Science.gov

Sample records for addressable memory location

  1. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  2. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  3. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  4. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  5. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  6. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  7. Memory for parking location in large lots.

    PubMed

    Means, L W; Lutz, J; Long, T E; High, K M

    1995-06-01

    The recall of automobile parking location was assessed over five consecutive workdays. Completed data from 36 women and 19 men provided measures of accuracy and a survey of specific strategies. Analysis showed a significant recency effect with memory for the most recent parking locations being superior. Less variation in parking location and shorter distance from parking location to building entrance were associated with better recall. Contrary to prevalent belief, older subjects had more accurate recall. Older subjects parked closer to the entrance and used fewer spaces which were also located closer together. The most frequently reported strategy was "favorite location" which was used more often by older subjects. Whereas laboratory tasks show memory deficits with increasing age, some studies in the natural environment have exhibited less such decline; the current data showed an actual improvement. It may be that older people adopt and practice compensatory strategies in the natural environment while laboratory tasks give little opportunity for establishing or practicing such devices.

  8. It's All about Location, Location, Location: Children's Memory for the "Where'' of Personally Experienced Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Doydum, Ayzit O.; Pathman, Thanujeni; Larkina, Marina; Guler, O. Evren; Burch, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory is defined as the ability to recall specific past events located in a particular time and place. Over the preschool and into the school years, there are clear developmental changes in memory for when events took place. In contrast, little is known about developmental changes in memory for where events were experienced. In the…

  9. Construction and Evaluation of Content Addressable Memories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    M :: A A :: M M = Memory bit specified by d*<es 1 M := B B := M A = A tag register M := X X M B = B tag register 3 M := Y Y := M X = X tag...register 4 M := C A M Y = Y tag register 5 M : B B :: M C = broadcast Comparand Underline indicates jam transfer Non-Memory to Register Operations Op code...Activity register 0 i A:’=1 B - riQcondary Activity

  10. Quantifying Precision and Availability of Location Memory in Everyday Pictures and Some Implications for Picture Database Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdale, Mark W.; Oliff, Lynda; Baguley, Thom S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is…

  11. GETTYSBURG ADDRESS TABLET BESIDE ENTRANCE GATE AT MEMORIAL WALK. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GETTYSBURG ADDRESS TABLET BESIDE ENTRANCE GATE AT MEMORIAL WALK. VIEW TO EAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. Quadratic Hadamard Memories 1: Adaptive Stochastic Content-Addressable Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    learning mechanisms", Phys. Rev. A34, 4217 (1986). [4] I. Kanter and H. Sompolinsky , "Associative recall of memory without errors", Phys. Rev, A35...Acad. Sei. USA 79, 2554 (1982). [2] D. J. Aalt, H. Gutfreund, and H, Sompolinski , "Informa- tion storage in neural networks with low levels of activity

  13. Distance distortions in memory for spatial locations.

    PubMed

    Anooshian, L J; Wilson, K L

    1977-12-01

    The present study examined developmental differences in the effect of route extensity on the memory for the locations of objects in a spatial array. Kindergarten and adult subjects were trained to remember the locations of 4 objects. During this training, objects were either connected by a combination of indirect, looped train tracks and direct train tracks (experimental subjects) or connected by entirely direct train-track routes (control subjects). Analyses of actual interobject distances, from subjects' reproductions of object locations on a response board (without train tracks), revealed that children, but not adults, distort distance in terms of the nature of travel observed between objects. Further testing revealed that differences in the amount of time taken for travel could not account for the results obtained with children.

  14. Evaluation of architectural paradigms for addressing theprocessor-memory gap

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, Leonid; Gorden, Grime; Husbands, Parry; Chame, Jacqualine

    2003-07-04

    Many high performance applications run well below the peak arithmetic performance of the underlying machine, with inefficiencies often attributed to poor memory system behavior. In the context of scientific computing we examine three emerging processors designed to address the well-known gap between processor and memory performance through the exploitation of data parallelism. The VIRAM architecture uses novel PIM technology to combine embedded DRAM with a vector co-processor for exploiting its large bandwidth potential. The DIVA architecture incorporates a collection of PIM chips as smart-memory coprocessors to a conventional microprocessor, and relies on superword-level parallelism to make effective use of the available memory bandwidth. The Imagine architecture provides a stream-aware memory hierarchy to support the tremendous processing potential of SIMD controlled VLIW clusters. First we develop a scalable synthetic probe that allows us to parametize key performance attributes of VIRAM, DIVA and Imagine while capturing the performance crossover points of these architectures. Next we present results for scientific kernels with different sets of computational characteristics and memory access patterns. Our experiments allow us to evaluate the strategies employed to exploit data parallelism, isolate the set of application characteristics best suited to each architecture and show a promising direction towards interfacing leading-edge processor technology with high-end scientific computations.

