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Sample records for address unanswered questions

  1. Importance of Broken Gauge Symmetry in Addressing Three, Key, Unanswered Questions Posed by Low Nuclear Reactions (LENR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2003-03-01

    Three, Key, Unanswered Questions posed by LENR's are: 1. How do we explain the lack of high energy particles (HEP's)? 2. Can we understand and prioritize the way coupling can occur between nuclear- and atomic- lengthscales, and 3. What are the roles of Surface-Like (SL), as opposed to Bulk-Like (BL), processes in triggering nuclear phenomena. One important source of confusion associated with each of these questions is the common perception that the quantum mechanical phases of different particles are not correlated with each other. When the momenta p of interacting particles is large, and reactions occur rapidly (between HEP's, for example), this is a valid assumption. But when the relative difference in p becomes vanishingly small, between one charge, and many others, as a result of implicit electromagnetic coupling, each charge can share a common phase, relative to the others, modulo 2nπ, where n is an integer, even when outside forces are introduced. The associated forms of broken gauge symmetry, distinguish BL from SL phenomena, at room temperature, also explain super- and normal- conductivity in solids, and can be used to address the Three, Key, Unanswered Questions posed by LENR's.

  2. Aging and Depression: Some Unanswered Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvik, Lissy F.

    1976-01-01

    The subject of aging and depression leaves many unanswered questions which this author raises. Little is known regarding the differentiation of depressive illness from a melancholic response to the stressful aging process, and equally little regarding the natural history of depressions with onset in the teens, 20s, or 30s. (Author)

  3. Henipaviruses-unanswered questions of lethal zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Field, Hume; Kung, Nina

    2011-12-01

    The highly lethal Hendra and Nipah viruses have been described for little more than a decade, yet within that time have been aetiologically associated with major livestock and human health impacts, albeit on a limited scale. Do these emerging pathogens pose a broader threat, or are they inconsequential 'viral chatter'. Given their lethality, and the evident multi-generational human-to-human transmission associated with Nipah virus in Bangladesh, it seems prudent to apply the precautionary principle. While much is known of their clinical, pathogenic and epidemiologic features in livestock species and humans, a number of fundamental questions regarding the relationship between the viruses, their natural fruit-bat host and the environment remain unanswered. In this paper, we pose and probe these questions in context, and offer perspectives based primarily on our experience with Hendra virus in Australia, augmented with Nipah virus parallels. PMID:22440924

  4. Bacterial protein acetylation: new discoveries unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Alan J

    2016-05-01

    Nε-acetylation is emerging as an abundant post-translational modification of bacterial proteins. Two mechanisms have been identified: one is enzymatic, dependent on an acetyltransferase and acetyl-coenzyme A; the other is non-enzymatic and depends on the reactivity of acetyl phosphate. Some, but not most, of those acetylations are reversed by deacetylases. This review will briefly describe the current status of the field and raise questions that need answering. PMID:26660885

  5. AREDS2: Perspectives, Recommendations, and Unanswered Questions

    PubMed Central

    Aronow, Mary E.; Chew, Emily Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review provides a perspective on the AREDS2 including: a summary of the goals and rationale of the study, major findings, subsequent management recommendations, and questions which remain to be answered. Recent findings The primary goal of the AREDS2 was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lutein plus zeaxanthin and/or omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated acid (LCPUFA) supplementation in reducing the risk of developing advanced AMD. AREDS2 also investigated the effects of omitting beta carotene and reducing the concentration of zinc from the original AREDS formulation. While primary analysis from the AREDS2 did not reveal a benefit of daily supplementation with lutein/zeaxanthin on AMD progression, secondary exploratory analyses suggested that lutein/zeaxanthin were helpful in reducing this risk. Comparison of low dose to higher dose zinc showed no significant benefit. Summary The overall evidence on the beneficial and adverse effects from AREDS2 and other studies suggests that lutein/zeaxanthin could be more appropriate than beta carotene in AREDS-type supplements. Questions remain regarding the AREDS2 study results such as: whether the findings are generalizable to the population as a whole, what is the long-term safety profile of lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation, should other carotenoids be included in AREDS-type supplements, and at what optimal doses. PMID:24614146

  6. Autoantibodies in Systemic Sclerosis: Unanswered Questions

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Cristiane; Fritzler, Marvin J.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by vascular abnormalities, and cutaneous and visceral fibrosis. Serum autoantibodies directed to multiple intracellular antigens are present in more than 95% of patients and are considered a hallmark of SSc. They are helpful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of SSc and are associated with distinctive clinical manifestations. With the advent of more sensitive, multiplexed immunoassays, new and old questions about the relevance of autoantibodies in SSc are emerging. In this review, we discuss the clinical relevance of autoantibodies in SSc emphasizing the more recently published data. Moreover, we will summarize recent advances regarding the stability of SSc autoantibodies over the course of disease, whether they are mutually exclusive and their potential roles in the disease pathogenesis. PMID:25926833

  7. Rift Valley fever virus: Unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Bird, Brian H; McElroy, Anita K

    2016-08-01

    This mosquito-borne pathogen of humans and animals respects no international or geographic boundaries. It is currently found in parts of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula where periodic outbreaks of severe and fatal disease occur, and threatens to spread into other geographic regions. In recent years, modern molecular techniques have led to many breakthroughs deepening our understanding of the mechanisms of RVFV virulence, phylogenetics, and the creation of several next-generation vaccine candidates. Despite tremendous progress in these areas, other challenges remain in RVF disease pathogenesis, the virus life-cycle, and outbreak response preparedness that deserve our attention. Here we discuss and highlight ten key knowledge gaps and challenges in RVFV research. Answers to these key questions may lead to the development of new effective therapeutics and enhanced control strategies for this serious human and veterinary health threat. PMID:27400990

  8. Lung cancer screening: latest developments and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    van der Aalst, Carlijn M; Ten Haaf, Kevin; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-09-01

    The US National Lung Screening Trial showed that individuals randomly assigned to screening with low-dose CT scans had 20% lower lung cancer mortality than did those screened with conventional chest radiography. On the basis of a review of the literature and a modelling study, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends annual screening for lung cancer for individuals aged 55-80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and either currently smoke or quit smoking within the past 15 years. However, the balance between benefits and harms of lung cancer screening is still greatly debated. The large number of false-positive results and the potential for overdiagnosis are causes for concern. Some investigators suggest the ratio between benefits and harms could be improved through various means. Nevertheless, many questions remain with regard to the implementation of lung cancer screening. This paper highlights the latest developments in CT lung cancer screening and provides an overview of the main unanswered questions. PMID:27599248

  9. Gender differences in health related behaviour: some unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Kandrack, M A; Grant, K R; Segall, A

    1991-01-01

    To date, no single explanation has accounted for discrepancies between male and female morbidity rates and health care utilization patterns. The sociomedical approach to sex/gender differences in health related behaviour has generated a variety of hypotheses. However, despite extensive study, many unanswered questions remain. The findings of this study fall short of offering conclusive evidence as to the causes of variations in morbidity and health services use between women and men. However, an effort is made to identify the salience of social role and related social status characteristics (e.g. labour force participation) in accounting for variation in health, illness and sick role behaviour. This paper utilizes data from the 1983 Winnipeg Area Study. Findings of this study raise questions about the adequacy of current concepts and measures for studying sex/gender differences in health related behaviour. The study concludes with a critical discussion of conceptual, methodological and theoretical issues which must be considered in our efforts to advance our understanding of why women experience greater longevity, but experience greater morbidity and make more extensive use of health services. PMID:2017726

  10. Extragalactic Jets: Some Unanswered Questions and the Prospects for GLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, R.

    2008-06-01

    An introduction to AGN jets is presented, paying particular attention to general questions that are currently being addressed or are likely to be addressed using imminent observational capabilities in the gamma ray and radio bands. It is argued that it should become possible to locate the sites of radio and gamma ray emission and to define the jet kinematical structure in a far more prescriptive fashion. Astrophysical arguments should then suffice to affirm (or refute) the common presumptions that synchrotron and inverse Compton emission dominate other processes and that the working substance changes from electromagnetic field to a pair plasma to an ionic plasma as the jet propagates away from the central black hole. Our understanding of jet dynamics can also improve through better characterization of the properties of the surrounding medium which should help decide if magnetic pinching is important and lead to more accurate measurements of jet powers, thrusts, discharges and currents. Combining jet and disk observations should test a ``Central Dogma'', namely that intrinsic AGN behavior is mainly dictated by the mass supply rate in units of the Eddington rate and the spin of the hole in units of its maximum allowed value, with the overall scale of power, variation etc determined by the hole mass. The connection between observed jet properties and the physical processes occurring around black holes is likely to remain conjectural for a while, though relevant numerical simulations are improving rapidly. Finally, the environmental impact of jets should become much clearer along with the role of AGN in the co-evolution of their host galaxies.

  11. Anatomy of the red cell membrane skeleton: unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Lux, Samuel E

    2016-01-14

    The red cell membrane skeleton is a pseudohexagonal meshwork of spectrin, actin, protein 4.1R, ankyrin, and actin-associated proteins that laminates the inner membrane surface and attaches to the overlying lipid bilayer via band 3-containing multiprotein complexes at the ankyrin- and actin-binding ends of spectrin. The membrane skeleton strengthens the lipid bilayer and endows the membrane with the durability and flexibility to survive in the circulation. In the 36 years since the first primitive model of the red cell skeleton was proposed, many additional proteins have been discovered, and their structures and interactions have been defined. However, almost nothing is known of the skeleton's physiology, and myriad questions about its structure remain, including questions concerning the structure of spectrin in situ, the way spectrin and other proteins bind to actin, how the membrane is assembled, the dynamics of the skeleton when the membrane is deformed or perturbed by parasites, the role lipids play, and variations in membrane structure in unique regions like lipid rafts. This knowledge is important because the red cell membrane skeleton is the model for spectrin-based membrane skeletons in all cells, and because defects in the red cell membrane skeleton underlie multiple hemolytic anemias. PMID:26537302

  12. Grommets in HBOT patients: GA vs LA, unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Clinton R; Commons, Katherine H

    2015-06-01

    their treatment? As doctors who have worked at this HMU, we know patients preferentially received their grommets under GA prior to 2012 at the request of the ENT surgeon, who believed that insertion under LA was poorly tolerated. The authors do not describe whether the insertion of grommets under LA was associated with patient discomfort; a limitation of this retrospective paper, but a clinically relevant factor in the decision-making process of which form of anaesthesia to use. The paper by Lamprell et al has shown us that patients may experience a more rapid insertion of grommets and return to HBOT, if inserted under LA versus GA, but this difference may not be important clinically. We believe the authors may have failed to collect all cases and exclude outliers and this, coupled with the lack of documentation about patient satisfaction with insertion under LA, leaves us with more questions than answers. PMID:26165541

  13. Extra-abdominal desmoid fibromatosis: A review of management, current guidance and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Eastley, N; McCulloch, T; Esler, C; Hennig, I; Fairbairn, J; Gronchi, A; Ashford, R

    2016-07-01

    Extra abdominal desmoid fibromatosis is a complex condition with many recognised treatments including active observation, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical resection. There is large variation in the natural history of individual desmoid tumours, with some cases progressing aggressively and others regressing spontaneously when observed alone. This combined with an absence of accurate clinical predictors of a desmoid tumour's behaviour has led to difficulties in identifying which patients would benefit most from aggressive treatment, and which could be adequately managed with a policy of active observation alone. This review explores the aetiology and common presentation of extra-abdominal desmoid fibromatosis including the condition's histopathological, clinical and radiological characteristics. The current evidence for potential predictors of desmoid tumour behaviour is also reviewed, along with the indications and evidence for the multitude of treatments available. We also summarise the published guidelines that are currently available for oncologists and surgeons managing extra-abdominal desmoid fibromatosis, and highlight some of the unanswered questions that need to be addressed to optimise the management of this condition. PMID:26965303

  14. Smoke and mirrors: unanswered questions and misleading statements obscure the truth about organ sources in China.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Wendy A; Trey, Torsten; Fiatarone Singh, Maria; Bridgett, Madeleine; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Lavee, Jacob

    2016-08-01

    This response refutes the claim made in a recent article that organs for transplantation in China will no longer be sourced from executed prisoners. We identify ongoing ethical problems due to the lack of transparent data on current numbers of transplants in China; implausible and conflicting claims about voluntary donations; and obfuscation about who counts as a voluntary donor. The big unanswered question in Chinese transplant ethics is the source of organs, and until there is an open and independently audited system in China, legitimate concerns remain about organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience. PMID:27145810

  15. Where to from here for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: the unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Hallstrand, Teal S; Kippelen, Pascale; Larsson, Johan; Bougault, Valérie; van Leeuwen, Janneke C; Driessen, Jean M M; Brannan, John D

    2013-08-01

    The role of epithelial injury is an unanswered question in those with established asthma and in elite athletes who develop features of asthma and exercise-induced bronchorestriction (EIB) after years of training. The movement of water in response to changes in osmolarity is likely to be an important signal to the epithelium that may be central to the onset of EIB. It is generally accepted that the mast cell and its mediators play a major role in EIB and the presence of eosinophils is likely to enhance EIB severity. PMID:23830134

  16. Volatility of Common Protective Oxides in High-Temperature Water Vapor: Current Understanding and Unanswered Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.

    2004-01-01

    Many structural materials rely on the formation of chromia, silica or alumina as a protective layer when exposed in high temperature oxidizing environments. The presence of these oxide layers provides a protective diffusion barrier which slows down further oxidation. In atmospheres containing water vapor, however, reactions to form volatile hydroxide species occur which remove the surface oxide, thus, lowering the protective capability of the oxide scale. This paper summarizes the current understanding of volatility of chromia, silica and alumina in water vapor containing combustion environments. In addition unanswered questions in each system are discussed. Th current paper represents an update on the considerable information learned in the past five years for these systems.

  17. The olfactory thalamus: unanswered questions about the role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Courtiol, Emmanuelle; Wilson, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDT) is a higher order thalamic nucleus and its role in cognition is increasingly well established. Interestingly, components of the MDT also have a somewhat unique sensory function as they link primary olfactory cortex to orbitofrontal associative cortex. In fact, anatomical evidence firmly demonstrates that the MDT receives direct input from primary olfactory areas including the piriform cortex and has dense reciprocal connections with the orbitofrontal cortex. The functions of this olfactory pathway have been poorly explored but lesion, imaging, and electrophysiological studies suggest that these connections may be involved in olfactory processing including odor perception, discrimination, learning, and attention. However, many important questions regarding the MDT and olfaction remain unanswered. Our goal here is not only to briefly review the existing literature but also to highlight some of the remaining questions that need to be answered to better define the role(s) of the MDT in olfactory processing. PMID:26441548

  18. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  19. The many unanswered questions related to the German skin cancer screening programme.

    PubMed

    Stang, Andreas; Garbe, Claus; Autier, Philippe; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2016-09-01

    In 2008, the first nationwide skin cancer screening (SCS) programme in the world was established in Germany. The main reason to implement the SCS programme in Germany was the expected reduction of costs of care due to earlier detection of skin cancer. The aim of this commentary is to raise and discuss several unanswered questions related to the German SCS programme. The evidence of a temporary mortality decline of skin melanoma after SCS in Schleswig-Holstein is lower than previously assumed and the temporary decline may have been caused by other factors than screening (e.g. awareness effects, selection bias, data artifact, and random fluctuation). The evaluation of the nationwide effect of SCS on skin cancer mortality is hampered by birth cohort effects and low quality of the routine cause-of-death statistics. The nationwide skin melanoma mortality did not decrease from 2007 through 2014. The time interval between screenings after a screening without pathological findings is unclear. Appropriate research designs are needed that monitor and evaluate the effect of SCS not only on skin cancer mortality but also on other factors that may help to judge the potential benefits and harms of SCS including aggressiveness of therapy, costs of care, quality of life, and stage-specific incidence rates of skin cancer. Furthermore, SCS may profit from a high-risk strategy instead of population-wide screening and from newer technologies for early detection of skin cancer (e.g. dermoscopy). PMID:27371911

  20. Drug-resistant tuberculosis--current dilemmas, unanswered questions, challenges, and priority needs.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Raviglione, Mario; Hoelscher, Michael; Ditiu, Lucica; McHugh, Timothy D; Squire, S Bertel; Cox, Helen; Ford, Nathan; McNerney, Ruth; Marais, Ben; Grobusch, Martin; Lawn, Stephen D; Migliori, Giovanni-Battista; Mwaba, Peter; O'Grady, Justin; Pletschette, Michel; Ramsay, Andrew; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Schito, Marco; Swaminathan, Soumya; Memish, Ziad; Maeurer, Markus; Atun, Rifat

    2012-05-15

    Tuberculosis was declared a global emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993. Following the declaration and the promotion in 1995 of directly observed treatment short course (DOTS), a cost-effective strategy to contain the tuberculosis epidemic, nearly 7 million lives have been saved compared with the pre-DOTS era, high cure rates have been achieved in most countries worldwide, and the global incidence of tuberculosis has been in a slow decline since the early 2000s. However, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, and more recently, totally drug-resistant tuberculosis pose a threat to global tuberculosis control. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a man-made problem. Laboratory facilities for drug susceptibility testing are inadequate in most tuberculosis-endemic countries, especially in Africa; thus diagnosis is missed, routine surveillance is not implemented, and the actual numbers of global drug-resistant tuberculosis cases have yet to be estimated. This exposes an ominous situation and reveals an urgent need for commitment by national programs to health system improvement because the response to MDR tuberculosis requires strong health services in general. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and XDR tuberculosis greatly complicate patient management within resource-poor national tuberculosis programs, reducing treatment efficacy and increasing the cost of treatment to the extent that it could bankrupt healthcare financing in tuberculosis-endemic areas. Why, despite nearly 20 years of WHO-promoted activity and >12 years of MDR tuberculosis-specific activity, has the country response to the drug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic been so ineffectual? The current dilemmas, unanswered questions, operational issues, challenges, and priority needs for global drug resistance screening and surveillance, improved treatment regimens, and management of outcomes and prevention of DR

  1. CTS Trials Network: Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation during mitral valve surgery - many questions unanswered

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A disease that is associated with stroke and mortality, atrial fibrillation (AF) complicates 30 to 50% of mitral valve disease patients admitted for surgery.1 Since the introduction of the Cox maze III procedure in 1992 many efforts have been made to come up with modified lesion sets and/or energy sources to surgically treat AF. This lead to the recently published American Heart Association (AHA)– American College of Cardiology (ACC)–Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) guidelines2 stating that it is reasonable to perform atrial fibrillation ablation in selected patients undergoing other types of cardiac surgery. The effectiveness of different techniques in conversion to sinus rhythm and the clinical impact of freedom from AF remain a question. The CTS Trials Network have undertaken a trial to answer these questions. The first year results of their randomized trial comparing AF ablation at the time of mitral valve surgery with mitral valve surgery alone were published recently in The New England Journal of Medicine.3 PMID:26566527

  2. Fungal secondary metabolite dynamics in fungus–grazer interactions: novel insights and unanswered questions

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Marko

    2015-01-01

    In response to fungivore grazing fungi are assumed to have evolved secondary metabolite-based defense mechanisms that harm and repel grazers, and hence provide a benefit to the metabolite producer. However, since research into the ecological meaning of highly diverse fungal secondary metabolites is still in its infancy, many central questions still remain. Which components of the enormous metabolite diversity of fungi act as direct chemical defense mechanisms against grazers? Is the proposed chemical defense of fungi induced by grazer attack? Which role do volatile compounds play in communicating noxiousness to grazers? What is the relative impact of grazers and that of interactions with competing microbes on the evolution of fungal secondary metabolism? Here, I briefly summarize and discuss the results of the very few studies that have tried to tackle some of these questions by (i) using secondary metabolite mutant fungi in controlled experiments with grazers, and by (ii) investigating fungal secondary metabolism as a flexible means to adapt to grazer-rich niches. PMID:25628619

  3. Hair cortisol as a biological marker of chronic stress: current status, future directions and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan

    2012-05-01

    The detrimental effects of stress on human health are being increasingly recognized. There is a critical need for the establishment of a biomarker that accurately measures its intensity and course over time. Such a biomarker would allow monitoring of stress, increase understanding of its pathophysiology and may help identify appropriate and successful management strategies. Whereas saliva and urine cortisol capture real-time levels, hair cortisol analysis presents a complementary means of monitoring stress, capturing systemic cortisol exposure over longer periods of time. This novel approach for cortisol quantification is being increasingly used to identify the effects of stress in a variety of pathological situations, from chronic pain to acute myocardial infarctions. Because of its ability to provide a long-term, month-by-month measure of systemic cortisol exposure, hair cortisol analysis is becoming a useful tool, capable of answering clinical questions that could previously not be answered by other tests. In this paper we review the development, current status, limitations and outstanding questions regarding the use of hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress. PMID:21974976

  4. [Radiosurgery of brain metastasis: reflexions, controversies and unanswered questions in 2004].

    PubMed

    Noël, Georges; Boisserie, Gilbert; Feuvret, Loïc; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The quantity of results published since the development of the radiochirurgie does not always lead to consider overall the consequences of the introduction of this treatment into the therapeutic arsenal of the clinician. The role of this treatment in front of the surgery, its association with the whole brain radiation therapy, the impact on the survival of this treatment and the incorporation of the various prognostic factors to the therapeutic decision are some one of the unresolved question. Best indications of radiosurgery concern probably patient with a good performance status, without extra-cranial disease and presenting no more than 4 metastasis. However, in an obviously palliative context, any dogmatism must be avoided. Development of prospective trials is the best solution to well specify the indication of the technique. PMID:14975809

  5. Human enteric pathogens in produce: un-answered ecological questions with direct implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Teplitski, Max; Barak, Jeri D; Schneider, Keith R

    2009-04-01

    Recent outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to the consumption of fresh produce raise questions about the mechanisms by which human pathogens colonize plants and persist within marketable produce. Neither Salmonella nor Escherichia coli appear to produce enzymes that degrade plant cell walls, therefore it is not yet certain how these bacteria enter plant tissues and spread within them. Similar to plant-associated bacteria, enterics use cellulose and aggregative fimbriae for their attachment to plant surfaces. Salmonella can be an effective plant endophyte, even though it is capable of triggering plant defenses. Plant-associated microbiota contributes to the fitness and translocation of these human pathogens within plant hosts, although interactions and mechanisms of communication between plant-associated microbiota and enteric pathogens are not yet characterized. PMID:19349159

  6. UNANSWERED QUESTIONS IN THE TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH DEPRESSION.

    PubMed

    Morvai, Szabolcs; Nagy, Attila; Kovács, Attila; Móre, Csaba E; Berecz, Roland; Frecska, Ede

    2016-01-30

    According to the WHO fact sheet depression is a common mental disorder affecting 350 million people of all ages worldwide. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique which allows the investigator to stimulate and study cortical functions in healthy subjects and patients suffering from various mental and neurological disorders. In the early 1990s, studies revealed that it is possible to evoke long term mood changes in healthy volunteers by rapid rate repetitive, TMS (rTMS) over the frontal cortex. Subsequent studies involving depressed patients found frontal cortical rTMS administered daily to be clinically effective. In the past two decades, numerous trials examined the therapeutic potential of rTMS application in the treatment of mood disorders with constantly evolving treatment protocols. The aim of this paper is to review the literature of the past two decades, focusing on trials addressing the efficacy and safety of rTMS in depressed patients. Our primary goal is to evaluate the results in order to direct future studies which may help investigators in the development of treatment protocols suitable in hospital settings. The time is not far when TMS devices will be used routinely by practitioners primarily for therapeutic purpose rather than clinical research. To our knowledge, a widely accepted "gold standard" that would offer the highest efficacy, with the best tolerability has not been established yet. In order to approach this goal, the most important factors to be addressed by further studies are: localization, frequency, intensity, concurrent medication, maintenance treatments, number of pulses, trains, unilateral, or bilateral mode of application. PMID:26987235

  7. Dysregulation of intracellular trafficking and endosomal sorting in Alzheimer's disease: controversies and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Toh, Wei Hong; Gleeson, Paul A

    2016-07-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain consisting of an aggregated form of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) derived from sequential amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by membrane-bound proteases β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase. The initial processing of APP by BACE1 is re-gulated by intracellular sorting events of the enzyme, which is a prime target for therapeutic intervention. GWAS (genome-wide sequencing studies) have identified several AD-susceptibility genes that are associated with the regulation of membrane trafficking, and substantial evidence now indicates that AD is likely to arise from defective membrane trafficking in either or both of the secretory and endocytic pathways. Considerable progress has been made in defining the intracellular trafficking pathways of BACE1 and APP and the sorting signals of these membrane proteins that define their itineraries. In this review we highlight recent advances in understanding the regulation of the intracellular sorting of BACE1 and APP, discuss how dysregulation of these trafficking events may lead to enhanced generation of the neurotoxic Aβ products in AD and highlight the unresolved questions in the field. PMID:27407168

