the translation machinery. Identification of translation enhancer elements is valuable, both to gain understanding of virus gene expression control and to apply them as tools for engineering gene expression in plant cells. Here, we describe experiments designed to detect viral elements that enhance translation, focusing on cap-independent translation activity, using a high fidelity cell-free wheat germ translation extract.

  15. Translation techniques for distributed-shared memory programming models

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Douglas James

    2005-01-01

    The high performance computing community has experienced an explosive improvement in distributed-shared memory hardware. Driven by increasing real-world problem complexity, this explosion has ushered in vast numbers of new systems. Each new system presents new challenges to programmers and application developers. Part of the challenge is adapting to new architectures with new performance characteristics. Different vendors release systems with widely varying architectures that perform differently in different situations. Furthermore, since vendors need only provide a single performance number (total MFLOPS, typically for a single benchmark), they only have strong incentive initially to optimize the API of their choice. Consequently, only a fraction of the available APIs are well optimized on most systems. This causes issues porting and writing maintainable software, let alone issues for programmers burdened with mastering each new API as it is released. Also, programmers wishing to use a certain machine must choose their API based on the underlying hardware instead of the application. This thesis argues that a flexible, extensible translator for distributed-shared memory APIs can help address some of these issues. For example, a translator might take as input code in one API and output an equivalent program in another. Such a translator could provide instant porting for applications to new systems that do not support the application's library or language natively. While open-source APIs are abundant, they do not perform optimally everywhere. A translator would also allow performance testing using a single base code translated to a number of different APIs. Most significantly, this type of translator frees programmers to select the most appropriate API for a given application based on the application (and developer) itself instead of the underlying hardware.

  16. Translational Approaches towards Cancer Gene Therapy: Hurdles and Hopes

    PubMed Central

    Barar, Jaleh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Of the cancer gene therapy approaches, gene silencing, suicide/apoptosis inducing gene therapy, immunogene therapy and targeted gene therapy are deemed to sub-stantially control the biological consequences of genomic changes in cancerous cells. Thus, a large number of clinical trials have been conducted against various malignancies. In this review, we will discuss recent translational progresses of gene and cell therapy of cancer. Methods Essential information on gene therapy of cancer were reviewed and discussed towards their clinical translations. Results Gene transfer has been rigorously studied in vitro and in vivo, in which some of these gene therapy endeavours have been carried on towards translational investigations and clinical applications. About 65% of gene therapy trials are related to cancer therapy. Some of these trials have been combined with cell therapy to produce personalized medicines such as Sipuleucel-T (Provenge®, marketed by Dendreon, USA) for the treatment of asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Conclusion Translational approach links two diverse boundaries of basic and clinical researches. For successful translation of geno-medicines into clinical applications, it is essential 1) to have the guidelines and standard operating procedures for development and application of the genomedicines specific to clinically relevant biomarker(s); 2) to conduct necessary animal experimental studies to show the “proof of concept” for the proposed genomedicines; 3) to perform an initial clinical investigation; and 4) to initiate extensive clinical trials to address all necessary requirements. In short, translational researches need to be refined to accelerate the geno-medicine development and clinical applications. PMID:23678451

  17. The Carnegie Unit: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Elena; White, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    For more than a century, the Carnegie Unit has been the central organizing feature of American education. Translated into the "credit hour" in higher education (roughly, one hour of class time per week in a 14-16 week semester), this time-based unit is embedded in nearly every aspect of the system, from faculty-workload and…

  18. The United Nations and Its Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Bhaskar P.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the development of the United Nations. Identifies achievements of the United Nations in the promotion of human rights, the translation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights into binding international covenants, and the establishment of monitoring mechanisms to ensure the protection of human rights. (KO)

  19. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  20. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  1. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  2. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  3. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  4. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  5. 49 CFR 369.6 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.6 Address. The following address must be used by motor carriers when submitting a report, requesting an exemption from filing...

  6. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  7. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  8. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  9. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  10. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  11. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  12. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  13. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  14. A MEMS Micro-Translation Stage with Long Linear Translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Cynthia K.; English, J. M.; Nordin, G. P.; Ashley, P. R.; Abushagur, M. A. G.

    2004-01-01

    A MEMS Micro-Translation Stage (MTS) actuator concept has been developed that is capable of traveling long distances, while maintaining low power, low voltage, and accuracy as required by many applications, including optical coupling. The Micro-Translation Stage (MTS) uses capacitive electrostatic forces in a linear motor application, with stationary stators arranged linearly on both sides of a channel, and matching rotors on a moveable shuttle. This creates a force that allows the shuttle to be pulled along the channel. It is designed to carry 100 micron-sized elements on the top surface, and can travel back and forth in the channel, either in a stepping fashion allowing many interim stops, or it can maintain constant adjustable speeds for a controlled scanning motion. The MTS travel range is limited only by the size of the fabrication wafer. Analytical modeling and simulations were performed based on the fabrication process, to assure the stresses, friction and electrostatic forces were acceptable to allow successful operation of this device. The translation forces were analyzed to be near 0.5 micron N, with a 300 micron N stop-to-stop time of 11.8 ms.

  15. The cancer translational research informatics platform

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Patrick; Dash, Rajesh C; Chilukuri, Ram; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Johnson, Kimberly; Annechiarico, Robert; Cuticchia, A Jamie

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™) has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform) tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes. PMID:19108734

  16. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses...

  17. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses...

  18. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses...

  19. Pope John Paul II's Address to Black Catholics: A Motive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanza, Jean M.

    Pope John Paul's visit to the United States in 1987 provided many opportunities for the analysis of papal rhetoric. The Pope's address to black Catholics in America may be of particular interest to those focusing on the study of intercultural or interracial communication. This address did not garner as much media attention as did some of the…

  20. Automated measurement of printer effective addressability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Brian E.; Eid, Ahmed H.; Rippetoe, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating printer resolution, addressability is a key consideration. Addressability defines the maximum number of spots or samples within a given distance, independent of the size of the spots when printed. Effective addressability is the addressability demonstrated by the final, printed output. It is the minimum displacement possible between the centers of printed objects. In this paper, we present a measurement procedure for effective addressability that offers an automated way to experimentally determine the addressability of the printed output. It requires printing, scanning, and measuring a test target. The effective addressability test target contains two types of elements, repeated to fill the page: fiducial lines and line segments. The fiducial lines serve as a relative reference for the incremental displacements of the individual line segments, providing a way to tolerate larger-scale physical distortions in the printer. An ordinary reflection scanner captures the printed test target. By rotating the page on the scanner, it is possible to measure effective addressability well beyond the scanner's sampling resolution. The measurement algorithm computes the distribution of incremental displacements, forming either a unimodal or bimodal histogram. In the latter case, the mean of the second (non-zero) peak indicates the effective addressability. In the former case, the printer successfully rendered the target's resolution, requiring another iteration of the procedure after increasing the resolution of the test target. The algorithm automatically estimates whether the histogram is unimodal or bimodal and computes parameters describing the quality of the measured histogram. Several experiments have refined the test target and measurement procedure, including two round-robin evaluations by the ISO WG4 committee. Results include an analysis of approximately 150 printed samples. The effective addressability attribute and measurement procedure are included in