  15. A flexible analog memory address list manager for PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Musrock, M.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Walker, J.W.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.; Allen, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    A programmable analog memory address list manager has been developed for use with all analog memory-based detector subsystems of PHENIX. The unit provides simultaneous read/write control, cell write-over protection for both a Level-1 trigger decision delay and digitization latency, and re-ordering of AMU addresses following conversion, at a beam crossing rate of 105 ns. Addresses are handled such that up to 5 Level-1 (LVL-1) events can be maintained in the AMU without write-over. Data tagging is implemented for handling overlapping and shared beam-event data packets. Full usage in all PHENIX analog memory-based detector subsystems is accomplished by the use of detector-specific programmable parameters--the number of data samples per valid LVL-1 trigger and the sample spacing. Architectural candidates for the system are discussed with emphasis on implementation implications. Details of the design are presented including application specifics, timing information, and test results from a full implementation using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).

  16. Content-addressable memory based enforcement of configurable policies

    DOEpatents

    Berg, Michael J

    2014-05-06

    A monitoring device for monitoring transactions on a bus includes content-addressable memory ("CAM") and a response policy unit. The CAM includes an input coupled to receive a bus transaction tag based on bus traffic on the bus. The CAM stores data tags associated with rules of a security policy to compare the bus transaction tag to the data tags. The CAM generates an output signal indicating whether one or more matches occurred. The response policy unit is coupled to the CAM to receive the output signal from the CAM and to execute a policy action in response to the output signal.

  17. Content-addressable read/write memories for image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. E.; Savage, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    The commonly encountered image analysis problems of region labeling and clustering are found to be cases of search-and-rename problem which can be solved in parallel by a system architecture that is inherently suitable for VLSI implementation. This architecture is a novel form of content-addressable memory (CAM) which provides parallel search and update functions, allowing speed reductions down to constant time per operation. It has been proposed in related investigations by Hall (1981) that, with VLSI, CAM-based structures with enhanced instruction sets for general purpose processing will be feasible.

  18. New generation of content addressable memories for associative processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. G., Jr.; Giambalov, Paul

    2000-05-01

    Content addressable memories (CAMS) store both key and association data. A key is presented to the CAN when it is searched and all of the addresses are scanned in parallel to find the address referenced by the key. When a match occurs, the corresponding association is returned. With the explosion of telecommunications packet switching protocols, large data base servers, routers and search engines a new generation of dense sub-micron high throughput CAMS has been developed. The introduction of this paper presents a brief history and tutorial on CAMS, their many uses and advantages, and describes the architecture and functionality of several of MUSIC Semiconductors CAM devices. In subsequent sections of the paper we address using Associative Processing to accommodate the continued increase in sensor resolution, number of spectral bands, required coverage, the desire to implement real-time target cueing, and the data flow and image processing required for optimum performance of reconnaissance and surveillance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). To be competitive the system designer must provide the most computational power, per watt, per dollar, per cubic inch, within the boundaries of cost effective UAV environmental control systems. To address these problems we demonstrate leveraging DARPA and DoD funded Commercial Off-the-Shelf technology to integrate CAM based Associative Processing into a real-time heterogenous multiprocessing system for UAVs and other platforms with limited weight, volume and power budgets.