  8. Communication between women and their health care providers: research findings and unanswered questions.

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, C S

    1987-01-01

    Although much research has been carried out on communication between health care providers and patients, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of patient or provider gender on the communication process or its outcomes. Women use health services more than men and are more likely than men to report being influenced by health information in the media. No studies are available showing that physicians hold biases about male and female patients that translate into different communication patterns with each sex. Recent studies of verbal communication between patients and primary health care physicians show that female patients tend to ask more questions than men. Evidence that physicians are more likely to withhold information from female patients is not conclusive. Some evidence has been found that female physicians interrupt their patients less often than male physicians, provide more verbalizations of empathy, and provide clearer explanations in response to patients' concerns. Female physician-patient dyads might be expected to improve communication under certain circumstances. PMID:3120213

  9. Unanswered questions in the management of gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma: an overview from the medical oncologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manish A

    2013-01-01

    Patients with gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma have multiple treatment options; however, are victims of lack of consensus and wide variation in treatment, sometimes within the same hospital. While there is a consensus that surgery alone is inadequate for locally advanced disease, locoregional treatment has become the point for debate. Only in 2010 was the reclassification of GEJ cancers as esophageal cancers. Treatment options remain as varied as the classification of GEJ cancers: preoperative chemoradiotherapy, definitive chemoradiation, perioperative chemotherapy, and resection followed by postoperative chemoradiation. Several studies have examined the varying treatment paradigms; however, many fall short due to methodology or sample size. The MAGIC study determined perioperative chemotherapy to be an acceptable standard treatment option for patients with gastric cancer, althouth a significant portion of enrolled patients had distal esophageal and GEJ adenocarcinoma. The CROSS study concluded combination chemotherapy and radiation before resection beneficial. Preoperative therapy in cases of GEJ is beneficial for survival, but not as much impact is seen as in esophageal SCC, which exhibits an increased sensitivity to CRT. There is concurrence with two phase III studies from Japan and Korea on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer. However, the applicability of these studies to GEJ adenocarcinoma remains a question, especially with the significantly different epidemiology of increased proximal and GEJ tumors in the West compared to Asia. To move forward with this increasingly prevalent disease, we will need to do more than understand the multiple treatment paradigms-we will need to select a strategy and examine it. PMID:23714486

  10. Worldview: Some Unanswered Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Christian worldview thinking has become an increasingly prominent framework for thinking about education since its uptake by a new and rapidly growing constituency of Evangelicals. On the surface this popular surge vindicates the methodology yet the literature demonstrates a concerning lack of engagement with apparently debilitating critiques…

  11. Portable Diagnostic Devices for Identifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea among Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers: Considerations and Unanswered Questions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunbai; Berger, Mark; Malhotra, Atul; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a syndrome defined by breathing abnormalities during sleep, can lead to fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. Identifying commercial motor vehicle operators with unrecognized OSA is a major public health priority. Portable monitors (PMs) are being actively marketed to trucking firms as potentially lower-cost and more accessible alternatives to the reference standard of in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) in the diagnosis of OSA among commercial motor vehicle operators. Several factors regarding PMs remain uncertain in this unique patient population: their sensitivity and specificity; the cost-benefit ratio of the PMs versus PSG; potential barriers from human factors; and evolving technologic advancement. Human factors that alter test accuracy are a major concern among commercial drivers motivated to gain/maintain employment. Current available data using PMs as a diagnostic tool among CMV operators indicate relatively high data loss and high loss to follow-up. Loss to follow-up has also been an issue using PSG in commercial motor vehicle operators. Furthermore, PM testing and PM results interpretation protocols may have no sleep specialist oversight, and sometimes minimal physician oversight and involvement. Additional studies comparing unattended and unmonitored PMs directly against full in-laboratory PSG are needed to provide evidence for their efficacy among commercial motor vehicle operators. Citation: Zhang C; Berger M; Malhotra A; Kales SN. Portable diagnostic devices for identifying obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers: considerations and unanswered questions. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1481-1489. PMID:23115397

  12. The Role of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Dense Cloud Absorption Features: The Last Major Unanswered Question in Interstellar Ice Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiar, Jean

    Interstellar dust plays a vital role in the star formation process and the eventual formation of planetary systems including our own. Ice mantles are an important component of the dust: reactions involving simple ices can create more complex (and astrobiologically interesting) molecules, and ices sublimated back into the gas phase influence the gas- phase chemistry. Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are commonly thought to be very abundant interstellar species and, as such, are likely to be important components of interstellar ices, their contribution to the infrared spectra and chemistry of ices in dense molecular clouds is an open question. This program makes extensive use of three major NASA-funded databases: the Spitzer archive, the 2MASS archive, and the NASA Ames PAH database in order to answer the last major unanswered question in interstellar ice spectroscopy: what role do PAHs play in contributing to unidentified absorption features observed in dense cloud spectra. PAHs are observed to be present and abundant in nearly all phases of the galactic and extragalactic interstellar medium. The evidence for the ubiquity of interstellar PAHs is the widespread well-known family of prominent emission bands at 3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 micron. To date, these PAH bands have been most easily detected in regions where individual gas phase PAH molecules (neutrals and ions) become highly vibrationally excited by the ambient radiation field. While PAHs and closely related aromatic materials should be present throughout dense interstellar regions, PAH emission is quenched in cold dark dense clouds. Also, in these regions, most PAHs should efficiently condense out onto dust grains, either as "pure" solids or as "guest molecules" in icy grain mantles, much as is the case for most other interstellar molecules. Thus, in dense molecular clouds, condensed PAHs will give rise to IR absorption bands rather than emission features. While PAH absorption has been

  13. Business Education: Addressing the "What" Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almoharby, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to diversify the economy and stimulate private enterprise development, government agencies and private institutions in many countries have emphasized the importance of setting up and developing small and medium-size enterprises and promoting entrepreneurship. An important question confronting policy makers, however, is how they can…

  14. Basic Physics Questions Addressed by Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter, dark energy, the Big Bang, testing relativity -- all are physics questions accessible to astrophysicists -- but all require new equipment. As Harwit's "Cosmic Discovery" pointed out, almost all great surprises in astronomy came from new equipment or new uses of equipment designed for other purposes, and many of those had military applications. I will outline prospects for new equipment and discuss how that equipment can be developed and built. Bigger and lighter mirrors, wavefront sensing and control, new detector technology, cryogenics -- each has its own social network, its own special possibilities, and its own funding sources outside science. I will discuss some examples drawn from real-life experience with the James Webb Space Telescope, a telescope that was said to have a "giggle factor" when it was proposed in 1995. Now each of the 10 major technologies has been brought to maturity, flight hardware is being built, and launch is planned for 2014. As an instrument builder all my life, I will speculate a little on what may be within our reach over the next few decades.

  15. Ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs in a restructured electricity industry: Issues, options, and unanswered questions

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Goldman, C.; Kito, S.

    1996-08-01

    Regulated utilities have, in the past, been responsible for {open_quotes}Public purpose{close_quotes} programs that contribute to the general social good, such as energy-efficiency programs. In several states, continuation of these programs has become a critical issue in forging the consensus required to proceed with restructuring. As a result of reviewing the restructuring process in several states, we expect this trend to continue, but do not believe a single, generic approach can or should be defined. Instead, we expect a variety of solutions based on considerations unique to individual states or regions. To help structure these discussions in states struggling with this issue, we pose a series of questions and describe a range of possible answers: (1) We encourage state public utility commissions and legislatures to provide clear guidance on goals. (2) Close attention to the primary objectives for energy efficiency is important because the objectives influence the choices of programs and activities to be supported. (3) We advocate that states adopt a pragmatic approach to resolving the potentially contentious issue of determining whether or not utilities should continue to have primary responsibility for program administration, management, and design. The approach we propose involves assessing a utility`s past performance, its cur-rent commitment to energy-efficiency activities, and the potential conflicts of interest presented, if the utility retains a central role in administering energy-efficiency programs after restructuring. (4) A state should first assess policy options to mitigate adverse incentives and conflicts of interest in the utility before examining the possibility of having a non-utility entity assume responsibility for designing and managing energy-efficiency activities. (5) If a state does pursue non-utility administration for ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs, explicit attention must be paid to governance and accountability issues.

  16. Patent foramen ovale: Unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Christia, Panagiota; Salamon, Jason; Liebelt, Jared; Zaman, Tarique; Gevorgyan, Rubine; Nezami, Nariman; Mojaddedi, Sanaullah; Elgendy, Islam Y; Tobis, Jonathan M; Faillace, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20-25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea-orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary edema. A unifying hypothesis is that a chemical or particulate matter from the venous circulation crosses the PFO conduit between the right and left atria to produce a variety of clinical syndromes. Although observational studies suggest a therapeutic benefit of PFO closure compared to medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke, 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not confirm the superiority of PFO closure for the secondary prevention of stroke. However, meta-analyses of these RCTs demonstrate a significant benefit of PFO closure over medical therapy alone. Similarly, observational studies provide support for PFO closure for symptomatic relief of migraines. But one controversial randomized study failed to replicate the results of the observational studies while another two demonstrated a partial benefit. The goal of this review is to discuss the clinical conditions associated with PFO and provide internists and primary care physicians with current data on PFO trials, and clinical insight to help guide their patients who are found to have a PFO on echocardiographic testing. PMID:26489724

  17. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  18. Addressing Parental Vaccination Questions in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Burningham, Jana; Eden, Lacey M.; Macintosh, Janelle L. B.; Beckstrand, Renea L.

    2016-01-01

    School nurses work in a unique environment with key opportunities to address parental concerns and questions regarding their child's health. A common concern for parents during school enrollment is childhood vaccination safety and efficacy. As public health leaders, school nurses are well respected among parents, therefore school nurses are in a…

  19. Addressing questions about including environmental effects in the DMSO HLA

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) is developing a High Level Architecture (HLA) to support the DOD Modeling and Simulation (M and S) community. Many, if not all, of the simulations involve the environment in some fashion. In some applications, the simulation takes place in an acknowledged environment without any environmental functionality being taken into account. The Joint Training Federation Prototype (JTFp) is one of several prototype efforts that have been created to provide a test of the DMSO HLA. In addition to addressing the applicability of the HLA to a training community, the JTFp is also one of two prototype efforts that is explicitly including environmental effects in their simulation effort. These two prototyping efforts are examining the issues associated with the inclusion of the environment in an HLA federation. In deciding whether or not to include an environmental federation in the JTFp effort, a number of questions have been raised about the environment and the HLA. These questions have raised the issue of incompatibility between the environment and the HLA and also shown that there is something unique about including the environment in simulations. The purpose of this White Paper, which was developed with inputs from the National Air and Space [Warfare] Model Program among others, is to address the various questions that have been posed about including environmental effects in an HLA simulation.

  20. Some Unanswered Questions in Astronomy: Are There More than Nine Planets in the Universe? Is the Theory of Stellar Evolution Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, George

    1982-01-01

    Based on the premise that discoveries raise more questions than they answer, explores various research questions related to the discovery of the planets and discoveries related to the theory of stellar evolution. (SK)

  1. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  2. Three Naive Questions: Addressed to the Modern Educational Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krstic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to question anew the popular and supposedly self-evident affirmation of education, in its modern incarnation as in its historical notion. The "naive" questions suggest that we have recently taken for granted that education ought to be for the masses, that it ought to be upbringing, and that it is better than ignorance.…

  3. Overview of chemical imaging methods to address biological questions.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcel Menezes Lyra; Trepout, Sylvain; Messaoudi, Cédric; Wu, Ting-Di; Ortega, Richard; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Marco, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    Chemical imaging offers extensive possibilities for better understanding of biological systems by allowing the identification of chemical components at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels. In this review, we introduce modern methods for chemical imaging that can be applied to biological samples. This work is mainly addressed to the biological sciences community and includes the bases of different technologies, some examples of its application, as well as an introduction to approaches on combining multimodal data. PMID:26922256

  4. Optimizing available network resources to address questions in environmental biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn; Suzanne Andersen; Baron, Jill S.; Peter Blanken; Gordon Bonan; William Bowman; Sarah Elmendorf; Fierer, Noah; Andrew Fox; Keli Goodman; Katherine Jones; Danica Lombardozzi; Claire Lunch; Jason Neff; Michael SanClements; Katherine Suding; Will Wieder

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of network observatories have been established globally to collect long-term biogeochemical data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although many outstanding questions in biogeochemistry would benefit from network science, the ability of the earth- and environmental-sciences community to conduct synthesis studies within and across networks is limited and seldom done satisfactorily. We identify the ideal characteristics of networks, common problems with using data, and key improvements to strengthen intra- and internetwork compatibility. We suggest that targeted improvements to existing networks should include promoting standardization in data collection, developing incentives to promote rapid data release to the public, and increasing the ability of investigators to conduct their own studies across sites. Internetwork efforts should include identifying a standard measurement suite—we propose profiles of plant canopy and soil properties—and an online, searchable data portal that connects network, investigator-led, and citizen-science projects.

  5. Terrestrial nitrogen cycles: Some unanswered questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitousek, P.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrogen is generally considered to be the element which most often limits the growth of plants in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. It regulates plant growth because photosynthetic rates are strongly dependent on the concentration of nitrogen in leaves, and because relatively large mounts of protein are required for cell division and growth. Yet nitrogen is abundant in the biosphere - the well-mixed pool in the atmosphere is considered inexhaustible compared to biotic demand, and the amount of already fixed organic nitrogen in soils far exceeds annual plant uptake in terrestrial ecosystems. In regions where natural vegetation is not nitrogen limited, continuous cultivation induces nitrogen deficiency. Nitrogen loss from cultivated lands is more rapid than that of other elements, and nitrogen fertilization is generally required to maintain crop yield under any continuous system. The pervasiveness of nitrogen deficiency in many natural and most managed sites is discussed.

  6. Unanswered Questions in the Electroweak Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2009-11-01

    This article is devoted to the status of the electroweak theory on the eve of experimentation at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. A compact summary of the logic and structure of the electroweak theory precedes an examination of what experimental tests have established so far. The outstanding unconfirmed prediction of the electroweak theory is the existence of the Higgs boson, a weakly interacting spin-zero particle that is the agent of electroweak symmetry breaking, the giver of mass to the weak gauge bosons, the quarks, and the leptons. General arguments imply that the Higgs boson or other new physics is required on the TeV energy scale. Indirect constraints from global analyses of electroweak measurements suggest that the mass of the standard-model Higgs boson is less than 200 GeV. Once its mass is assumed, the properties of the Higgs boson follow from the electroweak theory, and these inform the search for the Higgs boson. Alternative mechanisms for electroweak symmetry breaking are reviewed, and the importance of electroweak symmetry breaking is illuminated by considering a world without a specific mechanism to hide the electroweak symmetry. For all its triumphs, the electroweak theory has many shortcomings.

  7. The Marathon Group Hypothesis: An Unanswered Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Stephen E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The authors of this article contend that the Guinan and Foulds study was inadequately designed and executed, and the results indicate little of the "usefulness" of the test, much less illuminate the important hypothesis central to the investigation. Specific suggestions for further research in marathon group evaluation are made. (Author)

  8. ADHD and growth: questions still unanswered.

    PubMed

    Ptacek, Radek; Kuzelova, Hana; Stefano, George B; Raboch, Jirí; Kream, Richard M; Goetz, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorders. It is manifested in every part of an affected child's behavior, with multiple symptomatology and heterogenous etiology. Published studies report that ADHD children may show changes in growth and development. Most of the studies on ADHD have been focused on connections between medication and growth changes and describe growth delays associated with medication. However, recent research results point to the low significance of the changes accompanying pharmacological treatment. Changes in growth may not only be a secondary effect of the treatment, but may also be specific characteristics of ADHD. PMID:24625909

  9. Manipulative Experimental Approaches to Addressing Geobiological Questions in Microbial Mat and Stromatolite Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, I. Lee

    2005-01-01

    We will present a short synopsis of experimental approaches using greenhouse flume systems to address questions of biogeochemical cycling, mineral formation and 3-d structure for Guerrero Negro microbial mats and Highborne Cay Stromatolites.

  10. Questions Addressed to V.V. Putin during an Internet Conference on Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agranovich, M.; Zair-Bek, S.; Seliverstova, I.; Shishmakova, E.

    2007-01-01

    On instructions from the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, the Federal Institute for the Development of Education prepared an analytical report on the topic "Questions Addressed to Russian President V.V. Putin During an Internet Conference on 6 July 2006 on the Problems of "Career"." That document presents an overall statistical and…

  11. Quantitative T-wave alternans analysis for sudden cardiac death risk assessment and guiding therapy: answered and unanswered questions: For: Proceedings of ICE2015 Comandatuba, Brazil, Sudden Death Symposium.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Richard L; Sroubek, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses current questions regarding use of T-wave alternans to stratify risk for sudden cardiac death. Both of the currently available commercial methodologies, namely, the frequency-domain spectral method and the time-domain modified moving average (MMA) method, are supported by guideline statements, cleared by the US FDA, and covered by the US Center for Medicare and Medicaid services. Similar numbers of patients have been enrolled in predictive studies; odds ratios generated by the two methods are similar including in a head-to-head study. However, in two prospective studies, prediction by TWA with the spectral method was negative, likely due to withdrawal of beta-blockade before the test with later resumption, while all studies with MMA have achieved prediction when the commercial software was used appropriately. Questions currently undergoing investigation include TWA's potential to guide ICD implantation, to track changes in risk during cardiac disease progression, and to evaluate the adequacy of medical therapy. PMID:26987616

  12. A Nominal Balloon Instrument Payload to Address Questions from the Planetary Decadal Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot; Kremic, Tibor; Dankanich, John

    The Planetary Science Decadal Survey (entitled "Visions and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013 - 2022", available online at https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/2013decadal/) serves as a roadmap for activities to be pursued by the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This document outlines roughly 200 key research areas and questions in chapters covering different parts of the solar system (e.g., Mars, Small Bodies, etc.). We have reviewed the Decadal Survey to assess whether any of the key questions can be addressed by high altitude balloon-borne payloads. Although some questions can only be answered by in situ experiments, we found that approximately one quarter of the key questions were well suited to balloon payloads. In many of those cases, balloons were competitive or superior to other existing facilities, including HST, SOFIA or Keck telescopes. We will present specific telescope and instrument bench designs that are capable of addressing key questions in the Decadal Survey. The instrument bench takes advantage of two of the main benefits of high-altitude observations: diffraction-limited imaging in visible and UV wavelengths and unobstructed spectroscopy in near-IR (1 - 5 microns) wavelengths. Our optical prescription produces diffraction-limited PSFs in both visible and IR beams. We will discuss pointing and thermal stability, two of the main challenges facing a balloon-borne telescope.

  13. Experimental approaches for addressing fundamental biological questions in living, functioning cells with single molecule precision

    PubMed Central

    Lenn, Tchern; Leake, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, single molecule experimentation has allowed researchers to observe biological processes at the sensitivity level of single molecules in actual functioning, living cells, thereby allowing us to observe the molecular basis of the key mechanistic processes in question in a very direct way, rather than inferring these from ensemble average data gained from traditional molecular and biochemical techniques. In this short review, we demonstrate the impact that the application of single molecule bioscience experimentation has had on our understanding of various cellular systems and processes, and the potential that this approach has for the future to really address very challenging and fundamental questions in the life sciences. PMID:22773951

  14. Addressing Parental Vaccination Questions in the School Setting: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Luthy, Karlen E; Burningham, Jana; Eden, Lacey M; Macintosh, Janelle L B; Beckstrand, Renea L

    2016-02-01

    School nurses work in a unique environment with key opportunities to address parental concerns and questions regarding their child's health. A common concern for parents during school enrollment is childhood vaccination safety and efficacy. As public health leaders, school nurses are well respected among parents, therefore school nurses are in a prime position to educate parents and promote childhood vaccinations while also dispelling common vaccination myths. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to synthesize evidence-based answers to common parental questions regarding childhood vaccinations. PMID:26400833

  15. To Address or Not to Address the Violent Past in the Classroom? That Is the Question in Côte D'ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Line; Langer, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of violent conflict, divided societies have to answer the important question of whether, when and how to address their country's violent past within their educational system. Whereas some scholars within the field of peace education and transitional justice argue that addressing the violent past in the classroom is important for…

  16. Mars 2001 Mission: Addressing Scientific Questions Regarding the Characteristics and Origin of Local Bedrock and Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Weitz, C. M.; Marshall, J.; Squyres, S. W.; Christensen, P. R.; Meloy, T.; Smith, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Mission will carry instruments on the orbiter, lander and rover that will support synergistic observations and experiments to address important scientific questions regarding the local bedrock and soils. The martian surface is covered in varying degrees by fine materials less than a few mms in size. Viking and Pathfinder images of the surface indicate that soils at those sites are composed of fine particles. Wheel tracks from the Sojourner rover suggest that soil deposits are composed of particles <40 mm. Viking images show that dunes are common in many areas on Mars and new MOC images indicate that dunes occur nearly everywhere. Dunes on Mars are thought to be composed of 250-500 microns particles based upon Viking IRTM data and Mars wind tunnel experiments. If martian dunes are composed of sand particles > 100 microns and soils are dominated by <10 micron particles, then where are the intermediate grain sizes? Have they been wom away through prolonged transport over the eons? Were they never generated to begin with? Or are they simply less easy to identify because do they not form distinctive geomorphic features such as dunes or uniform mantles that tend to assume superposition in the soil structure?

  17. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Winter, Charlotte E.; Wilson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children’s adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother–child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents’ observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions. PMID:26997757

  18. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers: A Case Study for Using Biomonitoring Data to Address Risk Assessment Questions

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of biomonitoring data holds promise for characterizing exposure and informing risk assessment. Biomonitoring data have been used successfully to track population trends, identify susceptible populations, and provide indications of emerging environmental health issues. However, there remain challenges associated with interpreting biomonitoring data for risk assessment. An international biomonitoring workshop was convened in September 2004 to explore the use of biomonitoring data in the context of risk assessment. Six compounds were examined as case studies for this workshop, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The PBDE case study was developed to provide an example of a persistent compound for which relatively few data are available for human exposure, biomonitoring, and health outcomes. PBDEs are used in hard plastics, electronics, textiles, and polyurethane foam products. The congener pattern downstream of production facilities often resembles the commercial mixture. However, because these compounds persist in the environment and in biota, the patterns of congeners evolve. PBDEs partition into body lipids, and direct measurement of bromodiphenyl ether congeners in biologic specimens provides a good marker of exposure. Data indicate significant variability (> 100-fold range) in lipid-adjusted levels for PBDEs in the general population. It is hypothesized that both exposure and pharmacokinetics may play a role in observed congener profiles. Significant gaps in our ability to interpret PBDE biomonitoring data to address public health and risk assessment questions include limited knowledge of environmental fate and transport of PBDE congeners, limited population-based data for adults, and lack of data for potentially vulnerable populations such as children. PMID:17107866

  19. Addressing Key Questions in the Bioatmospheric Nitrogen Cycle Using Stable Isotope Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggs, E. M.; Power, S. A.; Green, E.; Mair, L.; Prosser, J. I.

    2006-12-01

    The application of stable isotope techniques enables determination of the fate of applied or deposited reactive N, quantification of biogeochemical process rates, differentiation between microbial sources of N emissions, and determination of impacts on microbial biodiversity. Here we will introduce the 15N, 18O and 13C techniques we have developed and present results from studies where they have been applied to address the following key questions in the bioatmospheric N cycle: What is the fate of atmospheric deposited N in a plant-soil system? What impact does this N addition have on rates of key biogeochemical processes in the rhizosphere? What are the effects on the soil microbial community structure? How much of this N is returned to the atmosphere as N2O or N2? Using 15N and 18O enrichment techniques we are able to quantify gross mineralization rates and microbial immobilization, plant uptake and leaching of deposited or applied N, gross nitrification rates, quantify N2O and N2 production from ammonia oxidation, nitrifier denitrification and denitrification and distinguish between these sources, and derive a system N balance. These stable isotope techniques are being combined with molecular techniques (analysis of gene expression, 13C stable isotope probing (SIP)) to relate the measured processes to the microbial populations responsible and to assess effects of reactive N on community structure. Here we will give a synthesis of results from N deposition studies in semi-natural ecosystems and from N addition studies in agricultural systems, the information from which can be used to drive policy through the formulation of appropriate management and mitigation strategies for reactive N.