  1. Translating genomics in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Yvonne; Bach, Peter B; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for genomics and its promise in advancing personalized medicine. Genomic information has been used to personalize health care for decades, spanning the fields of cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, endocrinology, metabolic medicine, and hematology. However, oncology has often been the first test bed for the clinical translation of genomics for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Notable hereditary cancer examples include testing for mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 in unaffected women to identify those at significantly elevated risk for developing breast and ovarian cancers, and screening patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer for mutations in 4 mismatch repair genes to reduce morbidity and mortality in their relatives. Somatic genomic testing is also increasingly used in oncology, with gene expression profiling of breast tumors and EGFR testing to predict treatment response representing commonly used examples. Health technology assessment provides a rigorous means to inform clinical and policy decision-making through systematic assessment of the evidentiary base, along with precepts of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and consideration of risks and benefits for health care delivery and society. Although this evaluation is a fundamental step in the translation of any new therapeutic, procedure, or diagnostic test into clinical care, emerging developments may threaten this standard. These include "direct to consumer" genomic risk assessment services and the challenges posed by incidental results generated from next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. This article presents a review of the evidentiary standards and knowledge base supporting the translation of key cancer genomic technologies along the continuum of validity, utility, cost-effectiveness, health service impacts, and ethical and societal issues, and offers future research considerations to guide the responsible introduction of

  2. Translation Competence and Translation Performance: Lexical, Syntactic and Textual Patterns in Student Translations of a Specialized EU Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made…

  3. Translational informatics: enabling high-throughput research paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Embi, Peter J.; Sen, Chandan K.

    2009-01-01

    A common thread throughout the clinical and translational research domains is the need to collect, manage, integrate, analyze, and disseminate large-scale, heterogeneous biomedical data sets. However, well-established and broadly adopted theoretical and practical frameworks and models intended to address such needs are conspicuously absent in the published literature or other reputable knowledge sources. Instead, the development and execution of multidisciplinary, clinical, or translational studies are significantly limited by the propagation of “silos” of both data and expertise. Motivated by this fundamental challenge, we report upon the current state and evolution of biomedical informatics as it pertains to the conduct of high-throughput clinical and translational research and will present both a conceptual and practical framework for the design and execution of informatics-enabled studies. The objective of presenting such findings and constructs is to provide the clinical and translational research community with a common frame of reference for discussing and expanding upon such models and methodologies. PMID:19737991

  4. Translation and the Teacher of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, H. S. Frank

    1977-01-01

    This article is a brief discussion of some exercises in guided translation and comparative analysis designed not only to increase students' competence in translation and knowledge of French but also to make them more attentive to their English. (CFM)

  5. Upstream Open Reading Frames Located in the Leader of Protein Kinase Mζ mRNA Regulate Its Translation

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Natalia V.; Susorov, Denis; Chesnokova, Ekaterina; Kasianov, Artem; Mikhailova, Tatiana; Alkalaeva, Elena; Balaban, Pavel M.; Kolosov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For protein synthesis that occurs locally in dendrites, the translational control mechanisms are much more important for neuronal functioning than the transcription levels. Here, we show that uORFs (upstream open reading frames) in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) play a critical role in regulation of the translation of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ). Elimination of these uORFs activates translation of the reporter protein in vitro and in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. Using cell-free translation systems, we demonstrate that translational initiation complexes are formed only on uORFs. Further, we address the mechanism of translational repression of PKMζ translation, by uORFs. We observed an increase in translation of the reporter protein under the control of PKMζ leader in neuronal culture during non-specific activation by picrotoxin. We also show that such a mechanism is similar to the mechanism seen in cell stress, as application of sodium arsenite to neuron cultures induced translation of mRNA carrying PKMζ 5′UTR similarly to picrotoxin activation. Therefore, we suppose that phosphorylation of eIF2a, like in cell stress, is a main regulator of PKMζ translation. Altogether, our findings considerably extend our understanding of the role of uORF in regulation of PKMζ translation in activated neurons, important at early stages of LTP. PMID:27790092

  6. Communicating Science: Translation and Tangibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brian

    2009-02-01

    Until last summer, I thought communicating science was just a matter of translation. When my friends' eyes glazed over as I explained, for example, how a productivity crisis and planktrophism could have caused the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, I thought they simply needed these terms translated. While cutting through potentially difficult terminology is a key part of communicating science to the public, I now know that it is only the first of two parts. The second part is making one's subject matter tangible. Finding that out was my most important lesson last summer as an AGU-sponsored fellow in the Mass Media Fellowship program run by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Understanding this journalistic two-step has helped me become a better science communicator and comprehend more fully why the Earth sciences fascinate me in the first place.

  7. Finding translation in stress research.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Ahmad R; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    In our ongoing efforts to advance understanding of human diseases, translational research across rodents and humans on stress-related mental disorders stands out as a field that is producing discoveries that illuminate mechanisms of risk and pathophysiology at a brisk rate. Here we offer a Perspective on how a productive translational research dialog between preclinical models and clinical studies of these disorders is being powered by an ever-developing appreciation of the shared neural circuits and genetic architecture that moderate the response to stress across species. Working from these deep foundations, we discuss the approaches, both traditional and innovative, that have the potential to deliver a new generation of risk biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for stress-related disorders.

  8. Translational Challenges With Tonic Immobility

    PubMed Central

    Zoellner, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing heavily from the nonhuman animal literature, understanding of tonic immobility (TI), a sustained and involuntary physical immobility, may yield clear clinical implications and strong future translational research. Clinically, for individuals who potentially have experienced TI, psychoeducation regarding its involuntary and defensive nature may help normalize trauma-related reactions. This must be balanced with the reactive nature of the information and the recognition of potentially more common survival strategies. The application of TI for research purposes may pose translational obstacles regarding construct definition and assessment. Issues include separating the construct from non-TI-related event or perpetrator characteristics, peritraumatic dissociation, and event severity. Furthermore, with its assessment, clinical status and time may inflate endorsement of the presence or severity of TI reactions. PMID:22180702

  9. Cancer Core Europe: a consortium to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum challenge.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

    2014-11-01

    European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology.

  10. Translations on Mongolia, No. 304.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are...transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in...34 / Materials of the 25th CPSU Congress/, Moscow, Politizdat, 1976, p 6. 4. "XVII s"yezd Mongol’^koy narodno-revolyutsionnoy partii. Osnovnyye materialy

  11. Project-specific Machine Translation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Linguistic Data Consortium’s Reflex Pack for Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTL) (7). The corpora labeled Sada -e-Azadi (SeA) (11) and Afghan Recovery...Linguistics, Philadelphia, PA, 2002, 311–318. 11. Sada -e Azadi. http://www.sada-e-azadi.net (accessed 2011). 12. Stolcke, A. SRILM - An Extensible...Translation Center QAMO Qamoosuna (dictionaries) RH Ranger Handbook SCFG Synchronous Context Free Grammar SeA Sada -e-Azadi SME subject matter expert SMT

  12. Kinetic modelling of mitochondrial translation.

    PubMed

    Korla, Kalyani; Mitra, Chanchal K

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein coding genes, all being part of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. The process of translation of these protein coding mRNAs in mitochondrial matrix is a good miniature model of translation in cytoplasm. In this work, we have simulated three phases of mitochondrial translation viz. initiation, elongation and termination (including ribosome recycling). The kinetic equations for these phases have been deduced based on the information available in literature. Various factors involved in the process have been included explicitly. Kinetic simulation was done using Octave, open source software. Scripts were written individually for each phase. Initiation begins with mitoribosome, mRNA, fMet-tRNA and initiation factors. The final product of the initiation script, the initiation complex, was introduced as the start point in the successive step, i.e. elongation. Elongation is a particular extensive process where the various aminoacyl-tRNAs already present in the matrix check for matching with the triplet codon in A-site of mitoribosome. This script consists of two parts: one with the time behaviour of the factors involved in the molecular process (using ordinary differential equation solver) and the other including the reading of triplet codon on the mRNA and incorporating the corresponding aminoacyl-tRNA, and then at each step elongating the peptide chain (using loops and conditions). The peptide chain thus formed in the elongation step (in the loops and conditions segment) was released in the termination step. This was followed by mitoribosome recycling where the mitoribosome reached the native state and was ready for the next cycle of translation.

