Science.gov

Sample records for addressable memory cam

  1. Optimized large-capacity content addressable memory (CAM) for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Tumar, Iyad

    2015-03-01

    A content addressable memory system includes CAM cells, each having a compare circuit and a memory bit cell that stores complementary bits. The main CAM design challenge is to reduce power consumption associated with large amount of parallel switching circuitry, without sacrificing speed or density. In this paper, we present a new technique to eliminate crowbar current during bit-cell write operation (saving 0.0114mA per cell in 22nm process), reduce average current consumption during cam operation and eliminate the need for routing the complementary data to every cam cell, saving routing track in smaller node technology where wire cap is dominant.

  2. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  3. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  4. Content-addressable memory based enforcement of configurable policies

    DOEpatents

    Berg, Michael J

    2014-05-06

    A monitoring device for monitoring transactions on a bus includes content-addressable memory ("CAM") and a response policy unit. The CAM includes an input coupled to receive a bus transaction tag based on bus traffic on the bus. The CAM stores data tags associated with rules of a security policy to compare the bus transaction tag to the data tags. The CAM generates an output signal indicating whether one or more matches occurred. The response policy unit is coupled to the CAM to receive the output signal from the CAM and to execute a policy action in response to the output signal.

  5. Hybrid content addressable memory MSD arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yao; Kim, Dai Hyun; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Eichmann, George

    1990-07-01

    The modified signed-digit (MSD) number system, because of its inherent weak interdigit dependance, has been suggested as a useful means for a fast and parallel digital arithmetic. To maintain a fast processing speed, a single-stage holographic optical content-addressable memory (CAM) based MSD algorithm was suggested. In this paper, a novel non-holographic opto-electronic CAM based fast MSD addition processing architecture is proposed. The proposed concept has been verified with our first-order proof-of-principle experiments. A figure of merit comparison of this and other existing approaches is also presented. Based on this key opto-electronic CAM element, implementation of more sophisticated I'VISD arithmetic, such as optical MSD subtraction and multiplication operations, are proposed.

  6. SenseCam: a wearable camera that stimulates and rehabilitates autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Steve; Berry, Emma; Wood, Ken

    2011-10-01

    SenseCam is a wearable digital camera that captures an electronic record of the wearer's day. It does this by automatically recording a series of still images through its wide-angle lens, and simultaneously capturing a log of data from a number of built-in electronic sensors. Subsequently reviewing a sequence of images appears to provide a powerful autobiographical memory cue. A preliminary evaluation of SenseCam with a patient diagnosed with severe memory impairment was extremely positive; periodic review of images of events recorded by SenseCam resulted in significant recall of those events. Following this, a great deal of work has been undertaken to explore this phenomenon and there are early indications that SenseCam technology may be beneficial to a variety of patients with physical and mental health problems, and is valuable as a tool for investigating normal memory through behavioural and neuroimaging means. Elsewhere, it is becoming clear that judicious use of SenseCam could significantly impact the study of human behaviour. Meanwhile, research and development of the technology itself continues with the aim of providing robust hardware and software tools to meet the needs of clinicians, patients, carers, and researchers. In this paper we describe the history of SenseCam, and the design and operation of the SenseCam device and the associated viewing software, and we discuss some of the ongoing research questions being addressed with the help of SenseCam.

  7. SenseCam: a wearable camera that stimulates and rehabilitates autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Steve; Berry, Emma; Wood, Ken

    2011-10-01

    SenseCam is a wearable digital camera that captures an electronic record of the wearer's day. It does this by automatically recording a series of still images through its wide-angle lens, and simultaneously capturing a log of data from a number of built-in electronic sensors. Subsequently reviewing a sequence of images appears to provide a powerful autobiographical memory cue. A preliminary evaluation of SenseCam with a patient diagnosed with severe memory impairment was extremely positive; periodic review of images of events recorded by SenseCam resulted in significant recall of those events. Following this, a great deal of work has been undertaken to explore this phenomenon and there are early indications that SenseCam technology may be beneficial to a variety of patients with physical and mental health problems, and is valuable as a tool for investigating normal memory through behavioural and neuroimaging means. Elsewhere, it is becoming clear that judicious use of SenseCam could significantly impact the study of human behaviour. Meanwhile, research and development of the technology itself continues with the aim of providing robust hardware and software tools to meet the needs of clinicians, patients, carers, and researchers. In this paper we describe the history of SenseCam, and the design and operation of the SenseCam device and the associated viewing software, and we discuss some of the ongoing research questions being addressed with the help of SenseCam. PMID:21995708

  8. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  9. New generation of content addressable memories for associative processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. G., Jr.; Giambalov, Paul

    2000-05-01

    Content addressable memories (CAMS) store both key and association data. A key is presented to the CAN when it is searched and all of the addresses are scanned in parallel to find the address referenced by the key. When a match occurs, the corresponding association is returned. With the explosion of telecommunications packet switching protocols, large data base servers, routers and search engines a new generation of dense sub-micron high throughput CAMS has been developed. The introduction of this paper presents a brief history and tutorial on CAMS, their many uses and advantages, and describes the architecture and functionality of several of MUSIC Semiconductors CAM devices. In subsequent sections of the paper we address using Associative Processing to accommodate the continued increase in sensor resolution, number of spectral bands, required coverage, the desire to implement real-time target cueing, and the data flow and image processing required for optimum performance of reconnaissance and surveillance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). To be competitive the system designer must provide the most computational power, per watt, per dollar, per cubic inch, within the boundaries of cost effective UAV environmental control systems. To address these problems we demonstrate leveraging DARPA and DoD funded Commercial Off-the-Shelf technology to integrate CAM based Associative Processing into a real-time heterogenous multiprocessing system for UAVs and other platforms with limited weight, volume and power budgets.

  10. Rutger's CAM2000 chip architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donald E.; Hall, J. Storrs; Miyake, Keith

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the architecture and instruction set of the Rutgers CAM2000 memory chip. The CAM2000 combines features of Associative Processing (AP), Content Addressable Memory (CAM), and Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) in a single chip package that is not only DRAM compatible but capable of applying simple massively parallel operations to memory. This document reflects the current status of the CAM2000 architecture and is continually updated to reflect the current state of the architecture and instruction set.

  11. A content addressable memory for use in CEBAF's CLAS detector level 2 triggering system

    SciTech Connect

    R.F. Hodson; D.C. Doughty, Jr.; D.C. Allgood; S.A. Campbell; W.C. Wilson; M.H. Bickley

    1996-06-01

    A collaboration of researchers from CEBAF, CNU and NASA is designing a 256-32 specialized Content Addressable Memory (CAM) for the level 2 triggering system in CEBAF's CLAS detector. These integrated circuits will find tracks and the momentum and angle of each track within 2 microseconds of an event. The custom CAM can operate as conventional memory, performing read and write operations, and can additionally perform independent byte compare operations across all words simultaneously. It is this compare feature which makes these CAMs attractive for identifying tracks passing through drift chambers by linking together segment number triplets within the CAM. Simulations have indicated that less than 16 k triplets need to be stored for each sector of the detector. This implies the level 2 triggering can be performed with 64 CAM chips per sector, or 384 total. Each data channel into a sector CAM array is buffered in a FIFO and is designed to handle aggregate data rates up to 750 Mbs for three channels (one channel/superlayer). The architecture of the level 2 trigger and details of the CAM chip design are discussed along with a performance report on our prototype CAMs

  12. SenseCam reminiscence and action recall in memory-unimpaired people.

    PubMed

    Seamon, John G; Moskowitz, Tacie N; Swan, Ashley E; Zhong, Boyuan; Golembeski, Amy; Liong, Christopher; Narzikul, Alexa C; Sosan, Olumide A

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of memory-impaired individuals consistently show that reminiscing with SenseCam images enhances event recall. This exploratory study examined whether a similar benefit would occur for the consolidation of memories in memory-unimpaired people. We tested delayed recall for atypical actions observed on a lengthy walk. Participants used SenseCam, a diary, or no external memory aid while walking, followed by reminiscence with SenseCam images, diary entries, or no aid, either alone (self-reminiscence) or with the experimenter (social reminiscence). One week later, when tested without SenseCam images or diary entries, prior social reminiscence produced greater recall than self-reminiscence, but there were no differences between memory aid conditions for action free recall or action order recall. When methodological variables were controlled, there was no recall advantage for SenseCam reminiscence with memory-unimpaired participants. The case studies and present study differ in multiple ways, making direct comparisons problematic. SenseCam is a valuable aid to the memory impaired, but its mnemonic value for non-clinical populations remains to be determined.

  13. Addressable parallel cavity-based quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetlugin, Anton N.; Sokolov, Ivan V.

    2014-09-01

    We elaborate theoretically a model of addressable parallel cavity-based quantum memory for light able to store multiple transverse spatial modes of the input light signal of finite duration and, at the same time, a time sequence of the signals by side illumination. Having in mind possible applications for, e.g., quantum repeaters, we reveal the addressability of our memory, that is, its handiness for the read-out on demand of a given transverse quantized signal mode and of a given signal from the time sequence. The addressability is achieved by making use of different spatial configurations of pump wave during the write-in and the readout. We also demonstrate that for the signal durations of the order of few cavity decay times, better efficiency is achieved when one excites the cavity with zero light-matter coupling and finally performs fast excitation transfer from the intracavity field to the collective spin. On the other hand, the light-matter coupling control in time, based on dynamical impedance matching, allows to store and retrieve time restricted signals of the on-demand smooth time shape.

  14. SenseCam improves memory for recent events and quality of life in a patient with memory retrieval difficulties.

    PubMed

    Browne, Georgina; Berry, Emma; Kapur, Narinder; Hodges, Steve; Smyth, Gavin; Watson, Peter; Wood, Ken

    2011-10-01

    A wearable camera that takes pictures automatically, SenseCam, was used to generate images for rehearsal, promoting consolidation and retrieval of memories for significant events in a patient with memory retrieval deficits. SenseCam images of recent events were systematically reviewed over a 2-week period. Memory for these events was assessed throughout and longer-term recall was tested up to 6 months later. A written diary control condition followed the same procedure. The SenseCam review procedure resulted in significantly more details of an event being recalled, with twice as many details recalled at 6 months follow up compared to the written diary method. Self-report measures suggested autobiographical recollection was triggered by the SenseCam condition but not by reviewing the written diary. Emotional and social wellbeing questionnaires indicated improved confidence and decreased anxiety as a result of memory rehearsal using SenseCam images. We propose that SenseCam images provide a powerful boost to autobiographical recall, with secondary benefits for quality of life. PMID:21942784

  15. Blanket Gate Would Address Blocks Of Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambe, John; Moopenn, Alexander; Thakoor, Anilkumar P.

    1988-01-01

    Circuit-chip area used more efficiently. Proposed gate structure selectively allows and restricts access to blocks of memory in electronic neural-type network. By breaking memory into independent blocks, gate greatly simplifies problem of reading from and writing to memory. Since blocks not used simultaneously, share operational amplifiers that prompt and read information stored in memory cells. Fewer operational amplifiers needed, and chip area occupied reduced correspondingly. Cost per bit drops as result.

  16. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  17. The use of content addressable memories in the level 2 trigger for the CLAS detector at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.C. Jr.; Hodson, R.F.; Allgood, D.; Bickley, M.; Campbell, S.; Putnam, T.; Spivak, R.; Lemon, S.; Wilson, W.C.

    1996-02-01

    The LEVEL 2 trigger in the CLAS detector will find tracks and associate a momentum and angle with each track within 2 {micro}s after the event. This is done through a hierarchical track finding design in which track segments are found in each drift chamber axial superlayer. An array of 384 custom content addressable (or associative) memories (CAMs) uses independent subfield matching to link these track segments into roads. The track parameters corresponding to each found road are then looked up in a separate memory. The authors present the overall architecture of the LEVEL 2 trigger, the details of how the CAM chip links tracks segments to find roads, and report on the performance of the prototype CAM chips.

  18. GETTYSBURG ADDRESS TABLET BESIDE ENTRANCE GATE AT MEMORIAL WALK. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GETTYSBURG ADDRESS TABLET BESIDE ENTRANCE GATE AT MEMORIAL WALK. VIEW TO EAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. Impact of SenseCam on memory, identity and mood in Korsakoff's syndrome: a single case experimental design study.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Jenny; Evans, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of SenseCam, a wearable, automatic camera, on subjective mood and identity in a patient with severe memory impairment due to Korsakoff's syndrome. It was hypothesised that SenseCam would improve Ms A's mood and identity through enhancing recall of autobiographical memories of recent events, therefore supporting a coherent sense of self; the lack of which was contributing to Ms A's mood deterioration. An ABA single case experimental design investigated whether using SenseCam to record regular activities impacted on Ms A's mood and identity. Ms A experienced improved recall for events recorded using SenseCam, and showed improvement on subjective ratings of identity. However, a corresponding improvement in mood was not seen, and the study was ended early at Ms A's request. Qualitative information was gathered to explore Ms A's experience of the study, and investigate psychosocial factors that may have impacted on the use of SenseCam. SenseCam may be of significant use as a compensatory memory aid for people with Korsakoff's syndrome and other types of alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD), but acceptance of memory impairment and consistent support may be among the factors required to support the use of such assistive technologies in a community setting. PMID:24131241

  20. Impact of SenseCam on memory, identity and mood in Korsakoff's syndrome: a single case experimental design study.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Jenny; Evans, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of SenseCam, a wearable, automatic camera, on subjective mood and identity in a patient with severe memory impairment due to Korsakoff's syndrome. It was hypothesised that SenseCam would improve Ms A's mood and identity through enhancing recall of autobiographical memories of recent events, therefore supporting a coherent sense of self; the lack of which was contributing to Ms A's mood deterioration. An ABA single case experimental design investigated whether using SenseCam to record regular activities impacted on Ms A's mood and identity. Ms A experienced improved recall for events recorded using SenseCam, and showed improvement on subjective ratings of identity. However, a corresponding improvement in mood was not seen, and the study was ended early at Ms A's request. Qualitative information was gathered to explore Ms A's experience of the study, and investigate psychosocial factors that may have impacted on the use of SenseCam. SenseCam may be of significant use as a compensatory memory aid for people with Korsakoff's syndrome and other types of alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD), but acceptance of memory impairment and consistent support may be among the factors required to support the use of such assistive technologies in a community setting.

  1. Evaluation of architectural paradigms for addressing theprocessor-memory gap

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, Leonid; Gorden, Grime; Husbands, Parry; Chame, Jacqualine

    2003-07-04

    Many high performance applications run well below the peak arithmetic performance of the underlying machine, with inefficiencies often attributed to poor memory system behavior. In the context of scientific computing we examine three emerging processors designed to address the well-known gap between processor and memory performance through the exploitation of data parallelism. The VIRAM architecture uses novel PIM technology to combine embedded DRAM with a vector co-processor for exploiting its large bandwidth potential. The DIVA architecture incorporates a collection of PIM chips as smart-memory coprocessors to a conventional microprocessor, and relies on superword-level parallelism to make effective use of the available memory bandwidth. The Imagine architecture provides a stream-aware memory hierarchy to support the tremendous processing potential of SIMD controlled VLIW clusters. First we develop a scalable synthetic probe that allows us to parametize key performance attributes of VIRAM, DIVA and Imagine while capturing the performance crossover points of these architectures. Next we present results for scientific kernels with different sets of computational characteristics and memory access patterns. Our experiments allow us to evaluate the strategies employed to exploit data parallelism, isolate the set of application characteristics best suited to each architecture and show a promising direction towards interfacing leading-edge processor technology with high-end scientific computations.

  2. Evidence of Drought Stress Memory in the Facultative CAM, Aptenia cordifolia: Possible Role of Phytohormones

    PubMed Central

    Fleta-Soriano, Eva; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    Although plant responses to drought stress have been studied in detail in several plant species, including CAM plants, the occurrence of stress memory and possible mechanisms for its regulation are still very poorly understood. In an attempt to better understand the occurrence and possible mechanisms of regulation of stress memory in plants, we measured the concentrations of phytohormones in Aptenia cordifolia exposed to reiterated drought, together with various stress indicators, including leaf water contents, photosynthesis and mechanisms of photo- and antioxidant protection. Results showed that plants exposed to drought stress responded differently if previously challenged with a first drought. Gibberellin levels decreased upon exposure to the first drought and remained lower in double-stressed plants compared with those exposed to stress for the first time. In contrast, abscisic acid levels were higher in double- than single-stressed plants. This occurred in parallel with alterations in hydroperoxide levels, but not with malondialdehyde levels, thus suggesting an increased oxidation state that did not result in oxidative damage in double-stressed plants. It is concluded that (i) drought stress memory occurs in double-stressed A. cordifolia plants, (ii) both gibberellins and abscisic acid may play a role in plant response to repeated periods of drought, and (iii) changes in abscisic acid levels in double-stressed plants may have a positive effect by modulating changes in the cellular redox state with a role in signalling, rather than cause oxidative damage to the cell. PMID:26274325

  3. Terminal attractors for addressable memory in neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1988-01-01

    A new type of attractors - terminal attractors - for an addressable memory in neural networks operating in continuous time is introduced. These attractors represent singular solutions of the dynamical system. They intersect (or envelope) the families of regular solutions while each regular solution approaches the terminal attractor in a finite time period. It is shown that terminal attractors can be incorporated into neural networks such that any desired set of these attractors with prescribed basins is provided by an appropriate selection of the weight matrix.

  4. Addressing Working Memory in Children with Autism through Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltruschat, Lisa; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Tarbox, Jonathan; Dixon, Dennis R.; Najdowski, Adel C.; Mullins, Ryan D.; Gould, Evelyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism often struggle with executive function (EF) deficits, particularly with regard to working memory (WM). Despite the documented deficits in these areas, very little controlled research has evaluated treatments for remediation of EF or WM deficits in children with autism. This study examined the use of positive reinforcement for…

  5. Reprogrammable read only variable threshold transistor memory with isolated addressing buffer

    DOEpatents

    Lodi, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    A monolithic integrated circuit, fully decoded memory comprises a rectangular array of variable threshold field effect transistors organized into a plurality of multi-bit words. Binary address inputs to the memory are decoded by a field effect transistor decoder into a plurality of word selection lines each of which activates an address buffer circuit. Each address buffer circuit, in turn, drives a word line of the memory array. In accordance with the word line selected by the decoder the activated buffer circuit directs reading or writing voltages to the transistors comprising the memory words. All of the buffer circuits additionally are connected to a common terminal for clearing all of the memory transistors to a predetermined state by the application to the common terminal of a large magnitude voltage of a predetermined polarity. The address decoder, the buffer and the memory array, as well as control and input/output control and buffer field effect transistor circuits, are fabricated on a common substrate with means provided to isolate the substrate of the address buffer transistors from the remainder of the substrate so that the bulk clearing function of simultaneously placing all of the memory transistors into a predetermined state can be performed.

  6. CAM microkernels

    2009-02-09

    This is a set of microbernels based on the finite-volume dynamics of the Community Atmosphere Models (CAM) version 3.1.p2. Information on CAM can be found at the website: http://www.ccsm.uca.edu.models/atm-cam. CAM consists of public domain software with certain exceptions as outlind on the above website. The microkernles herein are based solely on the public domain portions of CAM and originat from code specifically in the directory: models/atm/cam/src/fv.

  7. A light writable microfluidic "flash memory": optically addressed actuator array with latched operation for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zhishan; Pal, Rohit; Srivannavit, Onnop; Burns, Mark A; Gulari, Erdogan

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a novel optically addressed microactuator array (microfluidic "flash memory") with latched operation. Analogous to the address-data bus mediated memory address protocol in electronics, the microactuator array consists of individual phase-change based actuators addressed by localized heating through focused light patterns (address bus), which can be provided by a modified projector or high power laser pointer. A common pressure manifold (data bus) for the entire array is used to generate large deflections of the phase change actuators in the molten phase. The use of phase change material as the working media enables latched operation of the actuator array. After the initial light "writing" during which the phase is temporarily changed to molten, the actuated status is self-maintained by the solid phase of the actuator without power and pressure inputs. The microfluidic flash memory can be re-configured by a new light illumination pattern and common pressure signal. The proposed approach can achieve actuation of arbitrary units in a large-scale array without the need for complex external equipment such as solenoid valves and electrical modules, which leads to significantly simplified system implementation and compact system size. The proposed work therefore provides a flexible, energy-efficient, and low cost multiplexing solution for microfluidic applications based on physical displacements. As an example, the use of the latched microactuator array as "normally closed" or "normally open" microvalves is demonstrated. The phase-change wax is fully encapsulated and thus immune from contamination issues in fluidic environments.

  8. World survey of CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatvany, J.; Merchant, M. E.; Rathmill, K.; Yoshikawa, H.

    The worldwide state of the art and development trends in CAM are surveyed, emphasizing flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), robotics, computer-aided process planning, and computer-aided scheduling. The use of FMS, NC machine tools, DNC systems, and unmanned and nearly unmanned factories, are discussed as the state of the art in the USA, Japan, Western Europe and Eastern Europe. For the same areas, trends are projected, including the use of graphics and languages in CAM, and metamorphic machine tools. A Delphi-type forecast and its conclusions are presented. A CAM system for manufacture is projected for 1985, the use of robots equalling humans in assembly capability for 1990, and the fifty percent replacement of direct labor in automobile final assembly by programmable automation by 1995. An attempt is made to outline a methodical approach to forecasting the development of CAM over the next 10-15 years. Key issues in CAM proliferation, including financial and social aspects, are addressed.

  9. Buying CAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloy, Jim; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and computer numerical control (CNC) computer applications is described. Tips for helping educate the CAM buyer on what to look for and what to avoid when searching for the most appropriate instructional CAM package are provided. (KR)

  10. High-performance CAM-based Prolog execution scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Yahia, Tahar; Dana, Michel

    1991-03-01

    In this paper, we present an execution scheme allowing a direct and a pipeline evaluation of a Prolog Program. The execution scheme enhances Prolog performances in interpreted mode, by means of associative processing tools embodied in Content Addressable Memories and potential parallelism existing between clauses selection, unification, and access to clause arguments. The interpretation algorithm is distributed on several processing units, which are Content Addressable Memories (CAMs). These latter are generic and reconfigurable dealing with much more Artificial Intelligence applications, through improved target languages like Prolog, Lisp, and Object oriented languages. The model has been evaluated with a functional simulator written in Le-lisp. The results show the CAMs feasibility in improving Prolog execution at performances greater than 160 KLIPS, in interpreted mode.

  11. Addressing the “It Is Just Placebo” Pitfall in CAM: Methodology of a Project to Develop Patient-Reported Measures of Nonspecific Factors in Healing

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Carol M.; Glick, Ronald M.; Morone, Natalia E.; Schneider, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    CAM therapies are often dismissed as “no better than placebo;” however, this belief may be overcome through careful analysis of nonspecific factors in healing. To improve trial methodology, we propose that CAM (and conventional) RCTs should evaluate and adjust for the effects of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors on outcomes. However, measurement of these is challenging, and there are no brief, precise instruments that are suitable for widespread use in trials and clinical settings. This paper describes the methodology of a project to develop a set of patient-reported instruments that will quantify the nonspecific or “placebo” effects that are in fact specific and active ingredients in healing. The project uses the rigorous instrument-development methodology of the NIH-PROMIS initiative. The methods include (1) integration of patients' and clinicians' opinions with existing literature; (2) development of relevant items; (3) calibration of items on large samples; (4) classical test theory and modern psychometric methods to select the most useful items; (5) development of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) that maximize information while minimizing patient burden; and (6) initial validation studies. The instruments will have the potential to revolutionize clinical trials in both CAM and conventional medicine through quantifying contextual factors that contribute to healing. PMID:24454501

  12. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E; Lavery, Leah L; Whiting, Gregory L; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic.

  13. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  14. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features.

  15. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features. PMID:26382005

  16. Development of a Handbook for Educators: Addressing Working Memory Capacity in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Julie Marie

    2013-01-01

    Working Memory (WM) refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for complex cognitive tasks such as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. WM also requires the simultaneous storage and processing of information. WM is directly related to academic performance in the classroom.…

  17. CAM Coordinator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodel, Lee J.

    The technical implementation and operation of the Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring (CAM) system are discussed in this manual. It is written as a guide for those responsible for implementing CAM and for processing CAM-related work requests. Subjects covered include: CAM system operation summary: objectives and test items; conferencing with the…

  18. Activity dependent CAM cleavage and neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Conant, Katherine; Allen, Megan; Lim, Seung T.

    2015-01-01

    Spatially localized proteolysis represents an elegant means by which neuronal activity dependent changes in synaptic structure, and thus experience dependent learning and memory, can be achieved. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that matrix metalloproteinase and adamalysin activity is concentrated at the cell surface, and emerging evidence suggests that increased peri-synaptic expression, release and/or activation of these proteinases occurs with enhanced excitatory neurotransmission. Synaptically expressed cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) could therefore represent important targets for neuronal activity-dependent proteolysis. Several CAM subtypes are expressed at the synapse, and their cleavage can influence the efficacy of synaptic transmission through a variety of non-mutually exclusive mechanisms. In the following review, we discuss mechanisms that regulate neuronal activity-dependent synaptic CAM shedding, including those that may be calcium dependent. We also highlight CAM targets of activity-dependent proteolysis including neuroligin and intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5). We include discussion focused on potential consequences of synaptic CAM shedding, with an emphasis on interactions between soluble CAM cleavage products and specific pre- and post-synaptic receptors. PMID:26321910

  19. VARIABLE-THROW CAM

    DOEpatents

    Godsil, E.C.; Robinson, E.Y.

    1963-07-16

    A variable-throw cam comprising inner and outer eccentric sleeves which are adjustably locked together is described. The cam throw is varied by unlocking the inner and outer sleeves, rotating the outer sleeve relative to the inner one until the desired throw is obtained, and locking the sleeves together again. The cam is useful in applications wherein a continuously-variable throw is required, e.g., ram-and-die pressing operations, cyclic fatigue testing of materials, etc. (AEC)

  20. Who Uses CAM? A Narrative Review of Demographic Characteristics and Health Factors Associated with CAM Use

    PubMed Central

    Lewith, G. T.

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are used by an extensive number of patients in the UK and elsewhere. In order to understand this pattern of behavior, it is helpful to examine the characteristics of people who use CAM. This narrative review collates and evaluates the evidence concerning the demographic characteristics and health status factors associated with CAM use in community-based non-clinical populations. A systematic literature search of computerized databases was conducted, and published research papers which present evidence concerning associations between CAM use and demographic and health characteristics are discussed and evaluated. The evidence suggests that people who use CAM tend to be female, of middle age and have more education. In terms of their health, CAM users tend to have more than one medical condition, but might not be more likely than non-users to have specific conditions such as cancer or to rate their own general health as poor. The multivariate studies that have been conducted suggest that both demographic and health characteristics contribute independently to CAM use. In conclusion, demographic characteristics and factors related to an individual's health status are associated with CAM use. Future research is needed to address methodological limitations in existing studies. PMID:18955327

  1. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  2. Handling and environmental enrichment do not rescue learning and memory impairments in alphaCamKII(T286A) mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Need, A C; Giese, K P

    2003-06-01

    Environmental enrichment and postnatal handling have been shown to improve learning and memory in the Morris water maze, and to rescue impairments caused by genetic modification, age or genetic background. Mice with a targeted point mutation that prevents autophosphorylation at threonine-286 of the alpha-isoform of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II have impaired hippocampus-dependent and -independent strategy learning and memory in the water maze. We have investigated whether these impairments can be rescued with a combination of postnatal handling and environmental enrichment in a hybrid genetic background. Severe impairments were seen in acquisition and probe trials in both enriched and nonenriched mutants, indicating that enrichment did not rescue the learning and memory impairments. However, enrichment did rescue a specific performance deficit; enhanced floating behaviour, in the mutants. In summary, we have shown the lack of autophosphorylation of the alpha-isoform of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II prevents enrichment-induced rescues of strategy learning and memory impairments. Furthermore, we have established that there are enrichment mechanisms that are independent of this autophosphorylation.

  3. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Dana J; Meeker, William C

    2007-01-01

    Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine. PMID:17241465

  4. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  5. Memorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, S. V.

    1981-01-01

    Makes several biographical statements about Raymond E. Schultz, Professor of Community College Education (University of Arizona) prior to his death in l980. Introduces this special journal issue dedicated to Dr. Schultz, which focuses on his contributions to the field of community college education through articles by his former students. (CAM)

  6. CAM and NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    It is believed that tumor development, outgrowth and metastasis are under the surveillance of the immune system. Although both innate and acquired immune systems play roles, innate immunity is the spearhead against tumors. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of natural killer (NK) cells in immune surveillance and that NK cell activity is considerably influenced by various agents, such as environmental factors, stress, foods and drugs. Some of these NK cell stimulants have been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) since ancient times. Therefore, the value of CAM should be re-evaluated from this point of view. In this review, we overview the intimate correlation between NK cell functions and CAM agents, and discuss possible underlying mechanisms mediating this. In particular, neuro-immune crosstalk and receptors for CAM agents are the most important and interesting candidates for such mechanisms. PMID:15257322

  7. Bridging CAM practice and research: teaching CAM practitioners about research methodology.

    PubMed

    Zick, Suzanna M; Benn, Rita

    2004-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is continuing to provide funds directed to support research in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM providers typically have insufficient knowledge of scientific language or research methodology to develop rigorous proposals. Their ability to contribute meaningfully as advisors, teachers, or research partners in academic settings, is hence limited. To address this issue, we have developed and implemented a 7-week course designed to teach community-based CAM providers: (1) to understand scientific terminology, research design and grantsmanship; (2) to critically evaluate the research literature; and (3) to design pilot studies in areas of their interest. In this article, we describe the recruitment process for selecting course participants, the course design and instructional process and the evaluation results based on qualitative and quantitative methodology. We offer suggestions for developing training opportunities both at the local and national level that would increase the expertise of CAM providers in participating and seeking funded research.

  8. Magnetoelectric assisted 180° magnetization switching for electric field addressable writing in magnetoresistive random-access memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiguang; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Yaojin; Li, Yanxi; Luo, Haosu; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight

    2014-08-26

    Magnetization-based memories, e.g., hard drive and magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM), use bistable magnetic domains in patterned nanomagnets for information recording. Electric field (E) tunable magnetic anisotropy can lower the energy barrier between two distinct magnetic states, promising reduced power consumption and increased recording density. However, integration of magnetoelectric heterostructure into MRAM is a highly challenging task owing to the particular architecture requirements of each component. Here, we show an epitaxial growth of self-assembled CoFe2O4 nanostripes with bistable in-plane magnetizations on Pb(Mg,Nb)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates, where the magnetic switching can be triggered by E-induced elastic strain effect. An unprecedented magnetic coercive field change of up to 600 Oe was observed with increasing E. A near 180° magnetization rotation can be activated by E in the vicinity of the magnetic coercive field. These findings might help to solve the 1/2-selection problem in traditional MRAM by providing reduced magnetic coercive field in E field selected memory cells. PMID:25093903

  9. PreCam

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will be taking the next step in probing the properties of Dark Energy and in understanding the physics of cosmic acceleration. A step towards the photometric calibration of DES is to have a quick, bright survey in the DES footprint (PreCam), using a pre-production set of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs and a set of 100 mm×100 mm DES filters. The objective of the PreCam Survey is to create a network of calibrated DES grizY standard stars that will be used for DES nightly calibrations and to improve the DES global relative calibrations. Here, we describe the first year of PreCam observation, results, and photometric calibrations.

  10. Chaotic Convection in CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, D. A.; Branson, M.; Dutta, R.; Jones, T.

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that stochastic fluctuations of convective activity can lead to systematic changes in large-scale weather and climate. We present results of recent ensemble-prediction experiments with the super-parameterized version of CAM that provide a new way to explore such effects, without the need for adhoc assumptions about the nature of the stochastic effects.

  11. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  12. Grey scale memory in an optically addressed spatial light modulator with a Lu(Pc)2 doped layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéna, M.; Wu, Z. Y.; L'Her, M.; Pondaven, A.; Cadiou, C.

    1998-02-01

    An optically addressed spatial light modulator with electrolyte bisphtalocyanine of lutetium incorporated in the alignment layer is shown to be capable of memorizing a grey scale image. The relationship between the memorized grey scale and the illumination is shown. The temperature, the concentration of Lu(Pc)2 and the spontaneous polarization of liquid crystals are found to have the effect on the memorization rate.

  13. Classification of CAM Use and its Correlates in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Juliann; Madlensky, Lisa; Kealey, Sheila; Saquib, Nazmus; Natarajan, Loki; Newman, Vicky A.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Pierce, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesis Self-reported use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been shown to increase following a cancer diagnosis, and breast cancer survivors are the heaviest users among cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to determine whether the prevalence estimate of CAM use varied according to classification of CAM. We used a comprehensive system to classify CAM users and test differences in demographic, lifestyle, quality of life, and cancer characteristics among them. Study Design and Methods Participants were 2562 breast cancer survivors participating in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study, aged 28-74 years. A structured telephone interview assessed CAM use, questioning about specific CAM practices, and whether use was related to cancer. We examined CAM use in relation to demographics, health behaviors, and quality of life. Results Approximately 80% of the women used CAM for general purposes but only 50% reported CAM use for cancer purposes. Visual imagery, spiritual healing, and meditation were the most frequently used practices for cancer purposes. CAM use, defined as consulting a CAM practitioner and regular use, was significantly related to younger age, higher education, increased fruit & vegetable intake, and lower body mass index (p < .05). CAM users who had seen a practitioner were also more likely to report poor physical and mental health than non-CAM users (p < .05). CAM use was not associated with changes in physical and mental health between study baseline and 1-year follow-up. Conclusion This study addressed important differences in the classification of CAM use among breast cancer survivors. Future studies need to further test the potential benefits and risks associated with CAM use. PMID:21382963

  14. Roller Cam Positioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon B.

    2010-12-07

    Roller Cam Positioners could support the LCLS undulator sections allowing micron sized alignment adjustment of each undulator in 5 degrees of freedom. The supports are kinematic with the number of degrees of freedom matched to the number of constraints. Ton loads are supported on simple ball bearings. Motion is intrinsically bounded. Positioning mechanisms are based on pure rolling motion with sub-micron hysteresis and micron resolution. This note describes a general purpose positioning mechanism suitable for undulator support.

  15. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  16. Cam drive internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Vadnjal, I.

    1993-06-01

    A cam drive internal combustion engine is described, comprising, a cylindrical crank case housing, and an axle co-axially directed through the crank case housing, and a cam ring fixedly mounted to the axle medially of the axle in an orthogonal relationship relative thereto, and a predetermined number of first cylinder bores positioned in an equally spaced annular array on a first side of the cam ring, and second cylinder bores positioned on a second side of the cam ring within the crank case housing, with said second cylinder bores defining a number equal to the predetermined number, wherein each cylinder bore of said first set of cylinders bores is co axially aligned with one of said cylinder bores of said second set of cylinder bores, and the first set of cylinder bores each include a first piston reciprocatably mounted there within, and the second set of cylinder bores include a second piston reciprocatably mounted there within, and the first set of pistons each include a first piston rod, and the second set of pistons each include a second piston rod, wherein the first piston rods and second piston rod are arranged parallel relative to the axle, and the first piston rods include rollers mounted thereon, and the second piston rods include second rollers mounted thereon, the cam ring including a first cam surface rotatably mounting the first rollers, and the cam ring further including a second cam surface mounting the second cam rollers rotatably thereon.

  17. CAM versus nucleoplasty.

    PubMed

    Marín, F Z

    2005-01-01

    In recent years the general trend in spinal surgery has been reduction and minimalization. In general, all these have shown a moderate or good clinical result but they have been associated with serious sequelae. Plasma-mediated electrosurgery, widely used in other medical fields, has demonstrated to be well suited for this new indication. To perform the Nucleoplasty (Coblation) and the CAM (Coblation-Assisted Microdiscectomy) is use the Perc-DLE SpineWand connected to a System 2000 generator (ArthoCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA) was used. The device functions via plasma-mediated electrosurgery (Coblation) and differs from traditional electrosurgery. From a small sample 64 operated patients with contained disc herniation were analysed and classified into those who underwent percutaneous disc decompression (PDD) using coblation technology and patients who underwent CAM. All patients who presented with PDD were considered candidates for open surgery but all of them opted for the new technique. There was no contraindication. They had discogenic low back pain and/or leg pain and the procedure was performed on an outpatient basis. Follow-up data was of 1 to 12 months. Patients' gender distribution for PDD was 65% (41.6) male, 35% (22.4) female with a mean age of 43 years. The average duration of pain before nucleoplasty was of 18 months and none of them had previous lumbar surgery. At 6 to 12 months, 80% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in pain scores (75% very good, 5% good, 15% improved but not good, and 5% no effect). None of the patients was worse. Results indicate that Nucleoplasty may be an efficacious minimally invasive technique for the treatment of symptoms associated with contained herniated disc. However, randomized controlled studies are required to know with more precision the role of this procedure. CAM procedure (13 cases) is an excellent method in cases of root compression that needs liberation or in spine stenosis. PMID:15830980

  18. Hydraulic involute cam actuator

    DOEpatents

    Love, Lonnie J.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-11-01

    Mechanical joints are provided in which the angle between a first coupled member and a second coupled member may be varied by mechanical actuators. In some embodiments the angle may be varied around a pivot axis in one plane and in some embodiments the angle may be varied around two pivot axes in two orthogonal planes. The joints typically utilize a cam assembly having two lobes with an involute surface. Actuators are configured to push against the lobes to vary the rotation angle between the first and second coupled member.

  19. JunoCam: Outreach and Science Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Candice; Ingersoll, Andy; Caplinger, Mike; Ravine, Mike; Orton, Glenn

    2014-11-01

    JunoCam is a visible imager on the Juno spacecraft en route to Jupiter. Although the primary role of the camera is for outreach, science objectives will be addressed too. JunoCam is a wide angle camera (58 deg field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm. Juno’s elliptical polar orbit will offer unique views of Jupiter’s polar regions with a spatial scale of ~50 km/pixel. The polar vortex, polar cloud morphology, and winds will be investigated. RGB color mages of the aurora will be acquired. Stereo images and images taken with the methane filter will allow us to estimate cloudtop heights. Resolution exceeds that of Cassini about an hour from closest approach and at closest approach images will have a spatial scale of ~3 km/pixel. JunoCam is a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft. The use of time-delayed integration takes advantage of the spacecraft spin to build up signal. JunoCam will acquire limb-to-limb views of Jupiter during a spacecraft rotation, and has the possibility of acquiring images of the rings from in-between Jupiter and the inner edge of the rings. Galilean satellite views will be fairly distant but some images will be acquired. Outer irregular satellites and small ring moons Metis and Adrastea will also be imaged. The theme of our outreach is “science in a fish bowl”, with an invitation to the science community and the public to participate. Amateur astronomers will supply their ground-based images for planning, so that we can predict when prominent atmospheric features will be visible. With the aid of professional astronomers observing at infrared wavelengths, we’ll predict when hot spots will be visible to JunoCam. Amateur image processing enthusiasts are onboard to create image products. Many of the earth flyby image products from Juno’s earth gravity assist were processed by amateurs. Between the planning and products will be the decision-making on what images to take when and why. We

  20. SenseCam as a rehabilitation tool in a child with anterograde amnesia.

    PubMed

    Pauly-Takacs, Katalin; Moulin, Chris J A; Estlin, Edward J

    2011-10-01

    We present the case of a 13-year-old boy, CJ, with profound episodic memory difficulties following the diagnosis of a metastatic intracranial germ cell tumour and subsequent treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At the core of this study is the first application of SenseCam to a child with severe memory impairment. CJ was taken for a walk while he was wearing SenseCam. This included visiting four different locations. We manipulated the number of locations he could review on SenseCam "films" and then tested recognition memory (forced choice) for both reviewed and non-reviewed locations. We also collected his justifications for the choices he made. Our results indicate that repeated viewings of SenseCam images support the formation of personal semantic memories. Overall our results suggest that the use of SenseCam in memory rehabilitation extends beyond supporting episodic memory and recollection, and supports the feasibility of its use with children who have marked memory difficulties. PMID:20658434

  1. CAM operated fuel valve

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, S.T.; Katchka, J.R.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes improvement in a fuel control valve construction comprising a housing means having an inlet means adapted to be interconnected to a fuel source and a main outlet means adapted to be interconnected to a main burner means, the housing means having a main valve seat for interconnecting the inlet means with the main outlet means, the housing means having a movable main valve member for opening and closing the main valve seat, the housing means having a movable lever operatively associated with the main valve member and having a manually operable actuator means for controlling the operating positions of the lever, the lever having an intermediate cam follower portion and opposed ends disposed on each side of the cam follower portion with one end of the opposed ends being pivotally mounted to the housing means and with the other end of the opposed ends for operating the main valve member, the housing means having biasing means operatively interconnected to the lever to tend to pivot the lever in one direction that opens the main valve member away from its the main valve seat. The improvement comprises; the housing means has a thermostatically controlled means that is operatively associated with the lever and is adapted to engage and hold the lever in a position wherein the main valve member is in a closed condition against its the main valve seat when the thermostatically controlled means is in one operating condition thereof and the actuator means is in the on condition thereof.

  2. CAD/CAM data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, O. H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of data base management in CAD/CAM, particularly for geometric data is described. First, long term and short term objectives for CAD/CAM data management are identified. Second, the benefits of the data base management approach are explained. Third, some of the additional work needed in the data base area is discussed.

  3. Laser addressed holographic memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.; Wagle, E. M.; Steinmetz, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Holographic recall and storage system uses red-lipid microcrystalline wax as storage medium. When laser beam strikes wax, its energy heats point of incidence enough to pass wax through transition temperature. Holograph image can then be written or erased in softened wax.

  4. Rad Pole Cam Development

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  5. ChemCam video footage

    NASA Video Gallery

    ChemCam is a rock-zapping laser instrument that can hit rocks with a laser then observes the flash through a telescope and analyzes the spectrum of light to identify the chemical elements in the ta...

  6. Cam-controlled boring bar

    DOEpatents

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

  7. Hyper Suprime-Cam: CCD readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Miyatake, Hironao; Aihara, Hiroaki; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kamata, Yukiko; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tanaka, Manobu; Tanaka, Yoko

    2008-07-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam is planned to employ about 120 2k×4k fully-depleted CCDs with 4 signal outputs for each. The data size of an image becomes larger than 2Gbytes. All of the CCDs are designed to be readout parallel within 20 seconds, and the readout noise is expected to be 5e. The frontend electronics will be mounted in a vacuumed cryostat, and connected to the backend electronics mounted on the outside of the cryostat. The frontend electronics includes entire analog circuits for CCD including CCD drivers, preamplifiers and ADC. The backend electronics consists of newly developed gigabit Ethernet modules combined with 2Gbytes memory modules, and several supporting boards. We will present the current status of the CCD readout electronics developments for HSC.

  8. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed. PMID:19966039

  9. Concerns of hydrothermal degradation in CAD/CAM zirconia.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-W; Covel, N S; Guess, P C; Rekow, E D; Zhang, Y

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed.

  10. Story teller or story analyst? How useful is the storied narrative for a critical sociology of CAM and nursing?

    PubMed

    Tovey, Philip; Manson, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Despite recent developments in the sociology of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), a critical analysis of the apparent affinity between CAM and nursing has, to date, remained essentially undeveloped. An empirical project is currently being conducted as an initial step to address the absence of such important critical research. A total of 30 written life history narratives were obtained from nurses working with and using CAM to explore such matters as professional boundaries and nurses' authentication strategies and conceptualisation and operationalisation of CAM. This paper addresses questions and conflicts that arose as the analytical tools were considered for these narrative accounts. Specifically, the paper explores whether the storied narrative sits easily with a critically oriented sociology of CAM; the differences between the role of "storyteller" or "story analyst"; and ask whether there is potential for developing a critical sociology of CAM nursing that retains the essence of personal stories.

  11. Seeing Like a Geologist: Bayesian Use of Expert Categories in Location Memory.

    PubMed

    Holden, Mark P; Newcombe, Nora S; Resnick, Ilyse; Shipley, Thomas F

    2016-03-01

    Memory for spatial location is typically biased, with errors trending toward the center of a surrounding region. According to the category adjustment model (CAM), this bias reflects the optimal, Bayesian combination of fine-grained and categorical representations of a location. However, there is disagreement about whether categories are malleable. For instance, can categories be redefined based on expert-level conceptual knowledge? Furthermore, if expert knowledge is used, does it dominate other information sources, or is it used adaptively so as to minimize overall error, as predicted by a Bayesian framework? We address these questions using images of geological interest. The participants were experts in structural geology, organic chemistry, or English literature. Our data indicate that expertise-based categories influence estimates of location memory-particularly when these categories better constrain errors than alternative ("novice") categories. Results are discussed with respect to the CAM.