  20. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  1. Emotion Theory and Research: Highlights, Unanswered Questions, and Emerging Issues

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Carroll E.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion feeling is a phase of neurobiological activity, the key component of emotions and emotion-cognition interactions. Emotion schemas, the most frequently occurring emotion experiences, are dynamic emotion-cognition interactions that may consist of momentary/ situational responding or enduring traits of personality that emerge over developmental time. Emotions play a critical role in the evolution of consciousness and the operations of all mental processes. Types of emotion relate differentially to types or levels of consciousness. Unbridled imagination and the ability for sympathetic regulation of empathy may represent both potential gains and losses from the evolution and ontogeny of emotion processes and consciousness. Unresolved issues include psychology’s neglect of levels of consciousness that are distinct from access or reflective consciousness and use of the term “unconscious mind” as a dumpster for all mental processes that are considered unreportable. The relation of memes and the mirror neuron system to empathy, sympathy, and cultural influences on the development of socioemotional skills are unresolved issues destined to attract future research. PMID:18729725

  2. Gazing into the Future: A Synopsis of Unanswered Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsher, Rivka Aliza; Garza Mitchell, Regina L.

    2015-01-01

    More than two dozen authors contributed to this special issue from 14 different think tanks, regional collaborative organizations, and institution-based policy centers and institutes to share the work being done to promote the community college agenda at state, regional, and national levels in the United States. This article synthesizes the still…

  3. Non-homologous end joining: emerging themes and unanswered questions

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Sarvan Kumar; Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells. Here, we discuss current insights into the mechanism of NHEJ and the interplay between NHEJ and other pathways for repair of IR-induced DNA damage. PMID:24582502

  4. Beyond the guidelines: challenges, controversies, and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Radix, Anita; Silva, Manel

    2014-06-01

    Transgender and gender-nonconforming youth have unique medical and psychosocial needs that frequently go unmet. For youth who wish to have their physical appearance congruent with their gender identity, treatment guidelines are available that advocate the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues (puberty blockers) and cross-sex hormone regimens. Although medical transition was once considered highly controversial, there is a mounting body of evidence that providing a supportive and affirming environment, as well as appropriate medical intervention, results in improved health outcomes. Primary care pediatricians may be unaware of current guidelines and consequently the need for treatment and/or timely referrals. Transgender youth often face other hurdles to initiation of therapy, including refusal of care and harassment in medical settings, denial of coverage by insurance plans, and the high cost of puberty blockers. Because transgender youth younger than 18 years depend on their families for medical decision making, they may be unable to access necessary medical treatment when parents do not support their transition plan. Medical transition impacts many aspects of the medical system, such as insurance coverage, billing, electronic health records, and preventive health care maintenance. These issues may become more apparent with the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and increased use of electronic records and clinical decision support. The implementation of the ACA may also present new opportunities and protections for transgender individuals. Primary pediatricians are often the first providers families and youth reach out to for advice, and they can assist families with negotiating these complex medical, legal, social, and economic challenges and optimizing access to safe and appropriate health care services. PMID:24972423

  5. Modern cataract surgery: unfinished business and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Apple, David J; Escobar-Gomez, Marcela; Zaugg, Brian; Kleinmann, Guy; Borkenstein, Andreas F

    2011-01-01

    We summarize information, based on clinicopathologic studies over the past decade, on various cataract intraocular lens (IOL) procedures and modern "specialized" IOLs, that will help surgeons continuously improve long-term results for cataract patients. Although most operations do initially provide excellent refractive correction and visual rehabilitation, late complications occur. These sometimes are missed because they are outside of the routine period of follow-up care. We have tried to determine if the various techniques and IOLs truly deliver the long-term results that we desire. Most safety and efficacy information is derived from the manufacturer and is passed through the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This is often based on limited, relatively short-term observations made by the manufacturer. After a lens receives FDA approval, there are few means to assess the outcome of each procedure and lens years later. We rarely hear of a 10- or 20-year follow-up study. We have found that one of the best means to assess long-term results is pathologic analyses. We discuss recently studied aspects of pathologic reactions, such as posterior capsule opacification, intracapsular fibrosis, glistenings, intralenticular opacification, and other issues with the various IOL platforms; we then present a clinicopathological overview of tissues and IOLs from our database. These include hydrophobic and hydrophilic acrylic designs, plate lenses, and a dual optic lens. PMID:22117905

  6. IIIB or not IIIB: a previously unanswered question.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Jennifer T; Mishkin, Joseph D; Patel, Parag C; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Markham, David W; Drazner, Mark H

    2012-05-01

    The term New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IIIB has been used increasingly in clinical medicine, including as an inclusion criteria for many clinical trials assessing left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). Indeed, NYHA class IIIB is incorporated in the Food and Drug Administration's approved indication for the Heartmate II. However, on review of the medical literature, we found that there is no consensus definition of NYHA class IIIB. Until the ambiguity is resolved, we suggest that this designation not be used in clinical practice or by investigators leading clinical trials assessing therapies which convey substantial risk to patients and therefore require clarity in describing the enrolled patient population. With ongoing improvements in LVADs, this therapy will increasingly be considered in patients less sick than those who require inotropic support, providing urgency to establish a consensus system of classifying such patients who nevertheless fall within the spectrum of advanced heart failure. Herein we propose a modification of the standard NYHA classification system which can be used to fill this void. PMID:22555265

  7. Lessons Learned and Unanswered Questions About Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia

    2005-01-01

    The most important lesson learned about interpersonal violence in the past 20 years is the astonishingly high prevalence of sexual assault in American society. The extensiveness of unreported sexual assault has been repeatedly documented through the use of self-report data from well-constructed surveys of victims and perpetrators. In contrast,…

  8. Medical Rights of Minors: Some Answered and Unanswered Legal Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbutt, Lou

    1980-01-01

    Because school counselors work with minors they must keep up with current laws, as well as state and local school policies. Special caution is needed concerning medical rights of minors and parental consent in dealing with student pregnancy, abortion, drug abuse, and child abuse. (JAC)

  9. [The "daughterly" existence. Unanswered questions about the female Oedipus complex].

    PubMed

    Rohde-Dachser, C

    1990-01-01

    The author investigates the structural difficulties currently involved in arriving at a conclusive definition of the female Oedipus complex. She shows how Freud's theory of the female Oedipus complex, originally a theory of non-individuation, now figures as a theory of individuation, with old, partriarchally oriented constructs and modern ideas of emancipation having entered into complex combinations that can sometimes be disentangled only with difficulty. Finally, three aspects of the female Oedipus complex are examined: 1. its importance in the acquisition of female sexual identity, 2. its function as a locus for finding the heterosexual object, and 3. its role as a locus for the resolution or fixation of the "daughterly" existence. PMID:2288169

  10. [Vesicoureteric reflux in children: many questions still unanswered].

    PubMed

    Zieg, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is the most common congenital anomaly of the uropoetic system. The gold standard for its diagnosis is the voiding cystourethrogram. Sonographic cystourethrography is an alternative method for reflux detection, but it is still not used routinely. Static scintigraphy enables us to diagnose renal scarring reflux nephropathy (RN). While congenital RN is a result of prenatal kidney injury, acquired RN results from pyelonephritis-induced renal damage.Risk factors for RN include VUR, recurrent APN, lower urinary tract dysfunction and delay in treatment of febrile urinary tract infection. Management of children after APN with VUR consists of antibiotic prophylaxy, surgery or surveillance only. The conclusions of performed studies are controversial, thus unified guidelines for the management of patients with VUR are not available. PMID:27256146

  11. Telomere shortening in neurological disorders: an abundance of unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Erez; Hutchison, Emmette R; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-05-01

    Telomeres, ribonucleoprotein complexes that cap eukaryotic chromosomes, typically shorten in leukocytes with aging. Aging is a primary risk factor for neurodegenerative disease (ND), and a common assumption has arisen that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) can serve as a predictor of neurological disease. However, the evidence for shorter LTL in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's patients is inconsistent. The diverse causes of telomere shortening may explain variability in LTL between studies and individuals. Additional research is needed to determine whether neuronal and glial telomeres shorten during aging and in neurodegenerative disorders, if and how LTL is related to brain cell telomere shortening, and whether telomere shortening plays a causal role in or exacerbates neurological disorders. PMID:24698125

  12. Telomere Shortening in Neurological Disorders: An Abundance of Unanswered Questions

    PubMed Central

    Eitan, Erez; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres, ribonucleoprotein complexes that cap eukaryotic chromosomes, typically shorten in leukocytes with aging. Aging is a primary risk factor for neurodegenerative disease (ND), and a common assumption has arisen that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) can serve as a predictor of neurological disease. However, the evidence for shorter LTL in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s patients is inconsistent. The diverse causes of telomere shortening may explain variability in LTL between studies and individuals. Additional research is needed to determine whether neuronal and glial telomeres shorten during aging and in neurodegenerative disorders, if and how LTL is related to brain cell telomere shortening, and whether telomere shortening plays a causal role in or exacerbates neurological disorders. PMID:24698125

  13. Modafinil as a Catecholaminergic Agent: Empirical Evidence and Unanswered Questions

    PubMed Central

    Wisor, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Modafinil, in its two clinical formulations (Provigil® and Nuvigil®), is a widely prescribed wake-promoting therapeutic agent. It binds competitively to the cell-membrane dopamine (DA) transporter and is dependent on catecholaminergic (dopaminergic and adrenergic) signaling for its wake-promoting effects. The clinical spectrum of effects for modafinil is distinct from the effects seen with other catecholaminergic agents. Relative to other commonly used agents that act through catecholaminergic mechanisms, modafinil has a relatively low abuse potential, produces wakefulness with an attenuated compensatory sleep recovery thereafter, and does not ameliorate cataplexy in narcolepsy. These clinically relevant phenomenological differences between modafinil and agents such as amphetamines and cocaine do not eliminate catecholaminergic effects as a possible mediator of its wake-promoting action; they merely reflect its unique pharmacological profile. Modafinil is an exceptionally weak, but apparently very selective, DA transporter inhibitor. The pharmacodynamic response to modafinil, as measured by DA levels in brain microdialyzate, is protracted relative to other agents that act via catecholaminergic mechanisms. The conformational constraints on the interaction of modafinil with the DA transporter – and probably, as a consequence, its effects on trace amine receptor signaling in the catecholaminergic cell – are unique among catecholaminergic agents. These unique pharmacological properties of modafinil should be considered both in seeking to thoroughly understand its putatively elusive mechanism of action and in the design of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:24109471

  14. High Stakes Tests with Self-Selected Essay Questions: Addressing Issues of Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of reporting the unadjusted raw scores in a high-stakes language exam when raters differ significantly in severity and self-selected questions differ significantly in difficulty. More sophisticated models, introducing meaningful facets and parameters, are successively used to investigate the characteristics of…

  15. Crafting Instructions Collaboratively: Student Questions and Dual Addressivity in Classroom Task Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Oliver; Cromdal, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This study examines classroom task instructions--phases traditionally associated with noninteractional objectives and operations--and reveals their composition as interactionally complex and cocrafted. Analyses of video sequences of task instructional activity from three different secondary school lessons show that student questions routinely…

  16. The case for a deep-atmospheric in situ mission to address the highest priority Decadal Survey questions for Venus (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Garvin, J. B.; Glaze, L. S.; Campbell, B. A.; Fisher, M. E.; Flores, A.; Gilmore, M. S.; Johnson, N.; Kiefer, W. S.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Ravine, M. A.; Webster, C. R.; Zolotov, M. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Current understanding of Venus lags behind that for Mars, with a major disparity of information concerning noble and trace gases and the small scale surface processes needed for comparative studies of terrestrial planet evolution. Despite global surface mapping by Magellan, discoveries by Venera landers, and ongoing atmospheric observations by the Venus Express (VEx) orbiter, significant questions about Venus remain unanswered. To place Venus into its proper context with respect to Mars and Earth, it is necessary to obtain new measurements that address top issues identified in the National Research Council (NRC) Solar System Decadal Survey: (1) evolution of the atmosphere, history of climate, and evidence of past hydrologic cycles; (2) history of volatiles and sedimentary cycles; and (3) planetary surface evolution. To answer these questions, new measurements are needed. First and foremost, in situ noble gas measurements are needed to constrain solar system formation and Venus evolution. In particular, the isotopic ratios of Xe and Kr can provide unique insights into planetary accretion. Isotopic measurements of nitrogen (15N/14N) will place important constraints on atmospheric loss processes. Current knowledge of this ratio has a substantial uncertainty of ×20%. VEx observations of hydrogen isotopes indicate the D/H ratio above the clouds is substantially greater than measured by Pioneer Venus, and varies with height. High precision measurements of the vertical distribution of the D/H isotopic ratio below the cloud layers will provide constraints on models of the climate history of water on Venus. The majority of atmospheric mass is located below the clouds. Current data suggest intense interaction among atmospheric gases down to the surface. The haze within the cloud region of unknown composition plays a central role in the radiative balance. Photochemically-derived species (H2SO4, OCS, CO, Sn) are subjected to thermochemical reactions below the clouds

  17. Interventions before consultations to help patients address their information needs by encouraging question asking: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Adrian; Hood, Kerry; Ryan, Rebecca; Prout, Hayley; Cadbury, Naomi; MacBeth, Fergus; Butow, Phyllis; Butler, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects on patients, clinicians, and the healthcare system of interventions before consultations to help patients or their representatives gather information in consultations by question asking. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources Electronic literature searches of seven databases and hand searching of one journal and bibliographies of relevant articles. Review methods Inclusion criteria included randomised controlled trials. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were question asking; patients’ anxiety, knowledge, and satisfaction; and length of consultation. Results 33 randomised trials of variable quality involving 8244 patients were identified. A few studies showed positive effects. Meta-analyses showed small and statistically significantly increases in question asking (standardised mean difference 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.36) and patients’ satisfaction (0.09, 0.03 to 0.16). Non-statistically significant changes occurred in patients’ anxiety before consultations (weighted mean difference −1.56, −7.10 to 3.97), patients’ anxiety after consultations (standardised mean difference −0.08, −0.22 to 0.06), patients’ knowledge (−0.34, −0.94 to 0.25), and length of consultation (0.10, −0.05 to 0.25). Interventions comprising written materials had similar effects on question asking, consultation length, and patients’ satisfaction as those comprising the coaching of patients. Interventions with additional training of clinicians had little further effect than those targeted at patients alone for patients’ satisfaction and consultation length. Conclusions Interventions for patients before consultations produce small benefits for patients. This may be because patients and clinicians have established behaviours in consultations that are difficult to change. Alternatively small increases in question asking may not be sufficient to make notable changes to other outcomes. PMID:18632672

  18. Addressing ten questions about conceptual rainfall-runoff models with global sensitivity analyses in R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Mun-Ju; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Croke, Barry F. W.; Jakeman, Anthony J.

    2013-10-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is generally recognized as a worthwhile step to diagnose and remedy difficulties in identifying model parameters, and indeed in discriminating between model structures. An analysis of papers in three journals indicates that SA is a standard omission in hydrological modeling exercises. We provide some answers to ten reasonably generic questions using the Morris and Sobol SA methods, including to what extent sensitivities are dependent on parameter ranges selected, length of data period, catchment response type, model structures assumed and climatic forcing. Results presented demonstrate the sensitivity of four target functions to parameter variations of four rainfall-runoff models of varying complexity (4-13 parameters). Daily rainfall, streamflow and pan evaporation data are used from four 10-year data sets and from five catchments in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) region. Similar results are obtained using the Morris and Sobol methods. It is shown how modelers can easily identify parameters that are insensitive, and how they might improve identifiability. Using a more complex objective function, however, may not result in all parameters becoming sensitive. Crucially, the results of the SA can be influenced by the parameter ranges selected. The length of data period required to characterize the sensitivities assuredly is a minimum of five years. The results confirm that only the simpler models have well-identified parameters, but parameter sensitivities vary between catchments. Answering these ten questions in other case studies is relatively easy using freely available software with the Hydromad and Sensitivity packages in R.

  19. The Swimming Ammonite: How Computed Tomography can Address Questions of Functional Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanis, Robert; Hoffmann, Rene; Zachow, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    has strong potential to address the controversial life-habits of adult ammonites through the study of the buoyant properties of the phragmocone and the structural properties of the shell. The implications for palaeobiology are clear, however the understanding of ammonite life-habits is also important for utilization as archives for palaeoenvironmetal/geochemical data.

  20. Addressing Consumer Questions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It seems people either have very strong thoughts and opinions on food or they could care less as long as food is available to feed them and their families. With the current economy, many individuals are examining food choices more closely to ensure the greatest nutrition for their families at the l...

  1. Using a population-based observational cohort study to address difficult comparative effectiveness research questions: the CEASAR study

    PubMed Central

    Barocas, Daniel A; Chen, Vivien; Cooperberg, Matthew; Goodman, Michael; Graff, John J; Greenfield, Sheldon; Hamilton, Ann; Hoffman, Karen; Kaplan, Sherrie; Koyama, Tatsuki; Morgans, Alicia; Paddock, Lisa E; Phillips, Sharon; Resnick, Matthew J; Stroup, Antoinette; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Penson, David F

    2016-01-01

    Background While randomized controlled trials represent the highest level of evidence we can generate in comparative effectiveness research, there are clinical scenarios where this type of study design is not feasible. The Comparative Effectiveness Analyses of Surgery and Radiation in localized prostate cancer (CEASAR) study is an observational study designed to compare the effectiveness and harms of different treatments for localized prostate cancer, a clinical scenario in which randomized controlled trials have been difficult to execute and, when completed, have been difficult to generalize to the population at large. Methods CEASAR employs a population-based, prospective cohort study design, using tumor registries as cohort inception tools. The primary outcome is quality of life after treatment, measured by validated instruments. Risk adjustment is facilitated by capture of traditional and nontraditional confounders before treatment and by propensity score analysis. Results We have accrued a diverse, representative cohort of 3691 men in the USA with clinically localized prostate cancer. Half of the men invited to participate enrolled, and 86% of patients who enrolled have completed the 6-month survey. Conclusion Challenging comparative effectiveness research questions can be addressed using well-designed observational studies. The CEASAR study provides an opportunity to determine what treatments work best, for which patients, and in whose hands. PMID:24236685

  2. On the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions: addressing the question with regard to bumblebees and their parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2001-05-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a major shift in the study of adaptive patterns and processes towards including the role of host-parasite interactions, informed by concepts from evolutionary ecology. As a consequence, a number of major questions have emerged. For example, how genetics affects host-parasite interactions, whether parasitism selects for offspring diversification, whether parasite virulence is an adaptive trait, and what constrains the use of the host's immune defences. Using bumblebees, Bombus spp, and their parasites as a model system, answers to some of these questions have been found, while at the same time the complexity of the interaction has led expectations away from simple theoretical models. In addition, the results have also led to the unexpected discovery of novel phenomena concerning, for instance, female mating strategies.

  3. Introducing Astrophysics and Cosmology as Part of Multidisciplinary Approaches to Liberal Arts Courses Addressing "The Big Questions" of Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesney, J. C.

    2012-08-01

    There is an opportunity to bring college students to the exploration of the grandeur and wonder of the universe through the design and crafting of courses for the university and liberal arts curricula that would develop multidisciplinary perspectives within the frames of reference of astrophysics and cosmology. There is broad interest within colleges and universities to provide courses that examine "The Big Questions" of human experience from a variety of perspectives. The study of the history of discoveries and insights that we have gained through the development of astrophysics and cosmology provides course options for students to use to explore these questions. Such hybrid courses enable students to approach the questions of origins, human existence, appreciation of the natural world, appreciation of the universe at large, and the significance of our evolving comprehension of the universe from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, including those that border on the astrophysical and cosmological domains. There are within such courses opportunities to examine historical, philosophical, theological, and cultural perspectives as they intersect with our scientific understanding of where and who we are. The first of these courses at Sacred Heart University has been developed and presented for the past two years as part of the new Core Curriculum. The development of that course, entitled The Journey in the Physical Universe, will be discussed, and insights will be shared.

  4. How much detail and accuracy is required in plant growth sub-models to address questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural systems?

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Simulations that integrate sub-models of important biological processes can be used to ask questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural and ecological systems. Building sub-models with more detail and aiming for greater accuracy and realism may seem attractive, but is likely to be more expensive and time-consuming and result in more complicated models that lack transparency. This paper illustrates a general integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems that is based on the principle of starting simple and then directly testing for the need to add additional detail and complexity. Methodology The approach is demonstrated using LUSO (Land Use Sequence Optimizer), an agricultural system analysis framework based on simulation and optimization. A simple sensitivity analysis and functional perturbation analysis is used to test to what extent LUSO's crop–weed competition sub-model affects the answers to a number of questions at the scale of the whole farming system regarding optimal land-use sequencing strategies and resulting profitability. Principal results The need for accuracy in the crop–weed competition sub-model within LUSO depended to a small extent on the parameter being varied, but more importantly and interestingly on the type of question being addressed with the model. Only a small part of the crop–weed competition model actually affects the answers to these questions. Conclusions This study illustrates an example application of the proposed integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems based on testing whether complexity needs to be added to address particular questions of interest. We conclude that this example clearly demonstrates the potential value of the general approach. Advantages of this approach include minimizing costs and resources required for model construction, keeping models transparent and easy to analyse, and ensuring the model

  5. The Space Station - Past, present and future with some thoughts on some legal questions that need to be addressed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    The history of the concept of a space station is briefly considered, taking into account a story written by Hale (1869), quantitative work provided by Oberth and Tsiolkovsky, von Braun, and the U.S. decision regarding the establishment of a space station. Arguments in favor of constructing a space station are related to the utility of a laboratory in earth orbit, the importance of a repair and maintenance base for satellites, the provision of capabilities for the commercial utilization of space, and the employment of a space station as a staging base for missions to the moon, Mars, and, possibly, the asteroids. Plans for the implementation of the Space Station concept are discussed, taking into account also legal issues involved in such an implementation. Attention is given to questions regarding the applicability of the Liability convention, U.S. domestic law, the domestic law of other countries, and four treaties.

  6. Addressing Consumer Questions and Concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food can be a touchy subject. It seems people either have very strong thoughts and opinions on food or they could care less as long as food is available to feed them and their families. With the current economic environment, many individuals are examining the food choices more closely to ensure t...

  7. IRT Model Fit Evaluation from Theory to Practice: Progress and Some Unanswered Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Monroe, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, the authors congratulate Professor Alberto Maydeu-Olivares on his article [EJ1023617: "Goodness-of-Fit Assessment of Item Response Theory Models, Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," this issue] as it provides a much needed overview on the mathematical underpinnings of the theory behind the…

  8. Correction and response to: Grommets in HBOT patients: GA vs. LA, unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Lamprell, Laura; Vangaveti, Venkat; Young, Derelle; Orton, John

    2015-06-01

    We thank Gibbs and Commons for their interest in our paper. There is a key difference between the datasets for Commons et al and our study. Our data set, has grouped five years of data according to the calendar year. This is different from Commons et al's study population recruited between 01 June 2009 and 31 May 2010. We feel this may explain the difference of one case between the two papers in 2010. Our data collection used the standard clinic and operating theatre databases, and we were advised that there was no searchable clinical code for grommet procedures undertaken with local anaesthetic (LA) in the outpatient clinic. The alternative, to review many hundreds of patients, was considered beyond the study's scope. Instead, the TTH Hyperbaric Medicine Unit (HMU) database was used to recruit cases and cross checked with operating theatre data. We have since re-investigated the operating theatre database to identify any additional bilateral grommet procedures during 2008 to 2012 and cross checked these with the HMU database. This has identified one to four additional patients per year in the general anaesthesia (GA) group and one additional LA patient that meet the criteria for recruitment into the study. There was one further unconfirmed patient from each of 2008 and 2010, whose charts were unavailable for this response, and have not been included in this amendment. The corrected Figure 1 reflects these changes. Despite the additional cases, the frequency spike during 2010 remains. A published audit of the number of middle ear barotrauma (MEBT) cases between 2007-2010 also reports an increased incidence of MEBT in 2009-2010 compared with previous years at our unit. Possible reasons for this may be the introduction of new technology at the unit, in the form of the digital Macro View™ otoscope during this period, leading to a possible change in clinical practice and an increased detection of MEBT, or a lower threshold for ENT referral for grommet placement. Alternatively, a 'Hawthorne effect' from the conduct of a prospective study within the TTH HMU, during 2009-2010 may be considered. With the outliers removed using ROUT's test, the significant difference in the delay time to surgery remains (LA median 1, IQR 2, range 0-5 days; GA median 7.5, IQR 6, range 0-24 days; P < 0.0001; Figure 2). The data values of 98 days and 86 days from the GA group published in our paper are corrected to six days and 12 days respectively. On review, the first individual was found to have had two HBOT courses, and it was only in the second round of HBOT that an ENT referral for grommets was made. The second individual was found to have been offered two ENT referrals after experiencing MEBT, the first was followed by the patient declining further HBOT until representing to TTH HMU four months later and receiving prophylactic grommets before recommencing HBOT; this second ENT referral date has been used in the amended data. These corrections have not been found to change the primary outcome of statistical significance between the LA and GA groups. A delay of seven days may not be considered clinically relevant in the most common cases requiring HBOT, aside from affecting patient convenience and logistics as well as hospital efficiency and resources. In emergency cases, knowledge of factors able to reduce the delay for grommet insertion is clinically relevant. In centres where a long wait for GA is the norm, LA may convey a clinically important lesser waiting time. As a retrospective study, only data documented in the patient records could be studied, and patient discomfort was not consistently recorded in the charts. We would liken this to undertaking other surgical procedures, where clinicians often do not routinely document pain scores for the benefit of retrospective research. Several studies have examined patients' tolerance of grommets under LA, finding the technique tolerable. PMID:26165542

  9. The Unanswered Question: How Will We Pay for Aggressive Attainment Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    The concern about the United States' education attainment levels as compared with those of other countries, and the consequences of this poor showing, were given visibility by the inclusion of international statistics in the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education publication, "Measuring Up 2008." That concern was…

  10. Children's Media Use and Sleep Problems: Issues and Unanswered Questions. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Frederick J.