  19. Spatial Working Memory Capacity Predicts Bias in Estimates of Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, L. Elizabeth; Landy, David; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial memory research has attributed systematic bias in location estimates to a combination of a noisy memory trace with a prior structure that people impose on the space. Little is known about intraindividual stability and interindividual variation in these patterns of bias. In the current work, we align recent empirical and theoretical work on…

  20. No Sex Differences in Spatial Location Memory for Abstract Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Qazi; Bakare, Monsurat; Serinsu, Ceydan

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a female advantage, albeit imperfectly, on tests of object location memory where object identity information is readily available. However, spatial and visual elements are often confounded in the experimental tasks used. Here spatial and visual memory performance was compared in 30 men and 30 women by presenting…

  1. Asymmetrical access to color and location in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Rajsic, Jason; Wilson, Daryl E

    2014-10-01

    Models of visual working memory (VWM) have benefitted greatly from the use of the delayed-matching paradigm. However, in this task, the ability to recall a probed feature is confounded with the ability to maintain the proper binding between the feature that is to be reported and the feature (typically location) that is used to cue a particular item for report. Given that location is typically used as a cue-feature, we used the delayed-estimation paradigm to compare memory for location to memory for color, rotating which feature was used as a cue and which was reported. Our results revealed several novel findings: 1) the likelihood of reporting a probed object's feature was superior when reporting location with a color cue than when reporting color with a location cue; 2) location report errors were composed entirely of swap errors, with little to no random location reports; and 3) both colour and location reports greatly benefitted from the presence of nonprobed items at test. This last finding suggests that it is uncertainty over the bindings between locations and colors at memory retrieval that drive swap errors, not at encoding. We interpret our findings as consistent with a representational architecture that nests remembered object features within remembered locations.

  2. Selective sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Bano; Rahman, Qazi

    2007-06-01

    The present study examined sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory by using 3 object arrays (testing object exchange, object shift, and novel objects conditions) and 1 metric positional memory array. Heterosexual women and homosexual men significantly outperformed heterosexual men in all 3 object arrays. However, there were no group differences in metric positional memory. Heterosexual males expectedly outperformed the other groups in spatial perception (Judgment of Line Orientation; A. L. Benton, K. D. Hamsher, N. R. Varney, & O. Spreen, 1983). Regression modeling revealed that sexual orientation and spatial perception predicted object exchange performance, whereas recalled childhood gender nonconformity, a robust developmental marker of adult sexual orientation, predicted object shift and novel object performance alone. A measure ascribed to the actions of prenatal androgens, the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio, did not predict object location memory. These data may limit possible developmental pathways for sexual variation in selective forms of spatial memory.

  3. Developmental Aspects of Memory for Spatial Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments examine whether the encoding of location meets criteria defining an automatic process. Automatic processes are not expected to show developmental changes beyond an early age. They appear to be unrelated to intelligence level and unaffected by instructions. Results support Hasher and Zack's automaticity hypothesis. (RWB)

  4. GRACEnet: addressing policy needs through coordinated cross-location research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jawson, Michael D.; Walthall, Charles W.; Shafer, Steven R.; Liebig, Mark; Franzluebbers, Alan J.; Follett, Ronald F.

    2012-01-01

    GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) was conceived to build upon ongoing USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) research to improve soil productivity, while addressing the challenges and opportunities of interest in C sequestration from a climate change perspective. The vision for GRACEnet was and remains: Knowledge and information used to implement scientifically based agricultural management practices from the field to national policy scales on C sequestration, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and environmental benefits. The national focus of GRACEnet uses a standardized approach by ARS laboratories and university and land manager (e.g. farmer and rancher) cooperators to assess C sequestration and GHG emission from different crop and grassland systems. Since 2002, GRACEnet has significantly expanded GHG mitigation science and delivered usable information to agricultural research and policy organizations. Recent developments suggest GRACEnet will have international impact by contributing leadership and technical guidance for the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases.

  5. Spatial working memory capacity predicts bias in estimates of location.

    PubMed

    Crawford, L Elizabeth; Landy, David; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2016-09-01

    Spatial memory research has attributed systematic bias in location estimates to a combination of a noisy memory trace with a prior structure that people impose on the space. Little is known about intraindividual stability and interindividual variation in these patterns of bias. In the current work, we align recent empirical and theoretical work on working memory capacity limits and spatial memory bias to generate the prediction that those with lower working memory capacity will show greater bias in memory of the location of a single item. Reanalyzing data from a large study of cognitive aging, we find support for this prediction. Fitting separate models to individuals' data revealed a surprising variety of strategies. Some were consistent with Bayesian models of spatial category use, however roughly half of participants biased estimates outward in a way not predicted by current models and others seemed to combine these strategies. These analyses highlight the importance of studying individuals when developing general models of cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Working memory contributes to the encoding of object location associations: Support for a 3-part model of object location memory.