  13. The Temple Translator’s Workstation Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation function for assessing the relevance of a translated...using a multilingual editor (Figure2). Source documents and their translations are managed using the Tipster Document Manager developed at CRL...an English morphological generator [Penman 88]. • A multilingual document editor (the Tipster Editor for Documents developed at CRL under the

  14. Preserved Network Metrics across Translated Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabatbat, Josephine Jill T.; Monsanto, Jica P.; Tapang, Giovanni A.

    2014-09-01

    Co-occurrence language networks based on Bible translations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) translations in different languages were constructed and compared with random text networks. Among the considered network metrics, the network size, N, the normalized betweenness centrality (BC), and the average k-nearest neighbors, knn, were found to be the most preserved across translations. Moreover, similar frequency distributions of co-occurring network motifs were observed for translated texts networks.

  15. Machine Translation Evaluation and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorr, Bonnie; Olive, Joseph; McCary, John; Christianson, Caitlin

    The evaluation of machine translation (MT) systems is a vital field of research, both for determining the effectiveness of existing MT systems and for optimizing the performance of MT systems. This part describes a range of different evaluation approaches used in the GALE community and introduces evaluation protocols and methodologies used in the program. We discuss the development and use of automatic, human, task-based and semi-automatic (human-in-the-loop) methods of evaluating machine translation, focusing on the use of a human-mediated translation error rate HTER as the evaluation standard used in GALE. We discuss the workflow associated with the use of this measure, including post editing, quality control, and scoring. We document the evaluation tasks, data, protocols, and results of recent GALE MT Evaluations. In addition, we present a range of different approaches for optimizing MT systems on the basis of different measures. We outline the requirements and specific problems when using different optimization approaches and describe how the characteristics of different MT metrics affect the optimization. Finally, we describe novel recent and ongoing work on the development of fully automatic MT evaluation metrics that have the potential to substantially improve the effectiveness of evaluation and optimization of MT systems.

  16. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  17. Translational Control during Calicivirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Royall, Elizabeth; Locker, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the strategies developed by caliciviruses to subvert or regulate the host protein synthesis machinery to their advantage. As intracellular obligate parasites, viruses strictly depend on the host cell resources to produce viral proteins. Thus, many viruses have developed strategies that regulate the function of the host protein synthesis machinery, often leading to preferential translation of viral mRNAs. Caliciviruses lack a 5′ cap structure but instead have a virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to the 5′ end of their mRNAs. Furthermore, they encode 2–4 open reading frames within their genomic and subgenomic RNAs. Therefore, they use alternative mechanisms for translation whereby VPg interacts with eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) to act as a proteinaceous cap-substitute, and some structural proteins are produced by reinitiation of translation events. This review discusses our understanding of these key mechanisms during caliciviruses infection as well as recent insights into the global regulation of eIF4E activity. PMID:27104553

  18. The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Lewis

    2015-02-01

    The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice.

  19. Systematic reviews and knowledge translation.

    PubMed Central

    Tugwell, Peter; Robinson, Vivian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Proven effective interventions exist that would enable all countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. However, uptake and use of these interventions in the poorest populations is at least 50% less than in the richest populations within each country. Also, we have recently shown that community effectiveness of interventions is lower for the poorest populations due to a "staircase" effect of lower coverage/access, worse diagnostic accuracy, less provider compliance and less consumer adherence. We propose an evidence-based framework for equity-oriented knowledge translation to enhance community effectiveness and health equity. This framework is represented as a cascade of steps to assess and prioritize barriers and thus choose effective knowledge translation interventions that are tailored for relevant audiences (public, patient, practitioner, policy-maker, press and private sector), as well as the evaluation, monitoring and sharing of these strategies. We have used two examples of effective interventions (insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and childhood immunization) to illustrate how this framework can provide a systematic method for decision-makers to ensure the application of evidence-based knowledge in disadvantaged populations. Future work to empirically validate and evaluate the usefulness of this framework is needed. We invite researchers and implementers to use the cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation as a guide when planning implementation strategies for proven effective interventions. We also encourage policy-makers and health-care managers to use this framework when deciding how effective interventions can be implemented in their own settings. PMID:16917652

  20. Staging "Swissness": Inter- and Intracultural Theatre Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jane

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the choice to translate plays from "Hochdeutsch" (the standard form of the German language) into local dialect in German-speaking Switzerland. It first looks at the creative process of translating for the amateur stage and then at the reasons behind the choice to translate. It argues that this choice reflects a desire…

  1. CMS-2 to Ada Translator Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    these translators, and to provide information to CMS -2 project managers to assist them in the evaluation of costs and risks of translating CMS -2 to Ada....The objective of this evaluation was to determine the maturity of the CMS -2 to Ada translators and associated tools, to determine the capabilities of

  2. Machine Translation in Post-Contemporary Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2010-01-01

    This article focusing on translating techniques via personal computer or laptop reports updated artificial intelligence progresses before 2010. Based on interpretations and information for field of MT [Machine Translation] by Yorick Wilks' book, "Machine Translation, Its scope and limits," this paper displays understandable theoretical frameworks…

  3. Traveling Chaucer: Comparative Translation and Cosmopolitan Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrington, Candace

    2014-01-01

    Through the comparative study of non-Anglophone translations of Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," we can achieve the progressive goals of Emily Apter's "translational transnationalism" and Edward Said's "cosmopolitan humanism." Both translation and humanism were intrinsic to Chaucer's…

  4. Collaborative Translations: Designing Bilingual Instructional Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Christopher S.; Puzio, Kelly; Jiménez, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the role of collaboration and multilingual literacy as 21st-century skills, the authors used design research methods to present, analyze, and refine a strategic reading approach for bilingual students. The collaborative translation strategy involves reading an academic text, translating key passages, and evaluating these translations.…

  5. Putting Translational Science onto a Global Stage

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, C. Taylor; Zuk, Dorit; Kocis, Petr; Johnson, Mike; Hay, Stewart; Bietrix, Florence; Aversa, Gregorio; Austin, Christopher P.; Ussi, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    Global collaboration in translational science promises to accelerate the discovery, development and dissemination of new medical interventions. In this article, we introduce a new international collaboration of translational science organizations and highlight our initial strategy to reduce or remove bottlenecks in translation. A first step in this process is increasing the awareness and understanding of the field among key stakeholder groups. PMID:27032820

  6. Brown Superfund Basic research Program: a multistakeholder partnership addresses real-world problems in contaminated communities.