    2008-01-01

    Research shows that most children and adolescents do not get enough high-quality sleep, and that their sleep times appear to have declined over the last two decades. Coinciding with this trend has been the rise in popularity of new media forms including the Internet, video games, cell phones and DVDs. Because of the immediacy and interactivity of…

  11. Tumors of the Central Nervous System: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Unanswered Questions, and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Michael A.; Kostova, Felina V.; Fountain, Jane; Guha, Abhijit; Packer, Roger J.; Pollack, Ian F.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Many histological subtypes and biological variants exist. The 2007 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 36th annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to define current knowledge in the field and to develop specific aims for future clinical, translational, and fundamental science. Because of advances in structural and metabolic imaging, surgical technique, and combination therapies, the life expectancy of children with some of the most common tumors, such as cerebellar astrocytomas and medulloblastomas, has improved. Other common tumor types, including diffuse pontine gliomas and malignant embryonal tumors, still have a dismal prognosis. As novel therapies are identified for pediatric central nervous system tumors, long-term survival may be associated with considerable disability. A cooperative effort is crucial to early diagnosis and to translating basic research findings into safe, effective new treatments. PMID:18952577

  12. Overseas-trained doctors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services: many unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Arkles, Rachelle S; Hill, Peter S; Pulver, Lisa R Jackson

    2007-05-21

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services are heavily dependent on overseas-trained doctors (OTDs). These OTDs are increasingly from countries with variable English language and educational equivalency compared with locally trained doctors. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services create particular demands for all doctors, such as negotiating "cultural domains" and acknowledging the contribution of Aboriginal health workers. Little is known about the roles and experience of OTDs in health service provision in Indigenous communities. Barriers to effective research into the experience of OTDs include privacy legislation and a lack of standardised data. Researching the narratives of OTDs in Indigenous health services offers an opportunity to explore the diversity and complexity of the cultural interfaces in health service provision. PMID:17516902

  13. Talent identification and specialization in sport: an overview of some unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves C, E B; Rama L, M L; Figueiredo, António B

    2012-12-01

    The theory of deliberate practice postulates that experts are always made, not born. This theory translated to the youth-sport domain means that if athletes want to be high-level performers, they need to deliberately engage in practice during the specialization years, spending time wisely and always focusing on tasks that challenge current performance. Sport organizations in several countries around the world created specialized training centers where selected young talents practice under the supervision of experienced coaches in order to become professional athletes and integrate onto youth national teams. Early specialization and accurate observation by expert coaches or scouts remain the only tools to find a potential excellent athlete among a great number of participants. In the current study, the authors present 2 of the problems raised by talent search and the risks of such a search. Growth and maturation are important concepts to better understand the identification, selection, and development processes of young athletes. However, the literature suggests that sport-promoting strategies are being maintained despite the increased demands in the anthropometric characteristics of professional players and demands of actual professional soccer competitions. On the other hand, identifying biological variables that can predict performance is almost impossible. PMID:22868280

  14. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the current understanding of floodplain processes and landforms for the Willamette River and its major tributaries. The area of focus encompasses the main stem Willamette River above Newberg and the portions of the Coast Fork Willamette, Middle Fork Willamette, McKenzie, and North, South and main stem Santiam Rivers downstream of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dams. These reaches constitute a large portion of the alluvial, salmon-bearing rivers in the Willamette Basin. The geomorphic, or historical, floodplain of these rivers has two zones - the active channel where coarse sediment is mobilized and transported during annual flooding and overbank areas where fine sediment is deposited during higher magnitude floods. Historically, characteristics of the rivers and geomorphic floodplain (including longitudinal patterns in channel complexity and the abundance of side channels, islands and gravel bars) were controlled by the interactions between floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood. Local channel responses to these interactions were then shaped by geologic features like bedrock outcrops and variations in channel slope. Over the last 150 years, floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood have been substantially reduced in the basin. With dam regulation, nearly all peak flows are now confined to the main channels. Large floods (greater than 10-year recurrence interval prior to basinwide flow regulation) have been largely eliminated. Also, the magnitude and frequency of small floods (events that formerly recurred every 2–10 years) have decreased substantially. The large dams trap an estimated 50–60 percent of bed-material sediment—the building block of active channel habitats—that historically entered the Willamette River. They also trap more than 80 percent of the estimated bed material in the lower South Santiam River and Middle and Coast Forks of the Willamette River. Downstream, revetments further decrease bed-material supply by an unknown amount because they limit bank erosion and entrainment of stored sediment. The rivers, geomorphic floodplain, and vegetation within the study area have changed noticeably in response to the alterations in floods and coarse sediment and wood transport. Widespread decreases have occurred in the rates of meander migration and avulsions and the number and diversity of landforms such as gravel bars, islands, and side channels. Dynamic and, in some cases, multi-thread river segments have become stable, single-thread channels. Preliminary observations suggest that forest area has increased within the active channel, further reducing the area of unvegetated gravel bars. Alterations to floods and sediment transport and ongoing channel, floodplain, and vegetation responses result in a modern Willamette River Basin. Here, the floodplain influenced by the modern flow and sediment regimes, or the functional floodplain, is narrower and inset with the broader and older geomorphic floodplain. The functional floodplain is flanked by higher elevation relict floodplain features that are no longer inundated by modern floods. The corridor of present- day active channel surfaces is narrower, enabling riparian vegetation to establish on formerly active gravel bar surfaces. The modern Willamette River Basin with its fundamental changes in the flood, sediment transport, and large wood regimes has implications for future habitat conditions. System-wide future trends probably include narrower floodplains and a lower diversity of landforms and habitats along the Willamette River and its major tributaries compared to historical patterns and today. Furthermore, specific conditions and future trends will probably vary between geologically stable, anthropogenically stable, and dynamic reaches. The middle and lower segments of the Willamette River are geologically stable, whereas the South Santiam and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers were historically dynamic, but are now largely stable in response to flow regulation and revetment construction. The upper Willa

  15. Contradictions and Unanswered Questions in the Genie Case: A Fresh Look at the Linguistic Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a critical review of the published accounts of the "Genie Case," involving psycholinguistic research conducted by Susan Curtiss and others in the 1970s with an adolescent with extremely limited language ability. The review maintains that serious discrepancies still remain in the accounts of the subject's language abilities. (21…

  16. The myofibroblast in wound healing and fibrosis: answered and unanswered questions

    PubMed Central

    Bochaton-Piallat, Marie-Luce; Gabbiani, Giulio; Hinz, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the myofibroblast has allowed definition of the cell responsible for wound contraction and for the development of fibrotic changes. This review summarizes the main features of the myofibroblast and the mechanisms of myofibroblast generation. Myofibroblasts originate from a variety of cells according to the organ and the type of lesion. The mechanisms of myofibroblast contraction, which appear clearly different to those of smooth muscle cell contraction, are described. Finally, we summarize the possible strategies in order to reduce myofibroblast activities and thus influence several pathologies, such as hypertrophic scars and organ fibrosis. PMID:27158462

  17. How Can the eCampus Be Organized and Run To Address Traditional Concerns, but Maintain an Innovative Approach to Providing Educational Access? Project Eagle Evaluation Question #3. Benchmarking St. Petersburg College: A Report to Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Joyce

    This paper discusses the findings of St. Petersburg College's (SPC) (Florida) evaluation question: "How can the eCampus be organized and run to address traditional faculty concerns, but maintain an innovative approach to providing educational access?" In order to evaluate this question, a list was compiled of faculty issues identified by…

  18. Adult Illiteracy in Canada: Identifying and Addressing the Problem = L'analphabetisme chez les adultes au Canada: definition et traitement de la question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council of Ministers of Education, Toronto (Ontario).

    This statement of the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, focuses on the approaches that provincial ministers have taken to address the problem of adult illiteracy. First, it sets out concisely the nature and extent of functional illiteracy in Canada. Second, it describes a sample of the initiatives already under way to create effective…

  19. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

  20. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  1. “A question of balance”: addressing the public health impacts of multinational enterprises in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joshua S.; McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The global community is beginning to address non-communicable diseases, but how to increase the accountability of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for the health impacts of their products and practices remains unclear. We examine the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) efforts to do so through voluntary MNE guidelines. Methods We developed a historical case study of how the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises were developed and revised from 1973–2000 through an analysis of publicly available archived OECD and tobacco industry documents. Results The first edition of the Guidelines was a purely economic instrument. Outside pressures and a desire to ward off more stringent regulatory efforts resulted in the addition over time of guidelines related to the environment, consumer interests, sustainable development, and human rights. Conclusion Despite their voluntary nature, the Guidelines can play a role in efforts to help balance the interests of MNEs and public health by providing a starting point for efforts to create binding provisions addressing MNEs’ contributions to disease burden or disease reduction. PMID:23046298

  2. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

  3. Addressing Global Questions With in situ Measurements: Defining Accuracy Using Both Advances in Data Reduction Algorithms and Developments in Laser Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, G. S.; Anderson, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    Data reduction and data analysis algorithms can introduce statistically significant systematic bias and loss of precision in results of both satellite and airborne in situ measurement results. Because data from many instruments must be used to create a global mapping, reducing these hidden systematic errors in in situ instrumentation is crucial to validating satellite data and to integrating in situ results into global climate models. Biases in the in situ measurements must be eliminated before the result can be considered accurate. Additionally, inter-comparison among in situ instrumentation requires careful review of all collection, reduction and analysis algorithms to eliminate differences in temporal and spatial offsets as well as extrapolation to the appropriate timescales to compare instruments. Typically, the in situ community does not archive raw data nor publish retrieval and reduction algorithms in such a way that they can be verified and reviewed; however the global nature of current atmospheric questions requires this change. In flight inter-comparisons between results obtained from related instruments are necessary but not sufficient to resolve differences in measurements and in uncertainties; details of analysis techniques must also be compared to ensure the agreement or disagreement between instruments is well-understood. Simply observing agreement or disagreement is not sufficient. Having documented, traceable paths to compare laboratory calibrations and analysis to flight data will lead to improvements in instrumentation and retrieval algorithms, thereby improving the credibility of atmospheric data. We will show raw data from Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectrometers using Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (ICOS) and Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) and demonstrate statistically significant improvement in second generation fitting and retrieval algorithms. Improved lineshape models and singular value decomposition of the baseline have

  4. Okay, So How are Translation Norms Negotiated? A Question for Gideon Toury and Theo Hermans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pym, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a question that remains largely unanswered in papers by Toury and Hermans on translation and norms: how, where, and by whom are translation norms negotiated. Explains some of the advantages that ensue from taking the term negotiation seriously. (SM)

  5. Law addresses question of space artifact ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    U.S. astronauts who participated in many of NASA's early space missions will receive full ownership rights to artifacts from those missions through legislation that President Barack Obama signed into law on 25 September. The legislation, which received broad bipartisan support, provides artifact ownership rights to any of NASA's Mercury, Gemini, or Apollo space programs through the completion of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, whose flight occurred in July 1975. The law defines artifacts as expendable, disposable, or personal use items—including personal logs and flight hardware salvaged from jettisoned lunar modules—used by astronauts that were not required to be returned to NASA; lunar rocks and other lunar material are not defined as artifacts. Bill cosponsor Rep. Ralph Hall (R-Tex.), chair of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, said on 19 September, “A majority of these items have been in the personal possession of the astronauts for 40 years or more. Over the last decade, NASA has begun to challenge the astronauts' ownership of these mementos. This issue was first brought to my attention late last year. I was surprised to learn that NASA had, on an irregular basis, intervened several times to claim ownership.”

  6. Innovate-Ideagora: Addressing Core Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Denise; McCord, Alan

    2009-01-01

    In this edition of Innovate-Ideagora, Denise Easton and Alan McCord announce the consolidation of Innovate-Live, "Innovate's" venue for author webcasts, with Ideagora; webcasts will now be accessed from Ideagora, and archives will be made available through Ideagora. This change will simplify presentation and merge our multimedia presentations,…

  7. Injury to the Preterm Brain and Cerebral Palsy: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Unanswered Questions, and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Michael A.; Kostova, Felina V.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Johnston, Michael V.; Brunstrom, Jan E.; Hagberg, Henrik; Maria, Bernard L.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy will affect nearly 10% of the 60,000 very-low-birth-weight infants born in the United States in the next year, and an even greater percentage will display some form of permanent neurological impairment resulting from injury to the preterm brain. The 2008 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 37th annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to define current knowledge and to develop specific aims for future clinical, translational, and fundamental science. A complex interplay of both destructive and developmental forces is responsible for injury to the preterm brain. Advances in imaging and histology have implicated a variety of cell types, though pre-oligodendrocyte injury remains the focus. Research into different mechanisms of injury is facilitating new neuroprotective and rehabilitative interventions. A cooperative effort is necessary to translate basic research findings into clinically effective therapies and better care for these children. PMID:19745084

  8. How Many Families in Child Welfare Services Are Affected by Parental Substance Use Disorders? A Common Question that Remains Unanswered

    PubMed Central

    Seay, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Associated with extensive negative outcomes for children, parental substance use disorders are a major concern within the child welfare system. Obtaining actual prevalence rate data has been difficult, however, and there are no recent published reports on this issue. Using a systematic search, this paper examines: (1) Prevalence estimates of parental substance use disorders in the child welfare population; (2) the types of child welfare involvement for reported prevalence estimates; and (3) how prevalence information is being collected. Prevalence rates were found to have a wide range, from 3.9% to 79%, with regional prevalence estimates being higher than national estimates. Prevalence rates of parental substance use disorders varied by type of child welfare involvement of the family and method of data collection. This study points out the need for improvements in prevalence estimates in the United States and national data collection procedures to ensure that child welfare and substance abuse treatment systems are adequately responding to children and families with substance use disorders. PMID:26827475

  9. Unquestioned answers or unanswered questions: beliefs about science guide responses to uncertainty in climate change risk communication.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas A

    2012-06-01

    In two experimental studies we investigated the effect of beliefs about the nature and purpose of science (classical vs. Kuhnian models of science) on responses to uncertainty in scientific messages about climate change risk. The results revealed a significant interaction between both measured (Study 1) and manipulated (Study 2) beliefs about science and the level of communicated uncertainty on willingness to act in line with the message. Specifically, messages that communicated high uncertainty were more persuasive for participants who shared an understanding of science as debate than for those who believed that science is a search for absolute truth. In addition, participants who had a concept of science as debate were more motivated by higher (rather than lower) uncertainty in climate change messages. The results suggest that achieving alignment between the general public's beliefs about science and the style of the scientific messages is crucial for successful risk communication in science. Accordingly, rather than uncertainty always undermining the effectiveness of science communication, uncertainty can enhance message effects when it fits the audience's understanding of what science is. PMID:22324775

  10. Much potential but many unanswered questions for high-intensity intermittent exercise training for patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pinkstaff, Sherry O

    2015-01-01

    There is a robust trove of scientific studies that support the positive physical and mental health benefits associated with aerobic exercise for healthy individuals. These recommendations suggest that more vigorous exercise can be performed on fewer days for the same benefit. High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training has begun to show promise. HIIE seems safe and improves physiology, quality of life, and functional capacity. This review defines HIIE, discusses its physiologic benefit for patients with heart failure, outlines the studies that have been conducted to date, and places it in the context of the current clinical environment of exercise training for these patients. PMID:25432482

  11. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  12. Carbon Materials for Lithium Sulfur Batteries-Ten Critical Questions.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, Lars; Oschatz, Martin; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-05-23

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are among the most promising electrochemical energy storage devices of the near future. Especially the low price and abundant availability of sulfur as the cathode material and the high theoretical capacity in comparison to state-of-the art lithium-ion technologies are attractive features. Despite significant research achievements that have been made over the last years, fundamental (electro-) chemical questions still remain unanswered. This review addresses ten crucial questions associated with lithium-sulfur batteries and critically evaluates current research with respect to them. The sulfur-carbon composite cathode is a particular focus, but its complex interplay with other hardware components in the cell, such as the electrolyte and the anode, necessitates a critical discussion of other cell components. Modern in situ characterisation methods are ideally suited to illuminate the role of each component. This article does not pretend to summarise all recently published data, but instead is a critical overview over lithium-sulfur batteries based on recent research findings. PMID:27001631

  13. Questions for Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  14. Approaches to Cell Biology Teaching: Questions about Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    There are many questions to be asked about the pedagogical practice of questioning. Questions provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. Questions reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…

  15. Questioning Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    Questions are so much a part of the classroom routine and they should stimulate learning and thinking. Introduces the Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) method which incorporates Bloom's Taxonomy and wait time. (ASK)

  16. Critiquing Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Question formation is a basic part of teaching and learning English. However, teachers often focus on the ability to form the question properly and not as much on the quality of the information the question is seeking. Whether teaching English language learners or students who want to be English teachers, teachers need to carefully consider the…

  17. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  18. Answers to Health Questions: Internet Search Results Versus Online Health Community Responses

    PubMed Central

    Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina

    2016-01-01

    Background About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet—ranging from government-initiated webpages to personal blog pages. Yet we do not fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of information available on the Internet. Objective The objective of this research was to investigate the strengths and challenges of various types of health information available online and to suggest what information sources best fit various question types. Methods We collected questions posted to and the responses they received from an online diabetes community and classified them according to Rothwell’s classification of question types (fact, policy, or value questions). We selected 60 questions (20 each of fact, policy, and value) and the replies the questions received from the community. We then searched for responses to the same questions using a search engine and recorded the Results Community responses answered more questions than did search results overall. Search results were most effective in answering value questions and least effective in answering policy questions. Community responses answered questions across question types at an equivalent rate, but most answered policy questions and the least answered fact questions. Value questions were most answered by community responses, but some of these answers provided by the community were incorrect. Fact question search results were the most clinically valid. Conclusions The Internet is a prevalent source of health information for people. The information quality people encounter online can have a large impact

  19. Essential Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  20. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  1. Curiosity Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  2. Disability Discrimination and Obesity: The Big Questions?

    PubMed

    Flint, Stuart W; Snook, Jeremé

    2015-12-01

    Obesity discrimination in employment and recruitment has become a topic of focus for research examination with increasing reports of discrimination by colleagues and managers. Whilst a limited number of legal cases have emerged, disability law is consulted in line with the expectation of anti-discriminatory practices at work. In line with disability law, whether obesity is defined as a disability or not has an impact on the outcome of a court ruling. Ambiguity when defining obesity through either the medical or social model means there are many questions that remain unanswered which might lead to inconsistency in court rulings. PMID:26353881

  3. Top 10 research questions related to energy balance.

    PubMed

    Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Blair, Steven N

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is the result of a mismatch between the amount of calories consumed and the amount of calories expended during an extended period of time. This relationship is described by the energy balance equation, which states the rate of change in energy storage depots in the body are equal to the rate of energy intake minus the rate of energy expenditure. Although this relationship may appear easy to understand based on simple mathematics, in reality, a variety of known and unknown systems influence the components of energy balance (energy storage, energy intake, energy expenditure). Clearly, if a complete understanding of energy balance was apparent, worldwide levels of obesity would not have reached pandemic proportions due to effective prevention and treatment strategies. The aim of the present article is to provide a brief overview of the components of energy balance and to identify 10 key topics and unanswered questions that would move the research field forward if addressed. These topics are intentionally diverse and range from general themes (e.g., methodological issues) to specific areas (e.g., intensity of exercise required to alter energy intake). Although this list is not meant to be exhaustive, it does provide a research agenda for scientists involved in the study of energy balance and recommendations for public health professionals developing obesity interventions. PMID:24749236

  4. Fermi questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-05-01

    This column contains problems and solutions for the general category of questions known as "Fermi" questions. Forcing the students to use their ability to estimate, giving answers in terms of order-of-magnitude, is not only a challenge for a competition, but a teaching strategy to use in the classroom to develop self-confidence and the ability to analyze answers as to whether or not they make sense, as opposed to relying on the "precision" of a calculator value.

  5. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  6. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ground truthing at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously.

  7. A Semi-Supervised Learning Approach to Enhance Health Care Community–Based Question Answering: A Case Study in Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Klabjan, Diego; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-based question answering (CQA) sites play an important role in addressing health information needs. However, a significant number of posted questions remain unanswered. Automatically answering the posted questions can provide a useful source of information for Web-based health communities. Objective In this study, we developed an algorithm to automatically answer health-related questions based on past questions and answers (QA). We also aimed to understand information embedded within Web-based health content that are good features in identifying valid answers. Methods Our proposed algorithm uses information retrieval techniques to identify candidate answers from resolved QA. To rank these candidates, we implemented a semi-supervised leaning algorithm that extracts the best answer to a question. We assessed this approach on a curated corpus from Yahoo! Answers and compared against a rule-based string similarity baseline. Results On our dataset, the semi-supervised learning algorithm has an accuracy of 86.2%. Unified medical language system–based (health related) features used in the model enhance the algorithm’s performance by proximately 8%. A reasonably high rate of accuracy is obtained given that the data are considerably noisy. Important features distinguishing a valid answer from an invalid answer include text length, number of stop words contained in a test question, a distance between the test question and other questions in the corpus, and a number of overlapping health-related terms between questions. Conclusions Overall, our automated QA system based on historical QA pairs is shown to be effective according to the dataset in this case study. It is developed for general use in the health care domain, which can also be applied to other CQA sites. PMID:27485666

  8. Questions and answers in chronic urticaria: where do we stand and where do we go?

    PubMed

    Maurer, M; Church, M K; Marsland, A M; Sussman, G; Siebenhaar, F; Vestergaard, C; Broom, B

    2016-07-01

    This supplement reports proceedings of the second international Global Urticaria Forum, which was held in Berlin, Germany in November 2015. In 2011, a report of the GA(2) LEN task force on urticaria outlined important and unanswered questions in chronic urticaria (CU). These included, but were not limited to, questions on the epidemiology and course of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) [also called chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU)], the resources allocated for the diagnosis and treatment of CSU, whether patients with angioedema as an isolated symptom can be regarded as a subgroup of CSU, and the efficacy and long-term safety of therapies. Many of these questions have been addressed by recent studies. Some of the answers obtained raise new questions. Here, we summarize some of the key insights on CU obtained over recent years, and we discuss old and new unmet needs and how to address them with future studies. We need to analyze the influence of recent advances in understanding of the burden of CU on patients and society, disease management and the CU patient journey. Our increased understanding of urticarial pathophysiology and consideration of the patient as a whole will need to be translated to better treatment algorithms and protocols. Actions to address these challenges include the 5th International Consensus Meeting on Urticaria, which will take place later this year. The formation of a global network of Urticaria Centers of Reference and Excellence over the next few years has also been proposed, with the aim of providing consistent excellence in urticaria management and a clear referral route, furthering knowledge of urticaria through additional research and educating/promoting awareness of urticaria. PMID:27286498

  9. A question of choice.

    PubMed

    Grabiner, Gene

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  10. A Question of Choice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  11. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  12. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  13. Twenty-six key research questions in urban stream ecology: an assessment of the state of the science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urban streams have been the focus of much research activity in recent years, there remain many unanswered questions about the mechanisms driving the “urban stream syndrome.” Identification of these key research questions is an important step toward effective, efficient ...