  12. Gradient Descent Learning for Rotor Associative Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitahara, Michimasa; Kobayashi, Masaki

    Complex-valued Associative Memory (CAM) is an extended model of Hopfield Associative Memory (HAM). The fundamental elements, such as input-output signals and connection weights of the CAM are extended to complex numbers. The CAM can deal with multi-states information. Rotor Associative Memory (RAM) is an extended model of the CAM. Rotor neurons are essentially equivalent to complex-valued neurons. Connection weights of the RAM are expressed by two by two matrices. Only hebb rule has been proposed for the learning of the RAM. Its storage capacity is small, so advanced learning methods are necessary. In this paper, we propose gradient descent learning rule for the RAM (GDR RAM). It is based on that for the CAM (GDR CAM) proposed by Lee. We solved the learning rule and performed computer simulations to compare the GDR CAM and the GDR RAM. At last, it turned out that the storage capacity of the GDR RAM is approximately twice as much as that of the GDR CAM and the noise robustness of the GDR RAM is much better than that of the GDR CAM.

  13. CAD/CAM for optomechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haiguang; Han, Min

    2003-10-01

    We focus at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. The software can be used for training and education. We introduce mechanical CAD, optical CAD and electrical CAD, we show how to draw a circuit diagram, mechanical diagram and luminous transmission diagram, from 2D drawing to 3D drawing. We introduce how to create 2D and 3D parts for optomechatronics, how to edit tool paths, how to select parameters for process, how to run the post processor, dynamic show the tool path and generate the CNC programming. We introduce the joint application of CAD&CAM. We aim at how to match the requirement of optical, mechanical and electronics.

  14. The Neural Correlates of Everyday Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, F.; Muhlert, N.; Butler, C. R.; Benattayallah, A.; Zeman, A. Z.

    2011-01-01

    We used a novel automatic camera, SenseCam, to create a recognition memory test for real-life events. Adapting a "Remember/Know" paradigm, we asked healthy undergraduates, who wore SenseCam for 2 days, in their everyday environments, to classify images as strongly or weakly remembered, strongly or weakly familiar or novel, while brain activation…

  15. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  16. The Royal Road to Time: How Understanding of the Evolution of Time in the Brain Addresses Memory, Dreaming, Flow, and Other Psychological Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    It has been claimed that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious mind. The present work argues that dreams and associated brain states such as memory, attention, flow, and perhaps even consciousness itself arise from diverse conflicts over control of time in the brain. Dreams are the brain's offline efforts to distill projections of the future, while memory represents the vestiges of the past successes and survived failures of those and other conscious projections. Memory thus acts to inform and improve the prediction of possible future states through the use of conscious prospects (planning) and unconscious prospective memory (dreams). When successful, these prospects result in states of flow for conscious planning and déjà vu for its unconscious comparator. In consequence, and contrary to normal expectation, memory is overwhelmingly oriented to deal with the future. Consciousness is the comparable process operating in the present moment. Thus past, present, and future are homeomorphic with the parts of memory (episodic and autobiographical) that recall a personal past, consciousness, and the differing dimensions of prospective memory to plan for future circumstances, respectively. Dreaming (i.e., unconscious prospective memory), has the luxury to run multiple "what if" simulations of many possible futures, essentially offline. I explicate these propositions and their relations to allied constructs such as déjà vu and flow. More generally, I propose that what appear to us as a range of normal psychological experiences are actually manifestations of an ongoing pathological battle for control within the brain. The landscape of this conflict is time. I suggest that there are at least 3 general systems bidding for this control, and in the process of evolution, each system has individually conferred a sequentially increasing survival advantage, but only at the expense of a still incomplete functional integration. Through juxtaposition of these respective brain

  17. The Royal Road to Time: How Understanding of the Evolution of Time in the Brain Addresses Memory, Dreaming, Flow, and Other Psychological Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    It has been claimed that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious mind. The present work argues that dreams and associated brain states such as memory, attention, flow, and perhaps even consciousness itself arise from diverse conflicts over control of time in the brain. Dreams are the brain's offline efforts to distill projections of the future, while memory represents the vestiges of the past successes and survived failures of those and other conscious projections. Memory thus acts to inform and improve the prediction of possible future states through the use of conscious prospects (planning) and unconscious prospective memory (dreams). When successful, these prospects result in states of flow for conscious planning and déjà vu for its unconscious comparator. In consequence, and contrary to normal expectation, memory is overwhelmingly oriented to deal with the future. Consciousness is the comparable process operating in the present moment. Thus past, present, and future are homeomorphic with the parts of memory (episodic and autobiographical) that recall a personal past, consciousness, and the differing dimensions of prospective memory to plan for future circumstances, respectively. Dreaming (i.e., unconscious prospective memory), has the luxury to run multiple "what if" simulations of many possible futures, essentially offline. I explicate these propositions and their relations to allied constructs such as déjà vu and flow. More generally, I propose that what appear to us as a range of normal psychological experiences are actually manifestations of an ongoing pathological battle for control within the brain. The landscape of this conflict is time. I suggest that there are at least 3 general systems bidding for this control, and in the process of evolution, each system has individually conferred a sequentially increasing survival advantage, but only at the expense of a still incomplete functional integration. Through juxtaposition of these respective brain

  18. CAMS as a tool for human factors research in spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of research studies that were carried out with a PC-based task environment called Cabin Air Management System (CAMS) simulating the operation of a spacecraft's life support system. As CAMS was a multiple task environment, it allowed the measurement of performance at different levels. Four task components of different priority were embedded in the task environment: diagnosis and repair of system faults, maintaining atmospheric parameters in a safe state, acknowledgement of system alarms (reaction time), and keeping a record of critical system resources (prospective memory). Furthermore, the task environment permitted the examination of different task management strategies and changes in crew member state (fatigue, anxiety, mental effort). A major goal of the research programme was to examine how crew members adapted to various forms of sub-optimal working conditions, such as isolation and confinement, sleep deprivation and noise. None of the studies provided evidence for decrements in primary task performance. However, the results showed a number of adaptive responses of crew members to adjust to the different sub-optimal working conditions. There was evidence for adjustments in information sampling strategies (usually reductions in sampling frequency) as a result of unfavourable working conditions. The results also showed selected decrements in secondary task performance. Prospective memory seemed to be somewhat more vulnerable to sub-optimal working conditions than performance on the reaction time task. Finally, suggestions are made for future research with the CAMS environment.

  19. Prevalence of Cam Morphology in Females with Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Hellman, Michael D.; Harris, Joshua D.; Haughom, Bryan; Frank, Rachel M.; Nho, Shane J.

    2015-01-01

    Cam and pincer are two common morphologies responsible for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Previous literature has reported that cam deformity is predominantly a male morphology, while being significantly less common in females. Cam morphology is commonly assessed with the alpha angle, measured on radiographs. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of cam morphology utilizing the alpha angle in female subjects diagnosed with symptomatic FAI. All females presenting to the senior author’s clinic diagnosed with symptomatic FAI between December 2006 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Alpha (α) angles were measured on anteroposterior and lateral (Dunn 90°, cross-table lateral, and/or frog-leg lateral) plain radiographs by two blinded physicians, and the largest measured angle was used. Using Gosvig et al.’s classification, alpha angle was characterized as (pathologic > 57°), borderline (51–56°), subtle (46–50°), very subtle (43–45°), or normal (≤42°). Three hundred and ninety-one patients (438 hips) were analyzed (age 36.2 ± 12.3 years). Among the hips included, 35.6% were normal, 14.6% pathologic, 15.1% borderline, 14.6% subtle, and 20.1% very subtle. There was no correlation between alpha angle and patient age (R = 0.17) or body mass index (R = 0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient for α-angle measurements was 0.84. Sixty-four percent of females in this cohort had an alpha angle >42°. Subtle cam deformity plays a significant role in the pathoanatomy of female patients with symptomatic FAI. As the majority of revision hip arthroscopies are performed due to incomplete cam correction, hip arthroscopists need to be cognizant of and potentially surgically address these subtle lesions. PMID:26649291

  20. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  1. The detection of EpCAM(+) and EpCAM(-) circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Sanne; van Dalum, Guus; Lenferink, Aufried T M; Tibbe, Arjan G J; Hiltermann, T Jeroen N; Groen, Harry J M; van Rijn, Cees J M; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2015-07-17

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM(+) CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM(-) CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enrichment. EpCAM(-) CTC were identified by filtration and fluorescent labelling. This approach was validated using different cell lines spiked into blood and evaluated on blood samples of 27 metastatic lung cancer patients. The majority of spiked EpCAM(+) cells could be detected with CellSearch, whereas most spiked cells with EpCAM(low) or EpCAM(-) expression were detected using filtration. Five or more CTC were detected in 15% of the patient samples, this increased to 41% when adding the CTC detected in the discarded blood. The number of patients with CTC and the number of CTC detected were doubled by the presence of EpCAM(-) CTC. In this pilot study, the presence of EpCAM(+) CTC was associated with poor outcome, whereas the EpCAM(-) CTC were not. This observation will need to be confirmed in larger studies and molecular characterization needs to be conducted to elucidate differences between EpCAM(-) and EpCAM(+) CTC.

  2. L1CAM in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Altevogt, Peter; Doberstein, Kai; Fogel, Mina

    2016-04-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is one of the first neural adhesion molecules described with important functions in the development of the nervous system. Subsequent work discovered that L1CAM is expressed in many human cancers and is often associated with bad prognosis. This is most likely due to the motility and invasion promoting function of L1CAM. Here, we describe the path L1CAM has taken from a neural adhesion molecule to a recognized tumor antigen. We summarize the literature on L1CAM expression in cancers and pre-cancerous lesions. We focus on the genetic elements required for its re-expression and highlight preclinical studies for targeted therapy. The data suggest that L1CAM is a valuable diagnostic/prognostic marker and an attractive target for the therapy of several human cancers. PMID:26111503

  3. L1CAM: Cell adhesion and more.

    PubMed

    Samatov, Timur R; Wicklein, Daniel; Tonevitsky, Alexander G

    2016-08-01

    L1CAM is a cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily which was originally discovered as a major player in the development of the nervous system. L1CAM was demonstrated to have prognostic value in different cancers and to be a promising target for anti-cancer therapy. Here we overview the present data on L1CAM structure and function, regulation of its expression, role in cancer and therapeutic potential. PMID:27267927

  4. The Z CamPaign Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Mike

    2011-05-01

    The Z CamPaign is an observing project designed to acquire enough detailed, long-tem data to unambiguously classify dwarf novae as bona fide members of the Z Cam sub-type or not. Because the defining characteristic of all Z Cam dwarf novae are "standstills", a temporary period of relative quiet between maximum and minimum light, we are monitoring these systems for this specific activity. Amateur astronomers are gathering all the data with backyard telescopes as part of an AAVSO Cataclysmic Variable Section observing initiative. We will discuss the organization, science goals, and present early results of the Z CamPaign.

  5. The Z CamPaign Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The Z CamPaign is an observing project designed to acquire enough detailed, long-term data to unambiguously classify dwarf novae as bona fide members of the Z Cam sub-type or not. Because the defining characteristic of all Z Cam dwarf novae are "standstills," a temporary period of relative quiet between maximum and minimum light, we are monitoring these systems for this specific activity. Amateur astronomers are gathering all the data with backyard telescopes as part of an AAVSO Cataclysmic Variable Section observing initiative. We will discuss the organization, science goals, and present early results of the Z CamPaign.

  6. Experimental Study on Revetec Engine Cam Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohyeldin Gasim, Maisara; Giok Chui, Lee; Anwar, Khirul Azhar bin

    2012-09-01

    In Revetec engine (three-lobed) cam replaces the crankshaft to convert the reciprocating motion of the engine piston, to a rotating motion in the drive line. Since the cam controls the piston movement, the cam profile has a great effect on engine performance. In this paper an experimental study was done to a (three- lobed) cam with Cycloidal motion profile but with different ratios between the base circle radius of the cam and the radius of the roller follower. DEWESoft was used to find the displacement and the vibration of the piston, and compare the actual results from the test with the theoretical results from the cam profile equation. The results showed that there is a periods of miss contact between the follower and the cam when the ratio between the base circle radius of the cam and the radius of the roller follower is less than a certain value, and also increasing of vibration. The suggested ratio between the cam and follower radius is to be more than 2:1.

  7. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  8. Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Young

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

  9. Consequences of systematic model drift in DYNAMO MJO hindcasts with SP-CAM and CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Walter M.; Maloney, Eric D.; Pritchard, Michael S.

    2015-09-01

    Hindcast simulations of MJO events during the dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign are conducted with two models, one with conventional parameterization (CAM5) and a comparable model that utilizes superparameterization (SP-CAM). SP-CAM is shown to produce a qualitatively better reproduction of the fluctuations of precipitation and low-level zonal wind associated with the first two DYNAMO MJO events compared to CAM5. Interestingly, skill metrics using the real-time multivariate MJO index (RMM) suggest the opposite conclusion that CAM5 has more skill than SP-CAM. This inconsistency can be explained by a systematic increase of RMM amplitude with lead time, which results from a drift of the large-scale wind field in SP-CAM that projects strongly onto the RMM index. CAM5 hindcasts exhibit a contraction of the moisture distribution, in which extreme wet and dry conditions become less frequent with lead time. SP-CAM hindcasts better reproduce the observed moisture distribution, but also have stronger drift patterns of moisture budget terms, such as an increase in drying by meridional advection in SP-CAM. This advection tendency in SP-CAM appears to be associated with enhanced off-equatorial synoptic eddy activity with lead time. Systematic drift moisture tendencies in SP-CAM are of similar magnitude to intraseasonal moisture tendencies, and therefore are important for understanding MJO prediction skill.

  10. Health psychology as a context for massage therapy: a conceptual model with CAM as mediator.

    PubMed

    Hymel, Glenn M; Rich, Grant J

    2014-04-01

    Health psychology represents a context within which massage therapy research, education, and practice can be positioned for the mutual benefit of both. Furthermore, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) more often than not plays a mediating role in relating massage therapy to health psychology. On occasion, though, the linkage between health psychology and massage therapy can be quite direct without the mediating influence of CAM. This paper, accordingly, advances a conceptual model via both flowchart and Venn diagram displays for viewing the health psychology context for massage therapy with the possibility of CAM as a mediating factor. Attention is also given to the broad range of issues constituting contemporary health psychology as well as its correspondence to an equally diverse array of client populations and health conditions addressed in massage therapy research. Future directions in the areas of health psychology, CAM, and massage therapy are proposed with a view toward a mutual and reciprocal benefit accruing to these behavioral and health science arenas.

  11. JunoCam: Science and Outreach Opportunities with Juno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Orton, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    JunoCam is a visible imager on the Juno spacecraft en route to Jupiter. Although the primary role of the camera is for outreach, science objectives will be addressed too. JunoCam is a wide angle camera (58 deg field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm. Juno's elliptical polar orbit will offer unique views of Jupiter's polar regions with a spatial scale of ~50 km/pixel. The polar vortex, polar cloud morphology, and winds will be investigated. RGB color mages of the aurora will be acquired. Stereo images and images taken with the methane filter will allow us to estimate cloudtop heights. Resolution exceeds that of Cassini about an hour from closest approach and at closest approach images will have a spatial scale of ~3 km/pixel. JunoCam is a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft. The use of time-delayed integration takes advantage of the spacecraft spin to build up signal. JunoCam will acquire limb-to-limb views of Jupiter during a spacecraft rotation, and has the possibility of acquiring images of the rings from in-between Jupiter and the inner edge of the rings. Galilean satellite views will be fairly distant but some images will be acquired. Small ring moons Metis and Adrastea will also be imaged. The theme of our outreach is "science in a fish bowl", with an invitation to the science community and the public to participate. Amateur astronomers will supply their ground-based images for planning, so that we can predict when prominent atmospheric features will be visible. With the aid of professional astronomers observing at infrared wavelengths, we'll predict when hot spots will be visible to JunoCam. Amateur image processing enthusiasts are prepared to create image products. Between the planning and products will be the decision-making on what images to take when and why. We invite our colleagues to propose science questions for JunoCam to address, and to be part of the participatory process of deciding how to use

  12. Ecophysiology of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)

    PubMed Central

    LÜTTGE, ULRICH

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Scope Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) as an ecophysiological modification of photosynthetic carbon acquisition has been reviewed extensively before. Cell biology, enzymology and the flow of carbon along various pathways and through various cellular compartments have been well documented and discussed. The present attempt at reviewing CAM once again tries to use a different approach, considering a wide range of inputs, receivers and outputs. • Input Input is given by a network of environmental parameters. Six major ones, CO2, H2O, light, temperature, nutrients and salinity, are considered in detail, which allows discussion of the effects of these factors, and combinations thereof, at the individual plant level (‘physiological aut‐ecology’). • Receivers Receivers of the environmental cues are the plant types genotypes and phenotypes, the latter including morphotypes and physiotypes. CAM genotypes largely remain ‘black boxes’, and research endeavours of genomics, producing mutants and following molecular phylogeny, are just beginning. There is no special development of CAM morphotypes except for a strong tendency for leaf or stem succulence with large cells with big vacuoles and often, but not always, special water storage tissues. Various CAM physiotypes with differing degrees of CAM expression are well characterized. • Output Output is the shaping of habitats, ecosystems and communities by CAM. A number of systems are briefly surveyed, namely aquatic systems, deserts, salinas, savannas, restingas, various types of forests, inselbergs and paramós. • Conclusions While quantitative census data for CAM diversity and biomass are largely missing, intuition suggests that the larger CAM domains are those systems which are governed by a network of interacting stress factors requiring versatile responses and not systems where a single stress factor strongly prevails. CAM is noted to be a strategy for variable, flexible and plastic

  13. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Donate Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS A THYROID NODULE? The term ... type of evaluation. WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  14. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  15. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  16. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  17. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C.; Borland, Anne M.; Edwards, Erika; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Owen, Nick; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cestari De Paoli, Henrique; Weston, David; Cottingham, Robert; Hartwell, James; Davis, Sarah C.; Silvera, Katia; Ming, Ray; Schlauch, Karen; Abraham, Paul E.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Guo, Hao -Bo; Nair, Sujithkumar S.; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J.; Yin, Hengfu; Albion, Rebecca; Ha, Jungmin; Lim, Sung Don; Wone, Bernard W. M.; Yim, Won Cheol; Garcia, Travis; Mayer, Jesse A.; Petereit, Juli; Casey, Erin; Hettich, Robert L.; Ceusters, John; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J.; Yin, Hengfu; Reyes-Garcia, Casandra; Andrade, Jose Luis; Freschi, Luciano; Beltran, Juan D.; Dever, Louisa V.; Boxall, Susanna F.; Waller, Jade; Davies, Jack; Bupphada, Phaitun; Kadu, Nirja; Winter, Klaus; Sage, Rowan F.; Aguilar, Cristobal N.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry; Holtum, Joseph A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO₂ uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAM crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM gained through intensive and expanded research efforts has potential for high returns on research investment in the foreseeable future. To help realize the potential of sustainable dryland agricultural systems, it is necessary to address scientific questions related to the genomic features, regulatory mechanisms, and evolution of CAM; CAM-into-C3 engineering; and the production of CAM crops. Answering these questions requires collaborative efforts to build infrastructure for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management.

  18. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, L. W.; Way, J. D.; Vlasse, M.

    2001-01-01

    The CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) project will develop, test, and analyze membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The CAM technology will enable passive separation of these gases, allow energy efficient acquisition and purification of these important resources, and lay the foundation for future unmanned sample return and human space missions. The CAM membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications, such as In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) and In Situ Consumables Production (ISCP).

  19. Results from the CAMS video network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.

    2016-01-01

    A status report is given on results from the CAMS meteoroid orbit and meteoroid spectroscopy survey. The survey detected some 230 meteor showers and shower components throughout the year. 70 of these are already in the IAU list of Established Meteor Showers, after 26 were verified by CAMS. An additional 55 previously known showers in need of confirmation were also validated. 19 new shower components were identified that are still in need of validation. 86 new showers were discovered, 54 of which were also found present in the SonotaCo meteoroid orbit database. There are ongoing efforts to expand the CAMS survey to sites spread in latitude and longitude.

  20. Is random access memory random?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

  1. L1-CAM and N-CAM: From Adhesion Proteins to Pharmacological Targets.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Federico; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2015-11-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM), key members of the immunoglobulin-like CAM (Ig-CAM) family, were first recognized to play critical roles in surface interactions of neurons, by binding with each other and with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Subsequently, adhesion was recognized to include signaling due to both activation of β-integrin, with the generation of intracellular cascades, and integration with the surface cytoskeleton. The importance of the two Ig-CAMs was revealed by their activation of the tyrosine kinase receptors of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF). Based on these complex signaling properties, L1-CAM and N-CAM have become of great potential pharmacological interest in neurons and cancers. Treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and cognitive deficits of neurons is aimed to increase the cell Ig-CAM tone, possibly provided by synthetic/mimetic peptides. In cancer cells, where Ig-CAMs are often overexpressed, the proteins are employed for prognosis. The approaches to therapy are based on protein downregulation, antibodies, and adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:26478212

  2. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  3. Model Documentation for the MiniCAM

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Smith, Steven J.; Kim, Son H.; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2003-07-17

    The MiniCAM, short for the Mini-Climate Assessment Model, is an integrated assessment model of moderate complexity focused on energy and agriculture sectors. The model produces emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and other radiatively important substances such as sulfur dioxide. Through incorporation of the simple climate model MAGICC, the consequences of these emissions for climate change and sea-level rise can be examined. The MiniCAM is designed to be fast and flexible.

  4. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-05-13

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from `H` and `F` area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system.

  5. Statistical Shape Modeling of Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Michael D.; Dater, Manasi; Whitaker, Ross; Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Peters, Christopher L.; Anderson, Andrew E.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to quantify three-dimensional (3D) variation and morphologic differences between femurs with and without cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). 3D surfaces were generated from CT scans of femurs from 41 controls and 30 cam FAI patients. SSM correspondence particles were optimally positioned on each surface using a gradient descent energy function. Mean shapes for control and patient groups were defined from the resulting particle configurations. Morphological differences between group mean shapes and between the control mean and individual patients were calculated. Principal component analysis was used to describe anatomical variation present in both groups. The first 6 modes (or principal components) captured statistically significant shape variations, which comprised 84% of cumulative variation among the femurs. Shape variation was greatest in femoral offset, greater trochanter height, and the head-neck junction. The mean cam femur shape protruded above the control mean by a maximum of 3.3 mm with sustained protrusions of 2.5-3.0 mm along the anterolateral head-neck junction and distally along the anterior neck, corresponding well with reported cam lesion locations and soft-tissue damage. This study provides initial evidence that SSM can describe variations in femoral morphology in both controls and cam FAI patients and may be useful for developing new measurements of pathological anatomy. SSM may also be applied to characterize cam FAI severity and provide templates to guide patient-specific surgical resection of bone.

  6. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  7. Genomic analyses of the CAM plant pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jisen; Liu, Juan; Ming, Ray

    2014-07-01

    The innovation of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis in arid and/or low CO2 conditions is a remarkable case of adaptation in flowering plants. As the most important crop that utilizes CAM photosynthesis, the genetic and genomic resources of pineapple have been developed over many years. Genetic diversity studies using various types of DNA markers led to the reclassification of the two genera Ananas and Pseudananas and nine species into one genus Ananas and two species, A. comosus and A. macrodontes with five botanical varieties in A. comosus. Five genetic maps have been constructed using F1 or F2 populations, and high-density genetic maps generated by genotype sequencing are essential resources for sequencing and assembling the pineapple genome and for marker-assisted selection. There are abundant expression sequence tag resources but limited genomic sequences in pineapple. Genes involved in the CAM pathway has been analysed in several CAM plants but only a few of them are from pineapple. A reference genome of pineapple is being generated and will accelerate genetic and genomic research in this major CAM crop. This reference genome of pineapple provides the foundation for studying the origin and regulatory mechanism of CAM photosynthesis, and the opportunity to evaluate the classification of Ananas species and botanical cultivars.

  8. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  9. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  10. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  11. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Competencies of Nursing Students and Faculty: Results of Integrating CAM Into the Nursing Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Scott, Craig S.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.; Cornman, B. Jane; Lan, Ming-Chih; Bond, Eleanor F.; Swanson, Kristen M.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) R25 Education Grant Program, a faculty development program for integrating CAM into the nursing curriculum was instituted in 2003-2006. The Integrating CAM program comprised a number of elements; the primary strategy included a series of 4-week didactic and experiential summer CAM “camps,” attended by a total of 27 faculty members. Camps were designed to influence faculty integration of CAM material into course offerings. The Integrating CAM program was evaluated via a series of faculty and student surveys regarding CAM competencies, attitudes, and perceptions. For more than half of the faculty (out of the 43 who responded), the program yielded a moderate-to-strong influence on incorporation of CAM material into course content; and moderate-to-great increases in both enthusiasm for CAM and perceived CAM knowledge gains. Students at all levels (undergraduate, masters, doctoral; n = 184) reported that their courses contained CAM content; for 70% of students, their CAM knowledge increased; for 50% of students, level of CAM interest increased. Self-reported student CAM competencies were significantly greater in 2006-2007 (n = 191) than in 2003-2004 (n = 143). Results support the strategy of broadly infusing the nursing curriculum with CAM content via faculty development. PMID:20869029

  12. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  13. Lunar PanCam: Adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Schmitz, N.; Barnes, D. P.; Josset, J.-L.; Hancock, B. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Paar, G.; Bauer, A.; the PanCam Team

    2012-12-01

    A scientific camera system would provide valuable geological context from the surface for lunar lander missions. Here, we describe the PanCam instrument from the ESA ExoMars rover and its possible adaptation for the proposed ESA lunar lander. The scientific objectives of the ESA ExoMars rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The ExoMars PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for that mission. We describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, and atmospheric science, and 3D vision objectives. We also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench (OB) and electrical interface is provided via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). Additional hardware items include a PanCam Calibration Target (PCT). We also briefly discuss some PanCam testing during field trials. In addition, we examine how such a 'Lunar PanCam' could be adapted for use on the Lunar surface on the proposed ESA lunar lander.

  14. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C.; Borland, Anne M.; Edwards, Erika; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Owen, Nick; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cestari De Paoli, Henrique; et al

    2015-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO₂ uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAMmore » crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM gained through intensive and expanded research efforts has potential for high returns on research investment in the foreseeable future. To help realize the potential of sustainable dryland agricultural systems, it is necessary to address scientific questions related to the genomic features, regulatory mechanisms, and evolution of CAM; CAM-into-C3 engineering; and the production of CAM crops. Answering these questions requires collaborative efforts to build infrastructure for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management.« less

  15. Characterization of SynCAM surface trafficking using a SynCAM derived ligand with high homophilic binding affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Breillat, Christelle; Thoumine, Olivier; Choquet, Daniel . E-mail: Daniel.Choquet@pcs.u-bordeaux2.fr

    2007-08-03

    In order to better probe SynCAM function in neurons, we produced a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of SynCAM1 and the constant fragment of human IgG (SynCAM-Fc). Whether in soluble form or immobilized on latex microspheres, the chimera bound specifically to the surface of hippocampal neurons and recruited endogenous SynCAM molecules. SynCAM-Fc was also used in combination with Quantum Dots to follow the mobility of transfected SynCAM receptors at the neuronal surface. Both immobile and highly mobile SynCAM were found. Thus, SynCAM-Fc behaves as a high affinity ligand that can be used to study the function of SynCAM at the neuronal membrane.

  16. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperis, S.

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  17. Documentary analysis in CAM research: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Dew, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    The analysis of documents can provide insights into important social and political issues related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This paper identifies some important sources of documents and outlines some of the advantages and disadvantages of using documents in social research. A number of analytic strategies are illustrated with examples to demonstrate the potential for documentary analysis to answer particular CAM-related research questions. These strategies are described as quantitative content analysis, qualitative descriptive analysis, qualitative interpretive analysis and semiotic analysis. It is argued that documents are a convenient source of data and that their analysis can enrich our understanding of CAM. Part 1 covered quantitative and qualitative strategies. Part 2 focuses on semiotic analysis and the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the different strategies.

  18. Documentary analysis in CAM research: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Dew, Kevin

    2005-12-01

    The analysis of documents can provide insights into important social and political issues related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This paper identifies some important sources of documents and outlines some of the advantages and disadvantages of using documents in social research. A number of analytic strategies are illustrated with examples to demonstrate the potential for documentary analysis to answer particular CAM-related research questions. These strategies are described as quantitative content analysis, qualitative descriptive analysis, qualitative interpretive analysis and semiotic analysis. It is argued that documents are a convenient source of data and that their analysis can enrich our understanding of CAM. Part 1 covers quantitative and qualitative strategies and Part 2 focuses on semiotic analysis.

  19. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.; Yucker, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile standing USAF man comprises some 1100 unique geometric surfaces and some 2450 solid regions. Internal body geometry such as organs, voids, bones, and bone marrow are explicitly modeled. A computer program called CAMERA has also been developed for performing analyses with the model. Such analyses include tracing rays through the CAM geometry, placing results on magnetic tape in various forms, collapsing areal density data from ray tracing information to areal density distributions, preparing cross section views, etc. Numerous computer drawn cross sections through the CAM model are presented.

  20. Effectiveness of CAM therapy: understanding the evidence.

    PubMed

    Staud, Roland

    2011-02-01

    By definition, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) attempts to diagnose and treat illnesses in unconventional ways. CAM has been classified as: (1) alternative medical systems (eg, traditional Chinese medicine [including acupuncture], naturopathic medicine, ayurvedic medicine, and homeopathy); (2) biologic-based therapies (eg, herbal, special dietary, and individual biologic treatments); (3) energy therapies (eg, Reiki, therapeutic touch, magnet therapy, Qi Gong, and intercessory prayer); (4) manipulative and body-based systems (eg, chiropractic, osteopathy, and massage); and (5) mind-body interventions (eg, meditation, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, and the relaxation response). This review focuses on how to assess the effectiveness of CAM therapies for chronic musculoskeletal pains, emphasizing the role of specific and nonspecific analgesic mechanisms, including placebo.

  1. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  2. Georeferencing CAMS data: Polynomial rectification and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinghe

    The Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner (CAMS) is a sensor used in the commercial remote sensing program at NASA Stennis Space Center. In geographic applications of the CAMS data, accurate geometric rectification is essential for the analysis of the remotely sensed data and for the integration of the data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The commonly used rectification techniques such as the polynomial transformation and ortho rectification have been very successful in the field of remote sensing and GIS for most remote sensing data such as Landsat imagery, SPOT imagery and aerial photos. However, due to the geometric nature of the airborne line scanner which has high spatial frequency distortions, the polynomial model and the ortho rectification technique in current commercial software packages such as Erdas Imagine are not adequate for obtaining sufficient geometric accuracy. In this research, the geometric nature, especially the major distortions, of the CAMS data has been described. An analytical step-by-step geometric preprocessing has been utilized to deal with the potential high frequency distortions of the CAMS data. A generic sensor-independent photogrammetric model has been developed for the ortho-rectification of the CAMS data. Three generalized kernel classes and directional elliptical basis have been formulated into a rectification model of summation of multisurface functions, which is a significant extension to the traditional radial basis functions. The preprocessing mechanism has been fully incorporated into the polynomial, the triangle-based finite element analysis as well as the summation of multisurface functions. While the multisurface functions and the finite element analysis have the characteristics of localization, piecewise logic has been applied to the polynomial and photogrammetric methods, which can produce significant accuracy improvement over the global approach. A software module has been implemented with full

  3. 54 Cam - A new variable star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. S.; Vaucher, C. A.; Eaton, J. A.; Henry, G. W.; Louth, H.; Skillman, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Differential photometry of the RS CVn-type binary 54 Cam is presented, which shows that the light was variable with a period of 10.163 + or - 0.009 d, and with an amplitude increase from 0.03 to 0.06 m between 1979 and 1980. The photometric period of 10.163 d is 9% shorter than the orbital period of 11.0764 d, and is suggested as an explanation for the radio emission from 54 Cam due to a process of connection, disruption, and reconnection of magnetic field lines.

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  5. The Cam Shell: An Innovative Design With Materials and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. Richard; Larsen, Frank M.; Kornienko, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Most of the personal audio and video recording devices currently sold on the open market all require hands to operate. Little consideration was given to designing a hands-free unit. Such a system once designed and made available to the public could greatly benefit mobile police officers, bicyclists, adventurers, street and dirt motorcyclists, horseback riders and many others. With a few design changes water sports and skiing activities could be another large area of application. The cam shell is an innovative design in which an audio and video recording device (such as palm camcorder) is housed in a body-mounted protection system. This system is based on the concept of viewing and recording at the same time. A view cam is attached to a helmet wired to a recording unit encased in a transparent body-mounted protection system. The helmet can also be controlled by remote. The operator will have full control in recording everything. However, the recording unit will be operated completely hands-free. This project will address the design considerations and their effects on material selection and manufacturing. It will enhance the understanding of the structure of materials, and how the structure affects the behavior of the material, and the role that processing play in linking the relationship between structure and properties. A systematic approach to design feasibility study, cost analysis and problem solving will also be discussed.

  6. Summary of second generation alpha CAM testing performed at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.L.; Sisk, D.R.; Goles, R.W.; Swinth, K.L.; Tinker, M.R.; Hickey, E.E.

    1994-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company tested six models of commercially available alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs): the Canberra Alpha Sentry, Eberline Alpha 6A-1, Merlin Gerin A-CAM, NE America CAM1A, SAIC/RADeCO Model 452, and Victoreen Model 758. The CAMs were tested for calibration and workmanship, performance in various environments, and human factors for field use.

  7. Spatial patterns of photosynthesis in thin- and thick-leaved epiphytic orchids: unravelling C3–CAM plasticity in an organ-compartmented way

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Matiz, Alejandra; Cruz, Aline Bertinatto; Matsumura, Aline Tiemi; Takahashi, Cassia Ayumi; Hamachi, Leonardo; Félix, Lucas Macedo; Pereira, Paula Natália; Latansio-Aidar, Sabrina Ribeiro; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Demarco, Diego; Freschi, Luciano; Mercier, Helenice; Kerbauy, Gilberto Barbante

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims A positive correlation between tissue thickness and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression has been frequently suggested. Therefore, this study addressed the question of whether water availability modulates photosynthetic plasticity in different organs of two epiphytic orchids with distinct leaf thickness. Methods Tissue morphology and photosynthetic mode (C3 and/or CAM) were examined in leaves, pseudobulbs and roots of a thick-leaved (Cattleya walkeriana) and a thin-leaved (Oncidium ‘Aloha’) epiphytic orchid. Morphological features were studied comparing the drought-induced physiological responses observed in each organ after 30 d of either drought or well-watered treatments. Key Results Cattleya walkeriana, which is considered a constitutive CAM orchid, displayed a clear drought-induced up-regulation of CAM in its thick leaves but not in its non-leaf organs (pseudobulbs and roots). The set of morphological traits of Cattleya leaves suggested the drought-inducible CAM up-regulation as a possible mechanism of increasing water-use efficiency and carbon economy. Conversely, although belonging to an orchid genus classically considered as performing C3 photosynthesis, Oncidium ‘Aloha’ under drought seemed to express facultative CAM in its roots and pseudobulbs but not in its leaves, indicating that such photosynthetic responses might compensate for the lack of capacity to perform CAM in its thin leaves. Morphological features of Oncidium leaves also indicated lower efficiency in preventing water and CO2 losses, while aerenchyma ducts connecting pseudobulbs and leaves suggested a compartmentalized mechanism of nighttime carboxylation via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) (pseudobulbs) and daytime carboxylation via Rubisco (leaves) in drought-exposed Oncidium plants. Conclusions Water availability modulated CAM expression in an organ-compartmented manner in both orchids studied. As distinct regions of the same orchid could perform

  8. A CAM-based LZ data compression IC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, K.; Bode, R.; Schneider, E.

    1993-01-01

    A custom CMOS processor is introduced that implements the Data Compression Lempel-Ziv (DCLZ) standard, a variation of the LZ2 Algorithm. This component presently achieves a sustained compression and decompression rate of 10 megabytes/second by employing an on-chip content-addressable memory for string table storage.

  9. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  10. EpCAM proteolysis: new fragments with distinct functions?

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Ulrike; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N. G.

    2013-01-01

    EpCAM [epithelial cell adhesion molecule; CD326 (cluster of differentiation 326)] is highly expressed on epithelium-derived tumours and can play a role in cell proliferation. Recently, RIP (regulated intramembrane proteolysis) has been implicated as the trigger for EpCAM-mediated proliferative signalling. However, RIP does not explain all EpCAM-derived protein fragments. To shed light on how proteolytic cleavage is involved in EpCAM signalling, we characterized the protein biochemically using antibodies binding to three different EpCAM domains. Using a newly generated anti-EpCAM antibody, we find that EpCAM can be cleaved at multiple positions within its ectodomain in addition to described peptides, revealing that EpCAM is processed via distinct proteolytic pathways. Here, we report on four new peptides, but also discuss the previously described cleavage products to provide a comprehensive picture of EpCAM cleavage at multiple positions. The complex regulation of EpCAM might not only result in the absence of full-length EpCAM, but the newly formed EpCAM-derived proteins may have their own signalling properties. PMID:23409978

  11. CAD/CAM. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuleger, Robert

    This high technology training module is an advanced course on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for grades 11 and 12. This unit, to be used with students in advanced drafting courses, introduces the concept of CAD/CAM. The content outline includes the following seven sections: (1) CAD/CAM software; (2) computer…

  12. Education and Training Packages for CAD/CAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, I. C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses educational efforts in the fields of Computer Assisted Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Describes two educational training initiatives underway in the United Kingdom, one of which is a resource materials package for teachers of CAD/CAM at the undergraduate level, and the other a training course for managers of CAD/CAM systems. (TW)

  13. Cam pully and cylinder head arrangement for an overhead cam engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, E.B.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes improvement in an air-cooled internal combustion engine. It includes a crankcase, a crankshaft disposed within the crankcase and extending externally of the crankcase, a cylinder extending from the crankcase and having a piston mounted for reciprocation therein and connected to the crankshaft, a cylinder head connected to the cylinder and including an overhead camshaft disposed therein, the camshaft extending externally of the cylinder head, a drive pulley mounted to the crankshaft externally of the crankcases, a cam pulley mounted to the camshaft externally of the cylinder head, drive means positively engaging the drive pulley and the cam pulley for transmitting rotary motion therebetween, and blower means driven by the crankshaft for drawing air in and blowing the air over the cylinder head. The improvement comprises: the cam pulley including means for directing air axially toward the cylinder head upon rotation of the cam pulley.

  14. Some Workplace Effects of CAD and CAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebel, Karl-H.; Ulrich, Erhard

    1987-01-01

    Examines the impact of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) on employment, work organization, working conditions, job content, training, and industrial relations in several countries. Finds little evidence of negative employment effects since productivity gains are offset by various compensatory factors. (Author/CH)

  15. L1CAM/Neuroglian controls the axon-axon interactions establishing layered and lobular mushroom body architecture.

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, Dominique; Enneking, Eva-Maria; Moreno, Eliza; Pielage, Jan

    2015-03-30

    The establishment of neuronal circuits depends on the guidance of axons both along and in between axonal populations of different identity; however, the molecular principles controlling axon-axon interactions in vivo remain largely elusive. We demonstrate that the Drosophila melanogaster L1CAM homologue Neuroglian mediates adhesion between functionally distinct mushroom body axon populations to enforce and control appropriate projections into distinct axonal layers and lobes essential for olfactory learning and memory. We addressed the regulatory mechanisms controlling homophilic Neuroglian-mediated cell adhesion by analyzing targeted mutations of extra- and intracellular Neuroglian domains in combination with cell type-specific rescue assays in vivo. We demonstrate independent and cooperative domain requirements: intercalating growth depends on homophilic adhesion mediated by extracellular Ig domains. For functional cluster formation, intracellular Ankyrin2 association is sufficient on one side of the trans-axonal complex whereas Moesin association is likely required simultaneously in both interacting axonal populations. Together, our results provide novel mechanistic insights into cell adhesion molecule-mediated axon-axon interactions that enable precise assembly of complex neuronal circuits. PMID:25825519

  16. An associative capacitive network based on nanoscale complementary resistive switches for memory-intensive computing.

    PubMed

    Kavehei, Omid; Linn, Eike; Nielen, Lutz; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; Skafidas, Efstratios; Valov, Ilia; Waser, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    We report on the implementation of an Associative Capacitive Network (ACN) based on the nondestructive capacitive readout of two Complementary Resistive Switches (2-CRSs). ACNs are capable of performing a fully parallel search for Hamming distances (i.e. similarity) between input and stored templates. Unlike conventional associative memories where charge retention is a key function and hence, they require frequent refresh cycles, in ACNs, information is retained in a nonvolatile resistive state and normal tasks are carried out through capacitive coupling between input and output nodes. Each device consists of two CRS cells and no selective element is needed, therefore, CMOS circuitry is only required in the periphery, for addressing and read-out. Highly parallel processing, nonvolatility, wide interconnectivity and low-energy consumption are significant advantages of ACNs over conventional and emerging associative memories. These characteristics make ACNs one of the promising candidates for applications in memory-intensive and cognitive computing, switches and routers as binary and ternary Content Addressable Memories (CAMs) and intelligent data processing.

  17. An associative capacitive network based on nanoscale complementary resistive switches for memory-intensive computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehei, Omid; Linn, Eike; Nielen, Lutz; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; Skafidas, Efstratios; Valov, Ilia; Waser, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    We report on the implementation of an Associative Capacitive Network (ACN) based on the nondestructive capacitive readout of two Complementary Resistive Switches (2-CRSs). ACNs are capable of performing a fully parallel search for Hamming distances (i.e. similarity) between input and stored templates. Unlike conventional associative memories where charge retention is a key function and hence, they require frequent refresh cycles, in ACNs, information is retained in a nonvolatile resistive state and normal tasks are carried out through capacitive coupling between input and output nodes. Each device consists of two CRS cells and no selective element is needed, therefore, CMOS circuitry is only required in the periphery, for addressing and read-out. Highly parallel processing, nonvolatility, wide interconnectivity and low-energy consumption are significant advantages of ACNs over conventional and emerging associative memories. These characteristics make ACNs one of the promising candidates for applications in memory-intensive and cognitive computing, switches and routers as binary and ternary Content Addressable Memories (CAMs) and intelligent data processing.

  18. A scoping review of research on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the mass media: Looking back, moving forward

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Laura C; Strudsholm, Tina

    2008-01-01

    related to production and reception of media content are in need of research attention. To address the varied issues in a comprehensive manner, future research needs to be collaborative, involving researchers across disciplines, journalists and CAM users. PMID:18638413

  19. Research on the processing speed of cam grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Baoying; Han, Qiushi

    2010-12-01

    Cam Grinding is a special kind of non-circular machining. The processing speed of cam grinding has a major influence on cam machining precision. In this paper, decomposed the X-axis feed speed and C-axis velocity by the tangential speed and normal speed in accordance with the curvature circle at the point of cam profile grinding. Proposed the cam grinding processing speed model and linear velocity calculation formula, the processing experiment on the CNC camshaft grinding machine results show that the cam grinding speed model is correct. Constant angular speed grinding and constant linear speed grinding are analyzed respectively, which provides a theoretical basis for cam grinding processing speed optimization.

  20. Research on the processing speed of cam grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Baoying; Han, Qiushi

    2011-05-01

    Cam Grinding is a special kind of non-circular machining. The processing speed of cam grinding has a major influence on cam machining precision. In this paper, decomposed the X-axis feed speed and C-axis velocity by the tangential speed and normal speed in accordance with the curvature circle at the point of cam profile grinding. Proposed the cam grinding processing speed model and linear velocity calculation formula, the processing experiment on the CNC camshaft grinding machine results show that the cam grinding speed model is correct. Constant angular speed grinding and constant linear speed grinding are analyzed respectively, which provides a theoretical basis for cam grinding processing speed optimization.

  1. Cultural competency, autonomy, and spiritual conflicts related to Reiki/CAM therapies: Should patients be informed?

    PubMed Central

    Arvonio, Maria Marra

    2014-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) such as Reiki is on the rise in healthcare centers. Reiki is associated with a spirituality that conflicts with some belief systems. Catholic healthcare facilities are restricted from offering this therapy because it conflicts with the teachings of the Catholic Church. However, hospitals are offering it without disclosing the spiritual aspects of it to patients. This article will address the ethical concerns and possible legal implications associated with the present process of offering Reiki. It will address these concerns based on the Joint Commission's Standard of Cultural Competency and the ethical principles of autonomy and informed consent. A proposal will also be introduced identifying specific information which Reiki/CAM practitioners should offer to their patients out of respect of their autonomy as well as their cultural, spiritual, and religious beliefs. PMID:24899738

  2. Cost reduction advantages of CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, G. T.

    1983-05-01

    Features of the CAD/CAM system implemented at the General Dynamics Convair division are summarized. CAD/CAM was initiated in 1976 to enhance engineering, manufacturing and quality assurance and thereby the company's competitive bidding position. Numerical models are substituted for hardware models wherever possible and numerical criteria are defined in design for guiding computer-controlled parts manufacturing machines. The system comprises multiple terminals, a data base, digitizer, printers, disk and tape drives, and graphics displays. The applications include the design and manufacture of parts and components for avionics, structures, scientific investigations, and aircraft structural components. Interfaces with other computers allow structural analyses by finite element codes. Although time savings have not been gained compared to manual drafting, components of greater complexity than could have been designed by hand have been designed and manufactured.