    PubMed

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-07-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well-integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise.

  7. Bioethicists Can and Should Contribute to Addressing Racism.

    PubMed

    Danis, Marion; Wilson, Yolonda; White, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it. To make any useful contribution, bioethicists will require preparation and should expect to play a significant role through collaborative action with others.

  8. Ribosome profiling reveals an important role for translational control in circadian gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Christopher; Lahens, Nicholas F.; Hogenesch, John B.; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms are driven by a conserved transcriptional/translational negative feedback loop in mammals. Although most core clock factors are transcription factors, post-transcriptional control introduces delays that are critical for circadian oscillations. Little work has been done on circadian regulation of translation, so to address this deficit we conducted ribosome profiling experiments in a human cell model for an autonomous clock. We found that most rhythmic gene expression occurs with little delay between transcription and translation, suggesting that the lag in the accumulation of some clock proteins relative to their mRNAs does not arise from regulated translation. Nevertheless, we found that translation occurs in a circadian fashion for many genes, sometimes imposing an additional level of control on rhythmically expressed mRNAs and, in other cases, conferring rhythms on noncycling mRNAs. Most cyclically transcribed RNAs are translated at one of two major times in a 24-h day, while rhythmic translation of most noncyclic RNAs is phased to a single time of day. Unexpectedly, we found that the clock also regulates the formation of cytoplasmic processing (P) bodies, which control the fate of mRNAs, suggesting circadian coordination of mRNA metabolism and translation. PMID:26338483

  9. The Transcription and Translation Landscapes during Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Reveal Novel Host-Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shitrit, Alina; Shani, Odem; Le-Trilling, Vu Thuy Khanh; Trilling, Mirko; Friedlander, Gilgi; Tanenbaum, Marvin; Stern-Ginossar, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are by definition fully dependent on the cellular translation machinery, and develop diverse mechanisms to co-opt this machinery for their own benefit. Unlike many viruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) does suppress the host translation machinery, and the extent to which translation machinery contributes to the overall pattern of viral replication and pathogenesis remains elusive. Here, we combine RNA sequencing and ribosomal profiling analyses to systematically address this question. By simultaneously examining the changes in transcription and translation along HCMV infection, we uncover extensive transcriptional control that dominates the response to infection, but also diverse and dynamic translational regulation for subsets of host genes. We were also able to show that, at late time points in infection, translation of viral mRNAs is higher than that of cellular mRNAs. Lastly, integration of our translation measurements with recent measurements of protein abundance enabled comprehensive identification of dozens of host proteins that are targeted for degradation during HCMV infection. Since targeted degradation indicates a strong biological importance, this approach should be applicable for discovering central host functions during viral infection. Our work provides a framework for studying the contribution of transcription, translation and degradation during infection with any virus. PMID:26599541

  10. Online machine translation use with nursing literature: evaluation method and usability.

    PubMed

    Anazawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hirono; Park, M J; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2013-02-01

    Japanese nurses are now being required to use research in clinical practice. As a result, they increasingly need to read nursing research literature written in English. Online machine translation is a convenient tool that may address any existing language barrier. The quality of machine translation has been evaluated using various methods; however, its reliability for nursing literature is unknown. In this study, existing methods for evaluating online machine translation quality were examined for structural accuracy and intelligibility of translations of nursing literature, and the usability of machine translations is discussed. In total, 297 English sentences from nursing study abstracts were evaluated for accuracy and intelligibility; 75 word items were identified as specific terms. Interrater reliability of the evaluation method was measured using two raters. The results showed the strong reliability of the existing evaluation method. Also, a possibly usable online machine translation system being offered in Japan was identified. Specific terms seemed to influence the extent of the intelligibility of the translations. Future studies need to include more samples of the nursing population to examine general perceptions of the usability of online machine translation systems for reading English nursing literature among the Japanese nursing population.

  11. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  12. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  13. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  14. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  15. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  16. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  17. The contribution of conceptual frameworks to knowledge translation interventions in physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Hudon, Anne; Gervais, Mathieu-Joël; Hunt, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of knowledge translation activities in physical therapy to ensure that research findings are integrated into clinical practice, and increasing numbers of knowledge translation interventions are being conducted. Although various frameworks have been developed to guide and facilitate the process of translating knowledge into practice, these tools have been infrequently used in physical therapy knowledge translation studies to date. Knowledge translation in physical therapy implicates multiple stakeholders and environments and involves numerous steps. In light of this complexity, the use of explicit conceptual frameworks by clinicians and researchers conducting knowledge translation interventions is associated with a range of potential benefits. This perspective article argues that such frameworks are important resources to promote the uptake of new evidence in physical therapist practice settings. Four key benefits associated with the use of conceptual frameworks in designing and implementing knowledge translation interventions are identified, and limits related to their use are considered. A sample of 5 conceptual frameworks is evaluated, and how they address common barriers to knowledge translation in physical therapy is assessed. The goal of this analysis is to provide guidance to physical therapists seeking to identify a framework to support the design and implementation of a knowledge translation intervention. Finally, the use of a conceptual framework is illustrated through a case example. Increased use of conceptual frameworks can have a positive impact on the field of knowledge translation in physical therapy and support the development and implementation of robust and effective knowledge translation interventions that help span the research-practice gap.

  18. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  19. Future Translational Applications From the Contemporary Genomics Era

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Caroline S.; Hall, Jennifer L.; Arnett, Donna K.; Ashley, Euan A.; Delles, Christian; Engler, Mary B.; Freeman, Mason W.; Johnson, Julie A.; Lanfear, David E.; Liggett, Stephen B.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Loscalzo, Joseph; MacRae, Calum A.; Musunuru, Kiran; Newby, L. Kristin; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Rich, Stephen S.; Terzic, Andre

    2016-01-01

    The field of genetics and genomics has advanced considerably with the achievement of recent milestones encompassing the identification of many loci for cardiovascular disease and variable drug responses. Despite this achievement, a gap exists in the understanding and advancement to meaningful translation that directly affects disease prevention and clinical care. The purpose of this scientific statement is to address the gap between genetic discoveries and their practical application to cardiovascular clinical care. In brief, this scientific statement assesses the current timeline for effective translation of basic discoveries to clinical advances, highlighting past successes. Current discoveries in the area of genetics and genomics are covered next, followed by future expectations, tools, and competencies for achieving the goal of improving clinical care. PMID:25882488

  20. Clinical and Translational Scientist Career Success: Metrics for Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda S.; Pusek, Susan N.; McCormack, Wayne T.; Helitzer, Deborah L.; Martina, Camille A.; Dozier, Ann; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Schwartz, Lisa; McManus, Linda M.; Reynolds, Brian; Haynes, Erin; Rubio, Doris M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased emphasis on formal training in clinical and translational research and the growth in the number and scope of training programs over the past decade, the impact of training on research productivity and career success has yet to be fully evaluated at the institutional level. In this article, the Education Evaluation Working Group of the Clinical and Translational Science Award Consortium introduces selected metrics and methods associated with the assessment of key factors that affect research career success. The goals in providing this information are to encourage more consistent data collection across training sites, to foster more rigorous and systematic exploration of factors associated with career success, and to help address previously identified difficulties in program evaluation. PMID:23067352