  14. Question processing and clustering in INDOC: a biomedical question answering system.

    PubMed

    Sondhi, Parikshit; Raj, Purushottam; Kumar, V Vinod; Mittal, Ankush

    2007-01-01

    The exponential growth in the volume of publications in the biomedical domain has made it impossible for an individual to keep pace with the advances. Even though evidence-based medicine has gained wide acceptance, the physicians are unable to access the relevant information in the required time, leaving most of the questions unanswered. This accentuates the need for fast and accurate biomedical question answering systems. In this paper we introduce INDOC--a biomedical question answering system based on novel ideas of indexing and extracting the answer to the questions posed. INDOC displays the results in clusters to help the user arrive the most relevant set of documents quickly. Evaluation was done against the standard OHSUMED test collection. Our system achieves high accuracy and minimizes user effort. PMID:18274647

  15. MuSK-antibody positive myasthenia gravis: questions from the clinic.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Donald B; Juel, Vern C

    2008-09-15

    Clinical vignettes are presented of five patients with MuSK-antibody positive myasthenia gravis, each of which demonstrates a diagnostic or therapeutic issue that is unique to or characteristic of this condition. Consideration of these issues leads to questions, many of which are unanswered at this time, about the immunopathology and management of this subset of myasthenia gravis. PMID:18684517

  16. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  17. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  18. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  19. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  20. Some questions about the Venus atmosphere from past measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    The many missions undertaken in the past half a century to explore Venus with fly-by spacecraft, orbiters, descending probes, landers and floating balloons, have provided us with a wealth of data. These data have been supplemented by many ground based observations at reflected solar wavelengths, short and long wave infrared to radio waves. Inter-comparison of the results from such measurements provide a good general idea of the global atmosphere. However, re-visiting these observations also raises some questions about the atmosphere that have not received much attention lately but deserve to be explored and considered for future measurements.These questions are about the precise atmospheric composition in the deep atmosphere, the atmospheric state in the lower atmosphere, the static stability of the lower atmosphere, the clouds and hazes, the nature of the ultraviolet absorber and wind speed and direction near the surface from equator to the pole. The answers to these questions are important for a better understanding of Venus, its weather and climate. The measurements required to answer these questions require careful and sustained observations within the atmosphere and from surface based stations. Some of these measurements should and can be made by large missions such as Venera-D (Russia), Venus Climate Mission (Visions and Voyages - Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2013-2022 or the Venus Flagship Design Reference Mission (NASA) which have been studied in recent years, but some have not been addressed in such studies. For example, the fact that the two primary constituents of the Venus atmosphere - Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen are supercritical has not been considered so far. It is only recently that properties of binary supercritical fluids are being studied theoretically and laboratory validation is needed.With the end of monitoring of Venus by Venus Express orbiter in November 2014 after nearly a decade of observations and the imminent insertion of JAXA

  1. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  2. Towards an HBV cure: state-of-the-art and unresolved questions--report of the ANRS workshop on HBV cure.

    PubMed

    Zeisel, Mirjam B; Lucifora, Julie; Mason, William S; Sureau, Camille; Beck, Jürgen; Levrero, Massimo; Kann, Michael; Knolle, Percy A; Benkirane, Monsef; Durantel, David; Michel, Marie-Louise; Autran, Brigitte; Cosset, François-Loïc; Strick-Marchand, Hélène; Trépo, Christian; Kao, Jia-Horng; Carrat, Fabrice; Lacombe, Karine; Schinazi, Raymond F; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Zoulim, Fabien

    2015-08-01

    HBV infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although HBV infection can be efficiently prevented by vaccination, and treatments are available, to date there is no reliable cure for the >240 million individuals that are chronically infected worldwide. Current treatments can only achieve viral suppression, and lifelong therapy is needed in the majority of infected persons. In the framework of the French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis 'HBV Cure' programme, a scientific workshop was held in Paris in June 2014 to define the state-of-the-art and unanswered questions regarding HBV pathobiology, and to develop a concerted strategy towards an HBV cure. This review summarises our current understanding of HBV host-interactions leading to viral persistence, as well as the roadblocks to be overcome to ultimately address unmet medical needs in the treatment of chronic HBV infection. PMID:25670809

  3. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  4. Theoretical and Computational Modeling of Magnetically Ordered Molecules & Electronic Nano-Transport of Spins: State of Art and Unanswered Questions : Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Baruah, Tunna

    2015-02-06

    As a culmination of a five-year Nordforsk Network project entitled “Nanospintronics: Theory and Simulations”, Professor Carlo Canali (Linneaus University, Sweden) and members of the network, and Vincenza Benza (Local Organizer Milan) organized a summer workshop in conjunction with the A. Volta Scientific Cultural Exchange program. This workshop took place 24-30 August 2013. Several Basic Energy Scientists from the US conducted lectures and also provided hands-on tutorials to developing materials and chemicals scientists. We have received a total of $10,000 of support to offset the travel expenses of US-based participants for this workshop.

  5. Sequencing postoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: unanswered questions on the not evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Kepka, Lucyna; Socha, Joanna; Rucinska, Monika; Wasilewska-Tesluk, Ewa; Komosinska, Katarzyna

    2016-07-01

    This editorial comments on the study by Lee et al. which reported on the use of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) as first strategy after resection of stage IIIA-pN2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After completion of PORT, 41% of patients received postoperative chemotherapy (POCT). The five-year overall survival (OS) was significantly higher in patients treated with PORT and POCT than in patients treated with PORT alone. Authors concluded that PORT used as first postoperative strategy does not compromise a benefit of POCT and its implementation should be further studied. We discuss the pros and cons of using PORT before POCT for stage IIIA-pN2 NSCLC. Some radiobiological data support earlier use of PORT, however, caution should be paid to not to unnecessarily delay or omit POCT because of its demonstrated survival benefit. Concurrent postoperative radio-chemotherapy could be an attractive approach, but we still have very limited clinical data on its use in this indication. PMID:27501290

  6. Sequencing postoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: unanswered questions on the not evidence-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Socha, Joanna; Rucinska, Monika; Wasilewska-Tesluk, Ewa; Komosinska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    This editorial comments on the study by Lee et al. which reported on the use of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) as first strategy after resection of stage IIIA-pN2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After completion of PORT, 41% of patients received postoperative chemotherapy (POCT). The five-year overall survival (OS) was significantly higher in patients treated with PORT and POCT than in patients treated with PORT alone. Authors concluded that PORT used as first postoperative strategy does not compromise a benefit of POCT and its implementation should be further studied. We discuss the pros and cons of using PORT before POCT for stage IIIA-pN2 NSCLC. Some radiobiological data support earlier use of PORT, however, caution should be paid to not to unnecessarily delay or omit POCT because of its demonstrated survival benefit. Concurrent postoperative radio-chemotherapy could be an attractive approach, but we still have very limited clinical data on its use in this indication. PMID:27501290

  7. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  8. Filing of an Employment Discrimination Charge Under Title VII as Tolling the Statute of Limitations Applicable to a 1981 Action: The Unanswered Questions of Johnson v. REA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorocak, John R.

    1976-01-01

    Two remedies exist for employment discrimination: Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and section 1981 of Title 42 of the U. S. Code, recently resurrected by the Supreme Court in Johnson v. REA. The author points out that this has increased the workload of the judiciary, especially since 1981 has no statute of limitations. (LBH)

  9. Autophagy: New Questions from Recent Answers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is currently one of the areas of medical life sciences attracting a great interest because of its pathological implications and therapy potentials. The discovery of the autophagy-related genes (ATGs) has been the key event in this research field because their study has led to the acquisition of new knowledge about the mechanism of this transport pathway. In addition, the investigation of these genes in numerous model systems has revealed the central role that autophagy plays in maintaining the cell homeostasis. This process carries out numerous physiological functions, some of which were unpredicted and thus surprising. Here, we will review some of the questions about the mechanism and function of autophagy that still remain unanswered, and new ones that have emerged from the recent discoveries.

  10. Questioning behaviour in general practice: a pragmatic study.

    PubMed Central

    Barrie, A. R.; Ward, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the extent to which general practitioners' questioning behaviour in routine practice is likely to encourage the adoption of evidence based medicine. DESIGN: Self recording of questions by doctors during consultations immediately followed by semistructured interview. SETTING: Urban Australian general practice. SUBJECTS: Random sample of 27 general practitioners followed over a half day of consultations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of recording of clinical questions about patients' care which doctors would like answered; frequency with which doctors found answers to their questions. RESULTS: Doctors asked a total of 85 clinical questions, at a rate of 2.4 for every 10 patients seen. They found satisfactory answers to 67 (79%) of these questions. Doctors who worked in small practices (of one or two doctors) had a significantly lower rate of questioning than did those in larger practices (1.6 questions per 10 patients v 3.0 patients, P = 0.049). No other factors were significantly related to rate of questioning. CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support the view that doctors routinely generate a large number of unanswered clinical questions. It may be necessary to promote questioning behaviour in routine practice if evidence based medicine and other forms of self directed learning are to be successfully introduced. PMID:9420495

  11. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  12. The question of a right to life in animal ethics.

    PubMed

    Luy, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    In animal ethics a Right to Life has been postulated repeatedly, but no valid argument has been produced yet. Thus the question of a Right to Life in animal ethics remains unanswered. It is remarkable that no philosopher has yet found a valid argument against Epicurus (there is nothing fearful in the absence of life). On the other hand, there is, again based upon Epicurus' argument, a basic moral duty with respect to painless killing (i.e. no fear, no distress, no suffering). PMID:17186111

  13. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD.

    PubMed

    Celli, Bartolome R; Decramer, Marc; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wilson, Kevin C; Agustí, Alvar; Criner, Gerard J; MacNee, William; Make, Barry J; Rennard, Stephen I; Stockley, Robert A; Vogelmeier, Claus; Anzueto, Antonio; Au, David H; Barnes, Peter J; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Calverley, Peter M; Casanova, Ciro; Clini, Enrico M; Cooper, Christopher B; Coxson, Harvey O; Dusser, Daniel J; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Fahy, Bonnie; Ferguson, Gary T; Fisher, Andrew; Fletcher, Monica J; Hayot, Maurice; Hurst, John R; Jones, Paul W; Mahler, Donald A; Maltais, François; Mannino, David M; Martinez, Fernando J; Miravitlles, Marc; Meek, Paula M; Papi, Alberto; Rabe, Klaus F; Roche, Nicolas; Sciurba, Frank C; Sethi, Sanjay; Siafakas, Nikos; Sin, Don D; Soriano, Joan B; Stoller, James K; Tashkin, Donald P; Troosters, Thierry; Verleden, Geert M; Verschakelen, Johny; Vestbo, Jorgen; Walsh, John W; Washko, George R; Wise, Robert A; Wouters, Emiel F M; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) research statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes. PMID:25829431

  14. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD.

    PubMed

    Celli, Bartolome R; Decramer, Marc; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wilson, Kevin C; Agustí, Alvar A; Criner, Gerard J; MacNee, William; Make, Barry J; Rennard, Stephen I; Stockley, Robert A; Vogelmeier, Claus; Anzueto, Antonio; Au, David H; Barnes, Peter J; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Calverley, Peter M; Casanova, Ciro; Clini, Enrico M; Cooper, Christopher B; Coxson, Harvey O; Dusser, Daniel J; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Fahy, Bonnie; Ferguson, Gary T; Fisher, Andrew; Fletcher, Monica J; Hayot, Maurice; Hurst, John R; Jones, Paul W; Mahler, Donald A; Maltais, François; Mannino, David M; Martinez, Fernando J; Miravitlles, Marc; Meek, Paula M; Papi, Alberto; Rabe, Klaus F; Roche, Nicolas; Sciurba, Frank C; Sethi, Sanjay; Siafakas, Nikos; Sin, Don D; Soriano, Joan B; Stoller, James K; Tashkin, Donald P; Troosters, Thierry; Verleden, Geert M; Verschakelen, Johny; Vestbo, Jorgen; Walsh, John W; Washko, George R; Wise, Robert A; Wouters, Emiel F M; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Research Statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment, and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes. PMID:26028628

  15. Questioning Many Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  16. Privacy Questions from Practicing School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2004-01-01

    This Question and Answer (Q&A) article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation that were posed by school nurses in the field. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: education records, medication privacy issues, sharing of sensitive health information, privacy of individual…

  17. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. While some of these technologies have been readily incorporated into the study of marine organisms as models for understanding basic biology, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology and biological oceanography has only recently begun to be appreciated. This report defines critical scientific questions in marine biology and biological oceanography, describes the molecular technologies that could be used to answer these questions, and discusses some of the implications and economic opportunities that might result from this research which could potentially improve the international competitive position of the United States in the rapidly growing area of marine biotechnology. The committee recommends that the federal government provide the infrastructure necessary to use the techniques of molecular biology in the marine sciences.

  18. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  19. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  20. Good Student Questions in Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, François E.; Schneider, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of scientific reasoning is one of the big challenges in education. A popular educational strategy advocated for acquiring deep knowledge is inquiry-based learning, which is driven by emerging "good questions". This study will address the question: "Which design features allow learners to refine questions while preserving…

  1. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  2. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  3. Textbook Questions to Support Spatial Thinking: Differences in Spatiality by Question Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Injeong; Bednarz, Sarah W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the location and varying spatiality of questions in geography textbooks. The results show that study questions posed in page margins address the three components of spatial thinking--concepts of space, using tools of representation, and processes of reasoning--more than questions in other locations within the text. Three…

  4. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  5. Any Questions, Please?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, Howard R.

    1989-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses the use of questioning in the college classroom and its contribution to learning. Starting with a brief examination of the ways children question, discussions cover: (1) the effects of linguistic and socio-linguistic characteristics in questioning; (2) questions in psychotherapy, law, and opinion polling; (3) classroom…

  6. Measuring victimization inside prisons: questioning the questions.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Jing Shi; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-10-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the prison victimization literature to elicit information on victimization from inmates, compared to questions used in the general victimization literature. The questions used in the National Violence Against Women and Men Surveys are used to estimate sexual and physical victimization rates for an entire prison system. Rates of victimization were found to vary significantly by specificity of the question, definition of perpetrator, and clustering of behaviors. Facts about victimization inside prison will become more certain when the methodology becomes more standardized and consistent with definitions of victimization. PMID:18309042

  7. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  8. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  9. HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CONTINGENT VALUATION QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project is to understand better how individuals interpret and respond to contingent valuation (CV) questions. The research will address three issues: the reliability of the referendum questions format, the importance of reminding respondents about subst...

  10. The Notion of Coercion in Courtroom Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulow-Moller, Anne Marie

    To account for coercive force in questions posed by counsel to defendants and witnesses, several levels of speech must be addressed. Forensic linguistics literature discusses the scale of coerciveness as reflected in the syntactic form of the questions. It is argued that this type of analysis fails to account for the inferences made by hearers…

  11. Questioning cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)

  12. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  13. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  14. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  15. Reading for Meaning: Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

  16. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  17. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)

  18. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  19. Questions for Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  20. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  1. Teachers' Classroom Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alpaslan

    2007-01-01

    There is a large body of literature on the types of questions asked by teachers. Questions are a way that teachers use to bring students around to the correct mathematical concepts and procedures through "the negotiation of meaning for necessary condition of learning" (Voigt, 1992, p. 43). Teachers ask many questions, but we are not sure what…

  2. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  3. Question-Asking and Question-Exploring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

  4. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Literacy.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    The term physical literacy is relatively new, and its definition, conceptual underpinning, how it is measured, how to change it, and its relationship with holistic health and wellness across the life span are a few of many foundational issues that lack consensus. At present, there are more questions than answers. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 important research questions related to physical literacy with the hope of fueling future research activity and debate. Input was sought from international experts and practitioners on priorities and research gaps related to physical literacy. This list was supplemented by personal experience and research priorities identified in published manuscripts. From these various sources, the top 10 research questions related to physical literacy were compiled. Research related to physical literacy is in its infancy, and many important, even fundamental research questions and priorities remain unanswered. Research needs are summarized within 4 themes: monitoring physical literacy, understanding the physical literacy journey, enhancing physical literacy, and the benefits of physical literacy. Specific research questions relate to identifying measurable aspects of physical literacy and how they change across cultures and throughout the life span, as well as understanding the individual and environmental factors that describe the physical literacy journey and are effective targets for interventions. Physical literacy is increasingly recognized as the foundation for a healthy active lifestyle; however, robust research demonstrating its constitution, its relationship with health-related outcomes, and intervention strategies for its improvement remains to be completed. PMID:26889582

  5. Purchasing Educational Materials--Questions from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Lists 16 questions to address when pondering the purchase of educational materials. Addressed are issues of educational potential, health and safety to children, age flexibility, potential for skill development, structural integrity, and adequate customer service. (SD)

  6. Polarimetry observations of comets: Status, questions, future pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Dean C.; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal

    2016-04-01

    Polarimetric observations of comets have provided crucial insight into the composition and evolution of cometary dust particles. Herein, we present a brief overview of the polarization properties observed in comets, and some possible interpretations. We also discuss recent imaging polarimetry observations of C/2012 S1 (ISON) and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using the Hubble Space Telescope. The observations of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko are of particular interest, as they were timed to be contemporary with the initial rendezvous of Rosetta and the subsequent landing of the probe Philae. We also outline some unanswered questions and future developments that will greatly enhance our ability to further leverage the power of polarimetry for cometary research.

  7. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  8. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  9. Open forum: Question and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation).

  10. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  11. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  12. Are There Any Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauterman, Philip

    1970-01-01

    The crucial variable in good classroom teaching is the verbal behavior of the teacher. Through his questioning techniques--what questions he asks, how and when he asks them, how he replies to students, and how he stimulates students to reply to each other--the teacher can evoke a high level of class discussion and force students to go beyond the…

  13. Asking the Right Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Ruth Mehrtens

    1990-01-01

    Like good researchers, writers about research need to be able to tell whether scientific findings are valid. Six questions, to be asked of the researcher, can help the writer explain to others. A healthy skepticism is also important; there may be signals that more questions should be asked. (MSE)

  14. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  15. Questions About the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.

    This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…

  16. Questioning the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephanie

    2001-01-01

    One way teachers can improve students' reading comprehension is to teach them to think while reading, questioning the text and carrying on an inner conversation. This involves: choosing the text for questioning; introducing the strategy to the class; modeling thinking aloud and marking the text with stick-on notes; and allowing time for guided…

  17. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  18. It's about the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearwald, Ronald R.

    2011-01-01

    The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

  19. What is a Question?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-03-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of logical inference to these sets of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous measure that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2N, whereas the lattice of assuredly real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 22N. Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance, and entropy.

  20. What is a Question?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  1. Knowledge and question asking.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez Molinero, Rafael; García-Madruga, Juan Antonio

    2011-02-01

    The ability and the motivation for question asking are, or should be, some of the most important aims of education. Unfortunately, students neither ask many questions, nor good ones. The present paper is about the capacity of secondary school pupils for asking questions and how this activity depends on prior knowledge. To examine this, we use texts containing different levels of information about a specific topic: biodiversity. We found a positive relationship between the amount of information provided and the number of questions asked about the texts, supporting the idea that more knowledgeable people ask more questions. Some students were warned that there would be an exam after the reading, and this led to a diminishing number of questions asked, and yet this still did not significantly improve their exam scores. In such a case, it seems that reading was more concerned with immediacy, hindering critical thinking and the dialog between their previous ideas and the new information. Thus, question asking seems to be influenced not only by the amount of knowledge, but also by the reader's attitude towards the information. PMID:21266138

  2. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

  3. Biology Today: Questions & Variations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student questions as tools of instruction and as indicators of student misconceptions. Suggests different ways in which students may gain an understanding of biological concepts through discussion of popular movies and biological problems. (CW)

  4. A Teacher's Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Presents questions and concerns of a teacher who served as a scoring assessor for the Early Adolescence/English Language Arts field test of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, run by the Educational Testing Service. (SR)

  5. Asking gender questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Jonathan; Masters, Karen; Allen, James; Contenta, Filippo; Huckvale, Leo; Wilkins, Stephen; Zocchi, Alice

    2014-12-01

    Jonathan Pritchard, Karen Masters, James Allen, Filippo Contenta, Leo Huckvale, Stephen Wilkins and Alice Zocchi report on a survey of the gender of astronomers attending and asking questions at this year's UK National Astronomy Meeting.

  6. Inspire Your Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, William E.; Taylor, William W. L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a science project, Interactive Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiments (INSPIRE), that allows students to work with physicists to address unanswered questions about the physics of space. (ZWH)

  7. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  8. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  9. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  10. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  11. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  12. The Basic Epistemological Questions--Are There Also Valid Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oderman, Dale B.

    Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that seeks answers to two main questions: How do we know? and How do we know we know? This paper is concerned with how four major schools of thought have addressed these questions and the implications that their answers to these questions have for education. The paper begins by discussing how four major…

  13. Key Questions for Reviewing Virtual Charter School Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Charter School Authorizers (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document contains key questions to consider when evaluating virtual charter school proposals.The insert is designed to help authorizers evaluate school quality and capacity in light of the distinctive attributes of virtual schooling. These questions address major functional areas as well essential questions that authorizers should ask of…

  14. Evaluating and improving multiple choice papers: true-false questions in public health medicine.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R A

    1994-09-01

    The quality of a multiple true-false (MTF) examination paper in public health medicine for 149 clinical medical students was evaluated using predefined performance criteria to offer guidelines for improvement of such a paper. There were 35 questions, each with five true-false branches, and the performance of the overall best 25% of candidates was compared for individual items with that of the overall worst 25%. To improve discrimination between best and worst candidates, 60% of items needed changes, and several indicators were used to identify how, usually because the branch was too easy (26%), unpopular (16%) or too hard (10%). A number of guidelines for writing good MTF questions and for improving them are suggested. The inequity is illustrated of marking systems which do not allocate a negative mark for incorrect answers equal in size to the positive mark for correct ones, with zero for unanswered questions or 'don't know' answers. PMID:7845259

  15. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  16. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  17. Question Their Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royce, Brenda

    2004-10-01

    Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

  18. National Assessment Findings and Educational Policy Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford

    This paper addresses 11 commonly asked educational policy questions by referring to National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) findings in five learning areas. The paper is organized for quick reference to the 63 findings, which are, in turn, indexed to the NAEP reports in which they originally appeared. Findings in reading, literature,…

  19. Survey Questions Answered Only by Medication Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-eight tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 45 experts in the medication treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of specific disorders, ratings of various medications for specific disorders or symptoms, and preferences in mood stabilizers,…

  20. Systemic Sclerosis: Commonly Asked Questions by Rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Young, Amber; Khanna, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare autoimmune disorder with significant morbidity and mortality due to multi-organ system involvement. Early diagnosis and screening for organ involvement is critical as earlier treatment appears to improve function and may impact mortality. The purpose of this article is to address some of the commonly asked questions by rheumatologists on systemic sclerosis. PMID:25807095

  1. A Statewide High School Physics Question Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    During 1981-82 a physics contest was held in North Carolina in which a new physics question was asked each month. Information is provided for others contemplating a similar task. Areas addressed include costs, prizes (calculators), number of entries, contest rules, contest goals, and such problems as time involvement. (JN)

  2. Evolution, Creationism, and the Courts: 20 Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Miksch, Karen L.

    2003-01-01

    The teaching of evolution and creationism is controversial to many people in the United States. Knowledge of the many important court-decisions about the teaching of evolution and creationism in the United States can be used not only to resist anti-evolution activities of creationists, but also to help teachers address questions about the teaching…

  3. Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

  4. Asking Questions about Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the north of…

  5. Asking the Right Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Rob

    2011-01-01

    As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…

  6. Question: Who Can Vote?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Misty D.; Haas, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This year's rollercoaster primary elections and the pending national election, with an anticipated record voter turnout, provide the perfect backdrop for an examination of the questions: (1) Who can vote?; and (2) Who will vote? Historically, the American government refused voting rights to various groups based on race, gender, age, and even…

  7. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  8. A Question of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor.…

  9. More Fermi questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-09-01

    "Fermi" questions are a popular component of most Physics Olympics meets. Asking students to make a reasonable assumption about a problem and give answers in terms of order of magnitude is not only a great challenge for a competition, but is also a valued teaching strategy in the classroom.

  10. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  11. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  12. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  13. My Favorite Exam Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styer, Dan

    2015-12-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical deformation, and so forth. How much does the flatcar weigh?