  3. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbey, D. J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D. J.

    1992-02-01

    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force, and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  4. CAM and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Alex

    2007-03-01

    In the form of the Transcendental Meditation program CAM offers a method of eliminating deep-rooted stress, the efficacy of which has been demonstrated in several related studies. Any discussion of CAM and post-traumatic stress disorder should include a study of its application to Vietnam War Veterans in which improvements were observed on all variables, and several participants were able to return to work after several years of being unable to hold a job. The intervention has been studied for its impact on brain and autonomic nervous system function. It has been found to be highly effective against other stress-related conditions such as hypertension, and to improve brain coherence-a measure of effective brain function. It should be considered a possible 'new and improved mode of treatment' for PTSD, and further studies of its application made.

  5. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

  6. Modeled hydraulic redistribution in tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations: the implications of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    PubMed

    Yu, Kailiang; Foster, Adrianna

    2016-04-01

    Past studies have largely focused on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in trees, shrubs, and grasses, and recognized its role in interspecies interactions. HR in plants that conduct crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), however, remains poorly investigated, as does the effect of HR on transpiration in different vegetation associations (i.e., tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations). We have developed a mechanistic model to investigate the net direction and magnitude of HR at the patch scale for tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations at the growing season to yearly timescale. The modeling results show that deep-rooted CAM plants in CAM-grass associations could perform hydraulic lift at a higher rate than trees in tree-grass associations in a relatively wet environment, as explained by a significant increase in grass transpiration rate in the shallow soil layer, balancing a lower transpiration rate by CAM plants. By comparison, trees in tree-CAM associations may perform hydraulic descent at a higher rate than those in tree-grass associations in a dry environment. Model simulations also show that hydraulic lift increases the transpiration of shallow-rooted plants, while hydraulic descent increases that of deep-rooted plants. CAM plants transpire during the night and thus perform HR during the day. Based on these model simulations, we suggest that the ability of CAM plants to perform HR at a higher rate may have different effects on the surrounding plant community than those of plants with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways (i.e., diurnal transpiration).

  7. Modeled hydraulic redistribution in tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations: the implications of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    PubMed

    Yu, Kailiang; Foster, Adrianna

    2016-04-01

    Past studies have largely focused on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in trees, shrubs, and grasses, and recognized its role in interspecies interactions. HR in plants that conduct crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), however, remains poorly investigated, as does the effect of HR on transpiration in different vegetation associations (i.e., tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations). We have developed a mechanistic model to investigate the net direction and magnitude of HR at the patch scale for tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations at the growing season to yearly timescale. The modeling results show that deep-rooted CAM plants in CAM-grass associations could perform hydraulic lift at a higher rate than trees in tree-grass associations in a relatively wet environment, as explained by a significant increase in grass transpiration rate in the shallow soil layer, balancing a lower transpiration rate by CAM plants. By comparison, trees in tree-CAM associations may perform hydraulic descent at a higher rate than those in tree-grass associations in a dry environment. Model simulations also show that hydraulic lift increases the transpiration of shallow-rooted plants, while hydraulic descent increases that of deep-rooted plants. CAM plants transpire during the night and thus perform HR during the day. Based on these model simulations, we suggest that the ability of CAM plants to perform HR at a higher rate may have different effects on the surrounding plant community than those of plants with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways (i.e., diurnal transpiration). PMID:26712135

  8. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

  9. Sparse distributed memory

    SciTech Connect

    Kanerva, P.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

  10. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    2003-01-01

    The CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) project was performed to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes developed in this project are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications, such as In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) and In Situ Consumables Production (ISCP). These membrane materials may be used in a variety of ISRU systems, for example as the atmospheric inlet filter for an ISPP process to enhance the concentration of CO2 for use as a reactant gas, to passively separate argon and nitrogen trace gases from CO2 for habitat pressurization, to provide a system for removal of CO2 from breathing gases in a closed environment, or within a process stream to selectively separate CO2 from other gaseous components. The membranes identified and developed for CAM were evaluated for use in candidate ISRU processes and other gas separation applications, and will help to lay the foundation for future unmanned sample return and human space missions. CAM is a cooperative project split among three institutions: Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  11. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

  12. Camões e a cosmogonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os Lusíadas, escrito por Luis de Camões em 1572, é um poema épico renascentista e a visão Cosmogônica do autor é apresentada, principalmente, no último canto do poema, quando Tétis mostra ao Gama a Máquina do Mundo. A Cosmogonia de Camões neste poema reflete uma visão de uma época de transição, que ainda não incorporou os elementos da revolução Copernicana. É uma visão Grego- Ptolomaica e também medieval. O poeta guia-se pela tradução e notas feita por Pedro Nunes, inventor do Nonio, do Tratado da Esfera "De Sphaera" do Astrônomo Inglês John Holywood, mais conhecido pelo nome latinizado de Johannes Sacrobosco. Outra provável fonte de Camões, de acordo com Luciano Antonio Pereira da Silva em Astronomia de os Lusíadas, é o "Theoricae novae Planetarum" (1460) do astrólogo Alemão Jorge Purbáquio (1423 - 1461). A Astronomia de Os Lusíadas representa a ciência do tempo de Camões. Camões nunca emprega a palavra constelação e seu catálogo é bastante completo. A Máquina do Mundo tem a Terra no centro. Em redor, em círculos concêntricos, a lua (Diana), Mercúrio, Vênus, o Sol (Febo), Marte, Júpiter e Saturno. Envolvendo estes astros tem o firmamento seguido pelo "Céu Áqueo" ou cristalino, depois o 1o Móbil, esfera que arrasta todas as outras consigo. Este trabalho, multidisciplinar, serve tanto para ensinar aos alunos da Física como das Ciências Humanas, a concepção de mundo do renascimento de uma forma belamente poética em versos decassílabos Este trabalho também ajuda na apreciação do maior clássico da língua portuguesa e mostra como as Ciências e as artes, em geral, estão correlacionadas e refletem a visão de mundo da época em que foi produzida.

  13. 76 FR 73666 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    .... Karshner Memorial Museum at the address below by December 29, 2011. ADDRESSES: Brian Fox, Director of... Fox, Director of Instructional Leadership, Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA,...

  14. New Conception of Waving Machine CamEl Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílkovský, A.; Marek, O.; Jirásko, P.; Volanský, Z.

    New mechatronic conception of waving machine CamEl drive is realized by two electronic cams Yaskawa and planetary gears. The first servo motor is used to slay and shedding motion in position mode and the second servo motor is used in automatic weaving mode. Moment of inertia of kinematic chain was reduced that it was possible used a smaller servo motor of electronic cam Yaskawa.

  15. Automatic multi-banking of memory for microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A microprocessor system is provided with added memories to expand its address spaces beyond its address word length capacity by using indirect addressing instructions of a type having a detectable operations code and dedicating designated address spaces of memory to each of the added memories, one space to a memory. By decoding each operations code of instructions read from main memory into a decoder to identify indirect addressing instructions of the specified type, and then decoding the address that follows in a decoder to determine which added memory is associated therewith, the associated added memory is selectively enabled through a unit while the main memory is disabled to permit the instruction to be executed on the location to which the effective address of the indirect address instruction points, either before the indirect address is read from main memory or afterwards, depending on how the system is arranged by a switch.

  16. LANL Researcher Roger Wiens Discusses ChemCam

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2012-02-15

    Discussion of the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity Rover that occurred during the NASA press conference prior to launch of the Mars Science Laboratory. The ChemCam instrument was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the French Space Institute. Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Roger Wiens discusses the instrument on this video. ChemCam uses a laser to "zap" features of the Martian landscape and then uses a spectrometer to gather information about the composition of the sample. ChemCam will help the Curiosity Rover determine whether Mars is or was habitable. The Rover is expected to touch down on the Red Planet on August 5, 2012.

  17. An overview of CAM: components and clinical uses.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, David; Pitluk, Jessica; Klunk, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), more recently known as integrative health or integrative medicine, is a diverse field comprising numerous treatments and practitioners of various levels of training. This review defines several of the main CAM modalities and reviews some of the research relevant to their clinical application. The goal is to provide healthcare providers with a basic understanding of CAM to start the incorporation of proven treatments into their clinical practice as well as guide them to working with CAM providers; ultimately, such knowledge is a fundamental part of a collaborative approach to optimal patient health and wellness. PMID:19841244

  18. LANL Researcher Roger Wiens Discusses ChemCam

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2016-07-12

    Discussion of the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity Rover that occurred during the NASA press conference prior to launch of the Mars Science Laboratory. The ChemCam instrument was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the French Space Institute. Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Roger Wiens discusses the instrument on this video. ChemCam uses a laser to "zap" features of the Martian landscape and then uses a spectrometer to gather information about the composition of the sample. ChemCam will help the Curiosity Rover determine whether Mars is or was habitable. The Rover is expected to touch down on the Red Planet on August 5, 2012.

  19. Treatment of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement

    PubMed Central

    FIORENTINO, GENNARO; FONTANAROSA, ALBERTO; CEPPARULO, RICCARDO; GUARDOLI, ALBERTO; BERNI, LUCA; COVIELLO, GIANLUCA; GUARDOLI, ALDO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study was to evaluate preliminary clinical and radiographic results of arthroscopic treatment of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Methods thirty-eight patients underwent hip arthroscopy for cam-type FAI between 2009 and 2012. Preoperative assessment was based on clinical examination, modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and radiographic examination with anteroposterior pelvis, frog-leg and Lequesne views. The patients’ clinical conditions at follow-up were assessed using the mHHS administered as a telephone survey. Radiographic outcome measurements evaluated pre and postoperatively were the alpha angle and femoral head-neck offset. Results the patients were clinically evaluated at a mean follow-up of 36 months. Radiographic follow-up was performed at an average of 12.7 months. Thirty of the 38 patients (79%) were satisfied with the results of the arthroscopic procedure. A total of nine patients subsequently underwent a total hip replacement. All 30 patients who declared themselves satisfied recorded an mHHS increase; in particular, the mHHS increased from a mean of 52.9 preoperatively (range: 27.5–82.5) to a mean of 85.6 postoperatively (range: 45.1–100.1). Three significant differences between the two groups of patients (satisfied and not satisfied) were recorded: mean age, alpha angle and BMI were all significantly greater in the patients who were not satisfied with the treatment. Conclusions a crucial aspect in order to obtain good clinical outcomes of arthroscopic treatment of cam-type impingement is correct selection of patients who are likely to benefit from this kind of surgery. Hip arthroscopy should be avoided in patients aged over 50 years with risk factors for early osteoarthritis (high BMI and a significantly increased alpha angle). Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:26605253

  20. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  1. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  2. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R.

    1992-09-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  3. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  4. Readout Electronics for Hyper Suprime-Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatake, Hironao; Aihara, Hiroaki; Fujimori, Hiroki; Mineo, Sogo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa

    Hyper Suprime-Cam(HSC)isa1GigapixelCCD camerafora wide-fieldgalaxy surveyatthe Subaru8-mTelescope. It will be mounted on the prime focus of the SubaruTelescope and is scheduled to receive its first light in 2012. The primary science is to conduct a weak lensing survey over ∼ 2,000 square degrees. The HSC has a 1.5-degree-diameter fieldofview, 7timeslarger than thatofits predecessor Suprime-Cam.It consistsofalarge corrector lens systemand afocalplane equippedwith116piecesof2kx4kfully depletedCCDs. Combinedwiththesuperbimagequalityand large aperture of the Subaru telescope, the surveyusing HSC can cover a cosmological volume and reach the limiting magnitude of at least one magnitudefainter than the other surveys conducted using 4-m class telescopes. The readout electronics of the HSC consist of two parts: one is the analog front-end electronics (FEE) and the other is the digital back-end electronics (BEE). The FEE is placed in a vacuum dewar together with the CCDs, and processes the analog CCD signal into 16-bit digital data. The BEE is small and light enough to be integrated into the camera unit, and employs three linksofGigabit Ethernetto readouta 2.3-GByte singleexposure within10 secondsatfast readout operation. The readout noise from the electronics is smaller than that from CCDs.

  5. Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Project

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Masahiro

    2010-10-15

    The Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) is the project building a new prime-focus camera for the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope with field-of-view of about 1.8 square degrees, about factor 10 larger than that of the current Suprime-Cam camera. We are planning to carry out a wide-field multi-passband imaging survey with the HSC covering an area of {approx}2000 square degrees and reaching to a depth of i{sub lim{approx}}26.2(5{sigma} for a point source). Thanks to the unique wide-field capabilities and excellent image quality of the Subaru Telescope the HSC wide-field survey will allow high-precision measurements of weak lensing distortions of distant galaxy images caused by foreground large-scale structures, which can be used to constrain cosmological parameters including the nature of dark energy as well as probe the properties of collision-less dark matter. Here I briefly describe the HSC project and the major scientific goals we can achieve with the planned HSC wide-field survey.

  6. CAMS confirmation of previously reported meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Holman, D.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List.

  7. Psychotherapy and Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, D. Stephen

    This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic childhood…

  8. Memory Enhancement for Educators. Fastback 365.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Evelyn B.

    This Fastback contends that educators are in the memory business, that memory is probably our most maligned faculty, that forgetting is a fact of life, and that overall memory skills can be learned. The booklet addresses the following questions: How justified are people's complaints about memory? How much is myth and how much is fact? What memory…

  9. Configurable memory system and method for providing atomic counting operations in a memory device

    DOEpatents

    Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2010-09-14

    A memory system and method for providing atomic memory-based counter operations to operating systems and applications that make most efficient use of counter-backing memory and virtual and physical address space, while simplifying operating system memory management, and enabling the counter-backing memory to be used for purposes other than counter-backing storage when desired. The encoding and address decoding enabled by the invention provides all this functionality through a combination of software and hardware.

  10. Cam McRobbie: A Man for All Occasions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gregory P.; Skamp, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the contributions of Campbell John McRobbie, Cam, to science education scholarship and research within the Australasian Science Education Research Association (ASERA) and within the broader science education community. Cam provided strong leadership and vision across many spheres of science education and leaves a legacy to the…

  11. CAD/CAM: Practical and Persuasive in Canadian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, Ed

    2007-01-01

    Chances are that many high school students would not know how to use drafting instruments, but some might want to gain competence in computer-assisted design (CAD) and possibly computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM). These students are often attracted to tech courses by the availability of CAD/CAM instructions, and many go on to impress employers…

  12. Memory for items and memory for relations in the procedural/declarative memory framework.

    PubMed

    Cohen, N J; Poldrack, R A; Eichenbaum, H

    1997-01-01

    A major area of research in memory and amnesia concerns the item specificity of implicit memory. In this paper we address several issues about the nature of implicit memory phenomena and about what constitutes an "item", using the procedural/declarative memory theory to guide us. We consider the nature of memory for items and of memory for relations among items, within the context of the procedural/declarative framework, providing us with the foundation necessary to analyse the basis for item-specific implicit memory phenomena. We review recent work from our laboratories demonstrating the fundamentally relational and flexible nature of declarative memory representation, in both humans and animals, and the essential role of the hippocampal system in relational memory processing. We show, further, that the memory representations supporting implicit memory phenomena are inflexible and nonrelational, and are tied to specific processing modules. Finally, we introduce empirical approaches that blur the distinction between skill learning and repetition priming, and show computational modelling results that demonstrate how these two implicit memory phenomena can be mediated by a single incremental learning mechanism, in accord with the claims of the procedural-declarative theory. Taken together, these various analyses of memory for items and memory for relations help to illuminate the nature of the functional deficit in amnesia and the memory systems of the brain.

  13. Distributed multiport memory architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, W. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiport memory architecture is diclosed for each of a plurality of task centers connected to a command and data bus. Each task center, includes a memory and a plurality of devices which request direct memory access as needed. The memory includes an internal data bus and an internal address bus to which the devices are connected, and direct timing and control logic comprised of a 10-state ring counter for allocating memory devices by enabling AND gates connected to the request signal lines of the devices. The outputs of AND gates connected to the same device are combined by OR gates to form an acknowledgement signal that enables the devices to address the memory during the next clock period. The length of the ring counter may be effectively lengthened to any multiple of ten to allow for more direct memory access intervals in one repetitive sequence. One device is a network bus adapter which serially shifts onto the command and data bus, a data word (8 bits plus control and parity bits) during the next ten direct memory access intervals after it has been granted access. The NBA is therefore allocated only one access in every ten intervals, which is a predetermined interval for all centers. The ring counters of all centers are periodically synchronized by DMA SYNC signal to assure that all NBAs be able to function in synchronism for data transfer from one center to another.

  14. The evolution of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the USA over the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wayne B; Eisenberg, David; Hufford, David; Crawford, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Medical practices that reside outside the mainstream medical structures have existed for centuries, often waxing and waning in prominence and use for various reasons. Recently, there has been a resurgence in interest and use of such practices in the USA generally referred to under the label of 'complementary and alternative medicine' (CAM). In this article we summarize some of the highlight events that punctuated this resurgence over the last 20 years. As in the past, social forces affecting these trends circulate around power, resources, and scope of practice. However, a prominent feature of this dynamic is a discussion about the role of science and 'evidence-based medicine' in addressing pluralistic healthcare-related practices. In the early years of this period, attempts to formulate the place of CAM practices as they relate to epistemology, nonconventional assumptions about health and healing, and the complexity of understanding 'whole systems' were discussed and often examined. Less attention is being paid to those core assumptions in more recent times. The focus now seems to be on how CAM practices can be judiciously and effectively 'integrated' into mainstream medicine. Examples of how this dynamic is evolving are described.

  15. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG OLDER PATIENTS, CAM PRACTITIONERS, AND PHYSICIANS: THE ADVANTAGES OF QUALITATIVE INQUIRY

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Shelley R.

    2009-01-01

    Older patients are increasingly likely to be under the simultaneous care of both physicians and alternative practitioners, often for treatment of the same condition. In the majority of cases, however, alternative care is not integrated with biomedical care; indeed, most patients do not inform their physicians of their concurrent use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Because of the increased use of CAM in recent years, this is a critical juncture at which to study healthcare relationships in which the patient is treated by practitioners from different medical systems who are usually not in contact with and often not aware of one another. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review the limited literature that addresses healthcare relationships among patients, physicians, and alternative practitioners; (b) suggest that understanding all 3 sides of the patient-physician-CAM practitioner triangle creates a more comprehensive and realistic view of current healthcare practices; and (c) propose that qualitative research methodologies can provide unique and essential understandings of these emerging healthcare relationship configurations. An ongoing qualitative research study of older women with breast cancer and their interactions with their physicians and alternative practitioners is described as an example. PMID:12622050

  16. How 'alternative' is CAM? Rethinking conventional dichotomies between biomedicine and complementary/alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ana M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this article is to interrogate the pervasive dichotomization of 'conventional' and 'alternative' therapies in popular, academic and medical literature. Specifically, I rethink the concepts such as holism, vitalism, spirituality, natural healing and individual responsibility for health care as taken-for-granted alternative ideologies. I explore how these ideologies are not necessarily 'alternative', but integral to the practice of clinical medicine as well as socially and culturally dominant values, norms and practices related to health and health care in Canada and elsewhere. These reflections address both theoretical and applied concerns central to the study of integration of different medical practices in western industrialized nations such as Canada. Overall, in examining homologies present in both biomedicine and complementary/alternative medicine (CAM), this article rethinks major social practices against binary oppositions by illustrating through literature review that the biomedical and CAM models may be homologous in their original inceptions and in recent cross-fertilizations towards a rigorous approach in medicine. By highlighting biomedicine and CAM as homologous symbolic systems, this article also sheds light on the potential for enhancing dialogue between diverse perspectives to facilitate an integrative health care system that meets multiple consumer needs.

  17. Cam drive diesel engine utilizing double acting pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Gassman, W.J.

    1991-05-21

    This patent describes a improved double acting piston internal combustion engine. It comprises: a least one double acting piston positioned in an internal combustion engine cylinder having first and second combustion chambers located at opposed ends thereof, the at least one double acting piston having first and second piston heads on opposed ends thereof, the first and second piston heads communicating with the first and second combustion chambers respectively, and cam drive means operably associated with the at least one double acting piston, the cam drive means operably converting a combustion actuated reciprocable movement of the at least one double acting piston into a rotational drive movement, thereby to effect a rotation movement of a drive shaft means so that the drive shaft means functions as a power takeoff for the internal combustion engine, and further including cam groove means positioned in the cam drive means, the follower means operably engaging the cam groove means to effect the rotational drive movement, and wherein the follower means comprises a radially extending pin orthogonally positioned relative to a reciprocable movement axis of the at least one double acting position, and further including a drive ring means slidably movable over a circumferential surface of the cam drive means, the drive ring means retaining the follower means therein and directing the follower means into the cam groove means.

  18. Use of alternative–complementary-medicine (CAM) in Calabrian children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has not been widely studied among children in Italy. ISTAT-2005 survey showed a prevalence of 10% concerning children treated with CAM. The lack of data about the use of CAM in pediatrics in the South of Italy aimed us to conduct an epidemiological inquiry in Calabria. Methods The study has been conducted from 2009 and 2011 at the Pediatric Units of: University “Magna Graecia”- Catanzaro (CZ), Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital-Catanzaro (CZ), Annunziata Hospital-Cosenza (CS), Jazzolino Hospital- ViboValentia (VV), Riuniti Hospitals- Reggio Calabria (RC) and San Giovanni di Dio Hospital- Crotone (KR). All information was collected through a questionnaire proposed to children’s parents admitted to these hospitals as out-patients or in-patients. Results 1387 parents were approached to complete the questionnaire. 21(1,5%) refused to answer. A total of 1366 questionnaire was analyzed: 378 at CZ , 450 at CS, 131 at KR, 201 at VV and 206 at RC, with a response rate of 98,5%. In total, the percentage of children using CAM varied from 18% in Crotone to 38% in Cosenza. The parents who used CAM for their children were older and with a higher education. Phytotherapy was preferred to homeopathy. The gastrointestinal pathologies and upper respiratory tract are those ones for which frequently parents recur to CAM. Of note we have not to disregard their use “ to strengthen” the immune system. In most of cases CAM have been prescribed by pediatrician. Conclusions Our study remarks that the use of CAM is increased dramatically among the calabrian children in the last years as well as in other countries. Pediatricians need to improve their knowledge about CAM in order to better manage the parental attitude. PMID:23231804

  19. Multiple determinants of lifespan memory differences

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Richard N.; Campbell, Karen L.; Davis, Simon W.; Taylor, Jason R.; Emery, Tina; Erzinclioglu, Sharon; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Edward T.; Calder, Andrew C.; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Duncan, John; Matthews, Fiona E.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Rowe, James B.; Shafto, Meredith A.; Cheung, Teresa; Geerligs, Linda; McCarrey, Anna; Mustafa, Abdur; Price, Darren; Samu, David; Treder, Matthias; Tsvetanov, Kamen A.; van Belle, Janna; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Auer, Tibor; Correia, Marta; Gao, Lu; Green, Emma; Henriques, Rafael; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewa, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Barnes, Dan; Dixon, Marie; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Kievit, Rogier A.

    2016-01-01

    Memory problems are among the most common complaints as people grow older. Using structural equation modeling of commensurate scores of anterograde memory from a large (N = 315), population-derived sample (www.cam-can.org), we provide evidence for three memory factors that are supported by distinct brain regions and show differential sensitivity to age. Associative memory and item memory are dramatically affected by age, even after adjusting for education level and fluid intelligence, whereas visual priming is not. Associative memory and item memory are differentially affected by emotional valence, and the age-related decline in associative memory is faster for negative than for positive or neutral stimuli. Gray-matter volume in the hippocampus, parahippocampus and fusiform cortex, and a white-matter index for the fornix, uncinate fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, show differential contributions to the three memory factors. Together, these data demonstrate the extent to which differential ageing of the brain leads to differential patterns of memory loss. PMID:27600595

  20. Multiple determinants of lifespan memory differences.

    PubMed

    Henson, Richard N; Campbell, Karen L; Davis, Simon W; Taylor, Jason R; Emery, Tina; Erzinclioglu, Sharon; Kievit, Rogier A

    2016-01-01

    Memory problems are among the most common complaints as people grow older. Using structural equation modeling of commensurate scores of anterograde memory from a large (N = 315), population-derived sample (www.cam-can.org), we provide evidence for three memory factors that are supported by distinct brain regions and show differential sensitivity to age. Associative memory and item memory are dramatically affected by age, even after adjusting for education level and fluid intelligence, whereas visual priming is not. Associative memory and item memory are differentially affected by emotional valence, and the age-related decline in associative memory is faster for negative than for positive or neutral stimuli. Gray-matter volume in the hippocampus, parahippocampus and fusiform cortex, and a white-matter index for the fornix, uncinate fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, show differential contributions to the three memory factors. Together, these data demonstrate the extent to which differential ageing of the brain leads to differential patterns of memory loss. PMID:27600595

  1. Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam Survey of the Andromeda Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi; Tanaka, Mikito; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    We present a progress report on our deep and wide-field imaging survey of the Andromeda halo with Hyper Suprime Cam (HSC) mounted on Subaru. HSC is the upgraded prime focus camera after Suprime-Cam, having a field of view of 1.77 square degree (1.5 degree in diameter), namely about 10 times larger than that of Suprime-Cam. This camera will thus offer us great opportunities to explore unique and legacy surveys for the Andromeda halo, as well as for other Galactic Archaeology science cases.

  2. The first light curve analysis of eclipsing binary NR Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkoli, F.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Poro, A.

    2015-05-01

    New observations of the eclipsing binary system NR Cam were carried out using a CCD in B, V, and R filters and new times of light minimum and new ephemeris were obtained. The B, V, and R light curves were analyzed using both the Binary Maker 3.0 and PHOEBE 0.31 programs to determine some geometrical and physical parameters of the system. These results show that NR Cam is an overcontact binary and that both components are Main Sequence stars. The O'Connell effect on NR Cam was studied and some variations in spot parameters were obtained over the different years.

  3. Turnkey CAD/CAM systems' integration with IPAD systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blauth, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Today's commercially available turnkey CAD/CAM systems provide a highly interactive environment, and support many specialized application functions for the design/drafting/manufacturing process. This paper presents an overview of several aerospace companies which have successfully integrated turnkey CAD/CAM systems with their own company wide engineering and manufacturing systems. It also includes a vendor's view of the benefits as well as the disadvantages of such integration efforts. Specific emphasis is placed upon the selection of standards for representing geometric engineering data and for communicating such information between different CAD/CAM systems.

  4. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  5. Multi-port, optically addressed RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor); Esener, Sadik (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A random access memory addressing system utilizing optical links between memory and the read/write logic circuits comprises addressing circuits including a plurality of light signal sources, a plurality of optical gates including optical detectors associated with the memory cells, and a holographic optical element adapted to reflect and direct the light signals to the desired memory cell locations. More particularly, it is a multi-port, binary computer memory for interfacing with a plurality of computers. There are a plurality of storage cells for containing bits of binary information, the storage cells being disposed at the intersections of a plurality of row conductors and a plurality of column conductors. There is interfacing logic for receiving information from the computers directing access to ones of the storage cells. There are first light sources associated with the interfacing logic for transmitting a first light beam with the access information modulated thereon. First light detectors are associated with the storage cells for receiving the first light beam, for generating an electrical signal containing the access information, and for conducting the electrical signal to the one of the storage cells to which it is directed. There are holographic optical elements for reflecting the first light beam from the first light sources to the first light detectors.

  6. 3D-CAM: Derivation and Validation of a 3-Minute Diagnostic Interview for CAM-defined Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long H.; O’Connor, Margaret; Jones, Richard N.; Crane, Paul K.; Metzger, Eran D.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Delirium is common, morbid, and costly, yet remains often unrecognized in most clinical settings. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is the most widely used diagnostic algorithm, and operationalizing its features would represent a substantial advance for clinical care. Objective To derive the 3D-CAM, a new 3-minute diagnostic assessment for CAM-defined delirium, and to validate it against a clinical reference standard. Design Diagnostic test study Setting 4 general medicine units in an academic medical center Participants 201 inpatients aged ≥ 75 years old Measurements We identified 20 items that best operationalized the 4 CAM diagnostic features to create the 3D-CAM. For prospective validation, 3D-CAM assessments were administered by trained research assistants. Independently, clinicians performed an extensive assessment that included patient interviews, family interviews, and review of the medical record. These data were considered by an expert panel to determine the presence or absence of delirium and dementia (reference standard). We compared the 3D-CAM delirium determination to the reference standard in all patients and in subgroups with and without dementia. Results The 201 participants in the prospective validation study had mean age (SD) of 84 (5.5) years, and 27% had dementia. The expert panel identified delirium in 21%. Median administration time for 3D-CAM was 3 minutes (inter-quartile range: 2–5 minutes). The sensitivity [95% CI] of 3D-CAM was 95% [84%, 99%] and the specificity was 94% [90%, 97%]. The 3D-CAM performed well in patients both with dementia (sensitivity=96% [82%, 100%], specificity=86% [67%, 96%]) and without dementia (sensitivity=93% [66%, 100%], specificity=96% [91%,99%]). Limitations Limited to single center, cross-sectional, and medicine patients only Conclusion The 3D-CAM operationalizes the CAM algorithm using a 3-minute structured assessment with high sensitivity and specificity relative to a reference standard and

  7. System and method for memory allocation in a multiclass memory system

    DOEpatents

    Loh, Gabriel; Meswani, Mitesh; Ignatowski, Michael; Nutter, Mark

    2016-06-28

    A system for memory allocation in a multiclass memory system includes a processor coupleable to a plurality of memories sharing a unified memory address space, and a library store to store a library of software functions. The processor identifies a type of a data structure in response to a memory allocation function call to the library for allocating memory to the data structure. Using the library, the processor allocates portions of the data structure among multiple memories of the multiclass memory system based on the type of the data structure.

  8. Cam-type deformities: Concepts, criteria, and multidetector CT features.

    PubMed

    Mellado, J M; Radi, N

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting imaging studies of a painful hip requires detailed knowledge of the regional anatomy. Some variants of the proximal femur, such as cam-type deformities, can course asymptomatically or cause femoroacetabular impingement. The principal numerical criterion for defining cam-type deformities, the alpha angle, has some limitations. In this article, we review the anatomic variants of the anterior aspect of the proximal femur, focusing on cam-type deformities. Using diagrams and multidetector CT images, we describe the parameters that are useful for characterizing these deformities in different imaging techniques. We also discuss the potential correspondence of imaging findings of cam-type deformities with the terms coined by anatomists and anthropologists to describe these phenomena. PMID:25660594

  9. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  10. The Etiology and Arthroscopic Surgical Management of Cam Lesions.

    PubMed

    Werner, Brian C; Gaudiani, Michael A; Ranawat, Anil S

    2016-07-01

    Cam-type deformity of the proximal femur is a relative increase in the discrepancy of the femoral head-neck offset. The etiology is unknown; several conditions have been implicated in the development of abnormal proximal femoral anatomy. Recent evidence suggests that high-impact sports place stress on the immature physis during growth and may play an important role. Imaging is essential in the initial diagnostic workup, characterization of pathology, preoperative planning, and intraoperative decision making. Short-term and mid-term outcomes for arthroscopic osteoplasty of cam lesions for both isolated cam-type deformity and mixed cam-pincer femoroacetabular impingement have been well-described and are favorable. PMID:27343392

  11. Resin-composite Blocks for Dental CAD/CAM Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ruse, N.D.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials. PMID:25344335

  12. Cam-type deformities: Concepts, criteria, and multidetector CT features.

    PubMed

    Mellado, J M; Radi, N

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting imaging studies of a painful hip requires detailed knowledge of the regional anatomy. Some variants of the proximal femur, such as cam-type deformities, can course asymptomatically or cause femoroacetabular impingement. The principal numerical criterion for defining cam-type deformities, the alpha angle, has some limitations. In this article, we review the anatomic variants of the anterior aspect of the proximal femur, focusing on cam-type deformities. Using diagrams and multidetector CT images, we describe the parameters that are useful for characterizing these deformities in different imaging techniques. We also discuss the potential correspondence of imaging findings of cam-type deformities with the terms coined by anatomists and anthropologists to describe these phenomena.

  13. Engine testing of ceramic cam-roller followers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalish, Y.

    1992-04-01

    For several years, DDC has been developing monolithic ceramic heat engine components. One of the components, developed for an application in our state-of-the-art on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine, the Series 60, is a silicon nitride cam-roller follower. Prior to starting this program, each valve train component in the Series 60 was considered for conversion to a ceramic material. Many advantages and disadvantages (benefits and risks) were considered. From this effort, one component was selected, the cam-roller follower. Using a system design approach, a ceramic cam-roller follower offered functional improvement at a reasonable cost. The purpose of the project was to inspect and test 100 domestically produced silicon nitride cam-roller followers built to the requirements of the DDC series 60 engine.

  14. Engine testing of ceramic cam-roller followers

    SciTech Connect

    Kalish, Y. )

    1992-04-01

    For several years, DDC has been developing monolithic ceramic heat engine components. One of the components, developed for an application in our state-of-the-art on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine, the Series 60, is a silicon nitride cam-roller follower. Prior to starting this program, each valve train component in the Series 60 was considered for conversion to a ceramic material. Many advantages and disadvantages (benefits and risks) were considered. From this effort, one component was selected, the cam-roller follower. Using a system design approach, a ceramic cam-roller follower offered functional improvement at a reasonable cost. The purpose of the project was to inspect and test 100 domestically produced silicon nitride cam-roller followers built to the requirements of the DDC series 60 engine.

  15. CAD/CAM approach to improving industry productivity gathers momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results and planning for the NASA/industry Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) program for improving productivity with CAD/CAM methods are outlined. The industrial group work is being mainly done by Boeing, and progress has been made in defining the designer work environment, developing requirements and a preliminary design for a future CAD/CAM system, and developing CAD/CAM technology. The work environment was defined by conducting a detailed study of a reference design process, and key software elements for a CAD/CAM system have been defined, specifically for interactive design or experiment control processes. Further work is proceeding on executive, data management, geometry and graphics, and general utility software, and dynamic aspects of the programs being developed are outlined

  16. 24. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-48 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. 22. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-47 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. 47. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-22 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. 48. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-24 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. Resin-composite blocks for dental CAD/CAM applications.

    PubMed

    Ruse, N D; Sadoun, M J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials.

  1. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C.; Priest, Henry D.; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P.; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R.; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H.; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H.; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cushman, John C.; Paull, Robert E.; Yu, Qingyi

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit after banana in terms of international trade. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties ‘F153’ and ‘MD2’, and a wild pineapple relative A. bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole genome duplications than sequenced grass genomes and, therefore, provides an important reference for elucidating gene content and structure in the last common ancestor of extant members of the grass family (Poaceae). Pineapple has a conserved karyotype with seven pre rho duplication chromosomes that are ancestral to extant grass karyotypes. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues using beta-carbonic anhydrase (βCA) for initial capture of CO2. Promoter regions of all three βCA genes contain a CCA1 binding site that can bind circadian core oscillators. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements including the morning (CCACAC) and evening (AAAATATC) elements associated with regulation of circadian-clock genes, providing the first link between CAM and the circadian clock regulation. Gene-interaction network analysis revealed both activation and repression of regulatory elements that control key enzymes in CAM photosynthesis, indicating that CAM evolved by reconfiguration of pathways preexisting in C3 plants. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis is the result of regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting gene copies and not acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole genome or tandem gene duplication. PMID:26523774

  2. CAMS 2009 PC Co-chairs' Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, Annika; Buchanan, George

    In the four years since the first CAMS workshop, context awareness has become an increasingly commonplace tool for mobile developers. The limited screen displays of many mobile devices mean that content must be carefully selected to match the user's needs and expectations, and context provides one powerful means of performing such tailoring. Furthermore, increasing availability of additional hardware sensors has bolstered the use of context. GPS, Near-Field Communication, Bluetooth and WiFi have all been used to sense the general environment and to determine the devices' location. Light and tilt sensors have also been used to tune simple features such as the strength of the display lighting, through to complex uses in game control. Context-aware mobile systems are becoming ubiquitous. With this hardware comes the opportunity for "on-board" applications to use location data to provide new services - until recently such systems could only be created with complex and expensive components. Furthermore, the current "mode" of the phone (e.g., silent, meeting, outdoors), contents of the built-in calendar, etc., can all used to provide a rich context for the user's immediate environment.

  3. CAD-CAM at Bendix Kansas city: the BICAM system

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Bendix Kansas City Division (BEKC) has been involved in Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology since the late 1950's when the numerical control (N/C) analysts installed computers to aid in N/C tape preparation for numerically controlled machines. Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology was introduced in 1976, when a number of 2D turnkey drafting stations were procured for printed wiring board (PWB) drawing definition and maintenance. In June, 1980, CAD-CAM Operations was formed to incorporate an integrated CAD-CAM capability into Bendix operations. In March 1982, a ninth division was added to the existing eight divisions at Bendix. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is a small organization, reporting directly to the general manager, who has responsibility to coordinate the overall integration of computer aided systems at Bendix. As a long range plan, CIM has adopted a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) architecture titled Factory of the Future. Conceptually, the Bendix CAD-CAM system has a centrally located data base which can be accessed by both CAD and CAM tools, processes, and personnel thus forming an integrated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) System. This is a key requirement of the Bendix CAD-CAM system that will be presented in more detail.

  4. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C; Bowers, John E; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C; Priest, Henry D; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wright, Chris L; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J Andrew C; Cushman, John C; Paull, Robert E; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication. PMID:26523774

  5. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C.; Priest, Henry D.; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P.; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R.; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H.; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H.; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cushman, John C.; Paull, Robert E.; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-11-02

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Lastly, we found pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.

  6. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C; Bowers, John E; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C; Priest, Henry D; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wright, Chris L; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J Andrew C; Cushman, John C; Paull, Robert E; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.

  7. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  8. Memory Palaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  9. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  10. AEGIS Automated Targeting for the MSL ChemCam Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estlin, T.; Anderson, R. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Bornstein, B.; Burl, M. C.; Castano, R.; Gaines, D.; Judd, M.; Thompson, D. R.; Wiens, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS) system enables automated science data collection by a planetary rover. AEGIS has been in use on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission Opportunity rover since 2010 to provide onboard targeting of the MER Panoramic Camera based on scientist-specified objectives. AEGIS is now being applied for use with the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission ChemCam spectrometer. ChemCam uses a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) to analyze the elemental composition of rocks and soil from up to seven meters away. ChemCam's tightly-focused laser beam (350-550 um) enables targeting of very fine-scale terrain features. AEGIS is being applied in two ways to help ChemCam collect valuable science data. The first application is to enable automated targeting of ChemCam during or after or in the middle of long drives. The majority of ChemCam measurements are collected by allowing the science team to select specific targets in rover images. However this requires the rover to stay in the same area while images are downlinked, analyzed for targets, and new commands uplinked. The only data that can be acquired without this communication cycle is via blind targeting, where measurements are often of soil patches vs. instead of more valuable targets such as rocks with specific properties. AEGIS is being applied to automatically analyze images onboard and select targets for ChemCam analysis. This approach allows the rover to autonomously select and sequence targeted measurements in an opportunistic fashion at different points along the rover's drive path. Rock targets can be prioritized for measurement based on various geologically relevant features, including size, shape and albedo. A second application is to enable intelligent pointing refinement of ChemCam when acquiring data of small targets, such as veins or concretions that are only a few millimeters wide. Due to backlash and other pointing challenges, it can often

  11. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  12. Knowledge about complementary, alternative and integrative medicine (CAM) among registered health care providers in Swedish surgical care: a national survey among university hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies show an increased interest and usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the general population and among health care workers both internationally and nationally. CAM usage is also reported to be common among surgical patients. Earlier international studies have reported that a large amount of surgical patients use it prior to and after surgery. Recent publications indicate a weak knowledge about CAM among health care workers. However the current situation in Sweden is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to explore perceived knowledge about CAM among registered healthcare professions in surgical departments at Swedish university hospitals. Method A questionnaire was distributed to 1757 registered physicians, nurses and physiotherapists in surgical wards at the seven university hospitals in Sweden from spring 2010 to spring 2011. The questionnaire included classification of 21 therapies into conventional, complementary, alternative and integrative, and whether patients were recommended these therapies. Questions concerning knowledge, research, and patient communication about CAM were also included. Result A total of 737 (42.0%) questionnaires were returned. Therapies classified as complementary; were massage, manual therapies, yoga and acupuncture. Alternative therapies; were herbal medicine, dietary supplements, homeopathy and healing. Classification to integrative therapy was low, and unfamiliar therapies were Bowen therapy, iridology and Rosen method. Therapies recommended by > 40% off the participants were massage and acupuncture. Knowledge and research about CAM was valued as minor or none at all by 95.7% respectively 99.2%. Importance of possessing knowledge about it was valued as important by 80.9%. It was believed by 61.2% that more research funding should be addressed to CAM research, 72.8% were interested in reading CAM-research results, and 27.8% would consider taking part in such research. Half of the

  13. Direct access inter-process shared memory

    SciTech Connect

    Brightwell, Ronald B; Pedretti, Kevin; Hudson, Trammell B

    2013-10-22

    A technique for directly sharing physical memory between processes executing on processor cores is described. The technique includes loading a plurality of processes into the physical memory for execution on a corresponding plurality of processor cores sharing the physical memory. An address space is mapped to each of the processes by populating a first entry in a top level virtual address table for each of the processes. The address space of each of the processes is cross-mapped into each of the processes by populating one or more subsequent entries of the top level virtual address table with the first entry in the top level virtual address table from other processes.

  14. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  15. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  16. CamBAfx: Workflow Design, Implementation and Application for Neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Edward T; Wink, Alle-Meije; Sendur, Levent; Barnes, Anna; Achard, Sophie; Aspden, John; Abbott, Sanja; Yue, Shigang; Kitzbichler, Manfred; Meunier, David; Maxim, Voichita; Salvador, Raymond; Henty, Julian; Tait, Roger; Subramaniam, Naresh; Suckling, John

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs.

  17. NrCAM regulating neural systems and addiction related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Hiroki; Hall, Frank S.; Horiuchi, Yasue; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Grumet, Martin; Uhl, George R.; Onaivi, Emmanuel S.; Arinami, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that a haplotype associated with decreased NrCAM expression in brain is protective against addiction vulnerability for polysubstance abuse in humans and that Nrcam knockout mice do not develop conditioned place preferences for morphine, cocaine, or amphetamine. In order to gain insight into NrCAM involvement in addiction vulnerability, which may involve specific neural circuits underlying behavioral characteristics relevant to addiction, we evaluated several behavioral phenotypes in Nrcam knockout mice. Consistent with a potential general reduction in motivational function, Nrcam knockout mice demonstrated less curiosity for novel objects and for an unfamiliar conspecific, showed also less anxiety in the zero maze. Nrcam heterozygote knockout mice reduced alcohol preference and buried fewer marbles in home cage. These observations provide further support for a role of NrCAM in substance abuse including alcoholism vulnerability, possibly through its effects on behavioral traits that may affect addiction vulnerability, including novelty seeking, obsessive compulsion and responses to aversive or anxiety-provoking stimuli. Additionally, in order to prove glutamate homeostasis hypothesis of addiction, we analyzed glutamatergic molecules regulated by NRCAM. Glutaminase appears to be involved in NrCAM-related molecular pathway in two different tissues from human and mouse. An inhibitor of the enzyme, PLG, treatment produced, at least, some of the phenotypes of mice shown in alcohol preference and in anxiety-like behavior. Thus, NrCAM could affect addiction-related behaviors via at least partial modulation of some glutamatargic pathways and neural function in brain. PMID:22780223

  18. Detection of Zn with ChemCam on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, J.; Clegg, S. M.; Forni, O.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Lanza, N.; Mangold, N.; Berger, J.; Blaney, D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Johnson, J.; LeDeit, L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maurice, S.; M. S. L. Science Team

    2015-10-01

    C h e m C a m i s a L a s e r- I n d u c e d B r e a k d o w n Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument on-board the NASA Curiosity rover currently exploring Mars. ChemCam can analyze the chemical composition of geological samples without preparation and at a distance by detecting the laser induced atomic emission lines from elements present [1, 2]. ChemCam is sensitive to most chemical elements. In addition to the major elements, ChemCam can be used to detect and quantify a set of minor and trace elements such as Li, Sr, Ba, and Rb using univariate and multivariate regression techniques [3]. Mn has also been detected and quantified with ChemCam at high concentrations indicating that highly oxidizing conditions must have occurred on the surface of Mars [4]. We report here the detection of high Zn content targets with ChemCam at the Kimberley location at Gale Crater that are linked to high-Mn concentrations.