  1. Clinical and translational scientist career success: metrics for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda S; Pusek, Susan N; McCormack, Wayne T; Helitzer, Deborah L; Martina, Camille A; Dozier, Ann M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Schwartz, Lisa S; McManus, Linda M; Reynolds, Brian D; Haynes, Erin N; Rubio, Doris M

    2012-10-01

    Despite the increased emphasis on formal training in clinical and translational research and the growth in the number and scope of training programs over the past decade, the impact of training on research productivity and career success has yet to be fully evaluated at the institutional level. In this article, the Education Evaluation Working Group of the Clinical and Translational Science Award Consortium introduces selected metrics and methods associated with the assessment of key factors that affect research career success. The goals in providing this information are to encourage more consistent data collection across training sites, to foster more rigorous and systematic exploration of factors associated with career success, and to help address previously identified difficulties in program evaluation.

  2. Automated Digital Analysis Of Holographic Interferograms Of Pure Translations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudry, A.; Frankena, H. J.; van Beek, J. W.

    1983-10-01

    Holographic interferometry is a versatile technique for non-tactile measurement of changes in a wide variety of physical variables such as temperature, strain, position etc. It has a great potential for becoming an important metrologic technique in industrial applications. For holographic interferometry to become more attractive for industrial practice the problem of quantitative analysis of the patterns and thereby eliciting reliable values of the relevant parameters has to be addressed. In an attempt to calibrate the technique of holographic interferometry and ascertain the reliability of the subsequent digital analysis, we have chosen precisely known translations as a basis. Holographic interferograms taken from these are analysed manually and by digital techniques specially developed for such patterns. The results are promising enough to indicate the feasibility of automated digital analysis for determining translations within an acceptable accuracy. Some details of the evaluation techniques, along with a brief discussion of the preliminary results are presented.

  3. Contextual analysis of machine-printed addresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Peter B.; Ho, Tin K.; Hull, Jonathan J.; Prussak, Michal; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1992-08-01

    The assignment of a nine digit ZIP Code (ZIP + 4 Code) to the digital image of a machine printed address block is a problem of central importance in automated mail sorting. This problem is especially difficult since most addresses do not contain ZIP + 4 Codes and often the information that must be read to match an address to one of the 28 million entries in the ZIP + 4 file is either erroneous, incomplete, or missing altogether. This paper discusses a system for interpreting a machine printed address and assigning a ZIP + 4 Code that uses a constraint satisfaction approach. Words in an address block are first segmented and parsed to assign probable semantic categories. Word images are then recognized by a combination of digit, character, and word recognition algorithms. The control structure uses a constraint satisfaction problem solving approach to match the recognition results to an entry in the ZIP + 4 file. It is shown how this technique can both determine correct responses as well as compensate for incomplete or erroneous information. Experimental results demonstrate the success of this system. In a recent test on over 1000 machine printed address blocks, the ZIP + 4 encode rate was over 73 percent. This compares to the success rate of current postal OCRs which is about 45 percent. Additionally, the word recognition algorithm recognizes over 92 percent of the input images (over 98 percent in the top 10 choices.

  4. Machine-Aided Translation: From Terminology Banks to Interactive Translation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Concetta C.; Serain, Daniel

    The rapid growth of the need for technical translations in recent years has led specialists to utilize computer technology to improve the efficiency and quality of translation. The two approaches considered were automatic translation and terminology banks. Since the results of fully automatic translation were considered unsatisfactory by various…

  5. The Nucleus of Translating as One Critical Concern in Translation Pedagogy and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen Chau

    1999-01-01

    Studies the translation of nonliterary texts. The objective is to associate the nucleus of translating with the value of a source-language text, advancing the claim that appropriately translating the nucleus is among the most important concerns, and to propose an approach to assessment for translation quality based on how the nucleus is rendered.…

  6. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  7. How Do English Translation Majors Use Translation Strategies? A Survey of the Iranian EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asgarian, Amir; Vefali, Gülsen Musayeva

    2015-01-01

    Translation language learning strategies, especially in relation to translation students, have not received adequate attention in the research to date. Therefore, the present study attempted to explore Iranian translation students' use of translation strategies, related beliefs, and academic achievement. It was a survey study involving…

  8. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  9. The NIEHS Superfund Research Program: 25 Years of Translational Research for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Robert O.; Cordero, Jose F.; Eaton, David L.; Goldstein, Bernard D.; Hennig, Bernhard; Maier, Raina M.; Ozonoff, David M.; Smith, Martyn T.; Tukey, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Superfund Research Program (SRP) is an academically based, multidisciplinary, translational research program that for 25 years has sought scientific solutions to health and environmental problems associated with hazardous waste sites. SRP is coordinated by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). It supports multi-project grants, undergraduate and postdoctoral training programs, individual research grants, and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Technology Transfer Research (STTR) grants. Results SRP has had many successes: discovery of arsenic’s toxicity to the developing human central nervous system; documentation of benzene toxicity to hematologic progenitor cells in human bone marrow; development of novel analytic techniques such as the luciferase expression assay and laser fragmentation fluorescence spectroscopy; demonstration that PCBs can cause developmental neurotoxicity at low levels and alter the genomic characteristics of sentinel animals; elucidation of the neurodevelopmental toxicity of organophosphate insecticides; documentation of links between antimicrobial agents and alterations in hormone response; discovery of biological mechanisms through which environmental chemicals may contribute to obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer; tracking the health and environmental effects of the attacks on the World Trade Center and Hurricane Katrina; and development of novel biological and engineering techniques to facilitate more efficient and lower-cost remediation of hazardous waste sites. Conclusion SRP must continue to address the legacy of hazardous waste in the United States, respond to new issues caused by rapid advances in technology, and train the next generation of leaders in environmental health science while recognizing that most of the world’s worst toxic hot spots are now located in low- and middle-income countries. Citation Landrigan PJ, Wright RO, Cordero JF, Eaton DL, Goldstein BD

  10. Developing the capacity to better address societal concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holoviak, Judy C.

    1997-02-01

    During the 1996 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting, representatives of 18 scientific societies from Australia, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States agreed on a number of issues facing society that Earth and space scientists can help resolve. Despite the near unanimity on the issues, the group did not develop a clear plan for how they might collectively address these problems. Rather, the products of the convocation were a better understanding of the missions and approaches of the societies represented and a commitment to develop ways to share information on a continuing basis. Knowing more about the activities and interests of the different scientific societies will facilitate bilateral arrangements on matters of mutual concern. Electronic communication systems will be used to facilitate this sharing and several specific actions were agreed to as a follow-on from the convocation.

  11. The Translated Dowling Polynomials and Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Mangontarum, Mahid M.; Macodi-Ringia, Amila P.; Abdulcarim, Normalah S.