  14. Big questions about the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  15. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  16. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  17. Building technology services that address student needs.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform. PMID:25611437

  18. Do cortical gamma oscillations promote or suppress perception? An under-asked question with an over-assumed answer

    PubMed Central

    Sedley, William; Cunningham, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical gamma oscillations occur alongside perceptual processes, and in proportion to perceptual salience. They have a number of properties that make them ideal candidates to explain perception, including incorporating synchronized discharges of neural assemblies, and their emergence over a fast timescale consistent with that of perception. These observations have led to widespread assumptions that gamma oscillations' role is to cause or facilitate conscious perception (i.e., a “positive” role). While the majority of the human literature on gamma oscillations is consistent with this interpretation, many or most of these studies could equally be interpreted as showing a suppressive or inhibitory (i.e., “negative”) role. For example, presenting a stimulus and recording a response of increased gamma oscillations would only suggest a role for gamma oscillations in the representation of that stimulus, and would not specify what that role were; if gamma oscillations were inhibitory, then they would become selectively activated in response to the stimulus they acted to inhibit. In this review, we consider two classes of gamma oscillations: “broadband” and “narrowband,” which have very different properties (and likely roles). We first discuss studies on gamma oscillations that are non-discriminatory, with respect to the role of gamma oscillations, followed by studies that specifically support specifically a positive or negative role. These include work on perception in healthy individuals, and in the pathological contexts of phantom perception and epilepsy. Reference is based as much as possible on magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, but we also consider evidence from invasive recordings in humans and other animals. Attempts are made to reconcile findings within a common framework. We conclude with a summary of the pertinent questions that remain unanswered, and suggest how future studies might address these. PMID

  19. Les questions de migrations internationales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  20. [The questions of international migration].

    PubMed

    Samman, M L

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument, and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic, and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in diffusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programs address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution in order that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in light of the complementary or competing actions of the media. (author's modified) PMID:12286405

  1. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  2. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  3. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally. PMID:10557490

  4. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  5. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we

  6. A Question of Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Harry N.

    1982-01-01

    The author addresses the concern that many learning handicapped students are being denied diplomas because of minimum competency testing (MCT). The beginnings of the MCT trend are traced, faults with MCT are pointed out, and legal aspects of MCT are considered. (SW)

  7. Neutrino Oscillations:. Hierarchy Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, D. J.; Cogswell, B. K.; Burroughs, H. R.; Escamilla-Roa, J.; Latimer, D. L.

    2014-09-01

    The only experimentally observed phenomenon that lies outside the standard model of the electroweak interaction is neutrino oscillations. A way to try to unify the extensive neutrino oscillation data is to add a phenomenological mass term to the Lagrangian that is not diagonal in the flavor basis. The goal is then to understand the world's data in terms of the parameters of the mixing matrix and the differences between the squares of the masses of the neutrinos. An outstanding question is what is the correct ordering of the masses, the hierarchy question. We point out a broken symmetry relevant to this question, the symmetry of the simultaneous interchange of hierarchy and the sign of θ13. We first present the results of an analysis of data that well determine the phenomenological parameters but are not sensitive to the hierarchy. We find θ13 = 0.152±0.014, θ 23 = 0.25{ - 0.05}{ + 0.03} π and Δ32 = 2.45±0.14×10-3 eV2, results consistent with others. We then include data that are sensitive to the hierarchy and the sign of θ13. We find, unlike others, four isolated minimum in the χ2-space as predicted by the symmetry. Now that Daya Bay and RENO have determined θ13 to be surprisingly large, the Super-K atmospheric data produce meaningful symmetry breaking such that the inverse hierarchy is preferred at the 97.2 % level.

  8. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  9. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  10. Recent progress and open questions in Drosophila dosage compensation.

    PubMed

    Vensko, Steven P; Stone, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is observed in many traits across diverse taxa, and often it is quite extreme. Within a species, individuals of opposing sex can appear strikingly different, reflecting differences at the molecular level that may be similarly striking. Among the most extreme cases of such molecular sexual dimorphism is the quantity of sex chromosomes that each sex possesses. Hemizygous sex chromosomes are common to many species, and various mechanisms have evolved to regulate transcriptional activity to ensure appropriate sex chromosome-to-autosome gene expression stoichiometry. Among the most thoroughly investigated of these mechanisms is Drosophila melanogaster's male-specific lethal (MSL) complex-mediated dosage compensation. In Drosophila, the male X chromosome transcription is upregulated approximately two-fold in somatic tissues to counterbalance the effects of sex chromosome hemizygosity on transcript abundance. Despite dramatic advances in our understanding of the Drosophila dosage compensation, many questions remain unanswered, and our understanding of its molecular underpinnings remains incomplete. In this review, we synthesize recent progress in the field as a means to highlight open questions, including how the MSL complex targets the X chromosome, how dosage compensation has shaped evolution of X-linked genes, and the degree to which MSL complex-mediated dosage compensation varies in activity across somatic tissues. PMID:26213294

  11. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  12. To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

    Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…

  13. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  14. Question 4: Editorial

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, K.; Blake, M.J.; Boucher, P.G.; Gordon, K.; Miller, D.J.; Monk, J.R.; Nelson, S.L.; Norling, N.M.; Sandstrom, D.V.; Urwiller, D.G.; Wilk, G.M.; Worthy, P.M.

    1990-11-08

    This article is a collection of editorials of public service commissioners addressing various issues of concern of the individual chairmen. The topics addressed include a master plan for fiber optic communications for Tennessee, the economic affects of reduced generation assets in a utilities' rate base and alternatives to traditional utility assets, competition between utilities and nonutility generators of electricity, traditional regulation as it applies to the evolving telecommunications and electrical generation industries, the managing of natural resources and energy production to meet human needs and insure our collective prosperity, reorganization and restructuring of the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission, regulation as a whipping boy being blamed for economic and environmental ills, concerns about affiliate relationships, the effects of acid rain legislation on power generation in North Dakota, accountability to the public, innovative regulation of California's telecommunications utilities as an example for application to other industries, and a call for a national Telecommunications Policy.

  15. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  16. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  17. `Question Moments': A Rolling Programme of Question Opportunities in Classroom Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Leite, Sara; Watts, Mike

    2016-06-01

    This naturalistic study integrates specific `question moments' into lesson plans to increase pupils' classroom interactions. A range of tools explored students' ideas by providing students with opportunities to ask and write questions. Their oral and written outcomes provide data on individual and group misunderstandings. Changes to the schedule of lessons were introduced to explore these questions and address disparities. Flexible lesson planning over 14 lessons across a 4-week period of high school chemistry accommodated students' contributions and increased student participation, promoted inquiring and individualised teaching, with each teaching strategy feeding forward into the next.

  18. A question of balance

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.; Brown, H.; Strawn, N.

    1996-12-31

    Nature seeks a balance. The global carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans through natural processes such as absorption, photosynthesis, and respiration, is one of those balances. This constant exchange promotes an equilibrium in which atmospheric carbon dioxide is keep relatively steady over long periods of time. For the last 10,000 years, up to the 19th century, the global carbon cycle has maintained atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide between 260 and 290 ppm. This article discusses the disturbance of the balance, how ethanol fuels address the carbon dioxide imbalance, and a bioethanol strategy.

  19. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.

  20. Stopping and Questioning Suspected Shoplifters Without Creating Civil Liability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jack R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Legal problems concerned with shoplifting suspects are addressed, including common law, criminal penalties, and the merchant's liability. Tangential questions and answers are presented along with discussion of pertinent court cases. (LBH)

  1. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  2. The Peter Shaw Award Acceptance Address: An Immigrant Sociologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the author's acceptance address for receiving the Peter Shaw award. In this address, the author, an immigrant sociologist, tells how this award helps to resolve questions and uncertainties he has as to the degree to which he can or should consider himself an American--about the extent to which he has become a part, a member…

  3. Teaching Positions: Difference, Pedagogy, and the Power of Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Elizabeth

    This collection of essays takes the question of pedagogy into a variety of places, including film studies, psychoanalytic literature criticism, dialog, and readings of educational documentary films and web sites. Part 1, "Teaching as a Scene of Address," includes chapters 1-6. The chapters introduce the concept of mode of address and where it…

  4. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

  5. Moving Students' Questions out of the Parking Lot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2014-01-01

    This article provides teachers with ideas on how to address students' self-generated questions. Following a third-grade classroom, the article explores the use of a "parking lot" -- a repository for the seemingly off-task questions which curious students naturally pose. As students encounter informational text with genuine purposes,…

  6. New Responses to Enduring Questions in Religious and Theological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siejk, Cate

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a response to two provocative questions about the relationship of theology to religious education posed by Norma Thompson in her Presidential address given at the annual meeting of APRRE in 1978. I offer contemporary answers to these questions from the perspective of a theological educator. First, I show how feminist theory and…

  7. Educators' Commonly Asked Questions about Assistive Technology Devices and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfenden, Deborah Parker

    This monograph, intended for Maine educators, presents basic information in question-and-answer format on assistive technology devices and services and the role of assistive technology in delivering appropriate education to children with disabilities in the least restrictive environment. Questions address the following topics: definitions;…

  8. Early Childhood Teacher Research: From Questions to Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…

  9. Keys to Success: School Facilities Primer, Questions & Answers 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Jim

    This publication provides answers to basic questions to help school board members more fully address the complexities of the planning, design, and construction process in order to maximize the goal of student success. The 101 questions and answers are in the areas of: facility planning; learning environment; information technology; safe schools;…

  10. Discriminatory Questions and Applicant Reactions in the Employment Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Alan M.; And Others

    This study investigated the effects of discriminatory interview questions on applicants' perceptions and intentions toward an organization. Participants included 118 graduate business students (59 percent male), average age of 31 with more than eight years of full-time work experience. Discriminatory questions addressed handicaps, plans for…

  11. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle. PMID:11797741

  12. Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

  13. Promoting Student Learning Through Questioning: A Study of Classroom Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sandra; Bowman, Mary Ann

    1996-01-01

    A study in a graduate-level occupational therapy class found that questions asked by teachers and the instructional format in which they were asked influenced the frequency and level of student questioning. Subjects were 5 undergraduate and 15 graduate students. It was concluded that improved classroom questioning strategies may contribute to…

  14. A question of character.

    PubMed

    Wetlaufer, S

    1999-01-01

    For the most part, Glamor-a-Go-Go's board has been thrilled with CEO Joe Ryan's performance. Ryan, after all, had transformed the private-label cosmetics company into a retail powerhouse with flashy outlets from New York to Los Angeles. In addition to saving the company from bankruptcy shortly after his arrival in 1992, Ryan had made Glamor-a-Go-Go a fun and exciting place to work, increasing workers' wages and creating boundless opportunities for anyone willing to work hard and think out of the box. He had also brought more women and people of color on board. And he had made many employees wealthy, with generous stock giveaways and options for the most senior employees down to the most junior. Glamor-a-Go-Go's stock price had grown tenfold during Ryan's tenure. But Ryan's personal affairs were beginning to call into question his leadership abilities. The local paper's gossip column recently ran a photo of Ryan--a married man--leaving a gala event with a beautiful young woman from the company, with the headline "Who's That Girl?" Indeed, rumors about Ryan's philandering were starting to take on a harsher edge. Some people believed his secretary left because Ryan had sexually harassed her. Others believed a mail-room employee had been promoted to factory supervisor because of her affair with the CEO. Having warned Ryan several times about his alleged infidelities, the board is stuck. What should it do about Ryan's extracurricular behavior? Does Ryan's personal behavior even affect the company? Is what Ryan does outside the office the board's concern? Six commentators weigh in. PMID:10621266

  15. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, D.A.; Bartholow, J.M.; Jager, H.I.; Beschta, R.L.; Cheslak, E.F.; Deas, M.L.; Ebersole, J.L.; Foott, J.S.; Johnson, S.L.; Marine, K.R.; Mesa, M.G.; Petersen, J.H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K.F.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  16. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Dr. Dale; Bartholow, Dr. John; Jager, Yetta; al., et.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem.

  17. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... Many ear infections Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Click for ...

  18. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment options? Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project What is RAISE? Why is RAISE important? What ... more information Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project Q: What is RAISE? A: In 2008, the ...

  19. 2014 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  20. 2013 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  1. Children Who Question Their Heterosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…

  2. Improving your IQ -- Intelligent Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Kirk

    1998-01-01

    Stresses the importance for teachers to analyze their Intelligent Questioning (IQ) and Responding to Answers (RSA) scores. Provides three methods for measuring IQ and RSA: Flowchart for Asking Effective Questions, Questioning Observation form, and Flanders Technique of Interaction Analysis. Contends that by improving these teaching skills,…

  3. Improving the Questions Students Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue-Smith, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    Teachers often tell their classes that "there is no such thing as a stupid question." But this is not completely honest. Questions aren't asked in a vacuum; their intelligence or stupidity depends on a variety of contextual variables. The ideal question is the right one, posed to the right source in the right way at the right time for the right…

  4. Exploration of question intonation in read American English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrdal, Ann K.; Jilka, Matthias

    2003-10-01

    Several generally accepted intonational features of questions in American English have not been the subject of much empirical study: namely that wh-questions end in L-L% phrasal accents, and that their intonational contours are identical to those of declarative sentences, while yes/no questions end in H-H% phrasal accents. The study addresses the following questions about question intonation: How frequently do yes/no questions end in H-H% phrasal tones, and how often do wh-questions end in L-L% phrasal tones? How similar are the intonational contours and features of declarative sentences and wh-questions with phrase-final falls (L-L%)? How do the sentence pitch ranges of yes/no questions, wh-questions, and declarative sentences compare? Does a speaker's characteristic pitch range affect the character or frequency of occurrence of question phrasal-tones? Speaker and utterance pitch ranges and their relation to prosodic features of pitch accents and phrasal tones were observed in yes/no and in wh-questions, and compared to a sample of simple declarative sentences spoken by the same speakers: 5 female and 3 male American English professional voice talents. The same set of 12 sentences were read by each of the 8 speakers in the same contexts. Theoretical and practical implications of the results will be discussed.

  5. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  6. Harmaline-Induced Tremor in Mice: Videotape Documentation and Open Questions About the Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Melody M.; Tang, Guomei; Kuo, Sheng-Han

    2013-01-01

    Background Harmaline-induced tremor in rodents has been extensively used as an animal model for essential tremor (ET). However, there is no visual documentation in the published literature. Methods We injected mice subcutaneously with either 20 mg/kg of harmaline hydrochloride or saline and then videotaped the responses. Results Action and postural tremor in the mouse began 5 minutes after subcutaneous harmaline injection and peaked at approximately 30 minutes. The tremor involved the head, trunk, tail, and four limbs and lasted for approximately 2 hours. The forelimb tremor was postural or action tremor, similar to that observed in ET. Discussion This video segment provides the first visual documentation of the phenomenology of harmaline-induced tremor in a mouse. We also raise several unanswered questions regarding the use of harmaline-induced tremor to model ET. PMID:24386609

  7. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  8. Methodological questions in studying consonant acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Consonant mastery is one of the most widely used metrics of typical phonological acquisition and of phonological disorder. Two fundamental methodological questions concerning research on consonant acquisition are (1) how to elicit a representative sample of productions and (2) how to analyse this sample once it has been collected. This paper address these two questions by reviewing relevant aspects of experience in evaluating word-initial consonant accuracy from transcriptions of isolated-word productions elicited from 2- and 3-year-olds learning four different first languages representing a telling range of consonant systems (English, Cantonese, Greek, Japanese). It is suggested that both researchers and clinicians should consider a number of different item-related factors, such as phonotactic probability and word length, when constructing word lists to elicit consonant productions from young children. This study also proposes that transcription should be supplemented by acoustic analysis and the perceptual judgements of naïve listeners. PMID:19031192

  9. Are debatable scientific questions debatable? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2010-12-01

    Are debatable scientific questions debatable? In 2000, the physicist-philosopher John Ziman posed this pithy—and crucial—question. He noted that scientists were at a disadvantage in public debate, because the rules of engagement are different in scientific discourse than in public discourse in ways that make it difficult for scientists to ‘win’ public arguments, even when the facts are on their side. In this paper, I revisit Ziman’s arguments in light of the difficulties that climate scientists have had in communicating the reality and gravity of global warming. In addition to the problem posed by Ziman, I also address the role of organized disinformation in further increasing the challenges that climate scientists face.

  10. Using Dimensional Data to Address Enrollment Management Questions in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duniway, Bob; Wiegand, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Enrollment management is central to the success of a college or university. A school must enroll students into courses, completion of a series of which will lead to graduation. While all colleges and universities must manage the enrollment process at least operationally, it is challenging to keep track of all the related data that would allow for…

  11. Is exogenous hydrogen sulfide a relevant tool to address physiological questions on hydrogen sulfide?

    PubMed

    Haouzi, Philippe

    2016-07-15

    This review challenges the use of solutions of dissolved exogenous H2S in the literature as a tool to determine the potential physiological functions of endogenous H2S as well as its putative therapeutic applications. Our major point of contention is that solutions of dissolved H2S are used in vitro at concentrations, within the high microM range, which are above the concentrations of dissolved H2S found in blood and tissues during lethal H2S exposure in vivo. In addition, since the levels of toxicity are extremely variable among cell types, a property that is seldom acknowledged, the physiological relevance of data obtained after local or in-vitro administrations of H2S at concentrations of few microM is far from certain. Conversely, the rate of disappearance of the dissolved pool of H2S in the body (being trapped or oxidized), which we found to be at least of several micromoles/kg/min, is so rapid in vivo that if relatively low quantities of H2S, i.e. few micromoles for instance, are administered, no change in H2S concentrations in the body is to be expected, unless toxic levels are used. Protocols looking at the effects of compounds slowly releasing H2S must also resolve a similar conundrum, as their effects must be reconciled with the unique ability of the blood and tissues to get rid of H2S and the steepness of the dose-toxic effects relationship. Only by developing a comprehensive framework in which H2S metabolism and toxicity will be used as a rationale to justify any experimental approach will we be able to bring definitive evidence supporting a protective role for exogenous H2S, if any, and its putative function as an endogenous mediator. PMID:27045466

  12. Minding Our P's through Q's: Addressing Possibilities and Precautions of Community Work through New Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmendorf, Dana

    2010-01-01

    Art therapists increasingly work outside traditional mental health treatment programs and facilitate art-making experiences within community-based settings. Although traditional mental health facilities provide frameworks for meeting ethical principles such as privacy, roles, consent to treatment, and setting therapeutic goals, community-based art…

  13. Introduction: Addressing Air Pollution and Health Science Questions to Inform Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health (AQAH) is the sixth and final in a series of special journal issues (Solomon 2010, 2011a, b; Solomon et al. 2011; Solomon 2012) associated with the 2010 Air Pollution and Heath Conference: Bridging the Gap between Sources ...

  14. Important Questions Remain to Be Addressed before Adopting a Dimensional Classification of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2008-01-01

    Comments on the original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model," by T. A. Widiger and T. J. Trull (2007). Widiger and Trull raised important nosological issues that warrant serious consideration not only for the personality disorders but for all mental disorders as the Diagnostic…

  15. Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site: Field-Scale Test Facility for Addressing Fundamental Questions of Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrash, W.; Routh, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    The Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS) is a research wellfield or field-scale test facility developed in a shallow, coarse, fluvial aquifer with the objectives of supporting (a) development of cost-effective, non- invasive methods for quantitative characterization and imaging methods in heterogeneous aquifers using hydrologic and geophysical techniques; (b) examination of fundamental relationships and processes at multiple scales; (c) testing theories and models for groundwater flow and solute transport; and (d) educating and training the next generation of professionals in multidisciplinary subsurface science and engineering. The design of the wells and the wellfield provide for a wide range of single-well, cross-hole, multiwell and multilevel hydrologic, geophysical, and combined hydrologic-geophysical experiments. Efforts have been focused largely on (a) establishing the 3D distributions of geologic, hydrologic, and geophysical parameters which can then be used as the basis for testing methods to jointly invert hard and soft data to return the "known" 3D K distribution and (b) developing subsurface measurement and imaging methods including static and time-lapse tomographic imaging methods. From this work we have developed a good understanding of the hydrostratigraphic framework of the BHRS as a hierarchical system which includes layers and lenses; this framework is recognized with geologic, hydrologic, radar, seismic, and EM methods and tracer tests. Work to date has been conducted by Boise State University with some collaboration and exchange with researchers and students from other institutions. At this point the BHRS is functioning well as a field-scale control volume and test cell in a multiscale heterogeneous aquifer so there is an opportunity to increase the range of both collaborative participation and research activities at the BHRS. In this regard, opportunities exist to investigate and monitor process and property variation in time and space, and fluxes within system components and across boundaries (i.e., ground water, surface water, unsaturated zone, phreatophytes) including chemical and biological/microbiological investigations in addition to on-going hydrologic and geophysical investigations.

  16. Reference Readiness for AV Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

  17. The most intriguing question in synesthesia research.

    PubMed

    Rouw, Romke; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably among the most interesting questions: Why do most synesthetes *not* get confused by their additional sensations? This is particularly interesting when phrased in a broader context: What are the mechanisms for deciding which of the sensations we experience reflect something "real" (phenomena in the outside world) and which reflect something that is "not real" (internally generated and private phenomena). PMID:24735051

  18. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  19. Questions Dog Design of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of signing a contract to help design assessments for the common standards, ACT Inc. has withdrawn from the project amid conflict-of-interest questions sparked by its own development of a similar suite of tests. Even though it involves only a small subcontract, the move by the Iowa-based test-maker, and the questions from the state…

  20. Kids Ask the Best Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Debby; Sterling, Donna

    1997-01-01

    According to 1995 National Science Education Standards, "inquiry into authentic questions generated from student experiences is the central strategy for teaching science." Effective classroom questions promote relevance, encourage ownership, help students interpret their observations, and link new learning to what students already know. Two…

  1. Test Pool Questions, Area III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Jamee Reid

    This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

  2. A Set of Questions, A Question of Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics in School, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Two versions of a page of exercises using set ideas are presented, one in plain language and one in technical language. Some questions and answers about the appropriateness of set terminology and symbols are then given. (MNS)

  3. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  4. Questioning Strategies to Develop Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Carol P.

    Major research on questioning has focused on the numbers and types of questions asked by teachers, the effects of teachers' questions on students, the questioning process, questioning as used in textbooks, and the questioning pattern (what the teacher does immediately after asking a question). Teachers who have few skills to utilize questioning…

  5. Questions About Venus after Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    asymmetry in the haze distribution? (vi) what is the direction of the near surface wind at different locations on the planet? JAXA's Akatsuki orbiter will soon begin collecting unique and valuable observations in April 2016 which will increase our knowledge, but other measurements required to answer these questions require careful and sustained observations within the atmosphere and from surface based stations. Some of these measurements should and can be made by large missions such as Venera-D, Venus Climate Mission or the Venus Flagship Design Reference Mission which have been studied in recent years, but some have not been addressed in such studies. Many new missions to Venus are being developed or conceived and it is important to keep the key questions about Venus in focus.

  6. On the temporal interpretation of certain surprise questions.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    This article considers a special kind of surprise questions, i.e. those introduced by the adversative particle ma (but), and compares it with surprise exclamations. The main issue addressed here concerns the obligatory presence in the questions of the imperfect verbal form, versus the obligatory presence in exclamations of a non-imperfect indicative. It will be shown that the special semantics associated with these structures determines the presence of a certain verbal form. Some syntactic issues will be addressed in the final section, having to do with the representation in the syntax of properties connected to the context. PMID:27610309

  7. Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Observations of X-ray emission -- a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields -- from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526

  8. Organ Transplantation: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... contact. What questions should I ask the transplant team? What kind of medical tests are done in ... listing? Who are the members of the transplant team and what are their jobs? How many attending ...

  9. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  10. Birds: Old Questions and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

  11. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... I do if I get stranded in cold weather? Tie a brightly colored cloth to the antenna ...

  12. Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate Home > Education > Questions to Ask Your Doctor Education What is mbc? Diagnosis Guide for the Newly ... treatment in a community-based medical office. Consider distance from home, availability of specialists, access to clinical ...

  13. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  14. Six Questions on Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, John F.; Sanayei, Ali

    2011-09-01

    This paper includes an interview with John F. Symons regarding some important questions in "complex systems" and "complexity". In addition, he has stated some important open problems concerning complex systems in his research area from a philosophical point of view.

  15. Records--The Achilles' Heel of School Nursing: Answers to Bothersome Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when the…

  16. 78 FR 16765 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...The OCC, Board, and FDIC (collectively, the Agencies) are proposing to clarify their Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment to address several community development issues. The Agencies propose to revise five questions and answers, which address (i) community development activities outside institutions' assessment areas, both in the broader statewide or regional......