  19. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; et al

    2015-11-02

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAMmore » pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Lastly, we found pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.« less

  20. CamBAfx: Workflow Design, Implementation and Application for Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Edward T.; Wink, Alle-Meije; Sendur, Levent; Barnes, Anna; Achard, Sophie; Aspden, John; Abbott, Sanja; Yue, Shigang; Kitzbichler, Manfred; Meunier, David; Maxim, Voichita; Salvador, Raymond; Henty, Julian; Tait, Roger; Subramaniam, Naresh; Suckling, John

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs. PMID:19826470

  1. The inducible CAM plants in putative lunar lander experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlak, Olexii; Zaetz, Iryna; Soldatkin, Olexii; Rogutskyy, Ivan; Danilchenko, Boris; Mikheev, Olexander; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Vidmachenko, Anatolii; Foing, Bernard H.; Kozyrovska, Natalia

    Precursory lunar lander experiments on growing plants in locker-based chambers will increase our understanding of effect of lunar conditions on plant physiology. The inducible CAM (Cras-sulacean Acid Metabolism)-plants are reasonable model for a study of relationships between environmental challenges and changes in plant/bacteria gene expression. In inducible CAM-plants the enzymatic machinery for the environmentally activated CAM switches on from a C3-to a full-CAM mode of photosynthesis in response to any stresses (Winter et al., 2008). In our study, Kalanchoe spp. are shown to be promising candidates for putative lunar experiments as resistant to irradiation and desiccation, especially after inoculation with a bacterial consortium (Boorlak et al., 2010). Within frames of the experiment we expect to get information about the functional activity of CAM-plants, in particular, its organogenesis, photosystem, the circadian regulation of plant metabolism on the base of data gaining with instrumental indications from expression of the reporter genes fused to any genes involved in vital functions of the plant (Kozyrovska et al., 2009). References 1. Winter K., Garcia M., Holtum J. (2008) J. Exp. Bot. 59(7):1829-1840 2. Bourlak O., Lar O., Rogutskyy I., Mikheev A., Zaets I., Chervatyuk N., de Vera J.-P., Danilchenko A.B. Foing B.H., zyrovska N. (2010) Space Sci. Technol. 3. Kozyrovska N.O., Vidmachenko A.P., Foing B.H. et al. Exploration/call/estec/ESA. 2009.

  2. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    DOEpatents

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  3. Implementing a bubble memory hierarchy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segura, R.; Nichols, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on implementation of a magnetic bubble memory in a two-level hierarchial system. The hierarchy used a major-minor loop device and RAM under microprocessor control. Dynamic memory addressing, dual bus primary memory, and hardware data modification detection are incorporated in the system to minimize access time. It is the objective of the system to incorporate the advantages of bipolar memory with that of bubble domain memory to provide a smart, optimal memory system which is easy to interface and independent of user's system.

  4. Vicarious memories.

    PubMed

    Pillemer, David B; Steiner, Kristina L; Kuwabara, Kie J; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Svob, Connie

    2015-11-01

    People not only have vivid memories of their own personal experiences, but also vicarious memories of events that happened to other people. To compare the phenomenological and functional qualities of personal and vicarious memories, college students described a specific past event that they had recounted to a parent or friend, and also an event that a friend or parent had recounted to them. Although ratings of memory vividness, emotional intensity, visualization, and physical reactions were higher for personal than for vicarious memories, the overall pattern of ratings was similar. Participants' ratings also indicated that vicarious memories serve many of the same life functions as personal memories, although at lower levels of intensity. The findings suggest that current conceptions of autobiographical memory, which focus on past events that happened directly to the self, should be expanded to include detailed mental representations of specific past events that happened to other people.

  5. Evaluating the Representation of Low Clouds in CAM5 Based on ARM Observations from the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X.; Klein, S. A.; Ma, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although several studies have found that the annual mean properties of modeled low clouds has been improved due to more realistic representation of cloud processes in the new generation of climate models, the shorter time scale properties such as the seasonal variability, precipitation, and the diurnal cycle of low clouds still need to be evaluated with observations to reduce the uncertainties in low clouds modeling. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was on Graciosa Island in the Azores from June 2009 to December 2010 as part of the Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) field campaign. CAP-MBL obtained 19 months of intensive cloud and radiation observations on Graciosa Island in the Azores, which offered us a good opportunity to evaluate the modeled low clouds with observations. To spot and address issues in the simulation of marine low clouds in CAM5, this study compared the hourly CAM5 output at the grid column (39.1N, 27.5W), which is the nearest grid to Graciosa Island (39.1N, 28.0W), with 19-month cloud and radiation observations in the Azores. The representation of low clouds and their radiative impacts in CAM5 will be evaluated in different cloud regimes (i.e. cumulus vs. stratocumulus) and boundary layer (BL) structures (i.e. well-mixed BL vs. decoupled BL). The origin of the model bias for different cloud regimes will also be analyzed. Acknowledgement: This work is supported by the ASR Program for the Office of Science of the U.S. DOE. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-658041.

  6. Cloning, localization and expression analysis of vacuolar sugar transporters in the CAM plant Ananas comosus (pineapple).

    PubMed

    Antony, Edna; Taybi, Tahar; Courbot, Mikaël; Mugford, Sam T; Smith, J Andrew C; Borland, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    In photosynthetic tissues of the CAM plant pineapple (Ananas comosus), storage of soluble sugars in the central vacuole during the daytime and their remobilization at night is required to provide carbon skeletons for nocturnal CO(2) fixation. However, soluble sugars produced photosynthetically must also be exported to support growth processes in heterotrophic tissues. To begin to address how vacuolar sugar storage and assimilate partitioning are regulated in A. comosus, degenerate PCR and cDNA library screening were used to clone three candidate sugar transporters from the leaves of this species. Subcellular localization of the three transporters was investigated via expression of YFP-fusion proteins in tobacco epidermal cells and their co-localization with subcellular markers by confocal microscopy. Using this strategy, a putative hexose transporter (AcMST1) and a putative inositol transporter (AcINT1) were identified that both localized to the tonoplast, whereas a putative sucrose transporter (AcSUT1) was found to localize to prevacuolar compartments. A cDNA (AcMST2) with high similarity to a recently characterized tonoplast hexose transporter in Arabidopsis was also identified from an A. comosus fruit EST database. Analyses of transcript abundance indicated that AcMST1 was more highly expressed in fruits compared to leaves of A. comosus, whilst transcripts of AcINT1, AcSUT1, and AcMST2 were more abundant in leaves. Transcript abundance of AcINT1, the putative inositol transporter, showed day-night changes comparable to those of other CAM-related transcripts described in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. The results are discussed in terms of the role of vacuolar sugar transporters in regulating carbon flow during the diel cycle in CAM plants.

  7. Mesoscale organization in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmeister, J. T.; Trier, S.; Davis, C. A.; Callaghan, P.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate simulations using CAM with horizontal resolution of 25 km begin to show interesting features that appear to be connected with mesoscale organization. These features include a reasonable climatology of tropical cyclones. Simulated precipitation in sub-Saharan West Africa is dominated by westward moving disturbances that show qualitative similarities to observations. Both the TCs and sub-Saharan disturbances appear to be dynamically-driven by resolved precipitation processes instead of parameterized convection. Disappointingly, simulations of propagating convection and related precipitation features in the US Midwest during summer are not significantly improved at 25 km resolution compared to 100 km resolution. This presentation will diagnose convective organization in CAM. Case-studies using nudging to re-analysis and regional-refinement over the US will be examined. These simulations will help to distinguish between errors due to large-scale forcing biases and those related to parameterization or dynamical deficiencies in CAM.

  8. CaM and CML emergence in the green lineage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Dunand, Christophe; Snedden, Wayne; Galaud, Jean-Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a well-studied calcium sensor that is ubiquitous in all eukaryotes and contributes to signaling during developmental processes and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Among eukaryotes, plants have a remarkable variety of CaM-like proteins (CMLs). The expansion of genomic data sets offers the opportunity to explore CaM and CML evolution among the green lineage from algae to land plants. Database analysis indicates that a striking diversity of CaM and CMLs evolved in angiosperms during terrestrial colonization and reveals the emergence of new CML classes throughout the green lineage that correlate with the acquisition of novel biological traits. Here, we speculate that expansion of the CML family was driven by selective pressures to process environmental signals efficiently as plants adapted to land environments. PMID:26115779

  9. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). A multifaceted experimental model.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    During avian development the mesodermal layers of the allantois and chorion fuse to form the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This structure rapidly expands generating a rich vascular network that provides an interface for gas and waste exchange. The CAM allows to study tissue grafts, tumor growth and metastasis, wound healing, drugs delivery and toxicologic analysis, and angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. The CAM is relatively simple, quick, and low-cost model that allows screening of a large number of pharmacological samples in a short time; does not require administrative procedures for obtaining ethics committee approval for animal experimentation. Moreover, being naturally immunodeficient, the chick embryo may receive transplantations from different tissues and species, without immune responses. PMID:27178379

  10. The ubiquitous neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM).

    PubMed

    Weledji, Elroy P; Assob, Jules C

    2014-09-01

    Adhesive interactions are important for cell trafficking, differentiation, function and tissue differentiation. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. This review discusses the actions and association of N-CAM and variants, PSA CAM. L1CAM and receptor tyrosine kinase. Their interactions with the interstitial cells of Cajal - the pacemaker cells of the gut in the manifestation of gut motility disorders, expression in carcinomas and mesenchymal tumours are discussed. PMID:25568792

  11. [CAM products as therapeutic placebos: theoretical and bioethical reflections].

    PubMed

    Schöne-Seifert, Bettina; Friedrich, Daniel R; Reichardt, Jan-Ole

    2015-01-01

    In Germany as well as in many other countries the project of 'integrating' CAM interventions into conventional medicine is currently underway. It is a highly contested endeavour. One backdoor of justifying CAM interventions - even if, according to the scientific standards of conventional medicine, they have been proved to lack specific effectiveness - is their use as therapeutic placebos. In this paper we will first discuss general critical considerations regarding deceptive placebo use and then argue that in the specific case of CAM interventions used as placebos general ethical reservations are reinforced by the fact that their use is prone to promote a non- or antiscientific attitude among physicians and patients, which we consider highly problematic. PMID:26189176

  12. Notes on implementation of sparsely distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeler, J. D.; Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Sparsely Distributed Memory (SDM) developed by Kanerva is an unconventional memory design with very interesting and desirable properties. The memory works in a manner that is closely related to modern theories of human memory. The SDM model is discussed in terms of its implementation in hardware. Two appendices discuss the unconventional approaches of the SDM: Appendix A treats a resistive circuit for fast, parallel address decoding; and Appendix B treats a systolic array for high throughput read and write operations.

  13. Chairside CAD/CAM: an overview of restorative material options.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    A number of categories of materials are available for chairside CAD/CAM restorations that have demonstrated predictability and longevity. These materials include esthetic and high-strength ceramics, composite resins for both final and temporary restorations, and newer nanoceramics that offer ease of handling and a glossy surface finish. Each category of materials has unique features designed for specific clinical applications. This article will examine currently available materials designed for chairside CAD/CAM restorations and the various outcomes that are possible with this technologically advanced process.

  14. Aerosol specification in single-column CAM5

    DOE PAGES

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P.

    2014-11-17

    The ability to run a global climate model in single-column mode is very useful for testing model improvements because single-column models (SCMs) are inexpensive to run and easy to interpret. A major breakthrough in Version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is the inclusion of prognostic aerosol. Unfortunately, this improvement was not coordinated with the SCM version of CAM5 and as a result CAM5-SCM initializes aerosols to zero. In this study we explore the impact of running CAM5-SCM with aerosol initialized to zero (hereafter named Default) and test three potential fixes. The first fix is to use CAM5's prescribedmore » aerosol capability, which specifies aerosols at monthly climatological values. The second method is to prescribe aerosols at observed values. The third approach is to fix droplet and ice crystal numbers at prescribed values. We test our fixes in four different cloud regimes to ensure representativeness: subtropical drizzling stratocumulus (based on the DYCOMS RF02 case study), mixed-phase Arctic stratocumulus (using the MPACE-B case study), tropical shallow convection (using the RICO case study), and summertime mid-latitude continental convection (using the ARM95 case study). Stratiform cloud cases (DYCOMS RF02 and MPACE-B) were found to have a strong dependence on aerosol concentration, while convective cases (RICO and ARM95) were relatively insensitive to aerosol specification. This is perhaps expected because convective schemes in CAM5 do not currently use aerosol information. Adequate liquid water content in the MPACE-B case was only maintained when ice crystal number concentration was specified because the Meyers et al. (1992) deposition/condensation ice nucleation scheme used by CAM5 greatly overpredicts ice nucleation rates, causing clouds to rapidly glaciate. Surprisingly, predicted droplet concentrations for the ARM95 region in both SCM and global runs were around 25 cm−3, which is much lower than observed. This finding

  15. Impact of IPAD on CAD/CAM database university research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, L. M.; Wozny, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    IPAD program has provided direction, focus and software products which impacted on CAD/CAM data base research and follow-on research. The relationship of IPAD to the research projects which involve the storage of geometric data in common data ase facilities such as data base machines, the exchange of data between heterogeneous data bases, the development of IGES processors, the migration of lrge CAD/CAM data base management systems to noncompatible hosts, and the value of RIM as a research tool is described.

  16. Improving Aerosol Transport to the Arctic in CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Rasch, P.; Wang, M.; Liu, X.; Ghan, S.; Qian, Y.; Yoon, J.; Ma, P.; Vinoj, V.

    2011-12-01

    Of the many factors contributing to the rapid arctic climate change, arctic haze has been identified as a potentially important forcing agent. It has been well established that arctic aerosols largely originate from lower latitudes. Hence, the long-range atmospheric transport of aerosols to the Arctic is of great concern for studying arctic climate change. The treatment of aerosol and cloud processes has been substantially improved in the current version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) which is widely used in the research of aerosol effects on clouds and climate. However, like many other global models, the CAM5 produces a relatively poor simulation of arctic aerosols and clouds. For example, previous studies have shown that the standard version of CAM5 remarkably underpredicts arctic aerosol concentrations, particularly during the arctic haze season, compared to various measurements. In this study, we focus on improving processes associated with aerosol-cloud interactions, cloud microphysics and macrophysics, and aerosol emission, transformation, removal, and deposition that are key to determining the amount of aerosols reaching the Arctic. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to understand the role of each of the processes and to identify sources of uncertainties, and improvements are made to processes that are not well represented in the CAM5. The evaluation and improvement are guided by aerosol and cloud measurements together with process-oriented model results from the multi-scale aerosol-climate model (PNNL-MMF) that embeds a cloud-resolving model in each CAM5 grid column to explicitly represent convection and aerosol-cloud interactions. Results show that including black carbon (BC) aging process through a more complete 7-mode version of the aerosol module in CAM5 can substantially increase the amount of arctic BC, compared to simulations with the standard 3-mode version, but has minimal effect on other species such as dust and sulfate. Excessive mid

  17. Context Memory in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    El Haj, Mohamad; Kessels, Roy P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of memory. Specifically, context aspects of memory are impaired in AD. Our review sheds light on the neurocognitive mechanisms of this memory component that forms the core of episodic memory function. Summary Context recall, an element of episodic memory, refers to remembering the context in which an event has occurred, such as from whom or to whom information has been transmitted. Key Messages Our review raises crucial questions. For example, (1) which context element is more prone to being forgotten in the disease? (2) How do AD patients fail to bind context features together? (3) May distinctiveness heuristic or decisions based on metacognitive expectations improve context retrieval in these patients? (4) How does cueing at retrieval enhance reinstating of encoding context in AD? By addressing these questions, our work contributes to the understanding of the memory deficits in AD. PMID:24403906

  18. Is memory for music special?

    PubMed

    Schulkind, Matthew D

    2009-07-01

    Although psychologists since Hermann Ebbinghaus have studied memory, research in this area has focused on visual and verbal stimuli with little attention paid to music. This bias is surprising because of the ubiquity of music in human cultures across history as well as current cultural beliefs that memory for music is "special." This paper examines the question of whether memory for music is special by addressing two related questions: First, do cultural beliefs about the mnemonic power of music stand up to empirical test? Second, can theories designed to explain memory for non-musical stimuli be applied to musical stimuli? A review of the literature suggests that music is special in some circumstances but not others and that some theories designed to explain cognitive processing of linguistic stimuli apply reasonably well to musical stimuli. Thus, although the question of whether memory for music is special remains open, the unique structure of musical stimuli strongly suggests that memory for music is indeed special.

  19. Memory expression is independent of memory labilization/reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Karina A; Suárez, Luis D; Lynch, Victoria M; Molina, Víctor A; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    There is growing evidence that certain reactivation conditions restrict the onset of both the destabilization phase and the restabilization process or reconsolidation. However, it is not yet clear how changes in memory expression during the retrieval experience can influence the emergence of the labilization/reconsolidation process. To address this issue, we used the context-signal memory model of Chasmagnathus. In this paradigm a short reminder that does not include reinforcement allows us to evaluate memory labilization and reconsolidation, whereas a short but reinforced reminder restricts the onset of such a process. The current study investigated the effects of the glutamate antagonists, APV (0.6 or 1.5 μg/g) and CNQX (1 μg/g), prior to the reminder session on both behavioral expression and the reconsolidation process. Under conditions where the reminder does not initiate the labilization/reconsolidation process, APV prevented memory expression without affecting long-term memory retention. In contrast, APV induced amnesic effects in the long-term when administered before a reminder session that triggers reconsolidation. Under the present parametric conditions, the administration of CNQX prior to the reminder that allows memory to enter reconsolidation impairs this process without disrupting memory expression. Overall, the present findings suggest that memory reactivation--but not memory expression--is necessary for labilization and reconsolidation. Retrieval and memory expression therefore appear not to be interchangeable concepts.

  20. Memory Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  1. Computational dissection of human episodic memory reveals mental process-specific genetic profiles

    PubMed Central

    Luksys, Gediminas; Fastenrath, Matthias; Coynel, David; Freytag, Virginie; Gschwind, Leo; Heck, Angela; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Milnik, Annette; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Scherer, Martin; Spalek, Klara; Vogler, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory performance is the result of distinct mental processes, such as learning, memory maintenance, and emotional modulation of memory strength. Such processes can be effectively dissociated using computational models. Here we performed gene set enrichment analyses of model parameters estimated from the episodic memory performance of 1,765 healthy young adults. We report robust and replicated associations of the amine compound SLC (solute-carrier) transporters gene set with the learning rate, of the collagen formation and transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity gene sets with the modulation of memory strength by negative emotional arousal, and of the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions gene set with the repetition-based memory improvement. Furthermore, in a large functional MRI sample of 795 subjects we found that the association between L1CAM interactions and memory maintenance revealed large clusters of differences in brain activity in frontal cortical areas. Our findings provide converging evidence that distinct genetic profiles underlie specific mental processes of human episodic memory. They also provide empirical support to previous theoretical and neurobiological studies linking specific neuromodulators to the learning rate and linking neural cell adhesion molecules to memory maintenance. Furthermore, our study suggests additional memory-related genetic pathways, which may contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of human memory. PMID:26261317

  2. Computational dissection of human episodic memory reveals mental process-specific genetic profiles.

    PubMed

    Luksys, Gediminas; Fastenrath, Matthias; Coynel, David; Freytag, Virginie; Gschwind, Leo; Heck, Angela; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Milnik, Annette; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Scherer, Martin; Spalek, Klara; Vogler, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2015-09-01

    Episodic memory performance is the result of distinct mental processes, such as learning, memory maintenance, and emotional modulation of memory strength. Such processes can be effectively dissociated using computational models. Here we performed gene set enrichment analyses of model parameters estimated from the episodic memory performance of 1,765 healthy young adults. We report robust and replicated associations of the amine compound SLC (solute-carrier) transporters gene set with the learning rate, of the collagen formation and transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity gene sets with the modulation of memory strength by negative emotional arousal, and of the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions gene set with the repetition-based memory improvement. Furthermore, in a large functional MRI sample of 795 subjects we found that the association between L1CAM interactions and memory maintenance revealed large clusters of differences in brain activity in frontal cortical areas. Our findings provide converging evidence that distinct genetic profiles underlie specific mental processes of human episodic memory. They also provide empirical support to previous theoretical and neurobiological studies linking specific neuromodulators to the learning rate and linking neural cell adhesion molecules to memory maintenance. Furthermore, our study suggests additional memory-related genetic pathways, which may contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of human memory. PMID:26261317

  3. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  4. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  5. Sedona Red Rock Cam footage of fireball on June 2, 2016

    NASA Video Gallery

    This footage from the Sedona Red Rock Cam (part of the EarthCam network) shows how brightly the ground was illuminated during the fireball, which entered the atmosphere over Arizona shortly before ...

  6. Cam impingement of the hip: a risk factor for hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Agricola, Rintje; Waarsing, Jan H; Arden, Nigel K; Carr, Andrew J; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Thomas, Geraint E; Weinans, Harrie; Glyn-Jones, Sion

    2013-10-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is characterized by abnormal contact between the proximal femur and the acetabulum. Two subtypes have been described: pincer impingement, caused by an overcovered acetabulum; and cam impingement, which occurs as a result of an aspherical femoral head (cam abnormality). A strong correlation exists between cam impingement and the subsequent development of hip osteoarthritis (OA). Major cam abnormalities confer a high risk of OA. However, the association between cam abnormalities and the pathology of OA has been difficult to compare between studies, as different methods have been used to define the abnormality. Cam abnormalities are acquired during skeletal growth and could be influenced by high impact sporting activities. Preventative treatments aiming to reduce the incidence of cam abnormalities and subsequent OA could, therefore, be developed. In this Perspective, we discuss the current understanding of FAI, focusing on cam abnormalities and their association with OA.

  7. Multiprocessor memory contention

    SciTech Connect

    Knadler, C.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Caches are frequently incorporated in processor architectures to increase the effective memory speed and to reduce memory contention. However, task switches and the coherency problems of large n-way, mainframe-class multiprocessors lessen the effectiveness of cache architectures for general-purpose applications. A proposed alternative approach is to increase the effective memory bandwidth and decrease memory-access delays through instruction prefetch, operand buffering, highly interleave memory, and multiple-word width processor-memory data paths. This approach was evaluated by comparing cache and noncache system performance, using discrete-event simulation. Since the performance of a multiprocessor architecture is a function of its operating environment was well as its design, the system workload was defined. General-purpose applications, running under multitasking operating systems, were characterized with respect to addressing patterns, paging rates, and frequency of input/output operations. The proposed noncache architecture was found to have performance comparable to that of the cache architectures and obviated then need to solve the cache coherency problem.

  8. Eddy covariance measurements of net C exchange in the CAM bioenergy crop, Agave tequiliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Nick A.; Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Males, Jamie; del Real Laborde, José Ignacio; Rubio-Cortés, Ramón; Griffiths, Howard; Lanigan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    and other CAM plants could offer significant yield advantages over conventional arid and semi-arid C3 and C4 bioenergy crops. Furthermore, their capacity for high productivity on marginal land and drought resilience suggest that CAM plants could play an important role in addressing conflicting land and water resource allocation issues.

  9. Eddy covariance measurements of net C exchange in the CAM bioenergy crop, Agave tequiliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Nick A.; Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Males, Jamie; del Real Laborde, José Ignacio; Rubio-Cortés, Ramón; Griffiths, Howard; Lanigan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    employed by Agave and other CAM plants could offer significant yield advantages over conventional arid and semi-arid C3 and C4 bioenergy crops. Furthermore, their capacity for high productivity on marginal land and drought resilience suggest that CAM plants could play an important role in addressing conflicting land and water resource allocation issues.

  10. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  11. Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers: CAM-CRM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, P J; Farmer, J C; McCright, R D

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A5 16 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 are favored. This publication addresses the development of models to account for corrosion of Alloy C-22 surfaces exposed directly to the Near Field Environment (NFE), as well as to the exacerbated conditions in the CAM-CRM crevice. [5]. Haynes International has published corrosion rates of Alloys 625 and C-22 in artificial crevice solutions (5-10 wt. % FeCl,) at various temperatures (25, 50 and 75 C) [6,7]. In this case, the observed rates for Alloy C-22 appear to be due to passive dissolution. It is believed that Alloy C-22 must be at an electrochemical potential above the repassivation potential to initiate localized corrosion.

  12. Mitochondrial respiration in ME-CAM, PEPCK-CAM, and C₃ succulents: comparative operation of the cytochrome, alternative, and rotenone-resistant pathways.

    PubMed

    Peckmann, Klaus; von Willert, Dieter J; Martin, Craig E; Herppich, Werner B

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondria are important in the function and control of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) during organic acid accumulation at night and acid decarboxylation in the day. In plants of the malic enzyme-(ME) type and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase- (PEPCK) type, mitochondria may exert their role in the control of the diurnal rhythm of malic and citric acids to a differential degree. In plants of both CAM types, the oxidative capacity of mitochondria, as well as the activity of CAM-linked mitochondrial enzymes, and of the alternative and the rotenone-resistant pathways of substrate oxidation were compared. Furthermore, a C₃ succulent was included, as well as both C₃ and CAM forms of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum during a salt-induced C₃-to-CAM shift. Mitochondria of PEPCK-type CAM plants exhibited a lower activity of malate oxidation, ratio of malate to succinate oxidation, and activity of mitochondrial NAD-ME. With the exception of Kalanchoë daigremontiana, leaf mitochondria of all other CAM species were highly sensitive to cyanide (80-100%), irrespective of the oxidant used. This indicates that the alternative oxidase is not of general importance in CAM. By contrast, rotenone-insensitive substrate oxidation was very high (50-90%) in all CAM species. This is the first comparison of the rotenone-insensitive pathway of respiration in plants with different CAM-types. The results of this study confirm that mitochondria are involved in the control of CAM to different degrees in the two CAM types, and they highlight the multiple roles of mitochondria in CAM.

  13. The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. Methods The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Results Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population. PMID:24641983

  14. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  15. Autobiographical Memory Functioning among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children: The Overgeneral Memory Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Kristin; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background: This investigation addresses whether there are differences in the form and content of autobiographical memory recall as a function of maltreatment, and examines the roles of self-system functioning and psychopathology in autobiographical memory processes. Methods: Autobiographical memory for positive and negative nontraumatic events…

  16. Potential worker risk as a function of CAM airflow rate

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, J.J.

    1994-03-21

    The goal of the continuous air monitor (CAM) system at the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility (PF-4) is to have a flow rate of 1 cubic feet per minute (cfm) drawn through the CAMs. However, design limitations in the house vacuum result in many CAMs having less than 1 cfm being drawn through them. Reduced flow rates through CAMs present a compromise in worker protection. Laboratory Health and Safety personnel and DOE officials established a flow rate of 0.5 cfm or less as operationally unacceptable. This report quantitatively estimated the difference in risk to workers from a reduced flow rate of 0.5 cfm relative to the risk inherent with a flow rate of 1 cfm. I calculated risk in terms of Committed Effective Dose Equivalent (CEDE) and used units of rem. Estimates for the increase in risk for 0.5 cfm compared to 1 cfm ranged from 0.32 rem to 3.3 rem. The difference in the minimum alarm concentration between 0.5 cfm and I cfm was also compared and was estimated to range from 0.4 rem to 4 rem.

  17. CAMS--A Think Tank for Global Ocean Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaharl, Victoria A.

    1985-01-01

    The Center for the Analysis of Marine Systems (CAMS) was created as an interdisciplinary "think tank" to meet needs of modern oceanography. The international research center's focus and success rests on theory, observation, and computer modeling. Projects involving lava flow and year-to-year variations in abundance of fish are described. (DH)

  18. GOOSE CAM: The Development of a Practical Underwater Exploration Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William R.; Mitchell, Colleen; Miller, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    We challenged an Aquatic Biology class to find a way to access, observe, and record aquatic habitats and organisms without causing disruption. Using off the shelf components the class was guided in the design and assembly of a remote controlled, video broadcasting, data collecting, floating vehicle based on a molded goose decoy. GOOSE-CAM or…

  19. Including CAD/CAM dentistry in a dental school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Browning, William D; Reifeis, Paul; Willis, Lisa; Kirkup, Michele L

    2013-01-01

    Shaping a clinical curriculum that is appropriate for novice dentists, is based on high-quality evidence of efficacy, yet reflects current practices is challenging. CAD/CAM units have been available to dentists since the late '80s. Recent improvements in the software, hardware and the clinical performance of available all-ceramic blocks have keyed a surge in interest. Based on a careful review of the systems available and, equally importantly, a review of the research regarding the longevity of reinforced glass ceramics, IUSD decided to add training on the use of the E4D CAD/CAM system to the curriculum. Students now receive lectures, preclinical hands-on training and clinical experience in fabricating all-ceramic restorations. At present any student who is interested in providing an all-ceramic restoration for his/her patient can do so using our CAD/CAM system. In a little less than one year our undergraduate dental students have provided 125 all-ceramic crowns to their patients. Clinical faculty have been impressed with the marginal fit and esthetics of the crowns. Finally, with students designing, milling, sintering and staining the restorations the CAD/CAM systems has reduced lab costs significantly.

  20. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 ...

  1. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  2. NARSTO EPA SS HOUSTON TEXAQS2000 CAMS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS HOUSTON TEXAQS2000 CAMS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... TEOM Fluorescence Spectroscopy Location:  Houston, Texas Spatial Resolution:  Point Measurements ... Monoxide Nitrogen Oxides Ozone Surface Winds Air Temperature Humidity Solar Irradiance Particulate Matter Sulfur ...

  3. Safety Modification of Cam-and-Groove Hose Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwindt, Paul; Littlefield, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A modification has been made in the mating halves of a cam-and-groove hose coupling to prevent rapid separation of the halves in the event that the cam levers are released while the fluid in the hose is pressurized. The need for this modification arises because commercial off-the-shelf cam-and-groove hose-coupling halves do not incorporate safety features to prevent separation in the pressurized state. Especially when the pressurized fluid is compressible (e.g., steam or compressed air), the separated halves can be propelled with considerable energy, causing personal injury and/or property damage. Therefore, one purpose served by the modification is to provide for venting to release compressive energy in a contained and safe manner while preventing personal injury and/or property damage. Another purpose served by the modification, during the process of connecting the coupling halves, is to ensure that the coupling halves are properly aligned before the cam levers can be locked into position.

  4. Doing Performance Appraisal the Right Way: The CAM Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsgard, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the CAM (Clarity, Awareness, Merit Recognition) process for performance reviews in which supervisors declare personal values, expectations, and operational methods; select employee skills for enhancement and define results; provide feedback, recognition and reinforcement; and distribute merit rewards and build deeper mutual commitments to…

  5. Energy considerations in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, David L.; Olson, Jerry G.; Hannay, Cécile; Toniazzo, Thomas; Yudin, Valery; Taylor, Mark

    2015-06-30

    An error in the energy formulation in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is identified and corrected. Ten year AMIP simulations are compared using the correct and incorrect energy formulations. Statistics of selected primary variables all indicate physically insignificant differences between the simulations, comparable to differences with simulations initialized with rounding sized perturbations. The two simulations are so similar mainly because of an inconsistency in the application of the incorrect energy formulation in the original CAM. CAM used the erroneous energy form to determine the states passed between the parameterizations, but used a form related to the correct formulation for the state passed from the parameterizations to the dynamical core. If the incorrect form is also used to determine the state passed to the dynamical core the simulations are significantly different. In addition, CAM uses the incorrect form for the global energy fixer, but that seems to be less important. The difference of the magnitude of the fixers using the correct and incorrect energy definitions is very small.

  6. Energy considerations in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)

    DOE PAGES

    Williamson, David L.; Olson, Jerry G.; Hannay, Cécile; Toniazzo, Thomas; Yudin, Valery; Taylor, Mark

    2015-06-30

    An error in the energy formulation in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is identified and corrected. Ten year AMIP simulations are compared using the correct and incorrect energy formulations. Statistics of selected primary variables all indicate physically insignificant differences between the simulations, comparable to differences with simulations initialized with rounding sized perturbations. The two simulations are so similar mainly because of an inconsistency in the application of the incorrect energy formulation in the original CAM. CAM used the erroneous energy form to determine the states passed between the parameterizations, but used a form related to the correct formulation for themore » state passed from the parameterizations to the dynamical core. If the incorrect form is also used to determine the state passed to the dynamical core the simulations are significantly different. In addition, CAM uses the incorrect form for the global energy fixer, but that seems to be less important. The difference of the magnitude of the fixers using the correct and incorrect energy definitions is very small.« less

  7. 46. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS, STEMS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS, STEMS, AND RELATIONSHIP OF BULL WHEEL (LOWER RIGHT) LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. SEE CA-290-22 FOR A SIMILAR B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Sparse distributed memory: Principles and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, M. J.; Kanerva, P.; Bhadkamkar, N.

    1989-01-01

    Sparse distributed memory is a generalized random access memory (RAM) for long (1000 bit) binary words. Such words can be written into and read from the memory, and they can also be used to address the memory. The main attribute of the memory is sensitivity to similarity, meaning that a word can be read back not only by giving the original write address but also by giving one close to it as measured by the Hamming distance between addresses. Large memories of this kind are expected to have wide use in speech recognition and scene analysis, in signal detection and verification, and in adaptive control of automated equipment, in general, in dealing with real world information in real time. The memory can be realized as a simple, massively parallel computer. Digital technology has reached a point where building large memories is becoming practical. Major design issues were resolved which were faced in building the memories. The design is described of a prototype memory with 256 bit addresses and from 8 to 128 K locations for 256 bit words. A key aspect of the design is extensive use of dynamic RAM and other standard components.

  9. Sparse distributed memory prototype: Principles of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael J.; Kanerva, Pentti; Ahanin, Bahram; Bhadkamkar, Neal; Flaherty, Paul; Hickey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Sparse distributed memory is a generalized random access memory (RAM) for long binary words. Such words can be written into and read from the memory, and they can be used to address the memory. The main attribute of the memory is sensitivity to similarity, meaning that a word can be read back not only by giving the original right address but also by giving one close to it as measured by the Hamming distance between addresses. Large memories of this kind are expected to have wide use in speech and scene analysis, in signal detection and verification, and in adaptive control of automated equipment. The memory can be realized as a simple, massively parallel computer. Digital technology has reached a point where building large memories is becoming practical. The research is aimed at resolving major design issues that have to be faced in building the memories. The design of a prototype memory with 256-bit addresses and from 8K to 128K locations for 256-bit words is described. A key aspect of the design is extensive use of dynamic RAM and other standard components.

  10. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve. The meteors assigned to the various showers are identified in the CAMS Meteoroid Orbit Database 2.0 submitted to the IAU Meteor Data Center, and can be accessed also at cams.seti.org" xlink:type="simple"

  11. Internal combustion engine and cam drive mechanism therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T.T.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes a cam mechanism for driving the camshaft of a four-stroke internal combustion engine having one or more sets of n number of cylinders where n is a positive integer, a piston connected to a crankshaft and reciprocable in each cylinder and is either in phase or out of phase with any other piston in the set to which it belongs by a phase angle A/sup 0/, or an integral multiple thereof. A camshaft carries rotatable cams for actuating inlet and/or exhaust valves for each cylinder in the set. Characterized in the cam drive mechanism consist of means for rotating the camshaft with a rotational movement which is a combination of a circular motion about its axis of rotation which has a predetermined phase relationship with the circular movement of the crankshaft and an oscillatory motion about its axis of rotation to advance and retard the angular position of the cams relative to the valves with which they are associated. The oscillatory motion has a predetermined phase relationship with the crankshaft, and means for varying the amplitude of the oscillatory motion whereby the timing of the opening and closing of the valves may be varied, characterized in that the speed of the circular movement of the camshaft is half the speed of the crankshaft. The frequency of oscillations of the camshaft is f times the frequency of rotation of the crankshaft. The cam drive mechanism consists of a rotatable drive member drivable by the crankshaft. A connection is between the drive member and camshaft for transmitting the rotary motion of the drive member thereto. The connection including a sleeve element rotatable by the drive element and axially slidable relative thereto and having a helically splined connection with the camshaft whereby axial movement of the sleeve element effects a rotation of the camshaft relative to the drive member.

  12. Evolution of CAM and C4 carbon-concentrating mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms for concentrating carbon around the Rubisco enzyme, which drives the carbon-reducing steps in photosynthesis, are widespread in plants; in vascular plants they are known as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C4 photosynthesis. CAM is common in desert succulents, tropical epiphytes, and aquatic plants and is characterized by nighttime fixation of CO2. The proximal selective factor driving the evolution of this CO2-concentrating pathway is low daytime CO2, which results from the unusual reverse stomatal behavior of terrestrial CAM species or from patterns of ambient CO2 availability for aquatic CAM species. In terrestrials the ultimate selective factor is water stress that has selected for increased water use efficiency. In aquatics the ultimate selective factor is diel fluctuations in CO2 availability for palustrine species and extreme oligotrophic conditions for lacustrine species. C4 photosynthesis is based on similar biochemistry but carboxylation steps are spatially separated in the leaf rather than temporally as in CAM. This biochemical pathway is most commonly associated with a specialized leaf anatomy known as Kranz anatomy; however, there are exceptions. The ultimate selective factor driving the evolution of this pathway is excessively high photorespiration that inhibits normal C3 photosynthesis under high light and high temperature in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. CAM is an ancient pathway that likely has been present since the Paleozoic era in aquatic species from shallow-water palustrine habitats. While atmospheric CO2 levels have undoubtedly affected the evolution of terrestrial plant carbon-concentrating mechanisms, there is reason to believe that past atmospheric changes have not played as important a selective role in the aquatic milieu since palustrine habitats today are not generally carbon sinks, and the selective factors driving aquatic CAM are autogenic. Terrestrial CAM, in contrast, is of increasing selective value under

  13. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  14. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  15. A general model for memory interference in a multiprocessor system with memory hierarchy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taha, Badie A.; Standley, Hilda M.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of memory interference in a multiprocessor system with a hierarchy of shared buses and memories is addressed. The behavior of the processors is represented by a sequence of memory requests with each followed by a determined amount of processing time. A statistical queuing network model for determining the extent of memory interference in multiprocessor systems with clusters of memory hierarchies is presented. The performance of the system is measured by the expected number of busy memory clusters. The results of the analytic model are compared with simulation results, and the correlation between them is found to be very high.

  16. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  17. Transient coupling of Ng-CAM expression to NgCAM-dependent calcium signaling during migration of new neurons in the adult songbird brain.

    PubMed

    Goldman, S A; Williams, S; Barami, K; Lemmon, V; Nedergaard, M

    1996-01-01

    The adult avian forebrain continues to generate neurons from subependymal zone (SZ) precursor cells, whose neuronal progeny migrate into the brain upon radial guide fibers. These neurons express the immunoglobulin-family adhesion molecule NgCAM, and their migration in culture is disrupted by anti-NgCAM Fab. Confocal imaging of adult zebra finch SZ loaded with the calcium indicator fluo-3, as well as ratio imaging with the indicator fura-2, revealed that migrating new neurons responded to microgram amounts of NgCAM with reversible increments in cytosolic calcium. The calcium response to NgCAM antigen was developmentally restricted, in that it was only manifested by neurons for roughly the 3- to 4-day period between 6 and 9 DIV, even though NgCAM expression persisted tonically thereafter. The period during which NgCAM elicited a calcium signal corresponded to the postmitotic age at which new, bipolar neurons leave the adult SZ to enter the brain parenchyma in vivo. Accordingly, the calcium response to NgCAM was largely limited to morphologically bipolar cells. Anti-NgCAM IgG also evoked a neuronal calcium signal over the same restricted period that NgCAM protein exerted its effect. These findings suggest a dynamic coupling and uncoupling of calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways to a stably expressed surface adhesion molecule, whose function in a given neuron may therefore evolve with cellular maturation.

  18. Shared memory for a fault-tolerant computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilley, G. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A system is described for sharing a memory in a fault-tolerant computer. The memory is under the direct control and monitoring of error detecting and error diagnostic units in the fault-tolerant computer. This computer verifies that data to and from the memory is legally encoded and verifies that words read from the memory at a desired address are, in fact, actually delivered from that desired address. The means are provided for a second processor, which is independent of the direct control and monitoring of the error checking and diagnostic units of the fault-tolerant computer, and to share the memory of the fault-tolerant computer. Circuitry is included to verify that: (1) the processor has properly accessed a desired memory location in the memory; (2) a data word read-out from the memory is properly coded; and (3) no inactive memory was erroneously outputting data onto the shared memory bus.

  19. CCD Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, James R.; Elliot, Tom; Norris, Dave; Vescelus, Fred

    1987-01-01

    CCD memory device yields over 6.4 x 10 to the eighth power levels of information on single chip. Charge-coupled device (CCD) demonstrated to operate as either read-only-memory (ROM) or photon-programmable memory with capacity of 640,000 bits, with each bit capable of being weighted to more than 1,000 discrete analog levels. Larger memory capacities now possible using proposed approach in conjunction with CCD's now being fabricated, which yield over 4 x 10 to the ninth power discrete levels of information on single chip.

  20. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  1. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  2. Weather prediction using a genetic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David

    1990-01-01

    Kanaerva's sparse distributed memory (SDM) is an associative memory model based on the mathematical properties of high dimensional binary address spaces. Holland's genetic algorithms are a search technique for high dimensional spaces inspired by evolutional processes of DNA. Genetic Memory is a hybrid of the above two systems, in which the memory uses a genetic algorithm to dynamically reconfigure its physical storage locations to reflect correlations between the stored addresses and data. This architecture is designed to maximize the ability of the system to scale-up to handle real world problems.

  3. Seeing Like a Geologist: Bayesian Use of Expert Categories in Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Resnick, Ilyse; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for spatial location is typically biased, with errors trending toward the center of a surrounding region. According to the category adjustment model (CAM), this bias reflects the optimal, Bayesian combination of fine-grained and categorical representations of a location. However, there is disagreement about whether categories are malleable.…

  4. Location Memory in the Real World: Category Adjustment Effects in 3-Dimensional Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remember spatial locations is critical to human functioning, both in an evolutionary and in an everyday sense. Yet spatial memories and judgments often show systematic errors and biases. Bias has been explained by models such as the Category Adjustment model (CAM), in which fine-grained and categorical information about locations…

  5. Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C4 and CAM metabolism.

    PubMed

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Monica; Osborne, Colin P; Bräutigam, Andrea; Sage, Rowan F; Hibberd, Julian M; Kelly, Steven; Covshoff, Sarah; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Hancock, Lillian; Edwards, Erika J

    2014-07-01

    CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with analyses of RNA sequence data of Portulaca, the only plants known to perform both CAM and C4 photosynthesis. Three distinct gene lineages encoding PEPC exist in eudicots (namely ppc-1E1, ppc-1E2 and ppc-2), one of which (ppc-1E1) was recurrently recruited for use in both CAM and C4 photosynthesis within the Caryophyllales. This gene is present in multiple copies in the cacti and relatives, including Portulaca. The PEPC involved in the CAM and C4 cycles of Portulaca are encoded by closely related yet distinct genes. The CAM-specific gene is similar to genes from related CAM taxa, suggesting that CAM has evolved before C4 in these species. The similar origin of PEPC and other genes involved in the CAM and C4 cycles highlights the shared early steps of evolutionary trajectories towards CAM and C4, which probably diverged irreversibly only during the optimization of CAM and C4 phenotypes. PMID:24638902

  6. Family Medicine Residency Program Directors Attitudes and Knowledge of Family Medicine CAM Competencies

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Lebensohn, Patricia; Bonakdar, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Context Little is known about the incorporation of integrative medicine (IM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into family medicine residency programs. Objective The Society for Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) approved a set of CAM/IM competencies for family medicine residencies. We hope to evaluate with an online survey tool, whether residency programs are implementing such competencies into their curriculum. We also hope to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Residency Directors (RDs) on the CAM/IM competencies. Design A survey was distributed by the CAFM (Council of Academic Family Medicine) Educational Research Alliance to RDs via email. The survey was distributed to 431 RDs. Of those who received it, 212 responded for a response rate of 49.1%. Questions assessed the knowledge and attitudes of CAM/IM competencies and incorporation of CAM/IM into residency curriculum. Results Forty-five percent of RDs were aware of the competencies. In term of RD attitudes, 58% reported that CAM/IM is an important component of residents' curriculum yet, 60% report not having specific learning objectives for CAM/IM in their residency curriculum. Among all programs, barriers to CAM/IM implementation included: time in residents' schedules (77%); faculty training (75%); access to CAM experts (43%); lack of reimbursement (43%), and financial resources (29%). Conclusions While many RDs are aware of the STFM CAM/IM competencies and acknowledge their role in residence education, there are many barriers preventing residencies to implementing the STFM CAM/IM competencies. PMID:24021471

  7. How parents choose to use CAM: a systematic review of theoretical models

    PubMed Central

    Lorenc, Ava; Ilan-Clarke, Yael; Robinson, Nicola; Blair, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used throughout the UK and the Western world. CAM is commonly used for children and the decision-making process to use CAM is affected by numerous factors. Most research on CAM use lacks a theoretical framework and is largely based on bivariate statistics. The aim of this review was to identify a conceptual model which could be used to explain the decision-making process in parental choice of CAM. Methods A systematic search of the literature was carried out. A two-stage selection process with predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria identified studies using a theoretical framework depicting the interaction of psychological factors involved in the CAM decision process. Papers were critically appraised and findings summarised. Results Twenty two studies using a theoretical model to predict CAM use were included in the final review; only one examined child use. Seven different models were identified. The most commonly used and successful model was Andersen's Sociobehavioural Model (SBM). Two papers proposed modifications to the SBM for CAM use. Six qualitative studies developed their own model. Conclusion The SBM modified for CAM use, which incorporates both psychological and pragmatic determinants, was identified as the best conceptual model of CAM use. This model provides a valuable framework for future research, and could be used to explain child CAM use. An understanding of the decision making process is crucial in promoting shared decision making between healthcare practitioners and parents and could inform service delivery, guidance and policy. PMID:19386106

  8. Self-latching eccentric cam for dual stroke compressor or pump

    DOEpatents

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1985-01-01

    For a dual capacity refrigerant compressor of the type which has an eccentric cam rotatable on a crankpin between two opposite positions which changes the total eccentricity of the crankpin and cam so as to obtain two different stroke lengths, the rotation of the cam on the crankpin being effected by a reversal of motor operation, the cam moves through an angle of about 270.degree. around the crankpin so that a centrifugal force torque tending to hold the cam in place is available at least in the reduced stroke length position of the cam, and by providing lightening cavities and eccentric weightings, the center of mass 74 of the cam can be shifted to obtain the centrifugal torque in the proper direction at both the maximum and reduced stroke positions.