    2014-01-01

    More properties for the translated Whitney numbers of the second kind such as horizontal generating function, explicit formula, and exponential generating function are proposed. Using the translated Whitney numbers of the second kind, we will define the translated Dowling polynomials and numbers. Basic properties such as exponential generating functions and explicit formula for the translated Dowling polynomials and numbers are obtained. Convexity, integral representation, and other interesting identities are also investigated and presented. We show that the properties obtained are generalizations of some of the known results involving the classical Bell polynomials and numbers. Lastly, we established the Hankel transform of the translated Dowling numbers. PMID:27433494

  12. Regenerable biocide delivery unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is used on the Space Shuttle to impart an iodine residual to the drinking water to maintain microbial control. Approximately twenty MCV locations have been identified in the Space Station Freedom design, each with a 90-day life. This translates to 2400 replacement units in 30 years of operation. An in situ regeneration concept has been demonstrated that will reduce this replacement requirement to less than 300 units based on data to date. A totally automated system will result in significant savings in crew time, resupply requirements, and replacement costs. An additional feature of the device is the ability to provide a concentrated biocide source (200 mg/liter of I2) that can be used to superiodinate systems routinely or after a microbial upset.

  13. Dissemination: bringing translational research to completion.

    PubMed

    Clark, Florence; Park, Daniel J; Burke, Janice P

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of innovative health care research, a gap exists between research-generated knowledge and the utilization of that knowledge in real-world practice settings. This article examines the transition from research to implementation in the context of the dissemination of A. Jean Ayres' sensory integration procedures and of the challenges currently facing the University of Southern California Well Elderly Studies research team. Drawing from the emerging field of implementation science, this article discusses how researchers can develop an implementation plan to more easily translate evidence into practice. Such plans should address the intervention's reach (i.e., its capacity to penetrate into the intended target population), the settings for which it is applicable, the leaders who will encourage practitioner uptake, stakeholder groups, and challenges to dissemination. By taking action to ensure the more effective dissemination of research-generated knowledge, researchers can increase the likelihood that their interventions will lead to improvements in practice and more effective care for consumers.

  14. Translational In Vivo Models for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fliegner, Daniela; Gerdes, Christoph; Meding, Jörg; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are still the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. Experimental cardiology research and preclinical drug development in cardiology call for appropriate and especially clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo studies. The use of animal models has contributed to expand our knowledge and our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and accordingly provided new approaches focused on the improvement of diagnostic and treatment strategies of various cardiac pathologies.Numerous animal models in different species as well as in small and large animals have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and thrombotic diseases. However, a perfect model of heart failure or other indications that reproduces every aspect of the natural disease does not exist. The complexity and heterogeneity of cardiac diseases plus the influence of genetic and environmental factors limit to mirror a particular disease with a single experimental model.Thus, drug development in the field of cardiology is not only very challenging but also inspiring; therefore animal models should be selected that reflect as best as possible the disease being investigated. Given the wide range of animal models, reflecting critical features of the human pathophysiology available nowadays increases the likelihood of the translation to the patients. Furthermore, this knowledge and the increase of the predictive value of preclinical models help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions as well as better and innovative treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Tissue Engineered Constructs: Perspectives on Clinical Translation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lichun; Arbit, Harvey M.; Herrick, James L.; Segovis, Suzanne Glass; Maran, Avudaiappan; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a “bedside to bench and back” approach for developing tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs) for clinical applications is reviewed. The driving force behind this approach is unmet clinical needs. Preclinical research, both in vitro and in vivo using small and large animal models, will help find solutions to key research questions. In clinical research, ethical issues regarding the use of cells and tissues, their sources, donor consent, as well as clinical trials are important considerations. Regulatory issues, at both institutional and government levels, must be addressed prior to the translation of TEMPs to clinical practice. TEMPs are regulated as drugs, biologics, devices, or combination products by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Depending on the mode of regulation, applications for TEMP introduction must be filed with the FDA to demonstrate safety and effectiveness in premarket clinical studies, followed by 510(k) premarket clearance or premarket approval (for medical devices), biologics license application approval (for biologics), or New Drug Application approval (for drugs). A case study on nerve cuffs is presented to illustrate the regulatory process. Finally, perspectives on commercialization such as finding a company partner and funding issues, as well as physician culture change, are presented. PMID:25711151

  16. 26 CFR 1.985-3 - United States dollar approximate separate transactions method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of DASTM gain or loss as determined under paragraph (d) of this section. (c) Translation into United... into dollars at the exchange rate (as defined in paragraph (c)(6) of this section) for the translation... reference to a translation period prior to the change in functional currency. For example, depreciation...

  17. Translational Cellular Research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of Translational Research aims to coalesce interdisciplinary findings from basic science for biomedical applications. To complement spaceflight research using human subjects, translational studies can be designed to address aspects of space-related human health risks and help develop countermeasures to prevent or mitigate them, with therapeutical benefits for analogous conditions experienced on Earth. Translational research with cells and model organisms is being conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in connection with various human systems impacted by spaceflight, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. Examples of recent cell-based translational investigations on the ISS include the following. The JAXA investigation Cell Mechanosensing seeks to identify gravity sensors in skeletal muscle cells to develop muscle atrophy countermeasures by analyzing tension fluctuations in the plasma membrane, which changes the expression of key proteins and genes. Earth applications of this study include therapeutic approaches for some forms of muscular dystrophy, which appear to parallel aspects of muscle wasting in space. Spheroids is an ESA investigation examining the system of endothelial cells lining the inner surface of all blood vessels in terms of vessel formation, cellular proliferation, and programmed cell death, because injury to the endothelium has been implicated as underpinning various cardiovascular and musculoskeletal problems arising during spaceflight. Since endothelial cells are involved in the functional integrity of the vascular wall, this research has applications to Earth diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. The goal of the T-Cell Activation in Aging NASA investigation is to understand human immune system depression in microgravity by identifying gene expression patterns of candidate molecular regulators, which will provide further insight into factors that may play a

  18. Applying Individual Tree Structure From Lidar to Address the Sensitivity of Allometric Equations to Small Sample Sizes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncanson, L.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-12-01

    Lidar remote sensing is widely applied for mapping forest carbon stocks, and technological advances have improved our ability to capture structural details from forests, even resolving individual trees. Despite these advancements, the accuracy of forest aboveground biomass models remains limited by the quality of field estimates of biomass. The accuracies of field estimates are inherently dependent on the accuracy of the allometric equations used to relate measurable attributes to biomass. These equations are calibrated with relatively small samples of often spatially clustered trees. This research focuses on one of many issues involving allometric equations - understanding how sensitive allometric parameters are to the sample sizes used to fit them. We capitalize on recent advances in lidar remote sensing to extract individual tree structural information from six high-resolution airborne lidar datasets in the United States. We remotely measure millions of tree heights and crown radii, and fit allometric equations to the relationship between tree height and radius at a 'population' level, in each site. We then extract samples from our tree database, and build allometries on these smaller samples of trees, with varying sample sizes. We show that for the allometric relationship between tree height and crown radius, small sample sizes produce biased allometric equations that overestimate height for a given crown radius. We extend this analysis using translations from the literature to address potential implications for biomass, showing that site-level biomass may be greatly overestimated when applying allometric equations developed with the typically small sample sizes used in popular allometric equations for biomass.

  19. Accelerating adaptation of natural resource management to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn A F

    2013-02-01

    Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants' self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world.