  17. Addressing Equity within Science Education Courses: Sharing Approaches and Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieseman, Katherine C.; Bryan, Lynn; Hammrich, Penny; Lynch, Sharon; McGinnis, Randy; Pyle, Eric

    A discussion session provided opportunities for individuals involved in science teacher education to exchange approaches and ideas on how equity issues in science teaching and learning are being addressed in science teacher education courses. Evaluative questions included: (1) What conceptions of equity in science education underpin individual…

  18. Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

  19. Bulimia: Issues a University Counseling Center Needs To Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitner, Phillip A.; Shetterly, Arminta

    The eating disorder known as bulimia is a relatively new and baffling phenomenon. This paper raises questions that college and university counseling center professionals need to address regarding this phenomenon. The first section focuses on defining the term "bulimia" and its evolution. The second section identifies numerous symptoms that need to…

  20. Addressing Concerns and Taking on the Third Rail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Mintz, Laurie B.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, the authors begin by addressing some of the questions raised about the Values Statement. They then focus on next steps, first briefly summarizing a few excellent suggestions made by the authors of the reaction papers and then zeroing in on the tension-wrought issue of when values regarding sexual orientation and religion…

  1. Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma: Controversies to be addressed

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Chang; Du, Juan; Zhu, Cheng-Pei; Huang, Han-Chun; Wang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Liang-Cai; Wan, Xue-Shuai; Zhang, Hao-Hai; Miao, Ruo-Yu; Sang, Xin-Ting; Zhao, Hai-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) accounts for 0.4%-14.2% of primary liver cancer cases and possesses pathological features of both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Since this disease was first described and classified in 1949, the classification of CHC has continuously evolved. The latest definition and classification of CHC by the World Health Organization is based on the speculation that CHC arises from hepatic progenitor cells. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the common origin of different components of CHC. Furthermore, the definition of CHC subtypes is still ambiguous and the identification of CHC subtype when a single tumor contains many components has remained unresolved. In addition, there is no summary on the newly recognized histopathology features or the contribution of CHC components to prognosis and outcome of this disease. Here we provide a review of the current literature to address these questions. PMID:27182157

  2. Ten questions for evolutionary studies of disease vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, Randolph M

    2011-01-01

    Many evolutionary applications in medicine rely on well-established methods, such as population genetics, phylogenetic analysis, and observing pathogen evolution. Approaches to evolutionary questions about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease are less well developed. Strategies for formulating questions and hypotheses remain unsettled, and methods for testing evolutionary hypotheses are unfamiliar to many in medicine. This article uses recent examples to illustrate successful strategies and some common challenges. Ten questions arise in the course of considering hypotheses about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease. Addressing them systematically can help minimize confusion and errors. PMID:25567972

  3. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  4. Implementing Response to Intervention: Practices and Perspectives from Five Schools--Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackett, Kathryn Klingler; Roberts, Greg; Baker, Scott; Scammacca, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    One question frequently arises in the work of the Regional Comprehensive Centers: "What are states, districts, and schools doing about RTI?" This document addresses that question, with particular focus on instruction and the implementation of effective practices. It uses a frequently asked questions (FAQs) format, with answers based on the…

  5. Working with Second Language Learners: Answers to Teachers' Top Ten Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Stephen

    This book aims to provide practical, research-informed answers to the questions most frequently asked by teachers of second language learners. Every question targets one of the key instructional issues teachers must address to ensure success for their second language students. Included among the questions are: How do I assess a student's English?…

  6. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  7. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  8. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  10. On asking the right questions.

    PubMed

    Rayner, P

    1986-03-01

    Despite the vast array of theoretical formulations now available, none is sufficiently well developed. Some of the philosophical questions thrown up by such material are posed. Under the heading of "Discourse," the questions of what constitutes reasonableness and how logical validity is established are raised. Under the heading of "Epistemology," the nature of concept formulation and causality is raised. Under the heading of "Language," the nature of linguistic representation and artificially constructed language or "artificial intelligence" is raised. It is suggested that these and other issues in the philosophy of science require the urgent attention of family therapy theorists. PMID:3754225

  11. Response times to conceptual questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

  12. Questions Students Ask: The Red-Eye Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the question of why a dog's eyes appear red and glow when a flash photograph is taken. Conditions for the red-eye effect, light paths involved, structure of the eye, and typical cameras and lenses are discussed. Also notes differences between the eyes of nocturnal animals and humans. (JN)

  13. Sectarian Universities, Federal Funding, and the Question of Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagano, Phyllis

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the question of sectarianism and its relationship to academic freedom. Provides a case history of U.S. Roman Catholic education, examining the financial problems of Catholic universities denied GI Bill monies. Defines the parameters of the Catholic college. Delineates the relationship between the Vatican's control of Catholic…

  14. Questions of Matter: Critical Conversations in Online Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy; Turnbull, Sarah; Angay-Crowder, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    How professional development is delivered in today's networked world has shifted greatly, and research into online spaces of learning is growing. Numerous questions, however, remain regarding how online spaces can be leveraged to foster meaningful conversations that address current critical educational issues. This qualitative study examines the…

  15. Some Key Epistemological Questions About A "Theory of Practice."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack

    A number of conclusions can be drawn from an examination of epistemological questions relevant to the building of a theory of research practice in educational administration: (1) the realms addressed by the human sciences and by the natural sciences differ markedly in degree if not in kind; (2) the "theory" movement was guided epistemologically by…

  16. Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

  17. Questions for the Study and Teaching of Shakespeare and Milton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Angela, Ed.; Medine, Peter, Ed.

    The discussion questions and essay prompts in this collection were compiled from contributions made by participants in the 1991 Arizona Shakespeare-Milton Institute. After an introduction which presents some general guidelines for teachers and students, the collection addresses the following works: "As You Like It"; "The Tempest"; "Richard II";…

  18. Validating Two Questions in the Force Concept Inventory with Subquestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Jun-ichiro; Taniguchi, Masa-aki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the structural validity of Q.16 and Q.7 in the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). We address whether respondents who answer Q.16 and Q.7 correctly actually have an understanding of the concepts of physics tested in the questions. To examine respondents' levels of understanding, we use subquestions that test them on concepts…

  19. [Questions by adolescents about dieting].

    PubMed

    Bloch, A

    1989-12-15

    In recent years there has been increasing concern and involvement of Israeli adolescents with dieting. An increase in the incidence of obesity has been emphasized by the mass media. This has been marked by an increase in the number of questions on dieting sent anonymously by 12 to 14 year-olds to a column in a popular youth magazine about adolescent sexuality. These letters include requests for diets to prevent obesity in general and fatness of certain parts of the body in particular, such as the thighs or buttocks; questions as to side-effects of diets already started, particularly amenorrhea; and questions about the onset of bulimia and anorexia nervosa, expressing fear of the consequences. This study gives examples of the questions and the answers, and indicates the professions of those to whom the applicants were referred for further diagnosis and treatment. Newer techniques of health education with regard to adolescent dieting are urgently needed so that the health staff can promote insight and indicate the need for treatment at as early a stage as possible. The use of mass media in a suitable manner is critical, given the increase in diet-advertising. PMID:2620891

  20. Explaining Errors in Children's Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

  1. Looming Questions in Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

  2. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  3. Questioning Shakespeare through Student Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Kathleen K.

    Reader-response journals were successfully employed in a "Reading Shakespeare" course for non-majors, making literary tradition accessible to students untrained in classical rhetoric. Students were encouraged to employ any combination of four approaches. First, students were invited to ask questions about the language, sequence of events,…

  4. Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Edmund S.

    2006-01-01

    In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

  5. Questioning Centre-Periphery Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2005-01-01

    How much is hegemony and how much is self-determination in the higher education systems in Southeast Asia? This paper argues that while the question of centre and periphery is still relevant to the analysis of international university systems, the analytical frameworks from which it has arisen may lose viability in the long term. Southeast Asian…

  6. Four Questions to Ask Yourself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

  7. What Children Learn from Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  8. Education Answers That Vouchers Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    This speech explains education voucher programs and responds to criticisms of such programs. The education voucher system is described as one that questions traditional structures and methods while it equalizes opportunities to purchase education, fosters federally funded and controlled alternative school settings and programs, and gives parents…

  9. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions…

  10. Multiple True-False Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, G. C.; Woods, G. T.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of objective questions are compared: the multiple choice item, in which one and only one of several stated alternatives is correct for a given initial statement, and the multiple true-false item, where the stem is followed by several completions of which one or more can be correct. (DT)

  11. Ten Practical Questions about Branding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    "Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

  12. Approaches to answering critical CER questions.

    PubMed

    Kinnier, Christine V; Chung, Jeanette W; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2015-01-01

    While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for research, many research questions cannot be ethically and practically answered using an RCT. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) techniques are often better suited than RCTs to address the effects of an intervention under routine care conditions, an outcome otherwise known as effectiveness. CER research techniques covered in this section include: effectiveness-oriented experimental studies such as pragmatic trials and cluster randomized trials, treatment response heterogeneity, observational and database studies including adjustment techniques such as sensitivity analysis and propensity score analysis, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost effectiveness analysis. Each section describes the technique and covers the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. PMID:25677015

  13. Open questions in computational motor control.

    PubMed

    Karniel, Amir

    2011-09-01

    Computational motor control covers all applications of quantitative tools for the study of the biological movement control system. This paper provides a review of this field in the form of a list of open questions. After an introduction in which we define computational motor control, we describe: a Turing-like test for motor intelligence; internal models, inverse model, forward model, feedback error learning and distal teacher; time representation, and adaptation to delay; intermittence control strategies; equilibrium hypotheses and threshold control; the spatiotemporal hierarchy of wide sense adaptation, i.e., feedback, learning, adaptation, and evolution; optimization based models for trajectory formation and optimal feedback control; motor memory, the past and the future; and conclude with the virtue of redundancy. Each section in this paper starts with a review of the relevant literature and a few more specific studies addressing the open question, and ends with speculations about the possible answer and its implications to motor neuroscience. This review is aimed at concisely covering the topic from the author's perspective with emphasis on learning mechanisms and the various structures and limitations of internal models. PMID:21960308

  14. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  15. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  16. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  17. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  18. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  19. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  20. On a question of Gross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  1. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  2. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  3. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  4. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  6. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. PMID:21664679

  7. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-making outcomes, and 2. the extent to which existing PtDAs a) account for health literacy, and b) are tested in lower health literacy populations. Methods We reviewed literature for evidence relevant to these two aims. When high-quality systematic reviews existed, we summarized their evidence. When reviews were unavailable, we conducted our own systematic reviews. Results Aim 1: In an existing systematic review of PtDA trials, lower health literacy was associated with lower patient health knowledge (14 of 16 eligible studies). Fourteen studies reported practical design strategies to improve knowledge for lower health literacy patients. In our own systematic review, no studies reported on values clarity per se, but in 2 lower health literacy was related to higher decisional uncertainty and regret. Lower health literacy was associated with less desire for involvement in 3 studies, less question-asking in 2, and less patient-centered communication in 4 studies; its effects on other measures of patient involvement were mixed. Only one study assessed the effects of a health literacy intervention on outcomes; it showed that using video to improve the salience of health states reduced decisional uncertainty. Aim 2: In our review of 97 trials, only 3 PtDAs overtly addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. In 90% of trials, user health literacy and readability of the PtDA were not reported. However, increases in knowledge and informed choice were reported in those studies

  8. Addressing Underrepresentation: Physics Teaching for All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifkin, Moses

    2016-02-01

    Every physics teacher wants to give his or her students the opportunity to learn physics well. Despite these intentions, certain groups of students—including women and underrepresented minorities (URMs)—are not taking and not remaining in physics. In many cases, these disturbing trends are more significant in physics than in any other science. This is a missed opportunity for our discipline because demographic diversity strengthens science. The question is what we can do about these trends in our classrooms, as very few physics teachers have been explicitly prepared to address them. In this article, I will share some steps that I've taken in my classroom that have moved my class in the right direction. In the words of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Carl Wieman and psychologists Lauren Aguilar and Gregory Walton: "By investing a small amount of class time in carefully designed and implemented interventions, physics teachers can promote greater success among students from diverse backgrounds. Ultimately, we hope such efforts will indeed improve the diversity and health of the physics profession."

  9. Presidential address: Experimenting with the scientific past.

    PubMed

    Radick, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to knowledge about the scientific pasts that might have been - the so-called 'counterfactual' history of science - historians can either debate its possibility or get on with the job. Taking the latter course means re-engaging with some of the most general questions about science. It can also lead to fresh insights into why particular episodes unfolded as they did and not otherwise. Drawing on recent research into the controversy over Mendelism in the early twentieth century, this address reports and reflects on a novel teaching experiment conducted in order to find out what biology and its students might be like now had the controversy gone differently. The results suggest a number of new options: for the collection of evidence about the counterfactual scientific past, for the development of collaborations between historians of science and science educators, for the cultivation of more productive relationships between scientists and their forebears, and for heightened self-awareness about the curiously counterfactual business of being historical. PMID:27353945

  10. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  11. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  12. [Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

    This manual consists of area 2 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 2 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

  13. [Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

    This manual consists of area 1 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 1 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

  14. 29 CFR 18.104 - Preliminary questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary questions. 18.104 Section 18.104 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence § 18.104 Preliminary questions. (a) Questions of admissibility generally. Preliminary questions concerning the qualification of a person to be a witness,...

  15. 29 CFR 18.104 - Preliminary questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary questions. 18.104 Section 18.104 Labor Office... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence § 18.104 Preliminary questions. (a) Questions of admissibility generally. Preliminary questions concerning the qualification of a person to be a witness,...

  16. The Questioning Strategies Observation System (QSOS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Kevin R.; Davis, O. L., Jr.

    The Questioning Strategies Observation System (QSOS) is designed to record verbal behaviors occurring in the classroom which are associated with the teacher's use of questions. Twenty-four categories are used in three main sections: initiation of the question, response to the question, and reaction to the response. Under initiation, the categories…

  17. Five Strategies for Questioning with Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2015-01-01

    Masterful teachers don't just ask a lot of questions; they ask questions in a purposeful way. In this article, Costa and Kallick describe five strategies that can help teachers become more purposeful in designing and posing questions. One strategy is to plan questions that elicit student thinking at various cognitive levels, from simple recall of…

  18. Improving Teacher Questions in Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers need to be able to ask quality questions in the teaching of reading--questions to assess student comprehension and to clarify content, questions to enable learners to engage in higher levels of cognition such as creative and critical thinking, questions to help students engage in meaningful reading experiences and become lifelong…

  19. Educational Computing and the Ecological Crisis: Some Questions about Our Curriculum Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes that although society is in the "Information Age," humans still must work interdependently with their natural resources. Addresses three question concerning the use of computers and how they relate to society's ecological awareness. (GG)

  20. 25 CFR 217.4 - Referral of questions by the joint managers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... party's proposal, if any, for solution. Such referrals shall be in writing, addressed to the other joint... DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.4 Referral of questions by the joint managers. The business committee and the board...

  1. 77 FR 8885 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Biosimilars: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... facilitate development programs for proposed biosimilar products by addressing questions that may arise in... developing proposed biosimilar products, biologics license application (BLA) holders, and other interested... of Drug Information, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903...

  2. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    perspectives for future applications. We are most grateful that you agreed with the special format of the symposium which clearly does not follow conven- tional conferences. Allow me to call your special attention once again to two main differences: The presentations are not review papers praising already achieved break-throughs but introductions to a list of open questions and issues for which our understanding is still unsatisfactory. To give such presentations requires courage and scientific integrity. I would like to thank all speakers now already for their willingness to cope with such a difficult task. We have allocated at least 50 minutes for discussion after each presentation not only for discussing the paper as such but, if possible, to find answers to the open questions. If one or several participants in the audience during the discussion think they can contribute to improving our understanding of heterostructures, they are invited to write their ideas up and, if the referees agree, we are more than happy to publish these ideas in the proceedings. We admit that the program is rather demanding. For that reason, we plan to have a break on Thursday afternoon by first going to Denmark and touring the Hamlet castle of Kronborg. We then sail back to Sweden and will be hosted by the Krapperup castle where we will have a candle-light dinner and thereafter a baroque music concert featuring the Concerto Copenhagen. All participants, observers, and accompanying spouses are invited and we hope you will all enjoy the excur- sion. The local organising committee acknowledges with pleasure the financial and all other support received from the Nobel Foundation and the Nobel Institute of Physics as well as the initial initiative taken by the chairman of the Nobel Com- mittee for Physics, Prof. Nordling, who was the first to suggest this Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semicon- ductors". Special thanks also to the members of the program committee who have been of inestimable

  3. Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshev, Yurij; Teerikorpi, Pekka

    The book guides the reader (astronomer, physicist, university student) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific enterprise to find out the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and material contents. The authors draw from their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character: - idiosyncratic features of the "cosmic laboratory" - Malmquist bias in determination of cosmic distances - theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models - crucial tests checking the reality of space expansion - methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies - usefulness of fractal as a model to describe the large-scale structure - new cosmological physics inherent in the Friedmann world model

  4. Internet firewalls: questions and answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ker, Keith

    1996-03-01

    As organizations consider connecting to the Internet, the issue of internetwork security becomes more important. There are many tools and components that can be used to secure a network, one of which is a firewall. Modern firewalls offer highly flexible private network security by controlling and monitoring all communications passing into or out of the private network. Specifically designed for security, firewalls become the private network's single point of attack from Internet intruders. Application gateways (or proxies) that have been written to be secure against even the most persistent attacks ensure that only authorized users and services access the private network. One-time passwords prevent intruders from `sniffing' and replaying the usernames and passwords of authorized users to gain access to the private network. Comprehensive logging permits constant and uniform system monitoring. `Address spoofing' attacks are prevented. The private network may use registered or unregistered IP addresses behind the firewall. Firewall-to-firewall encryption establishes a `virtual private network' across the Internet, preventing intruders from eavesdropping on private communications, eliminating the need for costly dedicated lines.

  5. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  6. SNTEMP (In)frequently asked questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here, you will find a series of questions and answers resulting from many years of technical assistance with SNTEMP and SSTEMP. These (in)frequently asked questions are presented here so that you may get a feel for the range of questions posed, learn from the questions and their 'answers,' and share in the discussions if you wish. I certainly didn't answer all the questions, nor do I feel like I've got the only answer for them all.

  7. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    multi-platform drilling of the Nankai seismogenic zone. Scientific initiatives are flourishing to drive IODP towards the study of submarine geohazards. In the last three years international workshops, were held to address the topic: ESF-ECORD sponsored a Magellan Workshop focussed on submarine landslides (Barcelona, Spain, 2006); IODP sponsored a world-wide Geohazard Workshop (Portland, Oregon, 2007); ESF-ECORD sponsored another Magellan Workshop focussed on Mediterranean submarine geohazards (Luleå, Sweden, 2008). In addition, following the ECORD-Net Conference on the Deep Sea Frontier (Naples, Italy, 2006), the history, monitoring and prediction of geohazards was identified as one of the 6 major areas for a European science plan to integrate Ocean Drilling, Ocean Margin, and Seabed research. More than 200 scientists and private companies representatives have been mobilized world-wide to attend these meetings, from where it emerged that Ocean Drilling will play a key role in the future to answer the following basic open questions on submarine geohazards: - What is the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of geohazard events? - Do precursory phenomena exist and can they be recognized? - What are the physical and mechanical properties of materials prone to failure? - What are the roles of preconditioning vs. triggering in rapid seafloor deformation? - Can the tsunamigenic potential of past and future events be assessed? Within the global-ocean geohazards, worth of note is the attention given in this preparatory phase to submarine geohazards in the Mediterranean basin, a miniature ocean often called a "natural laboratory" because of the diversity of geological environments it contains. The coastline is very densely-populated, totalling 160 million inhabitants sharing 46,000 km of coastline. The Mediterranean is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving an average of 135 million visitors annually. Submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapses, volcanic island

  8. Questions and answers on release notification requirements and reportable quantity adjustments

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    EPA is providing the document to promote better understanding of CERCLA and EPCRA release notification requirements and Reportable Quantity (RQ) adjustment issues. Questions are organized by broad subject categories. The table of contents lists topics addressed in each subject section. An index helps the reader locate questions according to key words or issues, and a regulatory index lists topic areas with corresponding regulatory citations where topics are addressed in more detail.

  9. Discussing the diagnosis of HPV-OSCC: common questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Fakhry, Carole; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2013-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a rising proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCCs). HPV-positive OSCCs (HPV-OSCCs) are associated with oral HPV infection and sexual behavior. Patient questions regarding risk factors, prognosis and implications for past, present and future relationships often arise. This manuscript addresses frequently asked questions by patients with HPV-OSCC and their families. A framework for clinicians to address these conversations and the limitations of our present knowledge base is also presented. PMID:23876627

  10. Fixing past mistakes. Answers to questions about reviews, refunds, disclosures.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T Jeffrey

    2003-10-01

    A medical group must address practical and legal issues when it discovers improper payments, billing mistakes or alleged misconduct. Its response has a significant impact on how the charges are resolved. A group and its providers can come under fraud and abuse investigations, whistle-blower allegations and Medicare payment reviews. Many questions arise in response to billing errors or allegations of misconduct. PMID:14571591

  11. The Hyperloop as a Source of Interesting Estimation Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Rhett

    2014-03-01

    The Hyperloop is a conceptual high speed transportation system proposed by Elon Musk. The basic idea uses passenger capsules inside a reduced pressure tube. Even though the actual physics of dynamic air flow in a confined space can be complicated, there are a multitude estimation problems that can be addressed. These back-of-the-envelope questions can be approximated by physicists of all levels as well as the general public and serve as a great example of the fundamental aspects of physics.

  12. Forming a Research Question from a Multi-Center Database

    PubMed Central

    Likosky, Donald S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: It is not uncommon for individuals to ask biostatisiticians and epidemiologists to assist them with a research project. Often the request is in the shape of statistical analyses. However, most of these requests are nothing more than missed opportunities. This manuscript focuses on the reasons underlying such a statement. Most individuals might say that the most important aspect of a study is its conclusion. Many who would disagree with this sentiment and would feel that the most important aspect of a study rather is the question it intends to address. If this question is not articulated sufficiently, any additional information stemming from the study will most likely be irrelevant. Herein, some principles for formulating (successfully) a question from a multi-center database will be described. PMID:19361039

  13. Grids: The Top Ten Questions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schopf, Jennifer M.; Nitzberg, Bill

    2002-01-01

    The design and implementation of a national computing system and data grid has become a reachable goal from both the computer science and computational science point of view. A distributed infrastructure capable of sophisticated computational functions can bring many benefits to scientific work, but poses many challenges, both technical and socio-political. Technical challenges include having basic software tools, higher-level services, functioning and pervasive security, and standards, while socio-political issues include building a user community, adding incentives for sites to be part of a user-centric environment, and educating funding sources about the needs of this community. This paper details the areasmore » relating to Grid research that we feel still need to be addressed to fully leverage the advantages of the Grid.« less

  14. Core questions in domestication research

    PubMed Central

    Zeder, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared. PMID:25713127

  15. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    multi-platform drilling of the Nankai seismogenic zone. Scientific initiatives are flourishing to drive IODP towards the study of submarine geohazards. In the last three years international workshops, were held to address the topic: ESF-ECORD sponsored a Magellan Workshop focussed on submarine landslides (Barcelona, Spain, 2006); IODP sponsored a world-wide Geohazard Workshop (Portland, Oregon, 2007); ESF-ECORD sponsored another Magellan Workshop focussed on Mediterranean submarine geohazards (Luleå, Sweden, 2008). In addition, following the ECORD-Net Conference on the Deep Sea Frontier (Naples, Italy, 2006), the history, monitoring and prediction of geohazards was identified as one of the 6 major areas for a European science plan to integrate Ocean Drilling, Ocean Margin, and Seabed research. More than 200 scientists and private companies representatives have been mobilized world-wide to attend these meetings, from where it emerged that Ocean Drilling will play a key role in the future to answer the following basic open questions on submarine geohazards: - What is the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of geohazard events? - Do precursory phenomena exist and can they be recognized? - What are the physical and mechanical properties of materials prone to failure? - What are the roles of preconditioning vs. triggering in rapid seafloor deformation? - Can the tsunamigenic potential of past and future events be assessed? Within the global-ocean geohazards, worth of note is the attention given in this preparatory phase to submarine geohazards in the Mediterranean basin, a miniature ocean often called a "natural laboratory" because of the diversity of geological environments it contains. The coastline is very densely-populated, totalling 160 million inhabitants sharing 46,000 km of coastline. The Mediterranean is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving an average of 135 million visitors annually. Submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapses, volcanic island

  16. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems.

    PubMed

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin's dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber's structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure. PMID:27345617

  17. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  18. 78 FR 69671 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...The OCC, Board, and FDIC (collectively, the Agencies) are adopting as final the Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment that were proposed on March 18, 2013, to address several community development issues. In response to comments received, the Agencies made minor clarifications to some of the new and revised questions and answers that were...