  9. Self-latching eccentric cam for dual stroke compressor or pump

    DOEpatents

    Sisk, F.J.

    1985-01-22

    For a dual capacity refrigerant compressor of the type which has an eccentric cam rotatable on a crankpin between two opposite positions which changes the total eccentricity of the crankpin and cam so as to obtain two different stroke lengths, the rotation of the cam on the crankpin being effected by a reversal of motor operation, the cam moves through an angle of about 270[degree] around the crankpin so that a centrifugal force torque tending to hold the cam in place is available at least in the reduced stroke length position of the cam, and by providing lightening cavities and eccentric weightings, the center of mass of the cam can be shifted to obtain the centrifugal torque in the proper direction at both the maximum and reduced stroke positions. 7 figs.

  10. Content addressable systolic array for sparse matrix computation

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, O.

    1983-01-01

    A systolic array is proposed which is specifically designed to solve a system of sparse linear equations. The array consists of a number of processing elements connected in a ring. Each processing element has its own content addressable memory where the nonzero elements of the sparse matrix are stored. Matrix elements to which elementary operations are applied are extracted from the memory by content addressing. The system of equations is solved in a systolic fashion and the solution is obtained in nz+5n-2 steps where nz is the number of nonzero elements along and below the diagonal and n is the number of equations. 13 references.

  11. System and method for programmable bank selection for banked memory subsystems

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Hoenicke, Dirk; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2010-09-07

    A programmable memory system and method for enabling one or more processor devices access to shared memory in a computing environment, the shared memory including one or more memory storage structures having addressable locations for storing data. The system comprises: one or more first logic devices associated with a respective one or more processor devices, each first logic device for receiving physical memory address signals and programmable for generating a respective memory storage structure select signal upon receipt of pre-determined address bit values at selected physical memory address bit locations; and, a second logic device responsive to each of the respective select signal for generating an address signal used for selecting a memory storage structure for processor access. The system thus enables each processor device of a computing environment memory storage access distributed across the one or more memory storage structures.

  12. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  13. Different CAD/CAM-processing routes for zirconia restorations: influence on fitting accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Philipp; Junghanns, Janet; Dittmer, Marc P; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different processing routes on the fitting accuracy of four-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Three groups of zirconia frameworks with ten specimens each were fabricated. Frameworks of one group (CerconCAM) were produced by means of a laboratory CAM-only system. The other frameworks were made with different CAD/CAM systems; on the one hand by in-laboratory production (CerconCAD/CAM) and on the other hand by centralized production in a milling center (Compartis) after forwarding geometrical data. Frameworks were then veneered with the recommended ceramics, and marginal accuracy was determined using a replica technique. Horizontal marginal discrepancy, vertical marginal discrepancy, absolute marginal discrepancy, and marginal gap were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the level of significance chosen at 0.05. Mean horizontal discrepancies ranged between 22 μm (CerconCAM) and 58 μm (Compartis), vertical discrepancies ranged between 63 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 162 μm (CerconCAM), and absolute marginal discrepancies ranged between 94 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 181 μm (CerconCAM). The marginal gap varied between 72 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 112 μm (CerconCAM, Compartis). Statistical analysis revealed that, with all measurements, the marginal accuracy of the zirconia FDPs was significantly influenced by the processing route used (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, all restorations showed a clinically acceptable marginal accuracy; however, the results suggest that the CAD/CAM systems are more precise than the CAM-only system for the manufacture of four-unit FDPs. PMID:20495937

  14. Compliance assurance monitoring (CAM) plans/illustrations for control devices with prevalent applicability

    SciTech Connect

    Ziolkowski, T.S.; Levy, J.A. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    The Compliance Assurance Monitoring (CAM) rule was promulgated on October 22, 1997 as 62 FR 54899. This rule generally requires that Title V facilities with active control devices apply CAM to pollutant-specific emission units to ensure that Federally enforceable emissions limitations are being met. At Title V permit renewal, smaller sources at Title V facilities also may become subject to CAM. EPA has published a draft Technical Guidance Document (TGD) for CAM (revised draft dated August 1998). This document contains applicability information, flow diagrams, indicator range development approach data, measurement system data, sample CAM plans, sample CAM illustrations, and other guidelines useful in meeting the CAM requirements for control devices on applicable pollutant-specific emission units. This poster paper illustrates CAM plans and provides illustrations of control devices likely to have prevalent CAM applicability. The poster contains a clear applicability diagram of the CAM requirements which guides the reader to other diagrams showing apparent CAM applicability for key major industry sources. Within the identified industrial sources, the most prevalent control devices have been researched and CAM plan elements displayed along with a short bibliography of references used to identify indicators and indicator ranges. Control devices currently not covered in the TGD are covered in this poster paper in addition to a couple of examples from the TGD (e.g., condensers, baghouses/dust collectors). Emphasis is given to control devices likely to be covered under CAM which have not been covered in the TGD. Examples of such control devices include sulfur recovery plant tail gas units and flue gas desulfurization units. Additionally, this poster paper graphically demonstrates a recommended approach to CAM plan development in a step-by-step manner with an explanation provided for each step.

  15. Different CAD/CAM-processing routes for zirconia restorations: influence on fitting accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Philipp; Junghanns, Janet; Dittmer, Marc P; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different processing routes on the fitting accuracy of four-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Three groups of zirconia frameworks with ten specimens each were fabricated. Frameworks of one group (CerconCAM) were produced by means of a laboratory CAM-only system. The other frameworks were made with different CAD/CAM systems; on the one hand by in-laboratory production (CerconCAD/CAM) and on the other hand by centralized production in a milling center (Compartis) after forwarding geometrical data. Frameworks were then veneered with the recommended ceramics, and marginal accuracy was determined using a replica technique. Horizontal marginal discrepancy, vertical marginal discrepancy, absolute marginal discrepancy, and marginal gap were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the level of significance chosen at 0.05. Mean horizontal discrepancies ranged between 22 μm (CerconCAM) and 58 μm (Compartis), vertical discrepancies ranged between 63 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 162 μm (CerconCAM), and absolute marginal discrepancies ranged between 94 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 181 μm (CerconCAM). The marginal gap varied between 72 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 112 μm (CerconCAM, Compartis). Statistical analysis revealed that, with all measurements, the marginal accuracy of the zirconia FDPs was significantly influenced by the processing route used (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, all restorations showed a clinically acceptable marginal accuracy; however, the results suggest that the CAD/CAM systems are more precise than the CAM-only system for the manufacture of four-unit FDPs.

  16. Memory systems.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-07-01

    The idea that there are multiple memory systems can be traced to early philosophical considerations and introspection. However, the early experimental work considered memory a unitary phenomenon and focused on finding the mechanism upon which memory is based. A full reconciliation of debates about that mechanism, and a coincidental rediscovery of the idea of multiple memory systems, emerged from studies in the cognitive neuroscience of memory. This research has identified three major forms of memory that have distinct operating principles and are supported by different brain systems. These include: (1) a cortical-hippocampal circuit that mediates declarative memory, our capacity to recollect facts and events; (2) procedural memory subsystems involving a cortical-striatal circuit that mediates habit formation and a brainstem-cerebellar circuit that mediates sensorimotor adaptations; and (3) a circuit involving subcortical and cortical pathways through the amygdala that mediates the attachment of affective status and emotional responses to previously neutral stimuli. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  18. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  19. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) disclosure to the health care providers: a qualitative insight from Malaysian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Maryam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abdul Shatar, Aishah Knight; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Farooqui, Muhammad Aslam; Saleem, Fahad; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2012-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate Malaysian oncology patients CAM disclosure to the health care providers. Patients were interviewed across three major Malaysian ethnic groups, Malay, Chinese and Indian. Thematic content analysis identified three themes: reasons of CAM disclosure, reasons of CAM non-disclosure and preference of CAM discussion to health care providers. Patients agreed that CAM disclosure is important to avoid any interaction with the conventional medicines. Perceived lack of physicians' knowledge & interest in CAM, fear of termination of therapy by the physicians upon CAM disclosure, and perceived simplicity of some of the CAM therapies were among the reasons of non-disclosure. Given the option of oncologists, pharmacists or nurses, patients described oncologists as the most suitable person to discuss or disclose CAM use due to confidence in their clinical skills. Understanding the underlying beliefs of patients' reluctance to disclose CAM to health care providers is important especially when they are on an ongoing treatment for cancer.

  20. The faulty statistics of complementary alternative medicine (CAM).

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-09-01

    The authors illustrate the difficulties involved in obtaining a valid statistical significance in clinical studies especially when the prior probability of the hypothesis under scrutiny is low. Since the prior probability of a research hypothesis is directly related to its scientific plausibility, the commonly used frequentist statistics, which does not take into account this probability, is particularly unsuitable for studies exploring matters in various degree disconnected from science such as complementary alternative medicine (CAM) interventions. Any statistical significance obtained in this field should be considered with great caution and may be better applied to more plausible hypotheses (like placebo effect) than that examined - which usually is the specific efficacy of the intervention. Since achieving meaningful statistical significance is an essential step in the validation of medical interventions, CAM practices, producing only outcomes inherently resistant to statistical validation, appear not to belong to modern evidence-based medicine.

  1. ChemCam Passive Reflectance Spectroscopy at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Cloutis, E.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gasnault, O.; Kinch, K. M.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rice, M. S.; Wiens, R. C.; DeFlores, L.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) portion of the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover uses 3 dispersive spectrometers to cover the ultraviolet (240-342 nm), visible (382-469 nm) and visible/near-infrared (474-906 nm) spectral regions at high spectral (<0.5nm) and spatial (0.65mrad) resolution. In active LIBS mode, light emitted from a laser-generated plasma is dispersed onto these spectrometers and used to detect elemental emission lines. Typical observations include 3 msec-exposure 'dark' spectra (acquired with the LIBS laser off) used to remove the background signal from the LIBS measurement. Similar 'passive' observations of the ChemCam calibration target holder can be made at similar times of day and at identical exposure times (to minimize variations from dark current). Because this target exhibits ~95% flat reflectance in the ~400-900 nm region, radiance spectra ratios (surface/calibration target) can be normalized to known calibration target lab spectra to produce relative reflectance spectra (400-900 nm) with an estimated accuracy of 10-20%. Initial results replicated the known spectral shape and overall reflectance values of the ChemCam calibration targets and green color chip on the Mastcam calibration target. Dust contamination was evident, although dust on the ChemCam calibration targets is minimized by their tilted placement on the rover deck. All ChemCam targets that were sunlit during LIBS acquisition (~80% of all measurements) provide 'dark' spectra for which relative reflectance spectra can be obtained. Owing to the dusty nature of the Gale landing sites, passive spectra observed to date exhibit spectral shapes indicative of ferric phases, similar to spectra of palagonitic soils. Most spectra are bracketed in reflectance by typical 'bright' and 'dark' spectra from the OMEGA and CRISM orbital spectrometers. Preliminary Mastcam reflectance spectra are similar, providing additional confidence regarding the

  2. Tooth-colored CAD/CAM monolithic restorations.

    PubMed

    Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic restoration (also known as a full contour restoration) is one that is manufactured from a single material for the fully anatomic replacement of lost tooth structure. Additional staining (followed by glaze firing if ceramic materials are used) may be performed to enhance the appearance of the restoration. For decades, monolithic restoration has been the standard for inlay and partial crown restorations manufactured by both pressing and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. A limited selection of monolithic materials is now available for dental crown and bridge restorations. The IDS (2015) provided an opportunity to learn about and evaluate current trends in this field. In addition to new developments, established materials are also mentioned in this article to complete the picture. In line with the strategic focus of the IJCD, the focus here is naturally on CAD/CAM materials. PMID:26110926

  3. The SuperCam Instrument for the Mars2020 Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Le Mouélic, S.; Anderson, R.; Beyssac, O.; Bonal, L.; Clegg, S.; DeFlores, L.; Dromart, G.; Fischer, W.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J.; Johnson, J.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Mangold, N.; McLennan, S.; Montmessin, F.; Rull, F.; Sharma, S.

    2015-10-01

    Micro-scale characterization of the mineralogy and elemental chemistry of the Martian surface, along with the search for organic materials, are fundamental investigations that lay the groundwork for all types of Mars geochemistry and astrobiology investigations. SuperCam, being developed for the Mars 2020 rover, is a suite of four co-aligned instruments that remotely provide these critical observations via Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Raman spectroscopy, timeresolved fluorescence (TRF), visible and nearinfrared spectroscopy (VISIR), and high resolution color remote micro-imaging (RMI) (Fig. 1). The LIBS, VIS, and RMI capabilities rely heavily on heritage from the ChemCam instrument on MSL [e.g. 1]. Information on the LIBS, Raman, and TRF investigations and their implementation can be found in [2]. VISIR is described in [3] and RMI in [4].

  4. Tooth-colored CAD/CAM monolithic restorations.

    PubMed

    Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic restoration (also known as a full contour restoration) is one that is manufactured from a single material for the fully anatomic replacement of lost tooth structure. Additional staining (followed by glaze firing if ceramic materials are used) may be performed to enhance the appearance of the restoration. For decades, monolithic restoration has been the standard for inlay and partial crown restorations manufactured by both pressing and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. A limited selection of monolithic materials is now available for dental crown and bridge restorations. The IDS (2015) provided an opportunity to learn about and evaluate current trends in this field. In addition to new developments, established materials are also mentioned in this article to complete the picture. In line with the strategic focus of the IJCD, the focus here is naturally on CAD/CAM materials.

  5. Compact Atomic Magnetometer for Global Navigation (NAV-CAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Larsen, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Northrop Grumman Navigation Systems Division is developing an atom-based magnetometer technology that has the potential for providing a global position reference independent of GPS. The NAV-CAM sensor is a direct outgrowth of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyro under development by the same technical team. It will be the only known magnetic field sensor capable of providing all 3 axes of magnetic vector direction and magnitude simultaneously with a whole-field scalar measurement, all within a single multi-axis sensing element measuring 4mm cube or smaller, essentially eliminating many of the problems encountered when using physically separate sensors or sensing elements. According to information presented by Ariyur et al. at the 2010 American Control Conference [1], the anticipated accuracy of 10 pico-Tesla (pT) and precision of <0.5 pT of the NAV-CAM sensor will enable magnetic determination of position with 20 meter accuracy and 1 meter resolution.

  6. First observations with SuperCam and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloosterman, Jenna; Cottam, Tiara; Swift, Brandon; Lesser, David; Schickling, Paul; Groppi, Christopher; Borden, Michael; Towner, Allison; Schmidt, Per; Kulesa, Craig; d'Aubigny, Christian; Walker, Christopher; Golish, Dathon; Weinreb, Sander; Jones, Glenn; Mani, Hamdi; Kooi, Jacob; Lichtenberger, Art; Puetz, Patrick; Narayanan, Gopal

    2012-09-01

    Supercam is a 345 GHz, 64-pixel heterodyne imaging array for the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope (HHSMT). By integrating SIS mixer devices with Low Noise Ampliers (LNAs) in 8 - 1x8 pixel modules, the size needed for the cryostat and the complexity of internal wiring is signicantly reduced. All subsystems including the optics, cryostat, bias system, IF boxes, and spectrometer have been integrated for all 64 pixels. In the spring of 2012, SuperCam was installed on the HHSMT for an engineering run where it underwent system level tests and performed rst light observations. In the fall of 2012 SuperCam will begin a 500 square degree survey of the Galactic Plane in 12CO J=3-2. This large-scale survey will help answer fundamental questions about the formation, physical conditions, and energetics of molecular clouds within the Milky Way. The data set will be available via the web to all interested researchers.

  7. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  8. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  9. Group technology methods for integrated CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Propen, M.; Jacko, J.

    1984-10-01

    The use of a single product definition and comprehensive database are key factors in integrating CAD and CAM. This paper describes one approach for investigating the scope of developing a full scale Group Technology (GT) system. The prototype GT system discussed required the integration of a decision logic processor, relational database, and design/drafting system, and demonstrated a generative process planning system for a family of gas turbine engine components.

  10. Surgical hip dislocation for treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Milind M; Chaudhary, Ishani M; Vikas, KN; KoKo, Aung; Zaw, Than; Siddhartha, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cam femoroacetabular impingement is caused by a misshapen femoral head with a reduced head neck offset, commonly in the anterolateral quadrant. Friction in flexion, adduction and internal rotation causes limitation of the hip movements and pain progressively leading to labral and chondral damage and osteoarthritis. Surgical hip dislocation described by Ganz permits full exposure of the hip without damaging its blood supply. An osteochondroplasty removes the bump at the femoral head neck junction to recreate the offset for impingement free movement. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients underwent surgery with surgical hip dislocation for the treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement by open osteochondroplasty over last 6 years. Eight patients suffered from sequelae of avascular necrosis (AVN). Three had a painful dysplastic hip. Two had sequelae of Perthes disease. Three had combined cam and pincer impingement caused by retroversion of acetabulum. All patients were operated by the trochanteric flip osteotomy with attachments of gluteus medius and vastus lateralis, dissection was between the piriformis and gluteus minimus preserving the external rotators. Z-shaped capsular incision and dislocation of the hip was done in external rotation. Three cases also had subtrochanteric osteotomy. Two cases of AVN also had an intraarticular femoral head reshaping osteotomy. Results: Goals of treatment were achieved in all patients. No AVN was detected after a 6 month followup. There were no trochanteric nonunions. Hip range of motion improved in all and Harris hip score improved significantly in 15 of 16 cases. Mean alpha angle reduced from 86.13° (range 66°–108°) to 46.35° (range 39°–58°). Conclusion: Cam femoroacetabular Impingement causing pain and limitation of hip movements was treated by open osteochondroplasty after surgical hip dislocation. This reduced pain, improved hip motion and gave good to excellent results in the short term. PMID

  11. Web-based Hyper Suprime-Cam Data Providing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, M.; Furusawa, H.; Takata, T.; Price, P.; Okura, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yamanoi, H.; Yasuda, N.; Bickerton, S.; Katayama, N.; Mineo, S.; Lupton, R.; Bosch, J.; Loomis, C.

    2014-05-01

    We describe a web-based user interface to retrieve Hyper Suprime-Cam data products, including images and. Users can access data directly from a graphical user interface or by writing a database SQL query. The system provides raw images, reduced images and stacked images (from multiple individual exposures), with previews available. Catalog queries can be executed in preview or queue mode, allowing for both exploratory and comprehensive investigations.

  12. Integrated CAD/CAM: Problems, prognosis, and role of IPAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilson, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Major technology problems impede the development and evolution of totally integrated interactive CAD/CAM systems. IPAD is playing an important role in the identification of these problems and is contributing significantly to their solution. It is the purpose of this presentation to examine some of these issues, look at the prognosis of obtaining effective solutions, and point up some of the past and expected contributions of IPAD to this technology.

  13. ChemCam rock laser for Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity"

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. The Flight Model was shipped in August, 2010 for installation on the rover at JPL. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components were concurrently assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2011. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  14. ChemCam rock laser for Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity"

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2010-09-03

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. The Flight Model was shipped in August, 2010 for installation on the rover at JPL. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components were concurrently assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2011. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  15. ChemCam Rock Laser for the Mars Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-03-24

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instr... Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components are concurrently being assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France, and will be delivered to JPL in July. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2009. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  16. ChemCam Rock Laser for the Mars Science Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instr... Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components are concurrently being assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France, and will be delivered to JPL in July. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2009. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  17. An open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and industrial CAM software.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Liu, Shusheng; Shi, Shenggen; Yang, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestically developed industrial computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology were used for full crown fabrication and measurement of crown accuracy, with an attempt to establish an open CAM system for dental processing and to promote the introduction of domestic dental computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM system. Commercially available scanning equipment was used to make a basic digital tooth model after preparation of crown, and CAD software that comes with the scanning device was employed to design the crown by using domestic industrial CAM software to process the crown data in order to generate a solid model for machining purpose, and then China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool was used to complete machining of the whole crown and the internal accuracy of the crown internal was measured by using 3D-MicroCT. The results showed that China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool in combination with domestic industrial CAM technology can be used for crown making and the crown was well positioned in die. The internal accuracy was successfully measured by using 3D-MicroCT. It is concluded that an open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestic industrial CAM software has been established, and development of the system will promote the introduction of domestically-produced dental CAD/CAM system. PMID:22038364

  18. An analysis of parameterization interactions and sensitivity of single-column model simulations to convection schemes in CAM4 and CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaocong; Zhang, Minghua

    2013-08-01

    This paper uses different deep convection triggering functions and closure assumptions in two versions of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM4 and CAM5) to investigate the interactions of parameterization components and the sensitivity of single-column model simulations of tropical convection. The schemes include those used in the standard CAM4 and CAM5 as well as two variants used in other global models. Large-scale forcing and verification data are from the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment and Kwajalein Experiment field campaigns during which many deep and shallow convective events were observed. Results show that in both CAM4 and CAM5, when the intensity of deep convection decreases as a result of parameterization change, the intensity of shallow convection increases, leading to little change in the total simulated precipitation but very different changes in precipitation types. The different precipitation types manifest themselves in other measures of model performances including temperature and humidity. The standard CAM4 and CAM5 both simulated warm bias in the middle troposphere and dry bias in the lower troposphere. In experiments where deep convection is reduced, these biases are also reduced, but the associated changes in shallow convection create new patterns of model biases. Results imply the need to use multiple independent observations simultaneously to constrain models so that the degrees of model freedom are reduced and to treat model physical parameterizations as an integrated system rather than individual components.

  19. Conditional load and store in a shared memory

    SciTech Connect

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Ohmacht, Martin

    2015-02-03

    A method, system and computer program product for implementing load-reserve and store-conditional instructions in a multi-processor computing system. The computing system includes a multitude of processor units and a shared memory cache, and each of the processor units has access to the memory cache. In one embodiment, the method comprises providing the memory cache with a series of reservation registers, and storing in these registers addresses reserved in the memory cache for the processor units as a result of issuing load-reserve requests. In this embodiment, when one of the processor units makes a request to store data in the memory cache using a store-conditional request, the reservation registers are checked to determine if an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor unit. If an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor, the data are stored at this address.

  20. Widespread Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Osian, S. Rausch; Leal, A.D.; Allmer, C.; Maurer, M.J.; Nowakowski, G.; Inwards, D.J.; Macon, W.R.; Ehlers, S.L.; Weiner, G.J.; Habermann, T.M.; Cerhan, J.R.; Thompson, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies examining complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and beliefs among non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) survivors. 719 NHL patients from the University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic Molecular Epidemiology Resource who completed the 3-year post-diagnosis questionnaire were included in this study. 636 (89%) reported ever using CAM, with 78% utilizing vitamins, 54% alternative therapies and 45% herbals. Female gender was associated with increased overall CAM use (P<.0001) as well as use of vitamins (P<.0001), herbals (P=.006) and alternative therapy (P=.0002) for cancer. Older age (>60) was associated with increased vitamin use (P=.005) and decreased herbal use (P=.008). Among users, 143 (20%) believe CAM assists healing, 123 (17%) believe CAM relieves symptoms, 122 (17%) believe CAM gives a feeling of control, 110 (15%) believe CAM assists other treatments, 108 (15%) believe CAM boosts immunity, 26 (4%) believe CAM cures cancer, and 36 (5%) believe CAM prevents the spread of cancer. PMID:24745936

  1. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3–CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-01-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3–CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. PMID:26717954

  2. Evaluating Rare Amino Acid Substitutions (RGC_CAMs) in a Yeast Model Clade

    PubMed Central

    Polzin, Kenneth; Rokas, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions) requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution). We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity. PMID:24637883

  3. EpCAM modulates NF-κB signaling and interleukin-8 expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sankpal, Narendra V; Fleming, Timothy P; Gillanders, William E

    2013-04-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a 40-kD type I transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in human epithelial cancers and is currently the target of molecular therapy based on its overexpression at the cell surface. Recently, we and others have shown a role for EpCAM in cell signaling and carcinogenesis, and EpCAM expression seems to promote breast cancer invasion. Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) is an inflammatory cytokine that has recently been shown to modulate breast cancer invasion and angiogenesis. In preliminary experiments, we identified a correlation between EpCAM and IL-8 expression in primary human breast cancers. Specific ablation of EpCAM in breast cancer cell lines results in decreased IL-8 expression, and IL-8 contributes to EpCAM-dependent breast cancer invasion. Specific ablation of EpCAM is also associated with decreased NF-κB transcription factor activity, decreased phosphorylation of the NF-κB family member RELA, and increased IκBα protein expression. EpCAM modulates IL-8 expression at baseline, and following IL-1β stimulation, which is known to be a potent inducer of NF-κB in breast cancer. In functional rescue experiments, specific ablation of RELA or forced expression of the NF-κB inhibitor protein IκBα prevented EpCAM-dependent rescue of IL-8 promoter activity. These studies show for the first time that EpCAM can modulate NF-κB transcription factor activity and IL-8 expression in breast cancer and confirm the role of EpCAM signaling in modulating breast cancer invasion. Further study is required to define the molecular mechanism(s) of EpCAM signaling in breast cancer and to direct the rational development of molecular therapies targeting EpCAM.

  4. PhenoCam: A Continental Observatory in Support of Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Phenological Responses to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M. A.; Richardson, A. D.; Pless, R.; Frolking, S.; Milliman, T. E.; Klosterman, S.; Toomey, M. P.; Gray, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Phenological events, such as budburst and leaf abscission, regulate many ecosystem processes and significantly influence biosphere-atmosphere exchanges and feedbacks in the climate system. Phenology is also a sensitive indicator of biological responses to climate change, particularly warming trends and altered precipitation regimes. However, phenological theory is incomplete and phenology sub-models implemented in state-of-the-art land surface schemes are overly simplistic, resulting in biased predictions. To address these needs the PhenoCam project is developing continental-scale data sets designed to quantify and characterize spatiotemporal variation in vegetation phenology. To do this, the datasets we are developing link near-surface remote sensing images collected from webcams at sub-daily time scales with lower spatial and temporal resolution imagery collected by satellite remote sensing. The observatory currently consists of 53 core sites where webcams have been installed using uniform protocols, supplemented by approximately 70 affiliated sites provided by contributors with high quality webcams with fields of view that include substantial vegetation. Core sites are frequently co-located with FLUXNET towers, supporting modeling studies that link flux measurements to phenological observations. Raw data and derived products designed to maximize information related to vegetation phenology at each site (e.g., vegetation indices) are archived in a publicly available database. Tools are also provided for users to process imagery and extract phenology time series based on their own needs and interests. The observatory is growing rapidly, and as new sites are added to the network they are included in the archive. In the future, PhenoCams will also be installed at NEON core site towers. Finally, we have ongoing efforts to calibrate and organize an image archive captured from 21,000 publicly available outdoor webcams. This paper discusses two main elements of the PhenoCam

  5. ChemCam analysis of Martian fine dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Ollila, Ann; Fabre, Cécile; Berger, Gilles; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Dehouck, Erwin; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, Nathan; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Samuel; d'Uston, Claude; Goetz, Walter; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lanza, Nina; Madsen, Morten; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton; Sautter, Violaine; Martin-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the chemical composition of dust observed by the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover at Gale Crater. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique analyses samples without preparation, which allows detection of the elemental composition of surface deposits. Mars aeolian fine dust (<2-3 microns) composition is analyzed on the first shot of each Mars target. It is reproducible over time and present a composition characteristic of the global martian fine dust, which covers the entire planet and contributes to the local geology analyzed by MSL. Its composition can also be retrieved on the ChemCam Calibration Targets (CCCT) by subtraction of the well characterized CCCT spectra. The CCCT include eight glasses and ceramics that have been generated to simulate Martian rocks of interest and two targets of a single element (graphite for carbon and an alloy of titanium). ChemCam passive spectroscopy also indicates varying deposition of the dust cover on the CCCT.Major elements are quantified and shown to be very similar to the fine soils encountered at Gale crater. The composition is also similar to the soils and fine dust measured by APXS for the elements common to both instruments. The minor elements quantified by ChemCam (Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Mn, Cr) are within the range of soil surveys, but we see a higher concentration of Li than in other types of remotely characterized targets. Sulfur is possibly detected at the ChemCam limit of detection. Hydrogen is clearly identified, indicating that this fine dust is a contributor to the H content of the martian soils, as also detected by the SAM and CheMin instruments, and provides constraints as to which fraction of the Martian surface is hydrated and altered. In conclusion, the finest fraction of dust particles on the surface of Mars contains hydrated components mixed intimately within the fine aeolian dust fraction, suggesting that this dust likely

  6. Pattern and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among pediatric patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jan H; Reuner, Gitta; Kadish, Navah E; Pietz, Joachim; Schubert-Bast, Susanne

    2013-10-01

    Parents of pediatric patients with chronic conditions such as epilepsy increasingly opt for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, data on the pattern and reasons of CAM use in childhood epilepsy are scarce. The objectives of this study were as follows: first, to characterize CAM use among pediatric patients with epilepsy by assessing its spectrum, prevalence, costs, and frequency of use; second, to evaluate the influence of CAM use on compliance and satisfaction with conventional care as well as to explore parent-child neurologist communication concerning CAM; and third, to investigate predictors of CAM use. A postal survey was administered to all parents of pediatric outpatients with epilepsy aged 6 to 12, who have received treatment at the neuropediatric outpatient clinic of the University Children's Hospital Heidelberg between 2007 and 2009. One hundred thirty-two of the 297 distributed questionnaires were suitable for inclusion in statistical analysis (44.7%). Forty-nine participants indicated that their children used CAM during the previous year (37.1%). Thirty different types of CAM were used, with homeopathy (55.1%), osteopathy (24.5%), and kinesiology (16.3%) being the most commonly named. A mean of 86€ (0€-500€) and 3h (1 h-30 h) per month was committed to CAM treatment. Only 53% of the users informed their child neurologist of the additional CAM treatment, while 85.6% of all parents wished to discuss CAM options with their child neurologist. Seventy-five percent of users considered the CAM treatment effective. Among the participants most likely to seek CAM treatment are parents whose children show a long duration of epileptic symptoms, parents who make use of CAM treatment themselves, and parents who value a holistic and natural treatment approach. A substantial portion of pediatric patients with epilepsy receive CAM treatment. The high prevalence of use and significant level of financial and time resources spent on CAM indicate the

  7. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  8. ChemCam Targeted Science at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Clark, B. C.; Bridges, N. T.; Clegg, S. M.; Maurice, S.; Newsom, H. E.; Vaniman, D. T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ollila, A. M.; Gasnault, O.; Pinet, P. C.; Dromart, G.; Barraclough, B. L.; Lasue, J.

    2011-12-01

    The MSL rover, Curiosity, uses a novel remote-sensing instrument, ChemCam, which combines laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with a high resolution remote micro-imager (RMI). ChemCam uses a focused, pulsed laser beam at targets up to 7 m away to excite a light-emitting plasma. Spectral analysis identifies elements present and provides rapid semi-quantitative analyses. Repeated laser pulses remove dust and weathering coatings from rock samples to depths >0.5 mm and ~0.4 mm in diameter. The RMI, with ~20x20 mrad field of view, provides a broad-band image with 100 μm resolution. LIBS yields abundances of H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zr, Rb, Sr, As, Ba, and Pb. Interference from atmospheric constituents raises the detection limits of C, N, and O (e.g., >2% wt for C). LIBS is very sensitive to alkali and alkali earth elements, with some detection limits to ~1 ppm at close range. Conversely, LIBS is insensitive to F, Cl, S, P, and N, with detection limits of several wt. %. Pointing accuracy is ~3 mrad, however relative pointing accuracy is better, so line scans and rasters will enable analyses of targeted features to ~1 mm. At Gale Crater, determination of elements not previously analyzed in-situ, i.e., H, Li, Rb, Sr, and Ba, along with other elements will constrain aqueous, hydrothermal and vapor geochemical transport processes. Initial analyses after landing will characterize air fall dust and weathering coatings on local rocks, and profile the soil and surfacial materials including bedforms to investigate compositional differences in near-surface layers. Targets within the landing ellipse include fan and inverted channel deposits derived from the crater rim, which may contain alteration minerals produced by impact hydrothermal processes. Enigmatic deposits with bright fracture fill could represent lake sediments modified by injection of deposits from groundwater. During the drive to the Gale mound, ChemCam will

  9. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  10. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  11. The Postwar Home Front: Memorializing Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Sarah E.

    2002-01-01

    Offers background information on Veterans Day in the United States. Presents a lesson drawing upon the "Teaching Talking History" program, "Memorializing War." Provides ideas for discussion and focuses on having students analyze documents to study memorials. Uses the Gettysburg Address and three other primary sources. (CMK)

  12. Assessment of (mu)grid distributed energy resource potential using DER-CAM and GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris; Bartholomew, Emily; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; LaCommare, Kristina S.H.

    2002-01-01

    This report outlines an approach to assess the local potential for deployment of distributed energy resources (DER), small power-generation installations located close to the point where the energy they produce will be consumed. Although local restraints, such as zoning, building codes, and on-site physical barriers are well-known frustrations to DER deployment, no analysis method has been developed to address them within a broad economic analysis framework. The approach developed here combines established economic optimization techniques embedded in the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of local land-use constraint. An example case in the San Diego area is developed from a strictly customer perspective, based on the premise that future development of DER may take the form of microgrids ((mu)Grids) under the control of current utility customers. Beginning with assumptions about which customer combinations h ave complementary energy loads, a GIS was used to locate specific neighborhoods in the San Diego area with promising customer combinations. A detailed energy analysis was conducted for the commercial/residential area chosen covering both electrical and heat energy requirements. Under various scenarios, different combinations of natural gas reciprocating engines were chosen by DER-CAM, ranging in size from 25 kW to 500 kW, often with heat recovery or absorption cooling. These generators typically operate throughout the day and are supplemented by purchased electricity during late-night and early-morning hours, when utility time-of-use prices are lowest. Typical (mu)Grid scenarios displaced about 80 percent of their annual gas heat load through CHP. Self-generation together with absorption cooling dramatically reduce electricity purchases, which usually only occur during nighttime hours.

  13. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--the digital workflow from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Tapie, L; Lebon, N; Mawussi, B; Fron Chabouis, H; Duret, F; Attal, J-P

    2015-01-01

    As digital technology infiltrates every area of daily life, including the field of medicine, so it is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Apart from chairside practice, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental solutions can be considered a chain of digital devices and software for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use the technology often do not have the time or knowledge to understand it. A basic knowledge of the CAD/CAM digital workflow for dental restorations can help dentists to grasp the technology and purchase a CAM/CAM system that meets the needs of their office. This article provides a computer-science and mechanical-engineering approach to the CAD/CAM digital workflow to help dentists understand the technology.

  14. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--the digital workflow from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Tapie, L; Lebon, N; Mawussi, B; Fron Chabouis, H; Duret, F; Attal, J-P

    2015-01-01

    As digital technology infiltrates every area of daily life, including the field of medicine, so it is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Apart from chairside practice, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental solutions can be considered a chain of digital devices and software for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use the technology often do not have the time or knowledge to understand it. A basic knowledge of the CAD/CAM digital workflow for dental restorations can help dentists to grasp the technology and purchase a CAM/CAM system that meets the needs of their office. This article provides a computer-science and mechanical-engineering approach to the CAD/CAM digital workflow to help dentists understand the technology. PMID:25911827

  15. Crassulacean acid metabolism and fitness under water deficit stress: if not for carbon gain, what is facultative CAM good for?

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Background In obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), up to 99 % of CO2 assimilation occurs during the night, therefore supporting the hypothesis that CAM is adaptive because it allows CO2 fixation during the part of the day with lower evaporative demand, making life in water-limited environments possible. By comparison, in facultative CAM (inducible CAM, C3-CAM) and CAM-cycling plants drought-induced dark CO2 fixation may only be, with few exceptions, a small proportion of C3 CO2 assimilation in watered plants and occur during a few days. From the viewpoint of survival the adaptive advantages, i.e. increased fitness, of facultative CAM and CAM-cycling are not obvious. Therefore, it is hypothesized that, if it is to increase fitness, CAM must aid in reproduction. Scope An examination of published reports of 23 facultative CAM and CAM-cycling species finds that, in 19 species, drought-induced dark CO2 fixation represents on average 11 % of C3 CO2 assimilation of watered plants. Evidence is discussed on the impact of the operation of CAM in facultative and CAM-cycling plants on their survival – carbon balance, water conservation, water absorption, photo-protection of the photosynthetic apparatus – and reproductive effort. It is concluded that in some species, but not all, facultative and cycling CAM contribute, rather than to increase carbon balance, to increase water-use efficiency, water absorption, prevention of photoinhibition and reproductive output. PMID:18708641

  16. An alternative design for a sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    A new design for a Sparse Distributed Memory, called the selected-coordinate design, is described. As in the original design, there are a large number of memory locations, each of which may be activated by many different addresses (binary vectors) in a very large address space. Each memory location is defined by specifying ten selected coordinates (bit positions in the address vectors) and a set of corresponding assigned values, consisting of one bit for each selected coordinate. A memory location is activated by an address if, for all ten of the locations's selected coordinates, the corresponding bits in the address vector match the respective assigned value bits, regardless of the other bits in the address vector. Some comparative memory capacity and signal-to-noise ratio estimates for the both the new and original designs are given. A few possible hardware embodiments of the new design are described.

  17. Initiating a Reiki or CAM program in a healthcare organization--developing a business plan.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, such as Reiki, continue to be offered to consumers in many hospitals and other health care organizations. There is growing interest among nurses, doctors, and other health care providers for the integration of CAM therapies into traditional settings. Health care organizations are responding to this need but may not know how to start CAM programs. Starting a Reiki program in a health care setting must be envisioned in a business model approach. This article introduces nurses and other health care providers to the basic concepts of business plan development and important steps to follow when starting a Reiki or CAM program.

  18. The use of CAM by women suffering from nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hollyer, Taras; Boon, Heather; Georgousis, Alexia; Smith, Michael; Einarson, Adrienne

    2002-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) affects two-thirds of pregnant women to varying degrees and over the years many modalities have been used to try to alleviate this often debilitating condition. There is a paucity of information in the literature about the use or efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of this condition that affects so many women. Our primary objective was to examine the prevalence of CAM usage by women suffering from NVP. Our secondary objective was to ascertain if women had any supervision in the use of these treatments. Methods Women who called The Motherisk NVP helpline, were asked after the counseling session to complete a questionnaire, which included demographic data as well as information about their CAM use. Results Seventy women completed the questionnaire. 61% reported using CAM therapies, of which the three most popular were: ginger, vitamin B6 and acupressure. 21% of those who reported using CAM, had consulted CAM practitioners, 8% their physicians or pharmacists and 71% discussed the usage with family, friends and other allied health professionals. Women who did not use CAM stated they would probably use these modalities if there was more information about the safety in pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant women with NVP are mirroring the trend in the general population of the use of CAM. They are also using CAM therapies with little supervision from practitioners experienced in the use of these modalities. PMID:12033990

  19. Nucleic acid encoding DS-CAM proteins and products related thereto

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, Julie R.

    2005-11-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there are provided Down Syndrome-Cell Adhesion Molecule (DS-CAM) proteins. Nucleic acid sequences encoding such proteins and assays employing same are also disclosed. The invention DS-CAM proteins can be employed in a variety of ways, for example, for the production of anti-DS-CAM antibodies thereto, in therapeutic compositions and methods employing such proteins and/or antibodies. DS-CAM proteins are also useful in bioassays to identify agonists and antagonists thereto.

  20. Initiating a Reiki or CAM program in a healthcare organization--developing a business plan.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, such as Reiki, continue to be offered to consumers in many hospitals and other health care organizations. There is growing interest among nurses, doctors, and other health care providers for the integration of CAM therapies into traditional settings. Health care organizations are responding to this need but may not know how to start CAM programs. Starting a Reiki program in a health care setting must be envisioned in a business model approach. This article introduces nurses and other health care providers to the basic concepts of business plan development and important steps to follow when starting a Reiki or CAM program. PMID:25314111

  1. An artificial electron donor supported catalytic cycle of Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450{sub cam}

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Swati . E-mail: swati@scripps.edu; Murugan, Rajamanickam; Mitra, Samaresh

    2005-09-23

    Putidaredoxin (PdX), the physiological effector of cytochrome P450{sub cam} (P450{sub cam}), serves to gate electron transfer into oxy-P450{sub cam} during the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. Redox-linked structural changes in PdX are necessary for the effective P450{sub cam} turnover reaction. PdX is believed to be difficult to be replaced by an artificial electron donor in the reaction pathway of P450{sub cam}. We demonstrate that the catalytic cycle of wild-type P450{sub cam} can be supported in the presence of an artificial reductant, potassium ferrocyanide. Upon rapid mixing of ferrocyanide ion with P450{sub cam}, we observed an intermediate with spectral features characteristic of compound I. The rate constant for the formation of compound I in the presence of ferrocyanide supported reaction cycle was found to be comparable to the ones observed for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} supported compound I formation in wild-type P450{sub cam}, but was much lower than those observed for classical peroxidases. The results presented in this paper form the first kinetic analysis of this intermediate for an artificial electron-driven P450{sub cam} catalytic pathway in solution.

  2. A review of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Sherri A

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, unpredictable disease of the central nervous system without a known cure. Because of this, people with MS often seek complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) to manage their disease symptoms. The goal of this review article was to describe the use of CAM by individuals diagnosed with MS. Evidence was obtained by searching Medline (1950-2007), EBSCOhost and PubMed for studies relating CAM to MS. Results from the literature showed that people with MS reported that they used CAM from 27 to 100%. The major reasons for choosing CAM were as follows: conventional treatment was not effective, anecdotal reports of CAM's help, and doctor referral. The types of CAM reported by people with MS included exercise, vitamins, herbal and mineral supplements, relaxation techniques, acupuncture, cannabis and massage. The major symptoms treated by CAM as noted in the literature were pain, fatigue and stress. There is a need for further research to evaluate the effectiveness of CAM with MS patients and their application by occupational therapists. The limitation of this literature review was the low response rate in many of the surveys reported.

  3. Operability of the Ventilation Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock Analysis of Proposed Upgrade to the 241AW Farm Primary Exhauster CAM System

    SciTech Connect

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2002-06-19

    The Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis (FSAR) assumes that a ventilation stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) interlock system detects high radiation in the exhaust stream and shuts off the associated ventilation system within 10 minutes of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter system failure (CHG, 2002). Previous analysis of the as-built CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster (stack 296-A-27) showed that this system potentially required significantly longer than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure and initiate shutdown of the ventilation system (Short, 2002). The purpose of this report is to determine the CAM interlock system response time for a proposed upgrade of the 296-A-27 CAM system. The approach to be used in this analysis is essentially the same as used in RPP-10799, Rev. 0 (Short, 2002), which is to conservatively estimate the time required by the proposed upgraded CAM sampling/monitoring system to detect a FSAR-defined HEPA filter failure and automatically shutdown the exhaust fan. For the HEPA filter failure over-temperature accident scenario in the FSAR, the upgraded CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster will require significantly less than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure, actuate the CAM Interlock, and shutdown the exhauster fan. Therefore, the analyzed system is adequate to meet the operability requirements specified in the FSAR and the Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (CHG, 2001; CHG, 2002).