  20. From genes to community: exploring translational science in adolescent health research: proceedings from a research symposium.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Addressing complex adolescent health problems such as youth violence and teen pregnancy requires innovative strategies to promote protective social environments, increase healthier behaviors, and reduce the impact of health risk behaviors into adulthood. Multilevel, interdisciplinary, and translational approaches are needed to address these challenges in adolescent health. In May 2012, a group of adolescent health researchers participated in a 1-day research symposium titled "From Genes to Community: Exploring Translational Science in Adolescent Health Research," sponsored by the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) of the University of Pittsburgh and the Division of Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The research symposium offered opportunities for adolescent health researchers to share examples of translational research as well as to identify potential collaborations to promote translational research. This and subsequent issues of Clinical and Translational Science will include papers from this symposium. The studies and reviews presented range from how basic biobehavioral sciences such as functional neuroimaging and decision science can be made relevant for intervention development as well as improving strategies for community-partnered knowledge transfer of cutting-edge research findings to promote adolescent health and well-being.

  1. Translating stem cell research: challenges at the research frontier.

    PubMed

    Magnus, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper will address the translation of basic stem cell research into clinical research. While "stem cell" trials are sometimes used to describe established practices of bone marrow transplantation or transplantation of primary cells derived from bone marrow, for the purposes of this paper, I am primarily focusing on stem cell trials which are far less established, including use of hESC derived stem cells. The central ethical challenges in stem cell clinical trials arise in frontier research, not in standard, well-established areas of research.

  2. Methodological considerations when translating “burnout”☆

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Finlayson, Catherine; Gerchow, Lauren; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Matthews, Anne; Schwendimann, Rene; Griffiths, Peter; Busse, Reinhard; Heinen, Maude; Brzostek, Tomasz; Moreno-Casbas, Maria Teresa; Aiken, Linda H.; Sermeus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross-cultural instrument analysis, 7 out of 22 items on the instrument received an extremely low kappa score. Investigators may need to employ more rigorous cross-cultural adaptation methods when attempting to measure burnout. PMID:25343131

  3. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  4. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  5. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  6. Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration (Chinese Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Michael; Frew, Bethany; Zhou, Ella; Arent, Douglas J.

    2015-10-01

    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64864. This report summarizes some of the issues discussed during the engagement on power system flexibility. By design, the focus is on flexibility options used in the United States. Exploration of whether and how U.S. experiences can inform Chinese energy planning will be part of the continuing project, and will benefit from the knowledge base provided by this report. We believe the initial stage of collaboration represented in this report has successfully started a process of mutual understanding, helping Chinese researchers to begin evaluating how lessons learned in other countries might translate to China's unique geographic, economic, social, and political contexts.

  7. Bringing rigour to translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Howells, David W; Sena, Emily S; Macleod, Malcolm R

    2014-01-01

    Translational neuroscience is in the doldrums. The stroke research community was among the first to recognize that the motivations inherent in our system of research can cause investigators to take shortcuts, and can introduce bias and reduce generalizability, all of which leads ultimately to the recurrent failure of apparently useful drug candidates in clinical trials. Here, we review the evidence for these problems in stroke research, where they have been most studied, and in other translational research domains, which seem to be bedevilled by the same issues. We argue that better scientific training and simple changes to the way that we fund, assess and publish research findings could reduce wasted investment, speed drug development, and create a healthier research environment. For 'phase III' preclinical studies--that is, those studies that build the final justification for conducting a clinical trial--we argue for a need to apply the same attention to detail, experimental rigour and statistical power in our animal experiments as in the clinical trials themselves.

  8. Optical-to-Tactile Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langevin, Maurice L. (Inventor); Moynihan, Philip I. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An optical-to-tactile translator provides an aid for the visually impaired by translating a near-field scene to a tactile signal corresponding to said near-field scene. An optical sensor using a plurality of active pixel sensors (APS) converts the optical image within the near-field scene to a digital signal. The digital signal is then processed by a microprocessor and a simple shape signal is generated based on the digital signal. The shape signal is then communicated to a tactile transmitter where the shape signal is converted into a tactile signal using a series of contacts. The shape signal may be an outline of the significant shapes determined in the near-field scene, or the shape signal may comprise a simple symbolic representation of common items encountered repeatedly. The user is thus made aware of the unseen near-field scene, including potential obstacles and dangers, through a series of tactile contacts. In a preferred embodiment, a range determining device such as those commonly found on auto-focusing cameras is included to limit the distance that the optical sensor interprets the near-field scene.

  9. Energy flows, metabolism and translation

    PubMed Central

    Pascal, Robert; Boiteau, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamics provides an essential approach to understanding how living organisms survive in an organized state despite the second law. Exchanges with the environment constantly produce large amounts of entropy compensating for their own organized state. In addition to this constraint on self-organization, the free energy delivered to the system, in terms of potential, is essential to understand how a complex chemistry based on carbon has emerged. Accordingly, the amount of free energy brought about through discrete events must reach the strength needed to induce chemical changes in which covalent bonds are reorganized. The consequence of this constraint was scrutinized in relation to both the development of a carbon metabolism and that of translation. Amino acyl adenylates involved as aminoacylation intermediates of the latter process reach one of the higher free energy levels found in biochemistry, which may be informative on the range in which energy was exchanged in essential early biochemical processes. The consistency of this range with the amount of energy needed to weaken covalent bonds involving carbon may not be accidental but the consequence of the abovementioned thermodynamic constraints. This could be useful in building scenarios for the emergence and early development of translation. PMID:21930587

  10. Energy flows, metabolism and translation.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Robert; Boiteau, Laurent

    2011-10-27

    Thermodynamics provides an essential approach to understanding how living organisms survive in an organized state despite the second law. Exchanges with the environment constantly produce large amounts of entropy compensating for their own organized state. In addition to this constraint on self-organization, the free energy delivered to the system, in terms of potential, is essential to understand how a complex chemistry based on carbon has emerged. Accordingly, the amount of free energy brought about through discrete events must reach the strength needed to induce chemical changes in which covalent bonds are reorganized. The consequence of this constraint was scrutinized in relation to both the development of a carbon metabolism and that of translation. Amino acyl adenylates involved as aminoacylation intermediates of the latter process reach one of the higher free energy levels found in biochemistry, which may be informative on the range in which energy was exchanged in essential early biochemical processes. The consistency of this range with the amount of energy needed to weaken covalent bonds involving carbon may not be accidental but the consequence of the above mentioned thermodynamic constraints. This could be useful in building scenarios for the emergence and early development of translation.

  11. HDL to verification logic translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  12. RAN Translation in Huntington Disease.

    PubMed

    Bañez-Coronel, Monica; Ayhan, Fatma; Tarabochia, Alex D; Zu, Tao; Perez, Barbara A; Tusi, Solaleh Khoramian; Pletnikova, Olga; Borchelt, David R; Ross, Christopher A; Margolis, Russell L; Yachnis, Anthony T; Troncoso, Juan C; Ranum, Laura P W

    2015-11-18

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG ⋅ CTG expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. While most research has focused on the HTT polyGln-expansion protein, we demonstrate that four additional, novel, homopolymeric expansion proteins (polyAla, polySer, polyLeu, and polyCys) accumulate in HD human brains. These sense and antisense repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation proteins accumulate most abundantly in brain regions with neuronal loss, microglial activation and apoptosis, including caudate/putamen, white matter, and, in juvenile-onset cases, also the cerebellum. RAN protein accumulation and aggregation are length dependent, and individual RAN proteins are toxic to neural cells independent of RNA effects. These data suggest RAN proteins contribute to HD and that therapeutic strategies targeting both sense and antisense genes may be required for efficacy in HD patients. This is the first demonstration that RAN proteins are expressed across an expansion located in an open reading frame and suggests RAN translation may also contribute to other polyglutamine diseases.