  19. Questions Often Asked about Special Education Services = Preguntas sobre los servicios de educacion especial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This guide, available in both English and Spanish, answers questions often asked by parents about special education services. Questions and answers address the following topics: where to begin if a parent believes a child needs special education services, services available to very young children, the evaluation process, the Individualized…

  20. Wrong Answer to the Wrong Question: Why We Need Critical Teacher Education, Not Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeloni, Barbara; Gorlewski, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that teacher education (like K-12) is under attack by those seeking to exploit the public good and privatize education. Teacher educators find themselves on the defensive, compelled to answer questions about efficacy and accountability that do not reflect their understandings of their work, questions that do not address the…

  1. What Is Life? An Activity to Convey the Complexities of This Simple Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2013-01-01

    "What is life?" This deceptively simple question lies at the heart of biology. In this activity, students work in groups to come up with their own definition using a set of prompting cards that differs for each team. In doing so, students gain an appreciation of the complexities of addressing this question. The activity takes approximately 60-90…

  2. Compilation of Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Questions for Discussion. 104th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This volume compiles and reprints the responses of 37 organizations to a series of questions issued by the House Committee on Agriculture in anticipation of debates concerning the Research Title of the 1995 Farm Bill due for updating and revision. The questions address some of the following topics: the role of the federal government in…

  3. Common questions about Barrett esophagus.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Thomas G

    2014-01-15

    Barrett esophagus is a precancerous metaplasia of the esophagus that is more common in patients with chronic reflux symptoms, although it also occurs in patients without symptomatic reflux. Other risk factors include smoking, male sex, obesity, white race, hiatal hernia, and increasing age (particularly older than 50 years). Although Barrett esophagus is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, its management and the need for screening or surveillance endoscopy are debatable. The annual incidence of progression to esophageal cancer is 0.12% to 0.33%; progression is more common in patients with high-grade dysplasia and long-segment Barrett esophagus. Screening endoscopy should be considered for patients with multiple risk factors, and those who have lesions with high-grade dysplasia should undergo endoscopic mucosal resection or other endoscopic procedures to remove the lesions. Although the cost-effectiveness is questionable, patients with nondysplastic Barrett esophagus can be followed with endoscopic surveillance. Lowgrade dysplasia should be monitored or eradicated via endoscopy. Although there is no evidence that medical or surgical therapies to reduce acid reflux prevent neoplastic progression, proton pump inhibitors can be used to help control reflux symptoms. PMID:24444576

  4. Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…

  5. Frequently Asked Questions (Palliative Care: Conversations Matter)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Frequently Asked Questions: What is pediatric palliative care? Pediatric palliative (pal-lee-uh-tiv) care is ... for patients and families. Who provides pediatric palliative care? Every palliative care team is different. The team ...

  6. Provocative Questions in Cancer: NCI Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.

  7. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donation Volunteer Efforts Answers to Common Questions About Scars skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information for Parents & Individuals Answers to Common Questions About Scars To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  8. Validating two questions in the Force Concept Inventory with subquestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Jun-ichiro; Taniguchi, Masa-aki

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we evaluate the structural validity of Q.16 and Q.7 in the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). We address whether respondents who answer Q.16 and Q.7 correctly actually have an understanding of the concepts of physics tested in the questions. To examine respondents’ levels of understanding, we use subquestions that test them on concepts believed to be required to answer the actual FCI questions. Our sample size comprises 111 respondents; we derive false-positive ratios for prelearners and postlearners and then statistically test the difference between them. We find a difference at the 0.05 significance level for both Q.16 and Q.7, implying that it is possible for postlearners to answer both questions without an understanding of the concepts of physics tested in the questions; therefore, the structures of Q.16 and Q.7 are invalid. In this study, we only evaluate the validity of these two FCI questions; we do not assess the validity of previous studies that have compared total FCI scores.

  9. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  10. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  11. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  12. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  14. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  15. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  16. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  17. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  18. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  19. Change in Education--An Unanswered Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquino, Charles C.

    1969-01-01

    Essay which points out that most innovation becomes absorbed and, in effect, standardized by traditional educational processes and which argues that these processes need overhauling in order to be more responsive to today's media-hip student described by McLuhan. (LS)

  20. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  1. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 354.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question... discretionary referral of material questions of copyright law to the Register of Copyrights by the...

  2. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 354.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question... discretionary referral of material questions of copyright law to the Register of Copyrights by the...

  3. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 354.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question... discretionary referral of material questions of copyright law to the Register of Copyrights by the...

  4. 32 CFR 17.4 - Interlocutory questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... trial by military commission. In accordance with 32 CFR 9.4(a)(5)(iv), however, the Presiding Officer... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interlocutory questions. 17.4 Section 17.4... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 17.4 Interlocutory questions. (a) Certification of interlocutory questions....

  5. 32 CFR 17.4 - Interlocutory questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... trial by military commission. In accordance with 32 CFR 9.4(a)(5)(iv), however, the Presiding Officer... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interlocutory questions. 17.4 Section 17.4... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 17.4 Interlocutory questions. (a) Certification of interlocutory questions....

  6. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Novel questions. 354.2... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES SUBMISSIONS TO THE REGISTER OF COPYRIGHTS § 354.2 Novel questions. (a) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel...

  7. Using Questioning to Stimulate Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    Good questioning techniques have long been regarded as a fundamental tool of effective teachers and research has found that "differences in students' thinking and reasoning could be attributed to the type of questions that teachers asked" (Wood, 2002). Past research shows that 93% of teacher questions were "lower order" knowledge-based questions…

  8. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Novel questions. 354.2... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES SUBMISSIONS TO THE REGISTER OF COPYRIGHTS § 354.2 Novel questions. (a) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel...

  9. Questioning Profiles in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Patricia; de Souza, Francisle Neri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the role of both teachers and students' questioning in classroom interaction. Bearing in mind that the current guidelines point out to student centred teaching, our aim is to analyse and characterise the questioning patterns of contemporary secondary science classes and compare them to the questioning profiles…

  10. Using Questions to Depress Student Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the traditional and prevailing view that teacher questions are effective stimulants to student thought. Through an examination of research, practice, and theory related to question use, the author develops a counterargument that questions inhibit thought and discussion, or at least do not stimulate student participation. (RH)

  11. Doctors' questions as displays of understanding.

    PubMed

    Deppermann, Arnulf; Spranz-Fogasy, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Based on German data from history-taking in doctor-patient interaction, the paper shows that the three basic syntactic types of questions (questions fronted by a question-word (w-questions), verb-first (V1) questions, and declarative questions) provide different opportunities for displaying understanding in medical interaction. Each syntactic question-format is predominantly used in a different stage of topical sequences in history taking: w-questions presuppose less knowledge and are thus used to open up topical sequences; declarative questions are used to check already achieved understandings and to close topical sequences. Still, the expected scope of answers to yes/no-questions and to declarative questions is less restricted than previously thought. The paper focuses in detail on the doctors' use of formulations as declarative questions, which are designed to make patients elaborate on already established topics, giving more details or accounting for a confirmation. Formulations often involve a shift to psychological aspects of the illness. Although patients confirm doctors' empathetic formulations, they, however, regularly do not align with this shift, returning to the description of symptoms and to biomedical accounts instead. The study shows how displays of understanding are responded to not only in terms of correctness, but also (and more importantly) in terms of their relevance for further action. PMID:23264976

  12. Critical Thinking: Crucial Distinctions for Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Stresses the importance of questioning as a key element in the art of learning. Defines three types of questions: (1) multisystem, which considers more than one relevant viewpoint in thinking through a problem, issue, or question; (2) one-system, which can be tested with a multiple-choice format; and (3) no-system, which are matters of sheer…

  13. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student…

  14. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  15. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  16. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  17. Leading Questions and the Eyewitness Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    1975-01-01

    Investigates how the wording of questions asked immediately after an event may influence responses to questions asked considerably later. Discussion of the findings develops the thesis that questions asked about an event shortly after it occurs may distort the witness' memory of that event. (RC)

  18. How to Make Your Questions Essential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Grant; Wilbur, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Good essential questions rarely emerge in the first draft. Common first-draft questions typically are convergent low-level questions designed to support content acquisition. They either point toward the one official "right" answer, or they elicit mere lists and thus no further inquiry. So how can teachers ensure that subsequent drafts…

  19. EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

  20. Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

  1. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  2. Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Tish

    2009-01-01

    The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

  3. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  4. Have the Answers to Common Legal Questions Concerning Nutrition Support Changed Over the Past Decade? 10 Questions for 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert; Cohen, Michael L

    2016-06-01

    Clinical nutrition specialists (CNSs) are often confronted with technological, ethical, and legal questions, that is, what can be done technologically, what should be done ethically, and what must be done legally, which conflict at times. The conflict represents a "troubling trichotomy" as discussed in the lead article of this issue of Nutrition in Clinical Practice (NCP). During Clinical Nutrition Week in 2006, a symposium covering these 3 topics was presented, and later that year, an article covering the same topic was published in NCP In this article, we revisit several legal questions/issues that were raised 10 years ago and discuss current answers and approaches. Some of the answers remain unchanged. Other answers have been modified by additional legislation, court decisions, or regulations. In addition, new questions/issues have arisen. Some of the most common questions regarding nutrition support involve the following: liability, informed consent, medical decisional incapacity vs legal competence, advance directive specificity, surrogate decision making, physician orders for life-sustaining treatment and electronic medical orders for life-sustaining treatment, legal definition of death, patient vs family decision making, the noncompliant patient, and elder abuse obligations. In the current healthcare environment, these questions and issues are best addressed via a transdisciplinary team that focuses on function rather than form. The CNS can play a pivotal role in dealing with these challenges by applying the acronym ACT: being Accountable and Communicating with all stakeholders while actively participating as an integral part of the transdisciplinary Team. PMID:27113077

  5. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    2004-01-01

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  6. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then

  7. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  8. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  9. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  10. Strategic Environmental Assessment in Germany - Practice and open questions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Ulrike

    2010-04-15

    Eight years after the enactment of the EU Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive (2001/42/EC) () it is time to investigate where and how SEA are being implemented in Germany in order to find out open questions and research needs. In this study, we analysed in which planning types SEA are common practice, and where can deficits be identified, and to what extent differences occur between spatial and sectoral planning with respect to carrying out SEA. Pressing challenges in performing SEA as well as open questions are addressed such as the handling of cumulative effects and the interrelationships between the environmental factors, and how the monitoring of environmental effects is considered by the practitioners. The results show that SEA is well implemented in local land-use planning, regional planning, and in local landscape planning, while the implementation in sectoral planning varies widely. The SEA in clean air planning is looked at in more detail, because this is discussed controversially in the specialist field, and obstacles against SEA are identified in this field. Finally some new topics are addressed for which solutions in spatial and environmental planning including SEA must be found, e.g. the consideration of biological diversity and the potential role of SEA in climate change. A European study on the identified open questions and their handling in different contexts and countries may allow for a qualitative amendment in practice.

  11. 150 Student Questions on Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.

  12. Characteristics of dune-paleosol-sequences in Fuerteventura. - What should be questioned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Dominik; Willkommen, Tobias; Yanes, Yurena; Richter, David; Zöller, Ludwig

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of dune-paleosol-sequences in Fuerteventura. - What should be questioned? Dominik Faust, TU Dresden, Germany Tobias Willkommen, TU Dresden, Germany Yurena Yanes, CSIC Granada/Cincinatti, Spain/USA David Richter, TU Dresden, Germany Ludwig Zöller, Uni Bayreuth, Germany The northern part of Fuerteventura is characterized by large dune fields. We investigated dune-paleosol-sequences in four pits to establish a robust stratigraphy and to propose a standard section. An interaction of processes like dune formation, soil formation and redeposition of soils and sand are most important to understand the principles of landscape development in the study area. To our mind a process cycle seem to be important: First climbing-dunes are formed by sand of shelf origin. Then soil formation could have taken place. Soil and/or sand were then eroded and deposited at toe slope position. This material in turn is the source of new sand supply and dune formation. The described cycle may be repeated several times and this ping-pong-process holds on. The results are sections composed of dune layers, paleosols and colluvial material interbedded. Fundamental questions still remain unanswered: Is climate change responsable for changes in process combination (e.g. from dune formation to soil formation)? Or are these features due to divergence phenomenon, where different effects/results (dune and soils) may be linked to similar causes (here: climate)? Assuming that different features (soils and dunes) were formed under one climate, increasing soil forming intensity could be mainly a function of decreasing sand supply. This in turn could be caused by reduced sand production (s. ZECH et al. accepted). However geochemical data and mollusc assemblages point to changing environments in space and even climate modifications in time.

  13. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  14. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  15. New and Emerging Strategies in Platelet-Rich Plasma Application in Musculoskeletal Regenerative Procedures: General Overview on Still Open Questions and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Veronesi, Francesca; Maglio, Melania; Sartori, Maria; Fini, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasive use, the clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy and the different mechanisms of action have yet to be established. This overview of the literature is focused on the role of PRP in bone, tendon, cartilage, and ligament tissue regeneration considering basic science literature deriving from in vitro and in vivo studies. Although this work provides evidence that numerous preclinical studies published within the last 10 years showed promising results concerning the application of PRP, many key questions remain unanswered and controversial results have arisen. Additional preclinical studies are needed to define the dosing, timing, and frequency of PRP injections, different techniques for delivery and location of delivery, optimal physiologic conditions for injections, and the concomitant use of recombinant proteins, cytokines, additional growth factors, biological scaffolds, and stems cells to develop optimal treatment protocols that can effectively treat various musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:26075269

  16. Question Classification Taxonomies as Guides to Formulating Questions for Use in Chemistry Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festo, Kayima

    2016-01-01

    Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…

  17. Is There a Relationship between Chemistry Performance and Question Type, Question Content and Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    This research inquires into the effectiveness of the two predominant forms of questions--multiple-choice questions and short-answer questions--used in the State University Entrance Examination for Chemistry including the relationship between performance and gender. It examines not only the style of question but also the content type examined…

  18. Correlation between Question Intonation and Focus of Interrogation--Evidence from French Dislocated Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xiao-nan

    This study explores the relationship between question intonation patterns in French using dislocated questions and question-focus (Q- focus). A dislocated question is defined as an interrogative sentence whose sequence is interrupted by the topicalization of a constituent at the left ("Toi, tu viens?"), at the right (Tu viens, toi?"), or in the…

  19. Discourse Integration Guided by the ‘Question under Discussion’

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    What makes a discourse coherent? One potential factor has been discussed in the linguistic literature in terms of a Question under Discussion (QUD). This approach claims that discourse proceeds by continually raising explicit or implicit questions, viewed as sets of alternatives, or competing descriptions of the world. If the interlocutor accepts the question, it becomes the QUD, a narrowed set of alternatives to be addressed (Roberts, 1996/To appear). Three eye movement recording studies are reported that investigated the effect of a preceding explicit QUD (Experiment 1) or implicit QUD (Experiments 2 and 3) on the processing of following text. Experiment 1 revealed an effect of whether the question queried alternative propositions or alternative entities. Reading times in the answer were faster when the answer it provided was of the same semantic type as was queried. Experiment 2 tested QUDs implied by the alternative description of reality introduced by a non-actuality implicature trigger such as should X or want to X. The results, when combined with the results of Experiment 3 (which ruled out a possible alternative interpretation) showed disrupted reading of a following verb phrase that failed to resolve the implicit QUD (Did the discourse participant actually X?), compared to reading the same material in the absence of a clear QUD. The findings support an online role for QUDs in guiding readers’ structuring and interpretation of discourse. PMID:22683609

  20. Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Gill, J. T., III

    2011-08-01

    Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of Yes, whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue by showing that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1. IPNPR Volume 42-187 Tagged File.txt

  1. Magnetopause structure and the question of particle accessibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C.; Hill, J. R.; Nichols, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    A simple plane model of the magnetopause is used to address the question of particle accessibility. Particle motion in the current sheet region is analyzed, showing that the concept of gyromotion is useful even when the electric and magnetic fields vary significantly over the gyroradius, as long as the variation is perpendicular to the drift direction. The first adiabatic invariant for particle motion is defined in such a way that it is preserved in regions of large field gradients, provided that the gradients are in a direction primarily perpendicular to the particle drifts. This generalized invariant provides an adiabatically conserved quantity that can be used to characterize particles as they move from a source region through the drift region and into the magnetopause itself, helping to resolve the accessibility question. Some preliminary results are given for the magnetopause structure based on the location of particle guiding points.

  2. Exam Question Exchange: Potential Energy Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Presents three examination questions, graded in difficulty, that explore the topic of potential energy surfaces using a diagrammatic approach. Provides and discusses acceptable solutions including diagrams. (CW)

  3. "Presidential Address." Political Pawns in an Educational Endgame: Reflections on Bryant, Briggs, and Some Twentieth-Century School Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Karen

    2013-01-01

    "Newsweek" ran an article on "The Homosexual Teacher" in December 1978. At the end of a tumultuous two-year period framed by Anita Bryant's anti-gay campaign in South Florida and John Briggs' proposition to bar gay and lesbian educators from working in California public schools, reporters concluded, "Most homosexual teachers are deeply plagued by…

  4. Challenges Still to Be Appropriately Addressed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurette, Michel

    This section includes a heteroclite set of questions and comments of colleagues, which have still to be fully answered. Progress in science occurs not only with a few spectacular achievements that are generally cleverly advertised by funding agencies and the prestigious journals, but also by incessant questioning. They remain in the shadow for a while because you have to wait for an answer that might never come.

  5. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to...

  6. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  7. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  8. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  9. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and...

  10. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  11. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  12. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 80.174 Section 80.174... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample required under § 80.161(b)(2) shall be sent to: Manager, Fuels and Technical Analysis Group,...

  13. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain forms referred to in this part...

  14. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  15. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  16. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  17. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  18. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  19. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  20. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  1. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  2. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  3. Tradition and Change in Swedish Address Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Stephen A.

    In most European languages, choice of address form classifies the relation between speakers. The first theoretical framework for analyzing address form usage was established by Brown and Gilman (1960) in their investigation of the semantics of pronoun use in a wide variety of Indo-European languages, which concluded that Europeans use the informal…

  4. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  5. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  6. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  7. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  8. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  9. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  10. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  11. Toward improving hurricane forecasts using the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS): A framework to address the issues of Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Boothe, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Haddad, Z. S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; montgomery, M. T.; Niamsuwan, N.; Tallapragada, V. S.; Tanelli, S.; Turk, J.; Vukicevic, T.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forecasting of extreme weather requires the use of both regional models as well as global General Circulation Models (GCMs). The regional models have higher resolution and more accurate physics - two critical components needed for properly representing the key convective processes. GCMs, on the other hand, have better depiction of the large-scale environment and, thus, are necessary for properly capturing the important scale interactions. But how to evaluate the models, understand their shortcomings and improve them? Satellite observations can provide invaluable information. And this is where the issues of Big Data come: satellite observations are very complex and have large variety while model forecast are very voluminous. We are developing a system - TCIS - that addresses the issues of model evaluation and process understanding with the goal of improving the accuracy of hurricane forecasts. This NASA/ESTO/AIST-funded project aims at bringing satellite/airborne observations and model forecasts into a common system and developing on-line tools for joint analysis. To properly evaluate the models we go beyond the comparison of the geophysical fields. We input the model fields into instrument simulators (NEOS3, CRTM, etc.) and compute synthetic observations for a more direct comparison to the observed parameters. In this presentation we will start by describing the scientific questions. We will then outline our current framework to provide fusion of models and observations. Next, we will illustrate how the system can be used to evaluate several models (HWRF, GFS, ECMWF) by applying a couple of our analysis tools to several hurricanes observed during the 2013 season. Finally, we will outline our future plans. Our goal is to go beyond the image comparison and point-by-point statistics, by focusing instead on understanding multi-parameter correlations and providing robust statistics. By developing on-line analysis tools, our framework will allow for consistent

  12. Questions and remarks about clans phenomenology in multiparticle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, A.; Ugoccioni, R.

    2003-04-01

    The question whether clans are a purely statistical concept or physically observable is addressed by assuming they are massive. The consequence of this assumption is explored in multiparticle dynamics. The problem is approached by studying clan masses and rapidity distributions in each substructure in e+e- annihilation and hh collisions; it is found that such properties can indeed characterize the different components. Results of this search do not exclude the possibility that clans could be observable, a challenging problem for future experimental work.

  13. Answering Fundamental Questions about Cataclysmic Variables and Classical Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. E.

    2014-09-01

    Cataclysmic variables (CVs) are interacting binaries consisting of a white dwarf primary, and a non-degenerate secondary star. There are numerous subclasses of CVs (any of which could become a Classical Nova), but broadly, these classifications are believed to arise from either differing values of the mass accretion rate, or whether the white dwarf primary is magnetic. There continue to be numerous questions about the origin, and evolution of these systems. We will review some of the outstanding issues, and address how advances in interferometry might be used to resolve them.

  14. The Curious Question of Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Melissa L.; Farrell, Emily T.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.

    2011-01-01

    The question of whether pulmonary edema develops during exercise on land is controversial. Yet, the development of pulmonary edema during swimming and diving is well established. This paper addresses the current controversies that exist in the field of exercise-induced pulmonary edema on land and with water immersion. It also discusses the mechanisms by which pulmonary edema can develop during land exercise, swimming, and diving and the current gaps in knowledge that exist. Finally, this paper discusses how these fields can continue to advance and the areas where clinical knowledge is lacking. PMID:21660232

  15. The science and questions surrounding chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ban, Vin Shen; Madden, Christopher J; Bailes, Julian E; Hunt Batjer, H; Lonser, Russell R

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the pathobiology, causes, associated factors, incidence and prevalence, and natural history of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) have been debated. Data from retrospective case series and high-profile media reports have fueled public fear and affected the medical community's understanding of the role of sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the development of CTE. There are a number of limitations posed by the current evidence that can lead to confusion within the public and scientific community. In this paper, the authors address common questions surrounding the science of CTE and propose future research directions. PMID:27032918

  16. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue. Part 4: general conclusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the conclusion to this multi-part article I first review the discussions carried out around the six essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis – the position taken by Allen Frances on each question, the commentaries on the respective question along with Frances’ responses to the commentaries, and my own view of the multiple discussions. In this review I emphasize that the core question is the first – what is the nature of psychiatric illness – and that in some manner all further questions follow from the first. Following this review I attempt to move the discussion forward, addressing the first question from the perspectives of natural kind analysis and complexity analysis. This reflection leads toward a view of psychiatric disorders – and future nosologies – as far more complex and uncertain than we have imagined. PMID:23249629

  17. Alternative Physics Examination Questions: Identification and Explanation of Different Discriminating Powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Patricia A.

    2005-12-01

    The issue of unfairness arises in high-stakes public examinations when students choose questions from alternatives that are offered and marks on the alternatives turn out to be discrepant. This paper addresses and defines unfairness and discrepancy in the context of alternative questions in Physics Tertiary Entrance Examinations (TEE) in Western Australia. As well, I present an analysis of question characteristics that explain observed marks-differences. The characteristics mainly relate to the construction of the text of questions, the detail on diagrams, and requirements for calculation. The list of characteristics could inform the setting of compulsory as well as alternative examination questions. The paper includes a brief exploration of results by gender on the alternative Physics TEE questions.

  18. Environmental Radiation Effects: A Need to Question Old Paradigms

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, T.G.; Bedford, J.; Ulsh, B.; Whicker, F. Ward

    2003-03-27

    A historical perspective is given of the current paradigm that does not explicitly protect the environment from radiation, but instead, relies on the concept that if dose limits are set to protect humans then the environment is automatically protected as well. We summarize recent international questioning of this paradigm and briefly present three different frameworks for protecting biota that are being considered by the U.S. DOE, the Canadian government and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. We emphasize that an enhanced collaboration is required between what has traditionally been separated disciplines of radiation biology and radiation ecology if we are going to properly address the current environmental radiation problems. We then summarize results generated from an EMSP grant that allowed us to develop a Low Dose Irradiation Facility that specifically addresses effects of low-level, chronic irradiation on multiple levels of biological organization.

  19. Mathematics, Questions, and "Schools Without Failure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Teri

    1974-01-01

    Most questions in the mathematics classroom deal with memorization and learning, and have one correct answer. Suggestions for using three other types of questions identified by Glasser (SCHOOLS WITHOUT FAILURE) are provided. Activities discussed include tangrams, attribute blocks, pattern recognition, and games. (SD)

  20. Patterns and Punctuation: Learning to Question Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlessman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    As teachers plan instruction--even instruction about punctuation--they have the opportunity to engage students' minds and create new labels: question-asking, problem-solving. How teachers teach embeds a vision of who they think kids are and what they think kids are capable of. Are they destined for a future of critical thinking, questioning,…