  4. Robert Hooke's model of memory.

    PubMed

    Hintzman, Douglas L

    2003-03-01

    In 1682 the scientist and inventor Robert Hooke read a lecture to the Royal Society of London, in which he described a mechanistic model of human memory. Yet few psychologists today seem to have heard of Hooke's memory model. The lecture addressed questions of encoding, memory capacity, repetition, retrieval, and forgetting--some of these in a surprisingly modern way. Hooke's model shares several characteristics with the theory of Richard Semon, which came more than 200 years later, but it is more complete. Among the model's interesting properties are that (1) it allows for attention and other top-down influences on encoding; (2) it uses resonance to implement parallel, cue-dependent retrieval; (3) it explains memory for recency; (4) it offers a single-system account of repetition priming; and (5) the power law of forgetting can be derived from the model's assumptions in a straightforward way. PMID:12747488

  5. Robert Hooke's model of memory.

    PubMed

    Hintzman, Douglas L

    2003-03-01

    In 1682 the scientist and inventor Robert Hooke read a lecture to the Royal Society of London, in which he described a mechanistic model of human memory. Yet few psychologists today seem to have heard of Hooke's memory model. The lecture addressed questions of encoding, memory capacity, repetition, retrieval, and forgetting--some of these in a surprisingly modern way. Hooke's model shares several characteristics with the theory of Richard Semon, which came more than 200 years later, but it is more complete. Among the model's interesting properties are that (1) it allows for attention and other top-down influences on encoding; (2) it uses resonance to implement parallel, cue-dependent retrieval; (3) it explains memory for recency; (4) it offers a single-system account of repetition priming; and (5) the power law of forgetting can be derived from the model's assumptions in a straightforward way.

  6. EpCAM Knockdown Alters MicroRNA Expression in Retinoblastoma- Functional Implication of EpCAM Regulated MiRNA in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Beta, Madhu; Khetan, Vikas; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Suganeswari, Ganesan; Rishi, Pukhraj; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    The co-ordinated regulation of oncogenes along with miRNAs play crucial role in carcinogenesis. In retinoblastoma (RB), several miRNAs are known to be differentially expressed. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) gene is involved in many epithelial cancers including, retinoblastoma (RB) tumorigenesis. EpCAM silencing effectively reduces the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster. In order to investigate whether EpCAM has wider effect as an inducer or silencer of miRNAs, we performed a global microRNA expression profile in EpCAM siRNA knockdown Y79 cells. MicroRNA profiling in EpCAM silenced Y79 cells showed seventy-three significantly up regulated and thirty-six down regulated miRNAs. A subset of these miRNAs was also validated in tumors. Functional studies on Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells transfected with antagomirs against two miRNAs of miR-181c and miR-130b showed striking changes in tumor cell properties in RB cells. Treatment with anti-miR-181c and miR-130b showed significant decrease in cell viability and cell invasion. Increase in caspase-3 level was noticed in antagomir transfected cell lines indicating the induction of apoptosis. Possible genes altered by EpCAM influenced microRNAs were predicted by bioinformatic tools. Many of these belong to pathways implicated in cancer. The study shows significant influence of EpCAM on global microRNA expression. EpCAM regulated miR-181c and miR-130b may play significant roles in RB progression. EpCAM based targeted therapies may reduce carcinogenesis through several miRNAs and target genes. PMID:25502397

  7. EpCAM knockdown alters microRNA expression in retinoblastoma--functional implication of EpCAM regulated miRNA in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Beta, Madhu; Khetan, Vikas; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Suganeswari, Ganesan; Rishi, Pukhraj; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    The co-ordinated regulation of oncogenes along with miRNAs play crucial role in carcinogenesis. In retinoblastoma (RB), several miRNAs are known to be differentially expressed. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) gene is involved in many epithelial cancers including, retinoblastoma (RB) tumorigenesis. EpCAM silencing effectively reduces the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster. In order to investigate whether EpCAM has wider effect as an inducer or silencer of miRNAs, we performed a global microRNA expression profile in EpCAM siRNA knockdown Y79 cells. MicroRNA profiling in EpCAM silenced Y79 cells showed seventy-three significantly up regulated and thirty-six down regulated miRNAs. A subset of these miRNAs was also validated in tumors. Functional studies on Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells transfected with antagomirs against two miRNAs of miR-181c and miR-130b showed striking changes in tumor cell properties in RB cells. Treatment with anti-miR-181c and miR-130b showed significant decrease in cell viability and cell invasion. Increase in caspase-3 level was noticed in antagomir transfected cell lines indicating the induction of apoptosis. Possible genes altered by EpCAM influenced microRNAs were predicted by bioinformatic tools. Many of these belong to pathways implicated in cancer. The study shows significant influence of EpCAM on global microRNA expression. EpCAM regulated miR-181c and miR-130b may play significant roles in RB progression. EpCAM based targeted therapies may reduce carcinogenesis through several miRNAs and target genes. PMID:25502397

  8. Zink rotary kiln seal: Cam followers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.

    1994-12-09

    The CIF will treat hazardous and mixed low-level radioactive waste in a rotary kiln and secondary combustion chamber. A high efficiency air pollution control system follows the secondary chamber. The rotary kiln is designed with a gas seal at each end of its rotating barrel which provides a barrier between the interior of the kiln and outside air. The internal pressure of the rotary kiln will be maintained below atmospheric pressure, so exterior air passing the seals is forced into the kiln`s interior. Positive pressure may be applied in the seal labyrinth, adding a barrier to flow. Both CIF seals will be covered entirely with exhaust hoods, drawing air over the outside of the seal and into a HEPA filtered exhaust system. Cam follower misalignment on a John Zink rotary kiln seal caused damage to the seal`s rotor. The misalignment was quantified, corrected, and checked to verify straightness. The primary purpose of the correction was to allow seal testing 1 to continue, but the information is applicable to the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) since two large seals of similar design will be installed there. Cam follower straightness was off as much as 3.5{degrees}, causing followers to run untrue on the rotor. High contact forces resulted, removing flakes of metal from the rotor surface. The misalignment caused weight bearing followers on one side of the seal to back out of their threaded mounts. The root cause was poor machining of the follower mounting holes. Correction was accomplished by relieving the holes and installing machined spacers and retaining nuts. Cam followers on the CIF`s Zink seals should be inspected for straightness before the seals are installed.

  9. PREFACE: Conference on Atoms and Molecules near Surfaces (CAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, John; Feenstra, Louw; Schmiedmeyer, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    This conference, held at Internationales Wissenschaftsforum, Heidelberg, Germany, from 4-8 April 2005, brought together physicists, chemists, and surface scientists from around the world to discuss advances in our understanding of how atoms and molecules interact with each other and with applied fields when they are near surfaces. The fields include static magnetic and electric fields as well as electromagnetic fields in the optical frequency range. This understanding is, of course, essential for the controlled manipulation of matter at the atomic scale by micro- and nanostructured devices. Several principal themes motivate the efforts of this interdisciplinary community: the fundamental physics of quantum degenerate gases near surfaces, the realisation of `atom chips' for the construction of quantum information gates and registers, the development of integrated `on chip' sources providing atoms on demand, the ability to control precision doping, at the atomic level, new molecular spectroscopies appearing under reduced dimensionality imposed by surfaces, and advances in STM and AFM `bottom up' construction of functional devices, starting from the fundamental atom building block. What follows here are the written CAMS proceedings based on the presentations, oral and poster, of the research pursued by the various participating groups. CAMS was organised and supported by FASTNet, Field-Atom-Surface Training Network, a 5th Framework Research and Training Network of the European Union. A sister network, ATOMCHIPS, also participated in the financial and scientific support of the conference. The CAMS workshop emphasised the participation of the young scientists, post-docs and pre-docs of the two networks. In addition financial support from the European Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged. The conference was held at the Internationales Wissenschaftsforum of the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. The excellent facilities and the competent support of the

  10. Basic memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietze, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    Construction and electrical characterization of the 4096 x 2-bit Basic Memory Module (BMM) are reported for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) program. The module uses four 2K x 1-bit N-channel FET, random access memory chips, called array chips, and two sense amplifier chips, mounted and interconnected on a ceramic substrate. Four 5% tolerance power supplies are required. At the Module, the address, chip select, and array select lines require a 0-8.5 V MOS signal level. The data output, read-strobe, and write-enable lines operate at TTl levels. Although the module is organized as 4096 x 2 bits, it can be used in a 8196 x 1-bit application with appropriate external connections. A 4096 x 1-bit organization can be obtained by depopulating chips.

  11. Mixed Methods in CAM Research: A Systematic Review of Studies Published in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Felicity L.; Holmes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mixed methods research uses qualitative and quantitative methods together in a single study or a series of related studies. Objectives. To review the prevalence and quality of mixed methods studies in complementary medicine. Methods. All studies published in the top 10 integrative and complementary medicine journals in 2012 were screened. The quality of mixed methods studies was appraised using a published tool designed for mixed methods studies. Results. 4% of papers (95 out of 2349) reported mixed methods studies, 80 of which met criteria for applying the quality appraisal tool. The most popular formal mixed methods design was triangulation (used by 74% of studies), followed by embedded (14%), sequential explanatory (8%), and finally sequential exploratory (5%). Quantitative components were generally of higher quality than qualitative components; when quantitative components involved RCTs they were of particularly high quality. Common methodological limitations were identified. Most strikingly, none of the 80 mixed methods studies addressed the philosophical tensions inherent in mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Conclusions and Implications. The quality of mixed methods research in CAM can be enhanced by addressing philosophical tensions and improving reporting of (a) analytic methods and reflexivity (in qualitative components) and (b) sampling and recruitment-related procedures (in all components). PMID:24454489

  12. Class of continuous level associative memory neural nets.

    PubMed

    Marks Ii, R J

    1987-05-15

    A neural net capable of restoring continuous level library vectors from memory is considered. As with Hopfield's neural net content addressable memory, the vectors in the memory library are used to program the neural interconnects. Given a portion of one of the library vectors, the net extrapolates the remainder. Sufficient conditions for convergence are stated. Effects of processor inexactitude and net faults are discussed. A more efficient computational technique for performing the memory extrapolation (at the cost of fault tolerance) is derived. The special case of table lookup memories is addressed specifically.

  13. [Development of the dental CAD/CAM system].

    PubMed

    Kawanaka, M

    1990-06-01

    Studies have been undertaken to apply CAD/CAM system to Dentistry and to make prosthetic appliances with this system automatically. Specimens are 4 times large plaster models. For the inside of the crown, the plaster model of prepared tooth is measured with laser displacement meter then the numerical data is obtained. After modification of this data for the concave cutting, the modeling machine works with this numerical data. For the outside of the crown, the typical colonal figure data (= CAD Data Base) is prepared. And this data is modified with computer to fit the prepared tooth margin and proximal or antagonical tooth (= CAD). This CAD Data Base was obtained with 3 dimensional point digitizer (3DPD). Because this measuring method with 3DPD is to be able to select points, the CAD Data Base could be consists of characteristic points. When this data base is really used, it is interpolated with s-spline. Spline interpolation is indispensable to the CAD/CAM system. Further understanding of this system, explanation is divided into three parts which are 3D measurement, CAD and CAM. (3D measurement) Two types of 3D measurement is dealed with this system. One is for the CAD data base and another is for the prepared tooth model. 3D measurement of the prepared tooth model is equivalent of the impression takings in the routine method. For the clear marginal line and for the uniform distribution of measuring points, the prepared tooth model is tilted and rotated on the working table when it is measured with laser. (CAD) The CAD Data Base can be extended, contracted, parallel translated and rotated with the Affine transformation. For putting the individual margin data on the CAD Data Base, the prepared tooth margin is re-digitized with 3DPD. Occlusal data is taken from F.G.P. core. (CAM) The application of the spline interpolation to the tool offset theory, which is effective at the groove especially, makes easy to calculate the tool path. When the prepared tooth model is

  14. CoverCAM - a land cover composition change assessment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Bie, C. D.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The cover-composition on a specific piece of land can change over time due to natural and anthropogenic factors. Accurate detection of where and when changes occur requires a method that uses remotely sensed imagery that represents a continuous and consistent record on the state of the green land-cover. Such data are offered through hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery. Until recently, NDVI-images were mainly used for anomaly mapping to monitor the influence of weather on vegetation; the monitoring basically assume that, over time, the land cover composition of a studied area remains static. This study presents a novel cover change assessment method, labelled ';CoverCAM' that extracts from hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery the probabilities that the original land cover composition did change. CoverCAM, unlike all existing change-detection methods, makes adjustments based on seasonal NDVI-anomalies experienced at landscape level. We tested the method by processing SPOT-VGT NDVI-imagery (10-day Maximum Value Composites; 1km pixels) for Andalucía, Spain. CoverCAM requires specification that two time periods are specified: a reference period (we used 2000-04), and a change detection period (we used 2005-10). All images of the reference period were classified using the ISODATA algorithm and by evaluating divergence statistics. The generated map depicts strata (group of polygons), characterized by temporal NDVI and standard deviation (SD) profiles. For the change assessment period, first, mean NDVI-values were calculated by decade and polygon (NDVId,p), and then for each pixel of the polygon its pixel change values specified through the remaining difference between the pixel NDVI and [NDVId,p × the SD value of the stratum for that decade]. The above process was repeated to produce decadal land cover change probability maps, each with its own undefined scale. The decadal change maps were then aggregated to annual change probability maps. This validation was only carried out for

  15. Experimental and analytical investigation of finger-follower cam systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wensyang

    A predictive dynamic model to compute the motions of components in cam systems, along with the experimental work to verify the model are described. The major components in finger-follower cam systems include the cam, the follower, the hydraulic lash adjuster, and the valve spring, equipped sometimes with a helical valve spring cup damper. In order to fully describe the dynamics of such a system, a lumped/distributed parameter model for the finger-follower cam system with a moving follower pivot is proposed. The valve spring is modeled as a distributed parameter element, and the adjuster is modeled as a stiff spring with viscous damping. The coulomb friction combined with viscous damping between sliding surfaces are also considered. The model predicts toss between the adjuster and the follower at 2535 rpm, and experiment indicates toss starting at 2520 rpm. It is found by simulation that designing hydraulic lash adjuster to be as rigid as possible is essential to successful high speed operation of finger-follower valve trains because a 50 percent decrease in the compliance of the adjuster could increase the maximum camshaft operating speed 150 rpm. Total elimination of the hydraulic lash adjuster is not always feasible because hydraulic lash adjusters can eliminate the clearance between components and do not need to be mechanically, manually adjusted. In order to provide a more stable and precise description on the dynamic response of the adjuster, a two-mode dynamic model for the adjuster is proposed by considering the oil compressibility in the oil chamber, as well as the oil leakage through the annular gap. Furthermore, the effect due to the oil flow from the central orifice to the oil chamber is also studied analytically and experimentally. The inertia effects of the helical valve spring can be suppressed by a cup damper. Damping between the damper and spring wire is found to depend only weakly on relative sliding velocity. The current formula in computing

  16. CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, P.

    1984-01-01

    The history of CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault are presented. Emphasis is put on the targets of the now commercially available software CATIA. The links with scientific computations such as aerodynamics and structural analysis are presented. Comments are made on the principles followed within the company. The consequences of the approximative nature of scientific data are examined. Consequence of the new history function is mainly its protection against copy or alteration. Future plans at Dassault for scientific data appear to be in opposite directions compared to some general tendencies.

  17. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general. PMID:26983799

  18. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general.

  19. Is external memory memory? Biological memory and extended mind.

    PubMed

    Michaelian, Kourken

    2012-09-01

    Clark and Chalmers (1998) claim that an external resource satisfying the following criteria counts as a memory: (1) the agent has constant access to the resource; (2) the information in the resource is directly available; (3) retrieved information is automatically endorsed; (4) information is stored as a consequence of past endorsement. Research on forgetting and metamemory shows that most of these criteria are not satisfied by biological memory, so they are inadequate. More psychologically realistic criteria generate a similar classification of standard putative external memories, but the criteria still do not capture the function of memory. An adequate account of memory function, compatible with its evolution and its roles in prospection and imagination, suggests that external memory performs a function not performed by biological memory systems. External memory is thus not memory. This has implications for: extended mind theorizing, ecological validity of memory research, the causal theory of memory.

  20. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address spacemore » languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.« less

  1. Attentional Disregulation: A Benefit for Implicit Memory

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Gillian; Valderrama, Steven; Hasher, Lynn; Lenartowicz, Agatha

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of age and time of testing on the ability to control attention, and addressed the possibility that older adults’ susceptibility to distraction may sometimes facilitate performance on a later cognitive task. Using a modification of Rees et al. (1999), participants made same/different judgements on line-drawings superimposed with task-irrelevant letter strings. Memory for the distractors was subsequently tested using an implicit memory task. Both older and younger adults demonstrated greater memory for distractors at nonoptimal than at optimal times of day; however, older adults showed considerably better memory for the distractors than did younger adults. PMID:17201503

  2. Memory Optimization for Phase-field Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Gaston; John Peterson; Andrew Slaughter; Cody Permann; David Andrs

    2014-08-01

    Phase-field simulations are computationally and memory intensive applications. Many of the phase-field simulations being conducted in support of NEAMS were not capable of running on “normal clusters” with 2-4GB of RAM per core, and instead required specialized “big-memory” clusters with 64GB per core. To address this issue, the MOOSE team developed a new Python-based utility called MemoryLogger, and applied it to locate, diagnose, and eradicate memory bottlenecks within the MOOSE framework. MemoryLogger allows for a better understanding of the memory usage of an application being run in parallel across a cluster. Memory usage information is captured for every individual process in a parallel job, and communicated to the head node of the cluster. Console text output from the application itself is automatically matched with this memory usage information to produce a detailed picture of memory usage over time, making it straightforward to identify the subroutines which contribute most to the application’s peak memory usage. The information produced by the MemoryLogger quickly and effectively narrows the search for memory optimizations to the most data-intensive parts of the simulation.

  3. Impact of Ice Nucleation Parameterization on CAM5 Simulated Arctic Clouds and Radiation: A Sensitivity Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, S.; Liu, X.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Sensitivity of Arctic clouds and radiation in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) to ice nucleation parameterization is examined by testing a new and more physically based ice nucleation scheme that links the variation of ice nuclei (IN) number concentration to aerosol properties. The CAM5 default scheme parameterizes the IN number concentration simply as a function of ice supersaturation. The new scheme has led to a significant reduction in simulated IN number concentrations at all latitudes while changes in cloud and cloud properties are mainly seen in high latitudes and middle latitude storm tracks. In the Arctic region, there is a noticeable increase in mid- and high-level clouds and a decrease in low-level clouds. The smaller IN concentrations results in a considerable increase of cloud liquid water path and decrease of ice water path, which are likely related to the increase of optically intermediate and thick low- and middle-top clouds and the decrease of optically thin and intermediate high clouds, respectively. Overall, there is an increase of cloud optical depth of Arctic clouds, which leads to a stronger shortwave, longwave, and net cloud radiative forcing (cooling) at the top of the atmosphere. The comparison with satellite data indicates that the new scheme has slightly improved optically thin low cloud simulation, but produced too many optically thick middle and high clouds. A further comparison with Arctic ground-based measurements shows that the new scheme has led to a clearly better simulation of clouds and their properties, which helps reduce model errors in surface radiation. Uncertainties in these observations are discussed. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the DOE by

  4. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NrCAM Regulates Semaphorin 3F-Induced Dendritic Spine Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Demyanenko, Galina P.; Mohan, Vishwa; Zhang, Xuying; Brennaman, Leann H.; Dharbal, Katherine E.S.; Tran, Tracy S.; Manis, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-glial related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is a regulator of axon growth and repellent guidance, and has been implicated in autism spectrum disorders. Here a novel postsynaptic role for NrCAM in Semaphorin3F (Sema3F)-induced dendritic spine remodeling was identified in pyramidal neurons of the primary visual cortex (V1). NrCAM localized to dendritic spines of star pyramidal cells in postnatal V1, where it was coexpressed with Sema3F. NrCAM deletion in mice resulted in elevated spine densities on apical dendrites of star pyramidal cells at both postnatal and adult stages, and electron microscopy revealed increased numbers of asymmetric synapses in layer 4 of V1. Whole-cell recordings in cortical slices from NrCAM-null mice revealed increased frequency of mEPSCs in star pyramidal neurons. Recombinant Sema3F-Fc protein induced spine retraction on apical dendrites of wild-type, but not NrCAM-null cortical neurons in culture, while re-expression of NrCAM rescued the spine retraction response. NrCAM formed a complex in brain with Sema3F receptor subunits Neuropilin-2 (Npn-2) and PlexinA3 (PlexA3) through an Npn-2-binding sequence (TARNER) in the extracellular Ig1 domain. A trans heterozygous genetic interaction test demonstrated that Sema3F and NrCAM pathways interacted in vivo to regulate spine density in star pyramidal neurons. These findings reveal NrCAM as a novel postnatal regulator of dendritic spine density in cortical pyramidal neurons, and an integral component of the Sema3F receptor complex. The results implicate NrCAM as a contributor to excitatory/inhibitory balance in neocortical circuits. PMID:25143608

  5. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Meena S.; Ma Shuangge; Jagsi, Reshma; Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan; Higgins, Susan A.; Weidhaas, Joanne B.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Lloyd, Shane; Peschel, Richard; Gaudreau, Bryant; Rockwell, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  6. A longitudinal analysis of mid-age women's use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Australia, 1996-1998.

    PubMed

    Sibbritt, David W; Adams, Jon; Young, Anne F

    2004-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular amongst healthcare consumers world-wide. As such, CAM is now an important public health issue with taking non-prescription medications. This paper constitutes an exploratory investigation into CAM use over time. As such, there is need for further research to provide in-depth examination of the adoption and relinquishment of CAM use over a longer time period. serious implications for healthcare organization and delivery. While previous studies have provided a profile of CAM users, there remains very limited analysis of CAM consumption over time. The purpose of this paper is to describe the changing use of CAM practitioners over time by 11,454 mid-age women in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Over the study period (1996-1998), 10% of women adopted the use of CAM and 9% relinquished CAM. The predominant factor found to be predictive of CAM adoption was changes in health status. Specifically, those women experiencing more illness over time are more likely to adopt CAM than those experiencing no change or better health. CAM relinquishment was associated with use of non-prescription medications, where women were more likely to relinquish CAM if they never used non-prescription medications or if they stopped.

  7. Parsing the role of sleep in memory processing

    PubMed Central

    Stickgold, Robert

    2013-01-01

    It would be nice if we could talk about sleep and memory as if there were only one type of memory and one type of sleep. But this is far from the case. Sleep and memory each comes in many forms, and furthermore, memories can go through multiple forms of post-encoding processing that must be individually addressed. Finally, sleep stages per se do not affect memories. Rather, the neuromodulatory and electrophysiological events that characterize these sleep stages must mediate sleep-dependent memory processing. In this review, we attempt to parse out the relative contributions and interactions of these often frustratingly complex systems. PMID:23618558

  8. Extensions to the D-Cam sub-unit architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Padraig; Connell, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    Multispectral imaging produces large amounts of data which extend processing, transmission and storage systems to their upper limits. Although there are several interface standards specific to image data acquisition, such as CameraLink, it is Firewire which provides a high-speed data bus, integrated control capability, without loss of flexibility, and which is commonly available as a low cost solution. The class of multispectral imaging requires a different treatment of the processing principals than standard imaging. The same spatial region is captured multiple times using different optical wavelengths. This technique finds application in such diverse areas as coastal monitoring, fruit sorting and automated agriculture. Modifications and additional features to the camera operating and configuration parameters are therefore required which are not generally present with conventional imaging sensors. This paper describes extensions to the IIDC Digital Camera (D-Cam) specification in the development of a Firewire technology platform for transmitting the data structures described and for providing real-time, online control of spectral information acquisition. Additionally, it describes how a set of registers in the sub-unit architecture of the Firewire protocol is augmented to accommodate the demands of a multispectral system. The extensions are specification conformant and do not alter underlining compliance with the base standard. The paper also describes the implementation of the extended D-Cam in the Firewire subsystem of a smart multispectral camera used in commercial applications.

  9. Curiosity ChemCam Finds High-Silica Mars Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenvang, Jens

    2015-12-17

    A team of scientists, including one from Los Alamos National Laboratory, has found much higher concentrations of silica at some sites the Curiosity rover has investigated in the past seven months than anywhere else it has visited since landing on Mars 40 months ago. The first discovery was as Curiosity approached the area “Marias Pass,” where a lower geological unit contacts an overlying one. ChemCam, the rover’s laser-firing instrument for checking rock composition from a distance, detected bountiful silica in some targets the rover passed along the way to the contact zone. The ChemCam instrument was developed at Los Alamos in partnership with the French IRAP laboratory in Toulouse and the French Space Agency. “The high silica was a surprise,” said Jens Frydenvang of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Copenhagen, also a Curiosity science team member. “While we’re still working with multiple hypotheses on how the silica got so enriched, these hypotheses all require considerable water activity, and on Earth high silica deposits are often associated with environments that provide excellent support for microbial life. Because of this, the science team agreed to make a rare backtrack to investigate it more.”

  10. Hyper Suprime-Cam: development of the CCD readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Miyatake, Hironao; Fujimori, Hiroki; Mineo, Sogo; Aihara, Hiroaki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Kamata, Yukiko; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Okura, Yuki; Tanaka, Manobu; Tanaka, Yoko; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Utsumi, Yosuke

    2010-07-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) employs 116 of 2k×4k CCDs with 464 signal outputs in total. The image size exceeds 2 GBytes, and the data can be readout every 10 seconds which results in the data rate of 210 Mbytes / sec. The data is digitized to 16-bit. The readout noise of the electronics at the readout time of 20 seconds is ~0.9 ADU, and the one with CCD is ~1.5 ADU which corresponds to ~4.5 e. The linearity error fits within +/- 0.5 % up to 150,000 e. The CCD readout electronics for HSC was newly developed based on the electronics for Suprime-Cam. The frontend electronics (FEE) is placed in the vacuum dewar, and the backend electronics (BEE) is mounted on the outside of the dewar on the prime focus unit. The FEE boards were designed to minimize the outgas and to maximize the heat transfer efficiency to keep the vacuum of the dewar. The BEE boards were designed to be simple and small as long as to achieve the readout time within 10 seconds. The production of the system has been finished, and the full set of the boards are being tested with several CCDs installed in the HSC dewar. We will show the system design, performance, and the current status of the development.

  11. Observations of HCN associated with TX Cam and IK Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    1999-12-01

    I present observations of HCN associated with the oxygen-rich stars TX Cam and IK Tau. These observations were obtained with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory millimeter array telescope, funded in part by the National Science Foundation. The distribution of HCN near these evolved stars is generally spherical in nature although mildly asymmetric. The emission is optically thick and therefore quantitative interpretation is difficult. It is clear from the images that the HCN is centrally peaked in every channel and clearly does not exist in a shell-like distribution. The overall diameter of the emission is about 750 AU for IK Tau and 940 AU for TX Cam, assuming distances of 260 pc (Loup et al. 1993) and 280 pc (Knapp et al. 1998) respectively. How oxygen-rich stars can exhibit emission from carbon-based molecules has long challenged chemical models for these sources. Charnley et al. (1995) proposed a chemical model, which also predicted the presence of C2H and CH3OH in detectable quantities. Charnley et al. (1997) subsequently used the NRAO 12-m to show that these molecules do not exist in detectable quantities near these stars. I confirm this result using interferometric observations, which are more sensitive to compact distributions of gas.

  12. Status of the CAMS-BeNeLux network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggemans, P.; Johannink, C.; Breukers, M.

    2016-01-01

    An overview is being given of the further expansion of the CAMS@BeNeLux network since previous IMC, July 2015 until May 2016. The weather proved less favorable than in the year before, but thanks to a number of new cameras and extra observing stations, the overall performance of the network remained at the same level in spite of the often poor weather circumstances. This paper compares the Kappa-Cygnids performance of 2015 with the analyses made for the 2014 data, following the same methodology. In 2015 the Kappa Cygnids were remarkable absent which confirms the periodic nature of the abundant Kappa-Cygnids display in 2014. The CAMS@BeNeLux network was the first to draw attention to enhanced activity of the newly discovered Chi Cygnids meteor shower with 5 accurate orbits in the night of 14-15 September 2015. A search through a selection of all orbits of September 2015 yield 71 possible Chi Cygnid orbits of which 18 were selected to calculate the average orbital elements.

  13. Rational redesign of the biodegradative enzyme cytochrome P450 cam:

    SciTech Connect

    Ornstein, R.; Paulsen, M.; Bass, M.; Arnold, G.

    1991-03-01

    Cytochromes P450, a superfamily of monooxygenase enzymes present in all kingdoms of living organisms, are very versatile with respect to substrate range and catalytic functionality. Many recalcitrant halogenated hydrocarbons, on DOE sites and throughout the nation, result in serious environmental impact. Cytochromes P450 have been shown to be catalytically capable of, at least partial, dehalogenation of some such compounds. Clearly, however, their active site stereochemistry and related functional components are not well suited for this role because the rates of dehalogenation are generally rather modest. The evolution of modified active site and access channel structures may proceed very slowly if multiple genetic changes are simultaneously required for enzyme adaptation. Since each mutational event is by itself a rare event, a basic premise of our research is that designing multiple changes into an enzyme may be more timely than waiting for them to occur biologically either via natural selection or under laboratory-controlled conditions. Starting with available high-resolution x-ray crystal structures, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the basic structure/function principles and conformational fluctuations of the biodegradative enzyme, cytochrome P450cam (camphor hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida) and active site mutants, to provide the fundamental understanding necessary for rational engineering of the enzyme for modified substrate specificity. In the present paper, we review our progress to data, in the area of molecular dynamics simulations and active site redesign of P450cam. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  14. The ExoMars PanCam Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Andrew; Coates, Andrew; Muller, Jan-Peter; Jaumann, Ralf; Josset, Jean-Luc; Paar, Gerhard; Barnes, David

    2010-05-01

    The ExoMars mission has evolved into a joint European-US mission to deliver a trace gas orbiter and a pair of rovers to Mars in 2016 and 2018 respectively. The European rover will carry the Pasteur exobiology payload including the 1.56 kg Panoramic Camera. PanCam will provide multispectral stereo images with 34 deg horizontal field-of-view (580 microrad/pixel) Wide-Angle Cameras (WAC) and (83 microrad/pixel) colour monoscopic "zoom" images with 5 deg horizontal field-of-view High Resolution Camera (HRC). The stereo Wide Angle Cameras (WAC) are based on Beagle 2 Stereo Camera System heritage [1]. Integrated with the WACs and HRC into the PanCam optical bench (which helps the instrument meet its planetary protection requirements) is the PanCam interface unit (PIU); which provides image storage, a Spacewire interface to the rover and DC-DC power conversion. The Panoramic Camera instrument is designed to fulfil the digital terrain mapping requirements of the mission [2] as well as providing multispectral geological imaging, colour and stereo panoramic images and solar images for water vapour abundance and dust optical depth measurements. The High Resolution Camera (HRC) can be used for high resolution imaging of interesting targets detected in the WAC panoramas and of inaccessible locations on crater or valley walls. Additionally HRC will be used to observe retrieved subsurface samples before ingestion into the rest of the Pasteur payload. In short, PanCam provides the overview and context for the ExoMars experiment locations, required to enable the exobiology aims of the mission. In addition to these baseline capabilities further enhancements are possible to PanCam to enhance it's effectiveness for astrobiology and planetary exploration: 1. Rover Inspection Mirror (RIM) 2. Organics Detection by Fluorescence Excitation (ODFE) LEDs [3-6] 3. UVIS broadband UV Flux and Opacity Determination (UVFOD) photodiode This paper will discuss the scientific objectives and resource

  15. A new variable-resolution associative memory for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Annovi, A.; Amerio, S.; Beretta, M.; Bossini, E.; Crescioli, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; Giannetti, P.; Hoff, J.; Liu, T.; Magalotti, D.; Piendibene, M.; Sacco, I.; Schoening, A.; Soltveit, H. K.; Stabile, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Liberali, V.; Vitillo, R.; Volpi, G.

    2011-07-01

    We describe an important advancement for the Associative Memory device (AM). The AM is a VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Content Addressable Memory (CAM) architecture. The AM is optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. Pattern matching is carried out by finding track candidates in coarse resolution 'roads'. A large AM bank stores all trajectories of interest, called 'patterns', for a given detector resolution. The AM extracts roads compatible with a given event during detector read-out. Two important variables characterize the quality of the AM bank: its 'coverage' and the level of fake roads. The coverage, which describes the geometric efficiency of a bank, is defined as the fraction of tracks that match at least one pattern in the bank. Given a certain road size, the coverage of the bank can be increased just adding patterns to the bank, while the number of fakes unfortunately is roughly proportional to the number of patterns in the bank. Moreover, as the luminosity increases, the fake rate increases rapidly because of the increased silicon occupancy. To counter that, we must reduce the width of our roads. If we decrease the road width using the current technology, the system will become very large and extremely expensive. We propose an elegant solution to this problem: the 'variable resolution patterns'. Each pattern and each detector layer within a pattern will be able to use the optimal width, but we will use a 'don't care' feature (inspired from ternary CAMs) to increase the width when that is more appropriate. In other words we can use patterns of variable shape. As a result we reduce the number of fake roads, while keeping the efficiency high and avoiding excessive bank size due to the reduced width. We describe the idea, the implementation in the new AM design and the implementation of the algorithm in the simulation. Finally we show the effectiveness of the 'variable resolution patterns' idea using simulated

  16. Memory-based parallel data output controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A memory-based parallel data output controller employs associative memories and memory mapping to decommutate multiple channels of telemetry data. The output controller contains a random access memory (RAM) which has at least as many address locations as there are channels. A word counter addresses the RAM which provides as it outputs an encoded peripheral device number and a MSB/LSB-first flag. The encoded device number and a bit counter address a second RAM which contains START and STOP flags to pick out the required bits from the specified word number. The LSB/MSB, START and STOP flags, along with the serial input digital data go to a control block which selectively fills a shift register used to drive the parallel data output bus.

  17. Evolution of a CAM anatomy predates the origins of Crassulacean acid metabolism in the Agavoideae (Asparagaceae).

    PubMed

    Heyduk, Karolina; McKain, Michael R; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, James

    2016-12-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a modified form of photosynthesis that has arisen independently at least 35 times in flowering plants. The occurrence of CAM is often correlated with shifts to arid, semiarid, or epiphytic habits, as well as transitions in leaf morphology (e.g. increased leaf thickness) and anatomy (e.g. increased cell size and packing). We assess shifts between C3 and CAM photosynthesis in the subfamily Agavoideae (Asparagaceae) through phylogenetic analysis of targeted loci captured from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of over 60 species. Carbon isotope data was used as a proxy for mode of photosynthesis in extant species and ancestral states were estimated on the phylogeny. Ancestral character state mapping suggests three independent origins of CAM in the Agavoideae. CAM species differ from C3 species in climate space and are found to have thicker leaves with densely packed cells. C3 ancestors of CAM species show a predisposition toward CAM-like morphology. Leaf characteristics in the ancestral C3 species may have enabled the repeated evolution of CAM in the Agavoideae subfamily. Anatomical changes, including a tendency toward 3D venation, may have initially arisen in C3 ancestors in response to aridity as a way to increase leaf succulence for water storage. PMID:27591171

  18. Overview of ChemCam Activities and Discoveries During 4 Years at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Cousin, A.

    2016-08-01

    The ChemCam instrument on NASA’s MSL rover has been successfully analyzing materials on the martian surface since the rover’s landing in August 2012. Since then, the rover drove more than 13km and over 330.000 ChemCam LIBS spectra were recorded.

  19. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christon, Lillian M.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may elect to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments with their children in place of, or in addition to, conventional treatments. CAM treatments are controversial and understudied and, for most, the efficacy has not been established. The current study (n = 248) examined…

  20. ChemCam Investigation of the John Klein and Cumberland Drill Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. S.; Wiens, R. C.; Newsom, H. E.; Vaniman, D. T.; Williams, J. M.

    2014-07-01

    Geochemical investigation by MSL’s ChemCam of drill tailings taken from the Sheepbed Mudstone, comparing and contrasting the composition of the substrate and the tailings as well as elemental chemistry from ChemCam and mineralogy observed by CheMin.

  1. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  2. Wetting Experiments with a "Web Cam" in an Undergraduate Student Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritacco, Hernan

    2006-01-01

    A simple, low-cost experiment to demonstrate the wetting dynamics of liquids on solid surfaces is described, where a "Web cam" is used to measure the expansion of the drop as a function of time. The advantage of a Web cam is its low cost, which permits an individual setup per student and the results obtained from the students with these devices…

  3. L1CAM whole gene deletion in a child with L1 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chidsey, Brandalyn A; Baldwin, Erin E; Toydemir, Reha; Ahles, Lauren; Hanson, Heather; Stevenson, David A

    2014-06-01

    L1 syndrome is a group of overlapping, X-linked disorders caused by mutations in L1CAM. Clinical phenotypes within L1 syndrome include X-linked hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius (HSAS); mental retardation, adducted thumbs, shuffling gait, and aphasia (MASA) syndrome; spastic paraplegia type 1; and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Over 200 mutations in L1CAM have been reported; however, only a few large gene deletions have been observed. We report on a 4-month-old male with a de novo whole gene deletion of L1CAM presenting with congenital hydrocephalus, aqueductal stenosis, and adducted thumbs. Initial failure of L1CAM gene sequencing suggested the possibility of a whole gene deletion of L1CAM. Further investigation through chromosome microarray analysis showed a 62Kb deletion encompassing the first exon of the PDZD4 gene and the entire L1CAM gene. Investigations into genotype-phenotype correlations have suggested that mutations leading to truncated or absent L1 protein cause more severe forms of L1 syndrome. Based on the presentation of the proband and other reported patients with whole gene deletions, we provide further evidence that L1CAM whole gene deletions result in L1 syndrome with a severe phenotype, deletions of PDZD4 do not cause additional manifestations, and that X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus reported in a subset of patients with large L1CAM deletions results from the loss of AVPR2. PMID:24668863

  4. Remission after Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Findings from the CAMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…

  5. Generation, characterization and preclinical studies of a human anti-L1CAM monoclonal antibody that cross-reacts with rodent L1CAM.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seulki; Park, Insoo; Kim, Haejung; Jeong, Mun Sik; Lim, Mooney; Lee, Eung Suk; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Semi; Hong, Hyo Jeong

    2016-01-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is aberrantly expressed in malignant tumors and plays important roles in tumor progression. Thus, L1CAM could serve as a therapeutic target and anti-L1CAM antibodies may have potential as anticancer agents. However, L1CAM is expressed in neural cells and the druggability of anti-L1AM antibody must be validated at the earliest stages of preclinical study. Here, we generated a human monoclonal antibody that is cross-reactive with mouse L1CAM and evaluated its pharmacokinetic properties and anti-tumor efficacy in rodent models. First, we selected an antibody (Ab4) that binds human and mouse L1CAM from the human naïve Fab library using phage display, then increased its affinity 45-fold through mutation of 3 residues in the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) to generate Ab4M. Next, the affinity of Ab4M was increased 1.8-fold by yeast display of single-chain variable fragment containing randomly mutated light chain CDR3 to generate Ab417. The affinities (KD) of Ab417 for human and mouse L1CAM were 0.24 nM and 79.16 pM, respectively. Ab417 specifically bound the Ig5 domain of L1CAM and did not exhibit off-target activity, but bound to the peripheral nerves embedded in normal human tissues as expected in immunohistochemical analysis. In a pharmacokinetics study, the mean half-life of Ab417 was 114.49 h when a single dose (10 mg/kg) was intravenously injected into SD rats. Ab417 significantly inhibited tumor growth in a human cholangiocarcinoma xenograft nude mouse model and did not induce any adverse effect in in vivo studies. Thus, Ab417 may have potential as an anticancer agent. PMID:26785809

  6. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  7. Fueling Memories

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Pollizzi, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of the adaptive immune response is rapid and robust activation upon rechallenge. In the current issue of Immunity van der Windt et al. (2012) provide an important link between mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the development of CD8+ T cell memory. PMID:22284413

  8. Memory Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassebaum, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

  9. Autobiographical memory functioning among abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children: The overgeneral memory effect

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Kristin; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-01-01

    Background This investigation addresses whether there are differences in the form and content of autobiographical memory recall as a function of maltreatment, and examines the roles of self-system functioning and psychopathology in autobiographical memory processes. Methods Autobiographical memory for positive and negative nontraumatic events was evaluated among abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated school-aged children. Results Abused children’s memories were more overgeneral and contained more negative self-representations than did those of the nonmaltreated children. Negative self-representations and depression were significantly related to overgeneral memory, but did not mediate the relation between abuse and overgeneral memory. Conclusions The meaning of these findings for models of memory and for the development of overgenerality is emphasized. Moreover, the clinical implications of the current research are discussed. PMID:19490313

  10. A Cerebellar-model Associative Memory as a Generalized Random-access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1989-01-01

    A versatile neural-net model is explained in terms familiar to computer scientists and engineers. It is called the sparse distributed memory, and it is a random-access memory for very long words (for patterns with thousands of bits). Its potential utility is the result of several factors: (1) a large pattern representing an object or a scene or a moment can encode a large amount of information about what it represents; (2) this information can serve as an address to the memory, and it can also serve as data; (3) the memory is noise tolerant--the information need not be exact; (4) the memory can be made arbitrarily large and hence an arbitrary amount of information can be stored in it; and (5) the architecture is inherently parallel, allowing large memories to be fast. Such memories can become important components of future computers.

  11. Light to liquid fuel: theoretical and realized energy conversion efficiency of plants using crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in arid conditions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sarah C; LeBauer, David S; Long, Stephen P

    2014-07-01

    There has been little attention paid to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mechanism for bioenergy crop tolerance to water limitation, in part, because potential yields of CAM plants have been assumed to be lower than those of most commonly studied bioenergy crops. The photochemical efficiency, water-use efficiency (WUE), biomass production, and fuel yield potentials of CAM, C3, and C4 plants that are considered or already in use for bioenergy are reviewed here. The theoretical photosynthetic efficiency of CAM plants can be similar to or greater than other photosynthetic pathways. In arid conditions, the greater WUE of CAM species results in theoretical biomass yield potentials that are 147% greater than C4 species. The realized yields of CAM plants are similar to the theoretical yields that account for water-limiting conditions. CAM plants can potentially be viable commercial bioenergy crops, but additional direct yield measurements from field trials of CAM species are still needed. PMID:24744431

  12. Transposon-mediated mobilization of chromosomally located catabolic operons of the CAM plasmid by TOL plasmid transposon Tn4652 and CAM plasmid transposon Tn3614.

    PubMed

    Mäe, A A; Heinaru, A L

    1994-04-01

    The CAM (camphor degradation) plasmid is integrated into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida PaW-line strains and is not self-transferable as a plasmid via conjugation. Our results show that the mobilization of chromosomally located CAM and the integration of cam-operons into the chromosome of the new Cam+ transconjugants is a recA-independent process mediated by transposons Tn4652 (17 kbp) and Tn3614 (7.2 kbp). Transposon Tn3614 is apparently identical to the left-hand and the right-hand sequences of the TOL plasmid pWW0 transposon Tn4654. The insertion of Tn401 inside the left-hand terminal IR of Tn4652 completely inhibited the mobilization of CAM. According to our data transposons Tn4652 and Tn3614 together with CAM plasmid catabolic operons are integrated into the chromosome. We propose that in pseudomonads the transposons Tn4652 and Tn3614 play a key role in the evolution and spread of new catabolic plasmids in nature. PMID:8012608

  13. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  14. Australia lacks stem succulents but is it depauperate in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)?

    PubMed

    Holtum, Joseph Am; Hancock, Lillian P; Edwards, Erika J; Crisp, Michael D; Crayn, Darren M; Sage, Rowan; Winter, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    In the flora of Australia, the driest vegetated continent, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), the most water-use efficient form of photosynthesis, is documented in only 0.6% of native species. Most are epiphytes and only seven terrestrial. However, much of Australia is unsurveyed, and carbon isotope signature, commonly used to assess photosynthetic pathway diversity, does not distinguish between plants with low-levels of CAM and C3 plants. We provide the first census of CAM for the Australian flora and suggest that the real frequency of CAM in the flora is double that currently known, with the number of terrestrial CAM species probably 10-fold greater. Still unresolved is the question why the large stem-succulent life - form is absent from the native Australian flora even though exotic large cacti have successfully invaded and established in Australia.