  13. RAN Translation in Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bañez-Coronel, Monica; Ayhan, Fatma; Tarabochia, Alex D.; Zu, Tao; Perez, Barbara A.; Tusi, Solaleh Khoramian; Pletnikova, Olga; Borchelt, David R.; Ross, Christopher A.; Margolis, Russell L.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Ranum, Laura P.W.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG·CTG expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. While most research has focused on the HTT polyGln-expansion protein, we demonstrate that four additional, novel, homopolymeric expansion proteins (polyAla, polySer, polyLeu, and polyCys) accumulate in HD human brains. These sense and antisense repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation proteins accumulate most abundantly in brain regions with neuronal loss, microglial activation and apoptosis, including caudate/putamen, white matter, and, in juvenile-onset cases, also the cerebellum. RAN protein accumulation and aggregation are length dependent, and individual RAN proteins are toxic to neural cells independent of RNA effects. These data suggest RAN proteins contribute to HD and that therapeutic strategies targeting both sense and antisense genes may be required for efficacy in HD patients. This is the first demonstration that RAN proteins are expressed across an expansion located in an open reading frame and suggests RAN translation may also contribute to other poly-glutamine diseases. PMID:26590344

  14. Addressing EO-1 Spacecraft Pulsed Plasma Thruster EMI Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzwski, C. M.; Davis, Mitch; Sarmiento, Charles; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) spacecraft has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. Results from PPT unit level radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests led to concerns about potential interference problems with other spacecraft subsystems. Initial plans to address these concerns included firing the PPT at the spacecraft level both in atmosphere, with special ground support equipment. and in vacuum. During the spacecraft level tests, additional concerns where raised about potential harm to the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). The inadequacy of standard radiated emission test protocol to address pulsed electromagnetic discharges and the lack of resources required to perform compatibility tests between the PPT and an ALI test unit led to changes in the spacecraft level validation plan. An EMI shield box for the PPT was constructed and validated for spacecraft level ambient testing. Spacecraft level vacuum tests of the PPT were deleted. Implementation of the shield box allowed for successful spacecraft level testing of the PPT while eliminating any risk to the ALI. The ALI demonstration will precede the PPT demonstration to eliminate any possible risk of damage of ALI from PPT operation.

  15. Managed Migration: The Caribbean Approach to Addressing Nursing Services Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Marla E; Yan, Jean; Hewitt, Hermi; Guisinger, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Objective To (1) provide a contextual analysis of the Caribbean region with respect to forces shaping the current and emerging nursing workforce picture in the region; (2) discuss country-specific case(s) within the Caribbean; and (3) describe the Managed Migration Program as a potential framework for addressing regional and global nurse migration issues. Principal Findings The Caribbean is in the midst of a crisis of shortages of nurses with an average vacancy rate of 42 percent. Low pay, poor career prospects, and lack of education opportunities are among the reasons nurses resign. Many of these nurses look outside the region for job opportunities in the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, and other countries. Compounding the situation is the lack of resources to train nurses to fill the vacancies. The Managed Migration Program of the Caribbean is a multilateral, cross-sector, multi-interventional, long-term strategy for developing and maintaining an adequate supply of nurses for the region. Conclusions The Managed Migration Program of the Caribbean has made progress in establishing regional support for addressing the nursing shortage crisis and developing a number of interesting initiatives such as training for export and temporary migration. Recommendations to move the Managed Migration Program of the Caribbean forward focus on advocacy, integration of the program into regional policy decisions, and integration of the program with regional health programming. PMID:17489919

  16. TRW utility demonstration unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Entrained Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/oil unit to fire 2.5% sulfur coal. The slagging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Environmental Standards. During this report period, activity continued to address the total program funding shortfall. Ideas and responsibilities for further evaluation have been put forward to reduce the shortfall. In addition, an effort aimed at gaining additional program sponsorships, was initiated.

  17. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  18. A flexible analog memory address list manager for PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Musrock, M.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Walker, J.W.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.; Allen, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    A programmable analog memory address list manager has been developed for use with all analog memory-based detector subsystems of PHENIX. The unit provides simultaneous read/write control, cell write-over protection for both a Level-1 trigger decision delay and digitization latency, and re-ordering of AMU addresses following conversion, at a beam crossing rate of 105 ns. Addresses are handled such that up to 5 Level-1 (LVL-1) events can be maintained in the AMU without write-over. Data tagging is implemented for handling overlapping and shared beam-event data packets. Full usage in all PHENIX analog memory-based detector subsystems is accomplished by the use of detector-specific programmable parameters--the number of data samples per valid LVL-1 trigger and the sample spacing. Architectural candidates for the system are discussed with emphasis on implementation implications. Details of the design are presented including application specifics, timing information, and test results from a full implementation using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).

  19. Addressable nanoelectrode membrane arrays: fabrication and steady-state behavior.

    PubMed

    Zoski, Cynthia G; Yang, Nianjun; He, Peixin; Berdondini, Luca; Koudelka-Hep, Milena

    2007-02-15

    An addressable nanoelectrode membrane array (ANEMA) based on a Au-filled track-etched polycarbonate membrane was fabricated. The Au-filled membrane was secured to a lithographically fabricated addressable ultramicroelectrode (UME) array patterned with 25 regularly spaced (100 microm center to center spacing), 10 microm diameter recessed Pt UMEs to create 25 microregions of 10 microm diameter nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) on the membrane. The steady-state voltammetric behavior of 1.0 mM Ru(NH(3))(6)Cl(3) and 1.0 mM ferrocene methanol in 0.1 M KCl on each of the micro NEEs resulted in sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms which were reproducible across the ANEMA. This reproducibility of the steady-state current was attributed to the overlapping hemispherical diffusion layers at the Au-filled nanopores of each 10 microm diameter NEE of a ANEMA. The track-etched polycarbonate membranes were filled using a gold electroless deposition procedure into the 30 nm diameter pores in the membrane. Electrical connection between the Au-filled template array and the lithographic UME platform array was achieved by potentiostatic electrodeposition of Cu from an acidic copper solution into each of the 25 recessed Pt UMEs on the UME array platform. A multiplexer unit capable of addressing 64 individual micro NEEs on an ANEMA is described. ANEMAs have advantages of high reproducibility, facile fabrication, multitime reuse of lithographically fabricated UME arrays, and purely steady-state behavior.

  20. Concerning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadlinger, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    SI units come in two distinct types: fundamental (kilogram, meter) and descriptive (atom, molecule). Proper/improper uses of atom/molecule from historical cases are presented followed by a re-introduction of a light "wave (cycle)" unit and the clearly defined photon model which is deduced. Also examines omission of the fundamental unit "radon."…