    PubMed

    Gillis, M Meredith; Garcia, Sarah; Hampstead, Benjamin M

    2016-09-15

    A recent model by Postma and colleagues posits that the encoding of object location associations (OLAs) requires the coordination of several cognitive processes mediated by ventral (object perception) and dorsal (spatial perception) visual pathways as well as the hippocampus (feature binding) [1]. Within this model, frontoparietal network recruitment is believed to contribute to both the spatial processing and working memory task demands. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test each step of this model in 15 participants who encoded OLAs and performed standard n-back tasks. As expected, object processing resulted in activation of the ventral visual stream. Object in location processing resulted in activation of both the ventral and dorsal visual streams as well as a lateral frontoparietal network. This condition was also the only one to result in medial temporal lobe activation, supporting its role in associative learning. A conjunction analysis revealed areas of shared activation between the working memory and object in location phase within the lateral frontoparietal network, anterior insula, and basal ganglia; consistent with prior working memory literature. Overall, findings support Postma and colleague's model and provide clear evidence for the role of working memory during OLA encoding.

  7. Addressing Working Memory in Children with Autism through Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltruschat, Lisa; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Tarbox, Jonathan; Dixon, Dennis R.; Najdowski, Adel C.; Mullins, Ryan D.; Gould, Evelyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism often struggle with executive function (EF) deficits, particularly with regard to working memory (WM). Despite the documented deficits in these areas, very little controlled research has evaluated treatments for remediation of EF or WM deficits in children with autism. This study examined the use of positive reinforcement for…

  8. Reprogrammable read only variable threshold transistor memory with isolated addressing buffer

    DOEpatents

    Lodi, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    A monolithic integrated circuit, fully decoded memory comprises a rectangular array of variable threshold field effect transistors organized into a plurality of multi-bit words. Binary address inputs to the memory are decoded by a field effect transistor decoder into a plurality of word selection lines each of which activates an address buffer circuit. Each address buffer circuit, in turn, drives a word line of the memory array. In accordance with the word line selected by the decoder the activated buffer circuit directs reading or writing voltages to the transistors comprising the memory words. All of the buffer circuits additionally are connected to a common terminal for clearing all of the memory transistors to a predetermined state by the application to the common terminal of a large magnitude voltage of a predetermined polarity. The address decoder, the buffer and the memory array, as well as control and input/output control and buffer field effect transistor circuits, are fabricated on a common substrate with means provided to isolate the substrate of the address buffer transistors from the remainder of the substrate so that the bulk clearing function of simultaneously placing all of the memory transistors into a predetermined state can be performed.

  9. Young Children's Memory for Spatial Locations in Organized and Unorganized Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golbeck, Susan L.

    Children's memory for spatial locations in a room designed to look like a grocery store was examined. In the first of two studies, 48 preschoolers completed a memory task for spatial locations problem and an incidental recall task in two room arrangements varying in logical organization. Memory for spatial locations was higher in a clustered and…

  10. Examining the impact of the precision of address geocoding on estimated density of crime locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yutaka; Shimada, Takahito

    2006-10-01

    This study examines the impact of the precision of address geocoding on the estimated density of crime locations in a large urban area of Japan. The data consist of two separate sets of the same Penal Code offenses known to the police that occurred during a nine-month period of April 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001 in the central 23 wards of Tokyo. These two data sets are derived from older and newer recording system of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department (TMPD), which revised its crime reporting system in that year so that more precise location information than the previous years could be recorded. Each of these data sets was address-geocoded onto a large-scale digital map, using our hierarchical address-geocoding schema, and was examined how such differences in the precision of address information and the resulting differences in address-geocoded incidence locations affect the patterns in kernel density maps. An analysis using 11,096 pairs of incidences of residential burglary (each pair consists of the same incidents geocoded using older and newer address information, respectively) indicates that the kernel density estimation with a cell size of 25×25 m and a bandwidth of 500 m may work quite well in absorbing the poorer precision of geocoded locations based on data from older recording system, whereas in several areas where older recording system resulted in very poor precision level, the inaccuracy of incident locations may produce artifactitious and potentially misleading patterns in kernel density maps.