  15. [Memory and trauma impact: a development approach].

    PubMed

    Moura, Maria; Estrada, José

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the main neuroanatomic structures and the neurotransmission process involved at memory. Memory is dynamic based on the reunion of aspects of neuronal activation, in a process based on the individual experiences. It will be described the importance of limbic regions and their interaction during processing, codification and consolidation of a memory - each one related with neuronal rebuild. Further the authors describe the memory types known (explicit and implicit memories); the characteristics and their progress during normal development. It will be addressed other issues like child amnesia, retrieval and trauma. Forgetting is one of the essential features at explicit memory. Many studies describe a U inverted effect at memories with emotional value. Events with moderate or elevated emotional intensity are printed as important (by limbic structures like amygdala and orbito-frontal cortex) being more easily recorded. If the experience is very intense the explicit memory codification processing at hippocampus will be inhibited and as a consequence also does the retrieval. Meanwhile the implicit memory will remain and may constitute pathologic memories. The psychological trauma blocks the explicit memory processing which will jeopardize the cortical consolidation of the traumatic experience. Focus on trauma an important question is memory precision and the impact of trauma, on a neurophysiologic and psychopathologic way. Trauma and stress aren't inoffensive because their presence will induce pathological neuronal rebuilding (myelination, synapse formation, neurogenesis) at main memory structures like amygdala or hippocampus. When the nature of the changes is irreversible the explicit memory processing, learning and Psychiatry syndromes may arouse, for example: Mood and Anxiety disorders (including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder); Personality Disorders; Dissociative disorders; Psychosis.

  16. [Memory and trauma impact: a development approach].

    PubMed

    Moura, Maria; Estrada, José

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the main neuroanatomic structures and the neurotransmission process involved at memory. Memory is dynamic based on the reunion of aspects of neuronal activation, in a process based on the individual experiences. It will be described the importance of limbic regions and their interaction during processing, codification and consolidation of a memory - each one related with neuronal rebuild. Further the authors describe the memory types known (explicit and implicit memories); the characteristics and their progress during normal development. It will be addressed other issues like child amnesia, retrieval and trauma. Forgetting is one of the essential features at explicit memory. Many studies describe a U inverted effect at memories with emotional value. Events with moderate or elevated emotional intensity are printed as important (by limbic structures like amygdala and orbito-frontal cortex) being more easily recorded. If the experience is very intense the explicit memory codification processing at hippocampus will be inhibited and as a consequence also does the retrieval. Meanwhile the implicit memory will remain and may constitute pathologic memories. The psychological trauma blocks the explicit memory processing which will jeopardize the cortical consolidation of the traumatic experience. Focus on trauma an important question is memory precision and the impact of trauma, on a neurophysiologic and psychopathologic way. Trauma and stress aren't inoffensive because their presence will induce pathological neuronal rebuilding (myelination, synapse formation, neurogenesis) at main memory structures like amygdala or hippocampus. When the nature of the changes is irreversible the explicit memory processing, learning and Psychiatry syndromes may arouse, for example: Mood and Anxiety disorders (including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder); Personality Disorders; Dissociative disorders; Psychosis. PMID:20654262

  17. Experimental vortex transitional nondestructive read-out Josephson memory cell

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, S.; Ishida, I.; Ajisawa, Y.; Wada, Y.

    1989-01-15

    A proposal vortex transitional nondestructive read-out Josephson memory cell is successfully fabricated and tested. The memory cell consists of two superconducting loops in which a single flux quantum is stored and a two-junction interferometer gate as a sense gate. The memory cell employs vortex transitions in the superconducting loops for writing and reading data. The vortex transitional memory operation of the cell contributes to improving its sense discrimination and operating margin. The memory cell is activated by two control signals without timing control signals. Memory cell chips have been fabricated using a niobium planarization process. A +- 21% address signal current margin and a +- 33% sense gate current margin have been obtained experimentally. Successful memory operations of a cell driven by two-junction interferometer gates has been demonstrated. The single flux quantum operations of this memory cell makes it an attractive basic element for a high-speed cache memory.

  18. Effector Roles of Putidaredoxin on Cytochrome P450cam Conformational States.

    PubMed

    Liou, Shu-Hao; Mahomed, Mavish; Lee, Young-Tae; Goodin, David B

    2016-08-17

    In this study, the effector role of Pdx (putidaredoxin) on cytochrome P450cam conformation is refined by attaching two different spin labels, MTSL or BSL (bifunctional spin-label) onto the F or G helices and using DEER (double electron-electron resonance) to measure the distance between labels. Recent EPR and crystallographic studies have observed that oxidized Pdx induces substrate-bound P450cam to change from the closed to the open state. However, this change was not observed by DEER in the reduced Pdx complex with carbon-monoxide-bound P450cam (Fe(2+)CO). In addition, recent NMR studies have failed to observe a change in P450cam conformation upon binding Pdx. Hence, resolving these issues is important for a full understanding the effector role of Pdx. Here we show that oxidized Pdx induces camphor-bound P450cam to shift from the closed to the open conformation when labeled on either the F or G helices with MTSL. BSL at these sites can either narrow the distance distribution widths dramatically or alter the extent of the conformational change. In addition, we report DEER spectra on a mixed oxidation state containing oxidized Pdx and ferrous CO-bound P450cam, showing that P450cam remains closed. This indicates that CO binding to the heme prevents P450cam from opening, overriding the influence exerted by Pdx binding. Finally, we report the open form P450cam crystal structure with substrate bound, which suggests that crystal packing effects may prevent conformational conversion. Using multiple labeling approaches, DEER provides a unique perspective to resolve how the conformation of P450cam depends on Pdx and ligand states. PMID:27452076

  19. Overexpression of EpCAM and Trop2 in pituitary adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Pang, Bo; Liang, Yu; Xu, Shang-Chen; Xin, Tao; Fan, Hai-Tao; Yu, Yan-Bing; Pang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    We sought to investigate the expression of EpCAM and Trop2 in Pituitary adenomas (PAs) and study the correlation of protein expression with invasiveness, proliferation, clinical functioning, recurrence/progression, and some other factors. We investigated the expression of EpCAM and Trop2 in 74 samples of PAs by immunohistochemistry and made correlative analysis of protein overexpression with clinicopathological parameters. Follow-up data was analyzed for recurrence/progression with Kaplan-Meier method and Multivariate Cox regression analysis. Immunohistochemistry results showed that overexpression rates of EpCAM and Trop2 were 51/74 (68.9%) and 43/74 (58.1%), respectively. For both EpCAM and Trop2, PAs with invasiveness showed a higher overexpression rate than PAs without invasiveness (PEpCAM = 0.001; PTrop2 = 0.006). Nonfunctional Pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) demonstrated a higher EpCAM overexpression than functional Pituitary adenomas (FPAs) (P = 0.026). Both EpCAM and Trop2 overexpression correlated significantly with expression of proliferation factor Ki-67 (PEpCAM = 0.011; PTrop2 = 0.000), but not with gender and age. Follow-up analysis revealed that Trop2 overexpression was a significantly predictive factor for recurrence/progression by means of Kaplan-Meier method d (P = 0.028) and Multivariate Cox regression analysis (P = 0.025). This study reveals that both EpCAM and Trop2 overexpression in PAs correlate significantly with invasiveness and proliferation. EpCAM presents a potential target for differential diagnosis and immunotherapy for NFPAs. Follow-up analysis shows that Trop2 is a predictive factor for recurrence/progression for PAs. PMID:25550831

  20. CAM Use in Pediatric Neurology: An Exploration of Concurrent Use with Conventional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Galicia-Connolly, Elaine; Adams, Denise; Bateman, Justin; Dagenais, Simon; Clifford, Tammy; Baydala, Lola; King, W. James; Vohra, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found that up to 60% of children with neurologic conditions have tried complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Objective To assess the use of CAM among patients presenting to neurology clinics at two academic centers in Canada. Methods A survey instrument was developed to inquire about use of CAM products and therapies, including reasons for use, perceived helpfulness, and concurrent use with conventional medicine, and administered to patients or their parents/guardians at the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) in Ottawa. Results Overall CAM use at the Stollery was 78%, compared to 48% at CHEO. The most common CAM products used were multi-vitamins (84%), vitamin C (37%), homeopathic remedies (24%), and fish oil/omega 3 s (22%). The most common CAM practices used were massage (47%), chiropractic (37%), faith healing (18%), aromatherapy (16%), homeopathy (16%), and relaxation (16%). Many patients used CAM products at the same time as conventional medicine but just over half (57%) discussed this concurrent use with their physician. Conclusion CAM use is common in pediatric neurology patients and most respondents felt that it was helpful, with few or no harms associated. However, this use is often undisclosed, increasing possibility of interactions with conventional drugs. We urge clinicians to inquire about CAM use during routine history taking at every patient visit. Parents would clearly like more information about CAM from their specialty clinics; such information would be easier to share if more primary data were available about the safety and effectiveness of commonly used therapies. PMID:24736474

  1. Effector Roles of Putidaredoxin on Cytochrome P450cam Conformational States.

    PubMed

    Liou, Shu-Hao; Mahomed, Mavish; Lee, Young-Tae; Goodin, David B

    2016-08-17

    In this study, the effector role of Pdx (putidaredoxin) on cytochrome P450cam conformation is refined by attaching two different spin labels, MTSL or BSL (bifunctional spin-label) onto the F or G helices and using DEER (double electron-electron resonance) to measure the distance between labels. Recent EPR and crystallographic studies have observed that oxidized Pdx induces substrate-bound P450cam to change from the closed to the open state. However, this change was not observed by DEER in the reduced Pdx complex with carbon-monoxide-bound P450cam (Fe(2+)CO). In addition, recent NMR studies have failed to observe a change in P450cam conformation upon binding Pdx. Hence, resolving these issues is important for a full understanding the effector role of Pdx. Here we show that oxidized Pdx induces camphor-bound P450cam to shift from the closed to the open conformation when labeled on either the F or G helices with MTSL. BSL at these sites can either narrow the distance distribution widths dramatically or alter the extent of the conformational change. In addition, we report DEER spectra on a mixed oxidation state containing oxidized Pdx and ferrous CO-bound P450cam, showing that P450cam remains closed. This indicates that CO binding to the heme prevents P450cam from opening, overriding the influence exerted by Pdx binding. Finally, we report the open form P450cam crystal structure with substrate bound, which suggests that crystal packing effects may prevent conformational conversion. Using multiple labeling approaches, DEER provides a unique perspective to resolve how the conformation of P450cam depends on Pdx and ligand states.

  2. Dynamic Organization of Hierarchical Memories.

    PubMed

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, external objects are categorized in a hierarchical way. Although it is widely accepted that objects are represented as static attractors in neural state space, this view does not take account interaction between intrinsic neural dynamics and external input, which is essential to understand how neural system responds to inputs. Indeed, structured spontaneous neural activity without external inputs is known to exist, and its relationship with evoked activities is discussed. Then, how categorical representation is embedded into the spontaneous and evoked activities has to be uncovered. To address this question, we studied bifurcation process with increasing input after hierarchically clustered associative memories are learned. We found a "dynamic categorization"; neural activity without input wanders globally over the state space including all memories. Then with the increase of input strength, diffuse representation of higher category exhibits transitions to focused ones specific to each object. The hierarchy of memories is embedded in the transition probability from one memory to another during the spontaneous dynamics. With increased input strength, neural activity wanders over a narrower state space including a smaller set of memories, showing more specific category or memory corresponding to the applied input. Moreover, such coarse-to-fine transitions are also observed temporally during transient process under constant input, which agrees with experimental findings in the temporal cortex. These results suggest the hierarchy emerging through interaction with an external input underlies hierarchy during transient process, as well as in the spontaneous activity. PMID:27618549

  3. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence. PMID:26257650

  4. Is memory for music special?

    PubMed

    Schulkind, Matthew D

    2009-07-01

    Although psychologists since Hermann Ebbinghaus have studied memory, research in this area has focused on visual and verbal stimuli with little attention paid to music. This bias is surprising because of the ubiquity of music in human cultures across history as well as current cultural beliefs that memory for music is "special." This paper examines the question of whether memory for music is special by addressing two related questions: First, do cultural beliefs about the mnemonic power of music stand up to empirical test? Second, can theories designed to explain memory for non-musical stimuli be applied to musical stimuli? A review of the literature suggests that music is special in some circumstances but not others and that some theories designed to explain cognitive processing of linguistic stimuli apply reasonably well to musical stimuli. Thus, although the question of whether memory for music is special remains open, the unique structure of musical stimuli strongly suggests that memory for music is indeed special. PMID:19673785

  5. Dynamic Organization of Hierarchical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, external objects are categorized in a hierarchical way. Although it is widely accepted that objects are represented as static attractors in neural state space, this view does not take account interaction between intrinsic neural dynamics and external input, which is essential to understand how neural system responds to inputs. Indeed, structured spontaneous neural activity without external inputs is known to exist, and its relationship with evoked activities is discussed. Then, how categorical representation is embedded into the spontaneous and evoked activities has to be uncovered. To address this question, we studied bifurcation process with increasing input after hierarchically clustered associative memories are learned. We found a “dynamic categorization”; neural activity without input wanders globally over the state space including all memories. Then with the increase of input strength, diffuse representation of higher category exhibits transitions to focused ones specific to each object. The hierarchy of memories is embedded in the transition probability from one memory to another during the spontaneous dynamics. With increased input strength, neural activity wanders over a narrower state space including a smaller set of memories, showing more specific category or memory corresponding to the applied input. Moreover, such coarse-to-fine transitions are also observed temporally during transient process under constant input, which agrees with experimental findings in the temporal cortex. These results suggest the hierarchy emerging through interaction with an external input underlies hierarchy during transient process, as well as in the spontaneous activity. PMID:27618549

  6. Reconsolidation of memory: a decade of debate.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Antoine; Caboche, Jocelyne; Laroche, Serge

    2012-10-01

    Memory consolidation refers to a slow process that stabilises a memory trace after initial acquisition of novel events. The consolidation theory posits that once a memory is stored in the brain, it remains fixed for the lifetime of the memory. However, compelling evidence has suggested that upon recall, memories can re-enter a state of transient instability, requiring further stabilisation to be available once again for recall. Since its rehabilitation in the past ten years, this process of reconsolidation of memory after recall stimulated intense debates in the field of cognitive neuroscience. In this review we compile this plentiful literature with a particular emphasis on some of the key questions that have emerged from the reconsolidation theory. We focus on tracing the characterisation of the boundary conditions that constrain the occurrence of memory reconsolidation. We also discuss accumulating evidence supporting the idea that reconsolidation, as implied by its definition, is not a mere repetition of consolidation. We review seminal studies that uncovered specific mechanisms recruited during reconsolidation that are not always crucially involved in consolidation. We next address the physiological significance of reconsolidation since several lines of evidence support the idea that reconsolidation, as opposed to consolidation, may offer a unique opportunity to update memories. We finally discuss recent evidence for or against the potential that the process of memory reconsolidation offers for ongoing efforts to develop novel strategies to combat pathogenic memories. PMID:22877586

  7. Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use among Ivy League College Students: Implications for Student Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versnik Nowak, Amy L.; DeGise, Joe; Daugherty, Amanda; O'Keefe, Richard; Seward, Samuel, Jr.; Setty, Suma; Tang, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Determine prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies used and test the significance of demographics and social cognitive constructs as predictors of CAM use in a college sample. Secondary purpose was to guide the integration of CAM therapies into college health services. Participants: Random,…

  8. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use during Menopause in Sydney and Bologna

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluijs, Corinne; Lombardo, Flavia L.; Lesi, Grazia; Bensoussan, Alan; Cardini, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background. Previous surveys found CAM use during menopause to be popular. This paper compares the results from two surveys (Sydney and Bologna) to examine factors that determine the extent and pattern of CAM use to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Methods. Women, aged 45–65 years, who were symptomatic when transitioning through menopause or asymptomatic but taking menopause-specific treatments, were recruited in Sydney (n=1,296) and Bologna (n=1,106) to complete the same voluntary, anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. The results were reanalysed using stratified analyses to determine similarities and differences. Results. Demographics of the two cohorts differed significantly. CAM was more popular in Sydney. The most significant determinants of CAM use were the use of CAM for other conditions besides menopause and the severity of vasomotor symptoms. Occupational status was a determinant of CAM use amongst Bologna respondents only. In order to relieve symptoms, Australian and Italian women used different CAM modalities whose effectiveness was generally perceived as good. Conclusion. CAM use is popular amongst menopausal women from Sydney and Bologna. Differences in the patterns of CAM use seem to depend on CAM availability and on the educational level and professional status of users. The complex interaction between market, social, and cultural factors of CAM use seems to be more influential on women's choice of CAM than the available evidence of their effectiveness. PMID:24459531

  9. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) in colonic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE—the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. The aim of the current review is to provide up to date information regarding the use and usefulness of this method in these disease.

  10. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) in colonic diseases.

    PubMed

    Carter, Dan; Eliakim, Rami

    2016-08-01

    Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE-the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease. The aim of the current review is to provide up to date information regarding the use and usefulness of this method in these disease. PMID:27668227

  11. Snake Venom: Any Clue for Antibiotics and CAM?

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Lately several naturally occurring peptides presenting antimicrobial activity have been described in the literature. However, snake venoms, which are an enormous source of peptides, have not been fully explored for searching such molecules. The aim of this work is to review the basis of antimicrobial mechanisms revealing snake venom as a feasible source for searching an antibiotic prototype. Therefore, it includes (i) a description of the constituents of the snake venoms involved in their main biological effects during the envenomation process; (ii) examples of snake venom molecules of commercial use; (iii) mechanisms of action of known antibiotics; and (iv) how the microorganisms can be resistant to antibiotics. This review also shows that snake venoms are not totally unexplored sources for antibiotics and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). PMID:15841277

  12. Using CAD/CAM to improve productivity - The IPAD approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in designing and implementing CAD/CAM systems as a result of the NASA Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design is discussed. Essential software packages have been identified as executive, data management, general user, and geometry and graphics software. Data communication, as a means to integrate data over a network of computers of different vendors, provides data management with the capability of meeting design and manufacturing requirements of the vendors. Geometry software is dependent on developmental success with solid geometry software, which is necessary for continual measurements of, for example, a block of metal while it is being machined. Applications in the aerospace industry, such as for design, analysis, tooling, testing, quality control, etc., are outlined.

  13. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Domm, T.D.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-04-26

    single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Inteznet was a technology that all companies were considering to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for business, as the small firm was doing Successfully. Because PrdEngineer is the de facto CAD standard fbr the NWC, the Benchmark Team targeted companies using Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) software tools. Most of the companies used Pm'Engineer for design to some degree, but found the PTC CAM product, PdManufacture lacking as compared to alternate CAM solutions. All of the companies visited fOund the data exchange between CAD/CAM systems problematic. It was apparent that these companies were trying to consolidate their software tools to reduce translation but had not been able to do so because no single solution had all the needed capabilities. In regard to organizational slructure and human resoukes, two companies were found to be using product or program teams. These teams consisted of the technical staff capable of completing the entire task and were xmintained throughout the project. This same strategy was evident at another of the companies but with more mobility of members. For all eornpanies visited except the small ~ work structure breakdown and responsibility were essentially the same as Y-12's at this time. The functions of numerical control (NC), desi~ and process planning were separate and distinct. The team made numerous recommendations that are detailed in the report.

  14. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) in colonic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE—the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. The aim of the current review is to provide up to date information regarding the use and usefulness of this method in these disease. PMID:27668227

  15. Multi-Gas Forcing Stabilization with the MiniCAM

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Wigley, T. M.

    2006-01-12

    This paper examines the role of climate forcing agents other than carbon dioxide using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases are particularly important through the middle of the 21st century. The addition of non-CO2 greenhouse gases abatement options significantly reduces mitigation costs in the first half of the century as compared to a case where only CO2 abatement options are pursued. Non-CO2 greenhouse gas forcing is dominated by methane and tropospheric ozone. Assumptions about the prevalence of methane recovery and local air pollution controls are a critical determinant of reference forcing from these two gases. While the influence of aerosols are small by the end of the century, there is a significant interaction between a climate policy and aerosol cooling near mid-century such that global-mean climate change to 2050 is practically unaffected by mitigation policy.

  16. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    , between the positive and negative FFET saturation values. This signal value would represent a numerical value of interest corresponding to multiple bits: for example, if the memory circuit were designed to distinguish among 16 different analog values, then each cell could store 4 bits. Simultaneously with writing the signal value in the storage FFET, a negative saturation signal value would be stored in the control FFET. The decay of this control-FFET signal from the saturation value would serve as a model of the decay, for use in regenerating the numerical value of interest from its decaying analog signal value. The memory circuit would include addressing, reading, and writing circuitry that would have features in common with the corresponding parts of other memory circuits, but would also have several distinctive features. The writing circuitry would include a digital-to-analog converter (DAC); the reading circuitry would include an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). For writing a numerical value of interest in a given cell, that cell would be addressed, the saturation value would be written in the control FFET in that cell, and the non-saturation analog value representing the numerical value of interest would be generated by use of the DAC and stored in the storage FFET in that cell. For reading the numerical value of interest stored in a given cell, the cell would be addressed, the ADC would convert the decaying control and storage analog signal values to digital values, and an associated fast digital processing circuit would regenerate the numerical value from digital values.

  17. Hydrogen detection with ChemCam at Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Rapin, W.; Dyar, M. D.; Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Nachon, M.; Clegg, S.; Johnson, J. R.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Ollila, A.; Pinet, P.; Sautter, V.; Vaniman, D.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main advantages of ChemCam's LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover is its potential to detect light elements such as hydrogen at fine scales, which has never been achieved on Mars. Hydrogen lines are detected in most of the data obtained within the first 320 sols of the mission at Gale crater, Mars. This work is a description of the hydrogen signal and its variability in the ChemCam LIBS spectra; it discusses the challenges of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Data acquisition and processing steps are investigated and optimized for the detection of hydrogen on Mars. Subtraction of an appropriate dark spectrum and the deconvolution of the superimposed emission of carbon from the low-pressure CO2-dominated atmosphere are particularly important. Because the intensities of hydrogen are also affected by matrix effects, the hydrogen signal was investigated within groups of targets sharing common chemical features and similar matrices. The different groups cover a variety of rock and soil compositions encountered along the traverse (calcium sulfate veins, mafic soils, felsic, Mg-rich and Fe-rich rocks) including data from both drill holes and their tailings. Almost all these targets were found to be hydrated to variable extents. Soils have systematically higher hydrogen signals than rocks and pebbles, probably as a result of their alteration. The results from rocks suggest that various alteration processes leading to their hydration have taken place, which is consistent with the fluvial lacustrine context, the diagenetic features, and the mineralogy observed by Curiosity in Yellowknife Bay.

  18. The electronic counting arm movement test (eCAM test).

    PubMed

    Bodranghien, Florian; Martin, Claire; Ansay, Caroline; Camut, Stephane; Busegnies, Yves; Manto, Mario

    2015-06-01

    A novel transportable electronic platform aiming to characterize the performance of successive fast vertical visually guided pointing movements toward two fixed targets (eCAM test: electronic counting arm movement test) is described and one validation test is presented. This platform is based on an Arduino(®) micro-controller and a Processing(®) routine. It records both the pointing performance (number of clicks) and the elapsed time between two successive pointing movements. Using this novel platform, we studied the effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied on the dominant upper limb in 15 healthy volunteers (mean age ± SD: 22.3 ± 4.3 years; 5 males/10 females). The following muscles were stimulated: flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii (TB). The intensities of the stimulation were 2 and 3 mA above the sensory threshold (ST). Movement times were lesser when performed against gravity and pointing performance improved with FES. We provide the first demonstration that low-intensity FES impacts on motor performances during successive vertical goal-directed pointing movements under visual guidance. The eCAM test is currently the sole electronic tool to assess quickly and easily the performances of successive vertical pointing movements. Future potential applications include, in particular, the follow-up of the effects of neurorehabilitation of neurological/neurosurgical disorders associated with hand-eye incoordination, the functional evaluation of upper limb prosthesis or orthosis, and the analysis of the effects of FES in central or peripheral nervous system disorders.

  19. Standardizing PhenoCam Image Processing and Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliman, T. E.; Richardson, A. D.; Klosterman, S.; Gray, J. M.; Hufkens, K.; Aubrecht, D.; Chen, M.; Friedl, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The PhenoCam Network (http://phenocam.unh.edu) contains an archive of imagery from digital webcams to be used for scientific studies of phenological processes of vegetation. The image archive continues to grow and currently has over 4.8 million images representing 850 site-years of data. Time series of broadband reflectance (e.g., red, green, blue, infrared bands) and derivative vegetation indices (e.g. green chromatic coordinate or GCC) are calculated for regions of interest (ROI) within each image series. These time series form the basis for subsequent analysis, such as spring and autumn transition date extraction (using curvature analysis techniques) and modeling the climate-phenology relationship. Processing is relatively straightforward but time consuming, with some sites having more than 100,000 images available. While the PhenoCam Network distributes the original image data, it is our goal to provide higher-level vegetation phenology products, generated in a standardized way, to encourage use of the data without the need to download and analyze individual images. We describe here the details of the standard image processing procedures, and also provide a description of the products that will be available for download. Products currently in development include an "all-image" file, which contains a statistical summary of the red, green and blue bands over the pixels in predefined ROI's for each image from a site. This product is used to generate 1-day and 3-day temporal aggregates with 90th percentile values of GCC for the specified time-periodwith standard image selection/filtering criteria applied. Sample software (in python, R, MATLAB) that can be used to read in and plot these products will also be described.

  20. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning to Address Rapid Change: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caves, J. K.; Bodner, G.; Simms, K.; Fisher, L.; Robertson, T.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision-making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We present the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA), a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: 1) shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; 2) mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision-making; 3) efforts to make information increasingly relevant and reliable; and 4) shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. Yet the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control—including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets—with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. While CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: 1) Creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives which may be crucial from those which may hinder a flexible response to climate change, and 2) Incorporating scenario planning into CAM

  1. A Methodological Framework for Evaluating the Evidence for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zachariae, Robert; Johannessen, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In spite of lacking evidence for effects on cancer progression itself, an increasing number of cancer patients use various types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). There is disagreement between CAM practitioners, researchers and clinical oncologists, as to how evidence concerning effects of CAM can and should be produced, and how the existing evidence should be interpreted. This represents a considerable challenge for oncologists; both in terms of patient needs for an informed dialogue regarding CAM, and because some types of CAM may interact with standard treatments. There is a need for insight into which kinds of CAM may work, for whom they work, what the possible effects and side-effects are, and in what ways such effects may come about. The present article presents a framework for evaluating effects of CAM by suggesting a taxonomy of different levels of evidence related to different types of research questions and discussing the relevance of different research methodologies for different types of effects. PMID:24212640

  2. Use of CAM in local African-American communities: community-partnered research.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Marina C.; Cotroneo, Margaret; Purnell, Joseph; Martin, Danielle; Mackenzie, Elizabeth; Fishman, Alfred

    2003-01-01

    Although previous national surveys have shown an increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the U.S. population, racial and ethnic minority populations were under-represented in these surveys. As a result, a profile of the CAM user as white, female, affluent, middle-aged and well educated has emerged. Representing the mainstream population, these previous studies did not take into account the racial and ethnic minority populations who may have their own healing traditions and who may hold different beliefs, use different terminology, and have unique patterns of CAM use. In partnership with community-based organizations and community residents, a culturally sensitive survey instrument and protocols were designed and tested to gather data on lower income, urban African-Americans' use of, attitudes toward, and understanding of CAM. The major findings of this pilot research are 1.) Community-partnered research can help researchers gain access to sensitive data and design culturally appropriate studies; 2.) CAM terminology varies by cultural group; 3.) Certain forms of CAM (folk or family practices) are commonly found in African-American populations; and 4.) Factors that affect CAM use--including age, lack of access to conventional medicine, cultural heritage, and dissatisfaction with conventional medicine. PMID:14620706

  3. SynCAM 1 Adhesion Dynamically Regulates Synapse Number and Impacts Plasticity and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Elissa M.; Krupp, Alexander J.; de Arce, Karen Perez; Ghosh, Ananda K.; Fogel, Adam I.; Boucard, Antony; Südhof, Thomas C.; Stein, Valentin; Biederer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Summary Synaptogenesis is required for wiring neuronal circuits in the developing brain and continues to remodel adult networks. However, the molecules organizing synapse development and maintenance in vivo remain incompletely understood. We now demonstrate that the immunoglobulin adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 dynamically alters synapse number and plasticity. Overexpression of SynCAM 1 in transgenic mice promotes excitatory synapse number, while loss of SynCAM 1 results in fewer excitatory synapses. By turning off SynCAM 1 overexpression in transgenic brains, we show that it maintains the newly induced synapses. SynCAM 1 also functions at mature synapses to alter their plasticity by regulating long-term depression. Consistent with these effects on neuronal connectivity, SynCAM 1 expression affects spatial learning, with knock-out mice learning better. The reciprocal effects of increased SynCAM 1 expression and loss reveal that this adhesion molecule contributes to the regulation of synapse number and plasticity, and impacts how neuronal networks undergo activity-dependent changes. PMID:21145003

  4. A phylogenetic view of low-level CAM in Pelargonium (Geraniaceae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia S; Cardon, Zoe G; Czaja, Andrew D

    2003-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is common in several plant families and is often associated with succulence. Few studies have examined the occurrence of CAM from a phylogenetic perspective. The genus Pelargonium is promising for such a study because members are characterized by dramatic variation in growth form (including geophytes, shrubs, and stem succulents) and because growth form diversity is expressed to the greatest extent in a monophyletic group comprising 80% of Pelargonium species. This clade, predominantly from the winter rainfall region of southern Africa, likely proliferated in response to Miocene or Pliocene aridification. We present a survey for CAM across Pelargonium, emphasizing the winter rainfall clade. Dawn/dusk fluctuations in titratable acidity were examined in 41 species, with detailed measurements of carbon uptake and stomatal conductance under progressive water stress in four species. No species exhibited obligate CAM. When well-watered, most species exhibited stomatal conductances and acid fluctuations characteristic of C(3) photosynthesis, though some exhibited more pronounced increases in nocturnal acidity, suggesting CAM cycling. In four species examined during dry-down, water stress led to increased nighttime acid levels and decreased daytime stomatal conductance. Ultimately, stomata closed and external carbon uptake ceased, consistent with CAM idling. These results are discussed from the perspective of the evolution of CAM flexibility.

  5. Remembering and telling self-consistent and self-discrepant memories.

    PubMed

    Mutlutürk, Aysu; Tekcan, Ali I

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that memories that are inconsistent with one's self would differ from those that are consistent with the self. The present study addresses retrieval, phenomenology, rehearsal and narrative characteristics of autobiographical memories that are consistent versus discrepant with one's self. One hundred participants were asked to recall one self-consistent and one self-discrepant memory as well as an episode of telling these memories to others. They also filled out the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire and the Centrality of Event Scale for each memory. Results showed no difference between self-consistent and self-discrepant memories in retrieval time, specificity or phenomenology. However, self-discrepant memory narratives contained more meaning-making statements and less autonomy than self-consistent memories. Compared to self-consistent memories, self-discrepant memories were told to fewer people, and listener responses were more negative when they were told. Results are discussed in relation to the functions these memories serve.

  6. Role of L1CAM in the Regulation of the Canonical Wnt Pathway and Class I MAGE Genes.

    PubMed

    Shkurnikov, M Yu; Knyazev, E N; Wicklein, D; Schumacher, U; Samatov, T R; Tonevitskii, A G

    2016-04-01

    Molecule L1CAM is specific for nerve cells and tumors of various localizations. The expression of L1CAM is significantly higher in melanoma in comparison with benign nevi and correlates with the progress of melanoma and transition from radial to vertical growth. Monoclonal antibodies to L1CAM effectively and specifically attenuate melanoma growth, though stimulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. shRNA-mediated knock-down of L1CAM showed the involvement of L1CAM in regulation of activity of the canonical Wnt pathway and expression of genes of class I melanoma-associated antigens (MAGE). PMID:27165065

  7. Modeling the role of working memory and episodic memory in behavioral tasks.

    PubMed

    Zilli, Eric A; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of goal-directed behavior have been studied using reinforcement learning theory, but these theoretical techniques have not often been used to address the role of memory systems in performing behavioral tasks. This work addresses this shortcoming by providing a way in which working memory (WM) and episodic memory may be included in the reinforcement learning framework, then simulating the successful acquisition and performance of six behavioral tasks, drawn from or inspired by the rat experimental literature, that require WM or episodic memory for correct performance. With no delay imposed during the tasks, simulations with WM can solve all of the tasks at above the chance level. When a delay is imposed, simulations with both episodic memory and WM can solve all of the tasks except a disambiguation of odor sequences task.

  8. Estimation of impact damping parameters for a cam-follower system based on measurements and analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Sriram; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-12-01

    A new cam-follower system experiment capable of generating periodic impacts is utilized to estimate the impact damping model parameters. The experiment is designed to precisely measure the forces and acceleration during impulsive events. The impact damping force is described as a product of a damping coefficient, the indentation displacement raised to the power of a damping index, and the time derivative of the indentation displacement. A novel time-domain based technique and a signal processing procedure are developed to accurately estimate the damping coefficient and index. The measurements are compared to the predictions from a corresponding contact mechanics model with trial values of damping parameters on the basis of a particular residue; both parameters are quantified based on the minimization of this residue. The estimated damping parameters are justified using the literature and an equivalent coefficient of restitution model is developed. Also, some unresolved issues regarding the impact damping model are addressed.

  9. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  10. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  11. Spatial data software integration - Merging CAD/CAM/mapping with GIS and image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1987-01-01

    The integration of CAD/CAM/mapping with image processing using geographic information systems (GISs) as the interface is examined. Particular emphasis is given to the development of software interfaces between JPL's Video Image Communication and Retrieval (VICAR)/Imaged Based Information System (IBIS) raster-based GIS and the CAD/CAM/mapping system. The design and functions of the VICAR and IBIS are described. Vector data capture and editing are studied. Various software programs for interfacing between the VICAR/IBIS and CAD/CAM/mapping are presented and analyzed.

  12. Absence of cell-surface EpCAM in congenital tufting enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Ulrike; Kuipers, Jeroen; Mueller, James L.; Veenstra-Algra, Anneke; Sivagnanam, Mamata; Giepmans, Ben N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM; CD326) gene are causal for congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE), a disease characterized by intestinal abnormalities resulting in lethal diarrhea in newborns. Why the different mutations all lead to the same disease is not clear. Here, we report that most mutations, including a novel intronic variant, will result in lack of EpCAM's transmembrane domain, whereas two mutations allow transmembrane localization. We find that these mutants are not routed to the plasma membrane, and that truncated mutants are secreted or degraded. Thus, all epcam mutations lead to loss of cell-surface EpCAM, resulting in CTE. PMID:23462293

  13. Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, George S.; Grafe, Victor Gerald

    1997-01-01

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.

  14. Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.

    1997-10-07

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.

  15. Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, Michael Andrew; Blanchard, Sean P.; Debardeleben, Nathan A.

    2014-07-25

    As supercomputers continue to get faster and more powerful in the future, they will also have more nodes. If nothing is done, then the amount of memory in supercomputer clusters will soon grow large enough that memory failures will be unmanageable to deal with by manually replacing memory DIMMs. "Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux" is a process oriented method to solve this problem by using the Linux kernel to disable (offline) faulty memory pages containing bad addresses, preventing them from being used again by a process. The process of offlining memory pages simplifies error handling and results in reducing both hardware and manpower costs required to run Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) clusters. This process will be necessary for the future of supercomputing to allow the development of exascale computers. It will not be feasible without memory error handling to manually replace the number of DIMMs that will fail daily on a machine consisting of 32-128 petabytes of memory. Testing reveals the process of offlining memory pages works and is relatively simple to use. As more and more testing is conducted, the entire process will be automated within the high-performance computing (HPC) monitoring software, Zenoss, at LANL.

  16. Interaction between categorical knowledge and episodic memory across domains

    PubMed Central

    Hemmer, Pernille; Persaud, Kimele

    2014-01-01

    Categorical knowledge and episodic memory have traditionally been viewed as separate lines of inquiry. Here, we present a perspective on the interrelatedness of categorical knowledge and reconstruction from memory. We address three underlying questions: what knowledge do people bring to the task of remembering? How do people integrate that knowledge with episodic memory? Is this the optimal way for the memory system to work? In the review of five studies spanning four category domains (discrete, continuous, temporal, and linguistic), we evaluate the relative contribution and the structure of influence of categorical knowledge on long-term episodic memory. These studies suggest a robustness of peoples’ knowledge of the statistical regularities of the environment, and provide converging evidence of the quality and influence of category knowledge on reconstructive memory. Lastly, we argue that combining categorical knowledge and episodic memory is an efficient strategy of the memory system. PMID:24966848

  17. Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2000: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings for the Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2000 that was held on November 15-16, 2000 in Arlington, Virginia. The proceedings contains a wide range of papers that cover the presentations of myriad advances in the nonvolatile memory technology during the recent past including memory cell design, simulations, radiation environment, and emerging memory technologies. The papers presented in the proceedings address the design challenges and applications and deals with newer, emerging memory technologies as well as related issues of radiation environment and die packaging.

  18. Memory and law: what can cognitive neuroscience contribute?

    PubMed

    Schacter, Daniel L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-02-01

    A recent decision in the United States by the New Jersey Supreme Court has led to improved jury instructions that incorporate psychological research showing that memory does not operate like a video recording. Here we consider how cognitive neuroscience could contribute to addressing memory in the courtroom. We discuss conditions in which neuroimaging can distinguish true and false memories in the laboratory and note reasons to be skeptical about its use in courtroom cases. We also discuss neuroscience research concerning false and imagined memories, misinformation effects and reconsolidation phenomena that may enhance understanding of why memory does not operate like a video recording.

  19. Multiple core computer processor with globally-accessible local memories

    DOEpatents

    Shalf, John; Donofrio, David; Oliker, Leonid

    2016-09-20

    A multi-core computer processor including a plurality of processor cores interconnected in a Network-on-Chip (NoC) architecture, a plurality of caches, each of the plurality of caches being associated with one and only one of the plurality of processor cores, and a plurality of memories, each of the plurality of memories being associated with a different set of at least one of the plurality of processor cores and each of the plurality of memories being configured to be visible in a global memory address space such that the plurality of memories are visible to two or more of the plurality of processor cores.

  20. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Shi; Zhe, Chen; Jie, Yang; Nanjian, Wu; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm2/bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction.

  1. (U) Computation acceleration using dynamic memory

    SciTech Connect

    Hakel, Peter

    2014-10-24

    Many computational applications require the repeated use of quantities, whose calculations can be expensive. In order to speed up the overall execution of the program, it is often advantageous to replace computation with extra memory usage. In this approach, computed values are stored and then, when they are needed again, they are quickly retrieved from memory rather than being calculated again at great cost. Sometimes, however, the precise amount of memory needed to store such a collection is not known in advance, and only emerges in the course of running the calculation. One problem accompanying such a situation is wasted memory space in overdimensioned (and possibly sparse) arrays. Another issue is the overhead of copying existing values to a new, larger memory space, if the original allocation turns out to be insufficient. In order to handle these runtime problems, the programmer therefore has the extra task of addressing them in the code.

  2. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  3. Integer sparse distributed memory: analysis and results.

    PubMed

    Snaider, Javier; Franklin, Stan; Strain, Steve; George, E Olusegun

    2013-10-01

    Sparse distributed memory is an auto-associative memory system that stores high dimensional Boolean vectors. Here we present an extension of the original SDM, the Integer SDM that uses modular arithmetic integer vectors rather than binary vectors. This extension preserves many of the desirable properties of the original SDM: auto-associativity, content addressability, distributed storage, and robustness over noisy inputs. In addition, it improves the representation capabilities of the memory and is more robust over normalization. It can also be extended to support forgetting and reliable sequence storage. We performed several simulations that test the noise robustness property and capacity of the memory. Theoretical analyses of the memory's fidelity and capacity are also presented. PMID:23747569

  4. The Molecular Basis of Memory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We propose a tripartite biochemical mechanism for memory. Three physiologic components are involved, namely, the neuron (individual and circuit), the surrounding neural extracellular matrix, and the various trace metals distributed within the matrix. The binding of a metal cation affects a corresponding nanostructure (shrinking, twisting, expansion) and dielectric sensibility of the chelating node (address) within the matrix lattice, sensed by the neuron. The neural extracellular matrix serves as an electro-elastic lattice, wherein neurons manipulate multiple trace metals (n > 10) to encode, store, and decode coginive information. The proposed mechanism explains brains low energy requirements and high rates of storage capacity described in multiples of Avogadro number (NA = 6 × 1023). Supportive evidence correlates memory loss to trace metal toxicity or deficiency, or breakdown in the delivery/transport of metals to the matrix, or its degradation. Inherited diseases revolving around dysfunctional trace metal metabolism and memory dysfunction, include Alzheimer's disease (Al, Zn, Fe), Wilson’s disease (Cu), thalassemia (Fe), and autism (metallothionein). The tripartite mechanism points to the electro-elastic interactions of neurons with trace metals distributed within the neural extracellular matrix, as the molecular underpinning of “synaptic plasticity” affecting short-term memory, long-term memory, and forgetting. PMID:23050060

  5. The molecular basis of memory.

    PubMed

    Marx, Gerard; Gilon, Chaim

    2012-08-15

    We propose a tripartite biochemical mechanism for memory. Three physiologic components are involved, namely, the neuron (individual and circuit), the surrounding neural extracellular matrix, and the various trace metals distributed within the matrix. The binding of a metal cation affects a corresponding nanostructure (shrinking, twisting, expansion) and dielectric sensibility of the chelating node (address) within the matrix lattice, sensed by the neuron. The neural extracellular matrix serves as an electro-elastic lattice, wherein neurons manipulate multiple trace metals (n > 10) to encode, store, and decode coginive information. The proposed mechanism explains brains low energy requirements and high rates of storage capacity described in multiples of Avogadro number (N(A) = 6 × 10(23)). Supportive evidence correlates memory loss to trace metal toxicity or deficiency, or breakdown in the delivery/transport of metals to the matrix, or its degradation. Inherited diseases revolving around dysfunctional trace metal metabolism and memory dysfunction, include Alzheimer's disease (Al, Zn, Fe), Wilson's disease (Cu), thalassemia (Fe), and autism (metallothionein). The tripartite mechanism points to the electro-elastic interactions of neurons with trace metals distributed within the neural extracellular matrix, as the molecular underpinning of "synaptic plasticity" affecting short-term memory, long-term memory, and forgetting. PMID:23050060

  6. The molecular basis of memory.

    PubMed

    Marx, Gerard; Gilon, Chaim

    2012-08-15

    We propose a tripartite biochemical mechanism for memory. Three physiologic components are involved, namely, the neuron (individual and circuit), the surrounding neural extracellular matrix, and the various trace metals distributed within the matrix. The binding of a metal cation affects a corresponding nanostructure (shrinking, twisting, expansion) and dielectric sensibility of the chelating node (address) within the matrix lattice, sensed by the neuron. The neural extracellular matrix serves as an electro-elastic lattice, wherein neurons manipulate multiple trace metals (n > 10) to encode, store, and decode coginive information. The proposed mechanism explains brains low energy requirements and high rates of storage capacity described in multiples of Avogadro number (N(A) = 6 × 10(23)). Supportive evidence correlates memory loss to trace metal toxicity or deficiency, or breakdown in the delivery/transport of metals to the matrix, or its degradation. Inherited diseases revolving around dysfunctional trace metal metabolism and memory dysfunction, include Alzheimer's disease (Al, Zn, Fe), Wilson's disease (Cu), thalassemia (Fe), and autism (metallothionein). The tripartite mechanism points to the electro-elastic interactions of neurons with trace metals distributed within the neural extracellular matrix, as the molecular underpinning of "synaptic plasticity" affecting short-term memory, long-term memory, and forgetting.

  7. Online Tobacco Cessation Training and Competency Assessment for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Practitioners: Protocol for the CAM Reach Web Study

    PubMed Central

    Howerter, Amy; Eaves, Emery R; Hall, John R; Buller, David B; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, such as chiropractors, acupuncturists, and massage therapists, are a growing presence in the US health care landscape and already provide health and wellness care to significant numbers of patients who use tobacco. For decades, conventional biomedical practitioners have received training to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation brief interventions (BIs) and referrals to cessation services as part of routine clinical care, whereas CAM practitioners have been largely overlooked for BI training. Web-based training has clear potential to meet large-scale training dissemination needs. However, despite the exploding use of Web-based training for health professionals, Web-based evaluation of clinical skills competency remains underdeveloped. Objective In pursuit of a long-term goal of helping CAM practitioners integrate evidence-based practices from US Public Health Service Tobacco Dependence Treatment Guideline into routine clinical care, this pilot protocol aims to develop and test a Web-based tobacco cessation training program tailored for CAM practitioners. Methods In preparation for a larger trial to examine the effect of training on CAM practitioner clinical practice behaviors around tobacco cessation, this developmental study will (1) adapt an existing in-person tobacco cessation BI training program that is specifically tailored for CAM therapists for delivery via the Internet; (2) develop a novel, Web-based tool to assess CAM practitioner competence in tobacco cessation BI skills, and conduct a pilot validation study comparing the competency assessment tool to live video role plays with a standardized patient; (3) pilot test the Web-based training with 120 CAM practitioners (40 acupuncturists, 40 chiropractors, 40 massage therapists) for usability, accessibility, acceptability, and effects on practitioner knowledge, self-efficacy, and competency with tobacco cessation; and (4) conduct

  8. Assessing aerosol indirect effect through ice clouds in CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, Minghuai; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Barahona, Donifan; Kooperman, Gabriel

    2013-05-01

    Ice clouds play an important role in regulating the Earth's radiative budget and influencing the hydrological cycle. Aerosols can act as solution droplets or ice nuclei for ice crystal formation, thus affecting the physical properties of ice clouds. Because the related dynamical and microphysical processes happen at very small spatial and temporal scales, it is a great challenge to accurately represent them in global climate models. Consequently, the aerosol indirect effect through ice clouds (ice AIE) estimated by global climate models is associated with large uncertainties. In order to better understand these processes and improve ice cloud parameterization in the Community Atmospheric Model, version 5 (CAM5), we analyze in-situ measurements from various research campaigns, and use the derived statistical information to evaluate and constrain the model [1]. We also make use of new model capabilities (prescribed aerosols and nudging) to estimate the aerosol indirect effect through ice clouds, and quantify the uncertainties associated with ice nucleation processes. In this study, a new approach is applied to separate the impact of aerosols on warm and cold clouds by using the prescribed-aerosol capability in CAM5 [2]. This capability allows a single simulation to simultaneously include up to three aerosol fields: online calculated, as well as prescribed pre-industrial (PI) and present-day conditions (PD). In a set of sensitivity simulations, we use the same aerosol fields to drive droplet activation in warm clouds, and different (PD and PI) conditions for different components of the ice nucleation parameterization in pure ice clouds, so as to investigate various ice nucleation mechanisms in an isolated manner. We also applied nudging in our simulations, which helps to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in much shorter simulation period [3] and isolate the impact of aerosols on ice clouds from other factors, such as temperature and relative humidity change. The

  9. Immune-mediated liver injury of the cancer therapeutic antibody catumaxomab targeting EpCAM, CD3 and Fcγ receptors.

    PubMed

    Borlak, Jürgen; Länger, Florian; Spanel, Reinhard; Schöndorfer, Georg; Dittrich, Christian

    2016-05-10

    The immunotherapeutic catumaxomab targets EpCAM positive cancers and is approved for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. To assess the safety of intravenous applications a phase 1 clinical trial was initiated. Treatment of EpCAM positive tumor patients with catumaxomab caused dose dependent hepatitis as evidenced by significant elevations in serum alanine- and aspartate aminotransferases, bilirubin, γGT and induction of the acute phase C-reactive protein (CRP) and the cytokines IL6 and IL8. The first patient receiving 10μg catumaxomab experienced fatal acute liver failure which led to the termination of the study. Immmunopathology revealed catumaxomab to bind via its Fc-fragment to FcγR-positive Kupffer cells to stimulate CRP, chemokine and cytokine release. The observed CD3+T-cell margination at activated hepatic macrophages exacerbated T-cell mediated cytotoxicity. Strikingly, the combined Kupffer/T-cell responses against liver cells did not require hepatocytes to be EpCAM-positive. Catumaxomab's off-target activity involved T-cell mediated lysis of the granzyme B cell death pathway and the molecular interaction of hepatic sinusoidal macrophages with T-cells induced cytolytic hepatitis. Although the bile ducts were surrounded by densely packed lymphocytes these rarely infiltrated the ducts to suggest an intrahepatic cholestasis as the cause of hyperbilirubinaemia. Lastly, evidence for the programming of memory T-cells was observed with one patient that succumbed to his cancer six weeks after the last catumaxomab infusion. In conclusion, our study exemplifies off-target hepatotoxicity with molecularly targeted therapy and highlights the complexities in the clinical development of immunotherapeutic antibodies. PMID:27058902

  10. Immune-mediated liver injury of the cancer therapeutic antibody catumaxomab targeting EpCAM, CD3 and Fcγ receptors

    PubMed Central

    Borlak, Jürgen; Länger, Florian; Spanel, Reinhard; Schöndorfer, Georg; Dittrich, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The immunotherapeutic catumaxomab targets EpCAM positive cancers and is approved for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. To assess the safety of intravenous applications a phase 1 clinical trial was initiated. Treatment of EpCAM positive tumor patients with catumaxomab caused dose dependent hepatitis as evidenced by significant elevations in serum alanine- and aspartate aminotransferases, bilirubin, γGT and induction of the acute phase C-reactive protein (CRP) and the cytokines IL6 and IL8. The first patient receiving 10μg catumaxomab experienced fatal acute liver failure which led to the termination of the study. Immmunopathology revealed catumaxomab to bind via its Fc-fragment to FcγR-positive Kupffer cells to stimulate CRP, chemokine and cytokine release. The observed CD3+T-cell margination at activated hepatic macrophages exacerbated T-cell mediated cytotoxicity. Strikingly, the combined Kupffer/T-cell responses against liver cells did not require hepatocytes to be EpCAM-positive. Catumaxomab's off-target activity involved T-cell mediated lysis of the granzyme B cell death pathway and the molecular interaction of hepatic sinusoidal macrophages with T-cells induced cytolytic hepatitis. Although the bile ducts were surrounded by densely packed lymphocytes these rarely infiltrated the ducts to suggest an intrahepatic cholestasis as the cause of hyperbilirubinaemia. Lastly, evidence for the programming of memory T-cells was observed with one patient that succumbed to his cancer six weeks after the last catumaxomab infusion. In conclusion, our study exemplifies off-target hepatotoxicity with molecularly targeted therapy and highlights the complexities in the clinical development of immunotherapeutic antibodies. PMID:27058902

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) following traumatic brain injury (TBI): Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Theresa D; Brenner, Lisa A; Walter, Kristen H; Bormann, Jill E; Johansson, Birgitta

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is highly prevalent and occurs in a variety of populations. Because of the complexity of its sequelae, treatment strategies pose a challenge. Given this complexity, TBI provides a unique target of opportunity for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. The present review describes and discusses current opportunitites and challenges associated with CAM research and clinical applications in civilian, veteran and military service populations. In addition to a brief overview of CAM, the translational capacity from basic to clinical research to clinical practice will be described. Finally, a systematic approach to developing an adoptable evidence base, with proof of effectiveness based on the literature will be discussed. Inherent in this discussion will be the methodological and ethical challenges associated with CAM research in those with TBI and associated comorbidities, specifically in terms of how these challenges relate to practice and policy issues, implementation and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Brain injury and recovery.

  12. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / ... percent of U.S. adults use acupuncture. What Is Acupuncture? Dr. Adeline Ge adjusts placement of acupuncture needles ...

  13. IFEMS, an Interactive Finite Element Modeling System Using a CAD/CAM System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckellip, S.; Schuman, T.; Lauer, S.

    1980-01-01

    A method of coupling a CAD/CAM system with a general purpose finite element mesh generator is described. The three computer programs which make up the interactive finite element graphics system are discussed.

  14. Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement as a Possible Explanation of Recalcitrant Anterior Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Tey, Marc; Monllau, Joan Carles

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with chronic anterior knee pain (AKP) recalcitrant to conservative treatment who returned to our office for severe hip pain secondary to Cam femoroacetabular impingement (Cam FAI) at 10 months after the onset of knee pain. This case highlights the fact that the main problem is not in the patella but in the hip in some patients with AKP. We hypothesize that there is an external femoral rotation in order to avoid the impingement and therefore the hip pain in patients with Cam FAI. This functional femoral rotation could provoke a patellofemoral imbalance that may be, in theory, responsible for patellofemoral pain in this particular patient. In our case, Cam FAI resolution was related to the resolution of AKP. PMID:27247817

  15. IUE Spectra of Three Z Cam Type Dwarf Novae: a Study of P Cygni Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkan, M. T.; Esenoǧlu, H. H.; Ak, T.; Saygac, A. T.; Güler, S.

    We study the P Cygni profiles in three dwarf novae. In a study of Z Cam by Szkody and Mateo (1986), it was claimed that the mass loss continues for one month after the start of a standstill and ceases within 6 months. This results of the work depends on only one stanstill spectrum. On the other hand, in another work carried out by Özkan and Esenoglu (1994) it was found that the case may not be true for Z Cam, because two ultraviolet spectra obtained during the six month of another standstill configuration shows the P Cygni profile having a stronger absorbtion component and a weaker emission component which implies that the mass loss may continues during the standstill. Following these works in the present study, we aimed to investigate this situation for Z Cam and two other Z Cam type dwarf novae, RX And and HL CMa, considering all ultraviolet spectra obtained with IUE and AAVSO obserevations (Mattei, 1994).

  16. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ complementaryandalternative medicine.html Information on CAM Herbs Herbs at a Glance: a Quick Guide to Herbal ... read booklet with profiles on more than 40 herbs—basic scientific information, some potential side effects, and ...

  17. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  18. Arabidopsis CaM1 and CaM4 Promote Nitric Oxide Production and Salt Resistance by Inhibiting S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase via Direct Binding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Peng, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Junfeng; Chen, Kunming; Zhao, Liqun

    2016-01-01

    Salt is a major threat to plant growth and crop productivity. Calmodulin (CaM), the most important multifunctional Ca2+ sensor protein in plants, mediates reactions against environmental stresses through target proteins; however, direct proof of the participation of CaM in salt tolerance and its corresponding signaling pathway in vivo is lacking. In this study, we found that AtCaM1 and AtCaM4 produced salt-responsive CaM isoforms according to real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses; this result was verified based on a phenotypic analysis of salt-treated loss-of-function mutant and transgenic plants. We also found that the level of nitric oxide (NO), an important salt-responsive signaling molecule, varied in response to salt treatment depending on AtCaM1 and AtCaM4 expression. GSNOR is considered as an important and widely utilized regulatory component of NO homeostasis in plant resistance protein signaling networks. In vivo and in vitro protein-protein interaction assays revealed direct binding between AtCaM4 and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), leading to reduced GSNOR activity and an increased NO level. Overexpression of GSNOR intensified the salt sensitivity of cam4 mutant plants accompanied by a reduced internal NO level, whereas a gsnor deficiency increased the salt tolerance of cam4 plants accompanied by an increased internal NO level. Physiological experiments showed that CaM4-GSNOR, acting through NO, reestablished the ion balance to increase plant resistance to salt stress. Together, these data suggest that AtCaM1 and AtCaM4 serve as signals in plant salt resistance by promoting NO accumulation through the binding and inhibition of GSNOR. This could be a conserved defensive signaling pathway in plants and animals. PMID:27684709

  19. Spatiotemporal rescue of memory dysfunction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Sean E; Le, Phuong T; Osborn, Alexander J; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Davis, Ronald L

    2003-12-01

    We have developed a method for temporal and regional gene expression targeting (TARGET) in Drosophila and show the simultaneous spatial and temporal rescue of a memory defect. The transient expression of the rutabaga-encoded adenylyl cyclase in the mushroom bodies of the adult brain was necessary and sufficient to rescue the rutabaga memory deficit, which rules out a developmental brain defect in the etiology of this deficit and demonstrates an acute role for rutabaga in memory formation in these neurons. The TARGET system offers general utility in simultaneously addressing issues of when and where gene products are required. PMID:14657498

  20. Staging memory for massively parallel processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batcher, Kenneth E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention herein relates to a computer organization capable of rapidly processing extremely large volumes of data. A staging memory is provided having a main stager portion consisting of a large number of memory banks which are accessed in parallel to receive, store, and transfer data words simultaneous with each other. Substager portions interconnect with the main stager portion to match input and output data formats with the data format of the main stager portion. An address generator is coded for accessing the data banks for receiving or transferring the appropriate words. Input and output permutation networks arrange the lineal order of data into and out of the memory banks.

  1. Electronic device aspects of neural network memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambe, J.; Moopenn, A.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    The basic issues related to the electronic implementation of the neural network model (NNM) for content addressable memories are examined. A brief introduction to the principles of the NNM is followed by an analysis of the information storage of the neural network in the form of a binary connection matrix and the recall capability of such matrix memories based on a hardware simulation study. In addition, materials and device architecture issues involved in the future realization of such networks in VLSI-compatible ultrahigh-density memories are considered. A possible space application of such devices would be in the area of large-scale information storage without mechanical devices.

  2. Reconsolidation and the fate of consolidated memories.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, Lia R; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-12-01

    The predominant view about memory formation states that a consolidation process stabilizes newly acquired traces until they are safely stored in the brain. However, during the last ten years evidence has accumulated to indicate that, upon retrieval, consolidated memories are rendered again vulnerable to the action of metabolic blockers, notably protein synthesis inhibitors. This has led to the hypothesis that memories are reconsolidated at the time of retrieval, and that this requires protein synthesis in different brain regions. Here we will address the consolidation-reconsolidation debate and discuss some controversial issues about the reconsolidation hypothesis, in particular the biological role of this process.

  3. CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: The case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light's concept of countervailing powers, we consider the alliances, interests, rhetoric and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focussing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information dating from the late 1990s up to 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has had significant influence on the process of state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has moved from rejecting to 'incorporating' CAM, while the state has acted as a 'broker', trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light's countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach, in which CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state.

  4. Understanding, perceptions and self-use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Malaysian pharmacy students

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent times the basic understanding, perceptions and CAM use among undergraduate health sciences students have become a topic of interest. This study was aimed to investigate the understanding, perceptions and self-use of CAM among pharmacy students in Malaysia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 systematically sampled pharmacy students from two private and one public university. A validated, self-administered questionnaire comprised of seven sections was used to gather the data. A systematic sampling was applied to recruit the students. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using SPSS® version 18. Results Overall, the students tend to disagree that complementary therapies (CM) are a threat to public health (mean score = 3.6) and agreed that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit (mean score = 4.7). More than half (57.8%) of the participants were currently using CAM while 77.6% had used it previously. Among the current CAM modalities used by the students, CM (21.9%) was found to be the most frequently used CAM followed by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) (21%). Most of the students (74.8%) believed that lack of scientific evidence is one of the most important barriers obstructing them to use CAM. More than half of the students perceived TCM (62.8%) and music therapy (53.8%) to be effective. Majority of them (69.3%) asserted that CAM knowledge is necessary to be a well-rounded professional. Conclusions This study reveals a high-percentage of pharmacy students who were using or had previously used at least one type of CAM. Students of higher professional years tend to agree that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit. PMID:21992582

  5. Tunable Liaisons: eEF-2K, CaM, and Calcium.

    PubMed

    Veglia, Gianluigi; Li, Geoffrey

    2016-09-01

    In this issue of Structure, Lee et al. (2016) perform NMR analysis of calmodulin (CaM) binding to the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K). They find that eEF-2K interacts mainly with the C lobe of CaM in a Ca(2+)-tunable manner, revealing a high level of control in cellular homeostasis. PMID:27602990

  6. CAMbase – A XML-based bibliographical database on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Thomas; Zillmann, Hartmut; Raak, Christa K; Buessing, Arndt; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2007-01-01

    The term "Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)" covers a variety of approaches to medical theory and practice, which are not commonly accepted by representatives of conventional medicine. In the past two decades, these approaches have been studied in various areas of medicine. Although there appears to be a growing number of scientific publications on CAM, the complete spectrum of complementary therapies still requires more information about published evidence. A majority of these research publications are still not listed in electronic bibliographical databases such as MEDLINE. However, with a growing demand by patients for such therapies, physicians increasingly need an overview of scientific publications on CAM. Bearing this in mind, CAMbase, a bibliographical database on CAM was launched in order to close this gap. It can be accessed online free of charge or additional costs. The user can peruse more than 80,000 records from over 30 journals and periodicals on CAM, which are stored in CAMbase. A special search engine performing syntactical and semantical analysis of textual phrases allows the user quickly to find relevant bibliographical information on CAM. Between August 2003 and July 2006, 43,299 search queries, an average of 38 search queries per day, were registered focussing on CAM topics such as acupuncture, cancer or general safety aspects. Analysis of the requests led to the conclusion that CAMbase is not only used by scientists and researchers but also by physicians and patients who want to find out more about CAM. Closely related to this effort is our aim to establish a modern library center on Complementary Medicine which offers the complete spectrum of a modern digital library including a document delivery-service for physicians, therapists, scientists and researchers. PMID:17407592

  7. CAM, free speech, and the British legal system: overstepping the mark?

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Lionel R

    2009-10-01

    The British Chiropractic Association recently won a libel case against the science writer and CAM 'skeptic' Dr Simon Singh for publishing an article in a British newspaper in which he accused them of promoting 'bogus' treatments. This has ignited a campaign in the UK to 'keep the libel laws out of science'. In this article, the tension between media freedom of expression and defamation law is examined, and possible ramifications for CAM in the UK explored. PMID:19848549

  8. 40. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON THE MAIN POWER SHAFT/CAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON THE MAIN POWER SHAFT/CAM LEVEL. THE STAMP BATTERIES ARE TOWARD THE LEFT OF THE IMAGE. NOTE THE CAMS THAT ARE USED TO LIFT AND RELEASE THE STAMPS. THE MAIN POWER SHAFT IS TOWARD THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE IMAGE. THE MAIN DRIVE WHEEL THAT IS CONNECTED TO THE POWER SOURCE IS THE LARGE WHEEL IN THE EXTREME BACKGROUND ALONG THE SHAFT. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  9. Genome sequence of a new Streptomyces coelicolor generalized transducing bacteriophage, ΦCAM.

    PubMed

    Monson, Rita; Salmond, George P C

    2012-12-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a model system for the study of Streptomyces, a genus of bacteria responsible for the production of many clinically important antibiotics. Here we report the genome sequence of ΦCAM, a new S. coelicolor generalized transducing bacteriophage, isolated from a soil sample originating from Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. Many open reading frames within ΦCAM shared high levels of similarity to a prophage from Salinispora tropica and a putative prophage in Streptomyces sp. strain C.

  10. Design for functional occlusal surface of CAD/CAM crown using VR articulator.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Tomoko; Ogawa, Takumi; Shigeta, Yuko; Kasama, Shintaro; Hirabayashi, Rio; Fukushima, Shunji; Hattori, Asaki; Suzuki, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    In this present study, we introduce an approach that utilizes the VR articulator to mimic lateral excursions and design a functional occlusal surface. We then take the resultant occlusal surface from this approach and compare it with a conventional method. As a result, we developed a novel CAD/CAM system which can render a functional occlusal surface, via a VR articulator. The marginal fit and occlusion in our CAD/CAM crown was sufficient to apply to the clinic.

  11. CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: The case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light's concept of countervailing powers, we consider the alliances, interests, rhetoric and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focussing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information dating from the late 1990s up to 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has had significant influence on the process of state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has moved from rejecting to 'incorporating' CAM, while the state has acted as a 'broker', trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light's countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach, in which CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state. PMID:26990177

  12. A New Conceptualization of Human Visual Sensory-Memory.

    PubMed

    Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Memory is an essential component of cognition and disorders of memory have significant individual and societal costs. The Atkinson-Shiffrin "modal model" forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores: Sensory Memory (SM), whose visual component is called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM; also called working memory, WM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM). Since its inception, shortcomings of all three components of the modal model have been identified. While the theories of STM and LTM underwent significant modifications to address these shortcomings, models of the iconic memory remained largely unchanged: A high capacity but rapidly decaying store whose contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, i.e., according to how the stimulus is projected on the retina. The fundamental shortcoming of iconic memory models is that, because contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, the iconic memory cannot hold any useful information under normal viewing conditions when objects or the subject are in motion. Hence, half-century after its formulation, it remains an unresolved problem whether and how the first stage of the modal model serves any useful function and how subsequent stages of the modal model receive inputs from the environment. Here, we propose a new conceptualization of human visual sensory memory by introducing an additional component whose reference-frame consists of motion-grouping based coordinates rather than retinotopic coordinates. We review data supporting this new model and discuss how it offers solutions to the paradoxes of the traditional model of sensory memory.

  13. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  14. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every Other…

  15. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  16. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  17. Role of miR-34a as a suppressor of L1CAM in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Uwe; Doberstein, Kai; Rupp, Anne-Kathleen; Bretz, Niko P; Wuttig, Daniela; Kiefel, Helena; Breunig, Christian; Fiegl, Heidi; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Zeillinger, Robert; Schuster, Eva; Zeimet, Alain G; Sültmann, Holger; Altevogt, Peter

    2014-01-30

    L1CAM promotes cell motility, invasion and metastasis formation in various human cancers and can be considered as a driver of tumor progression. Knowledge about genetic processes leading to the presence of L1CAM in cancers is of considerable importance. Experimentally, L1CAM expression can be achieved by various means. Over-expression of the transcription factor SLUG or treatment of cells with TGF-β1 can induce or augment L1CAM levels in cancer cells. Likewise, hypomethylation of the L1CAM promoter on the X chromosome correlates with L1CAM expression. However, presently no mechanisms that might control transcriptional activity are known. Here we have identified miR-34a as a suppressor of L1CAM. We observed that L1CAM positive endometrial carcinoma (EC) cell lines HEC1B and SPAC1L lost L1CAM protein and mRNA by treatment with demethylating agents or knock-down of the DNA-methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1). Concomitantly, several miRNAs were up-regulated. Using miRNA profiling, luciferase reporter assays and mutagenesis, we identified miR-34a as a putative binder to the L1CAM-3'UTR. Over-expression of miR-34a in HEC1B cells blocked L1CAM expression and inhibited cell migration. In ECC1 cells (wildtype p53) the activation of p53 caused miR-34a up-regulation and loss of L1CAM expression that was miR-34a dependent. We observed an inverse correlation between L1CAM and miR-34a levels in EC cell lines. In primary tumor sections areas expressing high amounts of L1CAM had less miR-34a expression than those with low L1CAM levels. Our data suggest that miR-34a can regulate L1CAM expression by targeting L1CAM mRNA for degradation. These findings shed new light on the complex regulation of L1CAM in human tumors. PMID:24497324

  18. Role of miR-34a as a suppressor of L1CAM in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, Uwe; Doberstein, Kai; Rupp, Anne-Kathleen; Bretz, Niko P.; Wuttig, Daniela; Kiefel, Helena; Breunig, Christian; Fiegl, Heidi; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Zeillinger, Robert; Eva, Heidi; Zeimet, Alain G.; SÜltmann, Holger; Altevogt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    L1CAM promotes cell motility, invasion and metastasis formation in various human cancers and can be considered as a driver of tumor progression. Knowledge about genetic processes leading to the presence of L1CAM in cancers is of considerable importance. Experimentally, L1CAM expression can be achieved by various means. Overexpression of the transcription factor SLUG or treatment of cells with TGF-ß1 can induce or augment L1CAM levels in cancer cells. Likewise, hypomethylation of the L1CAM promoter on the X chromosome correlates with L1CAM expression. However, presently no mechanisms that might control transcriptional activity are known. Here we have identified miR-34a as a suppressor of L1CAM. We observed that L1CAM positive endometrial carcinoma (EC) cell lines HEC1B and SPAC1L lost L1CAM protein and mRNA by treatment with demethylating agents or knock-down of the DNA-methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1). Concomitantly, several miRNAs were up-regulated. Using miRNA profiling, luciferase reporter assays and mutagenesis, we identified miR-34a as a putative binder to the L1CAM-3'UTR. Overexpression of miR-34a in HEC1B cells blocked L1CAM expression and inhibited cell migration. In ECC1 cells (wildtype p53) the activation of p53 caused miR-34a up-regulation and loss of L1CAM expression that was miR-34a dependent. We observed an inverse correlation between L1CAM and miR-34a levels in EC cell lines. In primary tumor sections areas expressing high amounts of L1CAM had less miR-34a expression than those with low L1CAM levels. Our data suggest that miR-34a can regulate L1CAM expression by targeting L1CAM mRNA for degradation. These findings shed new light on the complex regulation of L1CAM in human tumors. PMID:24497324

  19. Novel Diagnosis of Lyme Disease: Potential for CAM Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hebroni, Frank; Raphael, Yaniv; Erde, Jonathan; Raxlen, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere, producing a wide range of disabling effects on multiple human targets, including the skin, the nervous system, the joints and the heart. Insufficient clinical diagnostic methods, the necessity for prompt antibiotic treatment along with the pervasive nature of infection impel the development and establishment of new clinical diagnostic tools with increased accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The goal of this article is 4-fold: (i) to detail LD infection and pathology, (ii) to review prevalent diagnostic methods, emphasizing inherent problems, (iii) to introduce the usage of in vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT) in clinical diagnostics and (iv) to underscore the relevance of a novel comprehensive LD diagnostic approach to practitioners of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Utilization of this analytical method will increase the accuracy of the diagnostic process and abridge the time to treatment, with antibiotics, herbal medicines and nutritional supplements, resulting in improved quality of care and disease prognosis. PMID:18955246

  20. FastCam optomechanical system design and manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murga, Gaizka; Sanquirce, Rubén; Campo, Ramón; Oscoz, Alex; López, Roberto; Rebolo, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    FastCam is an instrument jointly developed by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT), designed to obtain high spatial resolution images in the optical wavelength range from ground-based telescopes (http://www.iac.es/proyecto/fastcam and http://www.iac.es/telescopes/Manuales/manualfastcam.pdf). The instrument is equipped with a very low noise and very fast readout speed EMCCD camera which provides short exposure images to an FPGA-based processor which performs the selection, recenterg and combination of images in real-time (applying Lucky Imaging techniques) to provide diffraction limited resolution images in 1-4 m class telescopes from 500 to 1100 nm. IDOM has contributed to this new state-of-the-art instrument with the design of an optomechanical system conceived to maximize the image scale stability of the system for astrometry. The combination of aluminum plates, carbon fiber (CFRP) rods and stainless steel mounts in the optical bench defines an athermalized and stiff design to meet the requirements of thermal and mechanical stability. This work has been done with the support of the Aerospace Subprogramme of the Spanish Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI) and the INTEK programme of the Basque Development Agency (SPRI).

  1. Real-time lucky imaging in FastCam project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ramos, L. F.; Piqueras Meseguer, J. J.; Martin Hernando, Y.; Oscoz, A.; Rebolo, R.

    2008-07-01

    Lucky imaging techniques implemented by the FastCam group (see http://www.iac.es/proyecto/fastcam/) at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias have demonstrated its ability to obtain spectacular diffraction limited images in telescopes ranging from 1 to 4.2 m in visible wavelengths (mainly in the I band), at the expense of using only a small percentage of the available images. This work presents the development of a real-time processor, FPGA-based, capable of performing all the required processing involved in the lucky imaging technique: Bias and flat-field correction, quality evaluation of images, quality threshold for image selection, image recentering and accumulation, and finally sending through Gigabit Ethernet both raw and processed images to a PC computer. Furthermore, a real time display is generated directly from FPGA showing both types of images, plus a histogram of the computed quality values and the threshold used. All processes can co-exist physically located in separated places inside the FPGA, using its natural parallel approach, and can easily handle the 512x512 pixels at 30 fps found at the sensor camera output (an Andor Ixon+ DU-897ECSO EMCCD). Flexibility and parallel processing features of the reconfigurable logic have been used to implement a novel imaging strategy for segmented-mirror telescopes, allowing separate evaluation of every segment and posterior accumulation to achieve the resolution limit of a single segment with the integration capability of the full primary mirror.

  2. The CFHT/MegaCam Stripe-82 Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, B.; Kneib, J.-P.; Leauthaud, A.; Makler, M.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Bundy, K.; Erben, T.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Miller, L.; Shan, H. Y.; Woods, D.; Charbonnier, A.; Pereira, M. E.

    2014-10-01

    The CFTH/MegaCam Stripe-82 Survey (CS82) is a joint Canada-France-Brazil project covering ˜ 170 sq. deg. in the SDSS Stripe-82 area down to magnitude 24.1 in the optical i-band with a mean 0.6" seeing (PIs: J.-P. Kneib, A. Leauthaud, M. Makler, L. Van Waerbeke). Its main focus is the study of weak and strong gravitational lensing, with additional applications in other fields such as galaxy evolution and galaxy cluster science. Furthermore, the multitude of existing and future projects in Stripe-82, covering from the radio to the UV and including a large set of spectroscopic data, offers the possibility of exploring applications in many fields of astronomy, thereby enhancing the scientific value of the survey. In this Short Talk, we will give an overview of the main published and ongoing CS82 scientific projects. They include the measurement of the largest contiguous lensing convergence map to date and its peak statistics, providing direct information on the large scale dark matter distribution; the first CMB-lensing × shear cross-correlation measurement, probing the dark matter distribution at redshifts of order 1; galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements around SDSS-III/BOSS galaxies, constraining halo occupation distribution (HOD) models and obtaining complementary mass measurements in combination with BOSS spectroscopic data; the discovery of several new gravitational arc systems and more.

  3. Ceramic ChemCam Calibration Targets on Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaniman, D.; Dyar, M. D.; Wiens, R.; Ollila, A.; Lanza, N.; Lasue, J.; Rhodes, J. M.; Clegg, S.; Newsom, H.

    2012-09-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity will use laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to analyze major and minor element chemistry from sub-millimeter spot sizes, at ranges of ˜1.5-7 m. To interpret the emission spectra obtained, ten calibration standards will be carried on the rover deck. Graphite, Ti metal, and four glasses of igneous composition provide primary, homogeneous calibration targets for the laser. Four granular ceramic targets have been added to provide compositions closer to soils and sedimentary materials like those expected at the Gale Crater field site on Mars. Components used in making these ceramics include basalt, evaporite, and phyllosilicate materials that approximate the chemical compositions of detrital and authigenic constituents of clastic and evaporite sediments, including the elevated sulfate contents present in many Mars sediments and soils. Powdered components were sintered at low temperature (800 °C) with a small amount (9 wt.%) of lithium tetraborate flux to produce ceramics that retain volatile sulfur yet are durable enough for the mission. The ceramic targets are more heterogeneous than the pure element and homogenous glass standards but they provide standards with compositions more similar to the sedimentary rocks that will be Curiosity's prime targets at Gale Crater.

  4. The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The Systemic Theory of Living Systems is being published in several parts in eCAM. The theory is axiomatic. It originates from the phenomenological idea that physiological health is based on three factors: integrity of its structure or organization, O, functional organic energy reserve, E, and level of active biological intelligence, I. From the theory is derived a treatment strategy called Systemic Medicine (SM). This is based on identifying and prescribing phytomedicines and/or other medications that strengthen each factor. Energy-stimulating phytomedicines increase available energy and decrease total entropy of an open biological system by providing negative entropy. The same occurs with phytomedicines that act as biological intelligence modulators. They should be used as the first line of treatment in all ailments, since all pathologies, by definition, imply a higher than normal organic entropy. SM postulates that the state of health, H, of an individual, is effectively equal to the product of the strength of each factor H = O × E × I. SM observes that when all three factors are brought back to ideal levels, patients' conditions begin the recovery to normal health. PMID:15841272

  5. Analysis of Mass Averaged Tissue Doses in CAM, CAF, MAX, and FAX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Qualls, Garry D.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Walker, Steven A.; Singleterry, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    To estimate astronaut health risk due to space radiation, one must have the ability to calculate exposure-related quantities averaged over specific organs and tissue types. In this study, we first examine the anatomical properties of the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM), Computerized Anatomical Female (CAF), Male Adult voXel (MAX), and Female Adult voXel (FAX) models by comparing the masses of various tissues to the reference values specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Major discrepancies are found between the CAM and CAF tissue masses and the ICRP reference data for almost all of the tissues. We next examine the distribution of target points used with the deterministic transport code HZETRN to compute mass averaged exposure quantities. A numerical algorithm is used to generate multiple point distributions for many of the effective dose tissues identified in CAM, CAF, MAX, and FAX. It is concluded that the previously published CAM and CAF point distributions were under-sampled and that the set of point distributions presented here should be adequate for future studies involving CAM, CAF, MAX, or FAX. It is concluded that MAX and FAX are more accurate than CAM and CAF for space radiation analyses.

  6. Probing the biophysical interaction between Neocarzinostatin toxin and EpCAM RNA aptamer.

    PubMed

    Athyala, Prasanna Kumar; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh; Alameen, Mohamed; Kanwar, Rupinder Kaur; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Watson, Jon; Vetrivel, Umashankar; Narayanan, Janakiraman

    2016-01-01

    Neocarzinostatin (NCS) a potent DNA-damaging, anti-tumor toxin extracted from Streptomyces carzinostaticus that recognizes double-stranded DNA bulge and induces DNA damage. 2 Fluoro (2F) Modified EpCAM RNA aptamer is a 23-mer that targets EpCAM protein, expressed on the surface of epithelial tumor cells. Understanding the interaction between NCS and the ligand is important for carrying out the targeted tumor therapy. In this study, we have investigated the biophysical interactions between NCS and 2-fluro Modified EpCAM RNA aptamer using Circular Dichroism (CD) and Infra-Red (IR) spectroscopy. The aromatic amino acid residues spanning the β sheets of NCS are found to participate in intermolecular interactions with 2 F Modified EpCAM RNA aptamer. In-silico modeling and simulation studies corroborate with CD spectra data. Furthermore, it reinforces the involvement of C and D1 strand of NCS in intermolecular interactions with EpCAM RNA aptamer. This the first report on interactions involved in the stabilization of NCS-EpCAM aptamer complex and will aid in the development of therapeutic modalities towards targeted cancer therapy. PMID:26642954

  7. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy. PMID:26734668

  8. Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication. PMID:23690778

  9. Mutation in the sixth immunoglobulin domain of L1CAM is associated with migrational brain anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Christine; Moser, Franklin; Graham, John M.; Watiker, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenotype of a patient with classical features of X-linked L1 syndrome associated with novel brain malformations. Methods: Diagnostic analysis included physical and dysmorphology examinations, MRI of the brain, and exome sequencing of the family trio. Results: We report a 2.5-year-old boy with developmental delay, dysmorphic facies, and adducted thumbs. MRI of the brain showed a truncated corpus callosum and periventricular heterotopias associated with polymicrogyria (PMG). Variant segregation analysis with exome sequencing discovered a novel maternally derived hemizygous variant in exon 14 of the L1CAM gene (c.1759 G>C; p.G587R). Conclusions: This novel L1CAM mutation was located in the protein's sixth immunoglobin domain and involved glycine-587, a key residue in the structure of L1CAM because of its interactions with lysine-606, which indicates that any mutation at this site would likely affect the secondary structure and function of the protein. The replacement of the small nonpolar glycine residue with a large basic arginine would have an even more dramatic result. The presentation of periventricular nodular heterotopias with overlying PMG is very uncommon, and its association with L1CAM may provide insight into other similar cases. Furthermore, this presentation indicates the important role that L1CAM plays in neuronal migration and brain development and extends the phenotype associated with L1CAM-associated disorders. PMID:27066571

  10. EpCAM Expression in Lymph Node and Bone Metastases of Prostate Carcinoma: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Anna K.; Hoving, Hilde D.; Rosati, Stefano; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.; de Jong, Igle J.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new imaging modalities in prostate carcinoma staging. A non-invasive modality that can assess lymph node and bone metastases simultaneously is preferred. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a membranous protein of interest as an imaging target since it is overexpressed in prostatic carcinoma compared with benign prostate epithelium and compared with stroma. However, EpCAM expression in lymph node metastases is sparsely available in the literature and EpCAM expression in bone metastases is yet unknown. The current study evaluates the expression of EpCAM in prostate carcinoma lymph nodes, in matched normal lymph nodes, in prostate carcinoma bone metastases, and in normal bone by immunohistochemistry. EpCAM was expressed in 100% of lymph node metastases (21 out of 21), in 0% of normal lymph nodes (0 out of 21), in 95% of bone metastases (19 out of 20), and in 0% of normal bone (0 out of 14). Based on these results, EpCAM may be a feasible imaging target in prostate carcinoma lymph node and bone metastases. Prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm current results. Preoperative visualization of prostate carcinoma metastases will improve disease staging and will prevent unnecessary invasive surgery. PMID:27690012

  11. CAM-SE: A scalable spectral element dynamical core for the Community Atmosphere Model.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, John; Edwards, Jim; Evans, Kate J; Guba, O; Lauritzen, Peter; Mirin, Art; St.-Cyr, Amik; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick H

    2012-01-01

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 5 includes a spectral element dynamical core option from NCAR's High-Order Method Modeling Environment. It is a continuous Galerkin spectral finite element method designed for fully unstructured quadrilateral meshes. The current configurations in CAM are based on the cubed-sphere grid. The main motivation for including a spectral element dynamical core is to improve the scalability of CAM by allowing quasi-uniform grids for the sphere that do not require polar filters. In addition, the approach provides other state-of-the-art capabilities such as improved conservation properties. Spectral elements are used for the horizontal discretization, while most other aspects of the dynamical core are a hybrid of well tested techniques from CAM's finite volume and global spectral dynamical core options. Here we first give a overview of the spectral element dynamical core as used in CAM. We then give scalability and performance results from CAM running with three different dynamical core options within the Community Earth System Model, using a pre-industrial time-slice configuration. We focus on high resolution simulations of 1/4 degree, 1/8 degree, and T340 spectral truncation.

  12. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy.

  13. Validation of aerosols, reactive gases and greenhouse gases in the CAMS forecasts, analyses and reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskes, Henk; Basart, Sara; Blechschmidt, Anne; Chabrillat, Simon; Clark, Hannah; Cuevas, Emilio; Engelen, Richard; Kapsomenakis, John; Katragkou, Eleni; Mantzius Hansen, Kaj; Niemeijer, Sander; Ramonet, Michel; Schulz, Michael; Sudarchikova, Natalia; Wagner, Annette; Warneke, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    The Atmosphere Monitoring Service of the European Copernicus Programme (CAMS) is an operational service providing analyses, reanalyses and daily forecasts of aerosols, reactive gases and greenhouse gases on a global scale, and air quality forecasts and reanalyses on a regional scale. CAMS is based on the systems developed during the European MACC I-II-III (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) research projects. In CAMS data assimilation techniques are applied to combine in-situ and remote sensing observations with global and European-scale models of atmospheric reactive gases, aerosols and greenhouse gases. The global component is based on the Integrated Forecast System of the ECMWF, and the regional component on an ensemble of 7 European air quality models. CAMS is implemented by ECMWF, and the transition from MACC to CAMS is currently being implemented (2015-2016). CAMS has a dedicated validation activity, a partnership of 13 institutes co-ordinated by KNMI, to document the quality of the atmospheric composition products. In our contribution we discuss this validation activity, including the measurement data sets, validation requirements, the operational aspects, the upgrade procedure, the validation reports and scoring methods, and the model configurations and assimilation systems validated. Of special concern are the forecasts of high pollution concentration events (fires, dust storms, air pollution events, volcano ash and SO2). A few interesting validation results will be shown.

  14. Functional consequences of EpCam mutation in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Mueller, James L; McGeough, Matthew D; Peña, Carla A; Sivagnanam, Mamata

    2014-02-15

    Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a severe diarrheal disease of infancy characterized by villous changes and epithelial tufts. We previously identified mutations in epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) as the cause of CTE. We developed an in vivo mouse model of CTE based on EpCAM mutations found in patients with the aim to further elucidate the in vivo role of EpCAM and allow for a direct comparison to human CTE. Using Cre-LoxP recombination technology, we generated a construct lacking exon 4 in Epcam. Epcam(Δ4/Δ4) mice and CTE patient intestinal tissue integrity was analyzed by histology using both light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Epcam(Δ4/Δ4) mice demonstrate neonatal lethality and growth retardation with pathological features, including epithelial tufts, enterocyte crowding, altered desmosomes, and intercellular gaps, similar to human CTE patients. Mutant EpCAM protein is present at low levels and is mislocalized in the intestine of Epcam(Δ4/Δ4) mice and CTE patients. Deletion of exon 4 was found to decrease expression of both EpCAM and claudin-7 causing a loss of colocalization, functionally disrupting the EpCAM/claudin-7 complex, a finding for the first time confirmed in CTE patients. Furthermore, compared with unaffected mice, mutation of Epcam leads to enhanced permeability and intestinal cell migration, uncovering underlying disease mechanisms.

  15. The detection of EpCAM+ and EpCAM– circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wit, Sanne de; Dalum, Guus van; Lenferink, Aufried T. M.; Tibbe, Arjan G. J.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Groen, Harry J. M.; van Rijn, Cees J. M.; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM– CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enrichment. EpCAM– CTC were identified by filtration and fluorescent labelling. This approach was validated using different cell lines spiked into blood and evaluated on blood samples of 27 metastatic lung cancer patients. The majority of spiked EpCAM+ cells could be detected with CellSearch, whereas most spiked cells with EpCAMlow or EpCAM– expression were detected using filtration. Five or more CTC were detected in 15% of the patient samples, this increased to 41% when adding the CTC detected in the discarded blood. The number of patients with CTC and the number of CTC detected were doubled by the presence of EpCAM– CTC. In this pilot study, the presence of EpCAM+ CTC was associated with poor outcome, whereas the EpCAM– CTC were not. This observation will need to be confirmed in larger studies and molecular characterization needs to be conducted to elucidate differences between EpCAM– and EpCAM+ CTC. PMID:26184843

  16. Effect of N-CAM on in vitro invasion of human adenoid cystic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    França, C M; Jaeger, R G; Freitas, V M; Araújo, N S; Jaeger, M M

    2001-12-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands is characterised by aggressive behaviour, high rate of local recurrences, neurotropism and late metastasis. In a previous work we demonstrated that adenoid cystic carcinoma cultured cells (CAC2 cells) expressed N-CAM. It was suggested that this expression, modulated by extracellular matrix, would be correlated to cell movement. The aim of our study was to verify whether CAC2 cells presented invasion capacity. Moreover, we tested whether the neural adhesion molecule (N-CAM) would participate in this process. CAC2 cells were either previously treated, or not (control), with a monoclonal antibody against N-CAM. Invasion assays were carried out using a modified Boyden chamber (Transwell chamber). CAC2 cells (10(5)) were dispensed into Transwell upper chamber on the top of Matrigel coated filter. The cells that invaded the filters in the first 8 h were counted under light microscopy, yielding data for the invasion rates (%). Control CAC2 cells presented an invasion rate of 5.28+/-0.04%. The invasion rate raised to 6.53+/-0.2% when N-CAM was blocked with monoclonal antibody. N-CAM impaired the adenoid cystic carcinoma cell invasion in vitro. Therefore, we suggest an anti-invasive role for N-CAM in adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  17. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  18. Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Squire, L R; Zola, S M

    1998-01-01

    Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe/diencephalic damage should be proportionately impaired in both episodic and semantic memory. An alternative view is that the capacity for semantic memory is spared, or partially spared, in amnesia relative to episodic memory ability. This article reviews two kinds of relevant data: 1) case studies where amnesia has occurred early in childhood, before much of an individual's semantic knowledge has been acquired, and 2) experimental studies with amnesic patients of fact and event learning, remembering and knowing, and remote memory. The data provide no compelling support for the view that episodic and semantic memory are affected differently in medial temporal lobe/diencephalic amnesia. However, episodic and semantic memory may be dissociable in those amnesic patients who additionally have severe frontal lobe damage.

  19. The cell-cell adhesion receptor Mel-CAM acts as a tumor suppressor in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Shih, L. M.; Hsu, M. Y.; Palazzo, J. P.; Herlyn, M.

    1997-01-01

    Mel-CAM (MUC18 or CD146) is a cell adhesion molecule sharing sequence homology with members of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. Mel-CAM was originally described as a marker associated with invasion and metastasis in melanoma. We determined here the distribution and biological significance of Mel-CAM in normal, benign proliferative, and neoplastic breast ductal epithelium. Using a Mel-CAM-specific monoclonal antibody, we, immunohistochemically demonstrate Mel-CAM expression in 14 of 14 (100%) normal breast epithelia and benign proliferative ductal epithelial lesions, whereas Mel-CAM expression can only be focally detected in 12 of 72 (17%) breast carcinomas. Solid-phase cell adhesion assay revealed that breast carcinoma cells in culture express the ligand for Mel-CAM. Transfection of Mel-CAM cDNA into breast carcinoma cells induces a more cohesive cell growth pattern and establishes smaller tumors in immunocompromised mice than mock transfectants. In conclusion, Mel-CAM is distributed throughout normal and benign proliferative mammary ductal epithelium, but it is frequently lost in carcinomas; it functions as a heterophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule in breast epithelium, and loss of Mel-CAM expression in breast carcinoma may be an important step for tumor progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:9284823

  20. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.