  11. Object-Location Memory: A Lesion-Behavior Mapping Study in Stroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Asselen, Marieke; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Frijns, Catharina J. M.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Postma, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Object-location memory is an important form of spatial memory, comprising different subcomponents that each process specific types of information within memory, i.e. remembering objects, remembering positions and binding these features in memory. In the current study we investigated the neural correlates of binding categorical (relative) or…

  12. Gender Differences in Object Location Memory in a Real Three-Dimensional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachini, Tina; Sergi, Ida; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Gnisci, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    In this preliminary study we investigate gender differences in object location memory. Our purpose is to extend the results about object location memory obtained in laboratory settings to a real 3-D environment and to further distinguish the specific components involved in this kind of memory by considering the strategies adopted to perform the…

  13. Sex Differences in Object Location Memory: The Female Advantage of Immediate Detection of Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honda, Akio; Nihei, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Object location memory has been considered the only spatial ability in which females display an advantage over males. We examined sex differences in long-term object location memory. After participants studied an array of objects, they were asked to recall the locations of these objects three minutes later or one week later. Results showed a…

  14. Talking about the Way the World Wags. The Garth Boomer Memorial Address 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Garth Boomer had been a seminal influence on this author's practice and thinking as a young English teacher in the 1980s. When asked to present the Garth Boomer Memorial address in 2009, the author realised that he would be speaking on his fiftieth birthday, thus the desire to take the opportunity to reflect on his teaching life was overwhelming.…

  15. A light writable microfluidic "flash memory": optically addressed actuator array with latched operation for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zhishan; Pal, Rohit; Srivannavit, Onnop; Burns, Mark A; Gulari, Erdogan

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a novel optically addressed microactuator array (microfluidic "flash memory") with latched operation. Analogous to the address-data bus mediated memory address protocol in electronics, the microactuator array consists of individual phase-change based actuators addressed by localized heating through focused light patterns (address bus), which can be provided by a modified projector or high power laser pointer. A common pressure manifold (data bus) for the entire array is used to generate large deflections of the phase change actuators in the molten phase. The use of phase change material as the working media enables latched operation of the actuator array. After the initial light "writing" during which the phase is temporarily changed to molten, the actuated status is self-maintained by the solid phase of the actuator without power and pressure inputs. The microfluidic flash memory can be re-configured by a new light illumination pattern and common pressure signal. The proposed approach can achieve actuation of arbitrary units in a large-scale array without the need for complex external equipment such as solenoid valves and electrical modules, which leads to significantly simplified system implementation and compact system size. The proposed work therefore provides a flexible, energy-efficient, and low cost multiplexing solution for microfluidic applications based on physical displacements. As an example, the use of the latched microactuator array as "normally closed" or "normally open" microvalves is demonstrated. The phase-change wax is fully encapsulated and thus immune from contamination issues in fluidic environments.

  16. Non-monotonic relationships between emotional arousal and memory for color and location.

    PubMed

    Boywitt, C Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research points to the decreased diagnostic value of subjective retrieval experience for memory accuracy for emotional stimuli. While for neutral stimuli rich recollective experiences are associated with better context memory than merely familiar memories this association appears questionable for emotional stimuli. The present research tested the implicit assumption that the effect of emotional arousal on memory is monotonic, that is, steadily increasing (or decreasing) with increasing arousal. In two experiments emotional arousal was manipulated in three steps using emotional pictures and subjective retrieval experience as well as context memory were assessed. The results show an inverted U-shape relationship between arousal and recognition memory but for context memory and retrieval experience the relationship was more complex. For frame colour, context memory decreased linearly while for spatial location it followed the inverted U-shape function. The complex, non-monotonic relationships between arousal and memory are discussed as possible explanations for earlier divergent findings.

  17. Integration Architecture of Content Addressable Memory and Massive-Parallel Memory-Embedded SIMD Matrix for Versatile Multimedia Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaki, Takeshi; Ishizaki, Masakatsu; Koide, Tetsushi; Mattausch, Hans Jürgen; Kuroda, Yasuto; Gyohten, Takayuki; Noda, Hideyuki; Dosaka, Katsumi; Arimoto, Kazutami; Saito, Kazunori

    This paper presents an integration architecture of content addressable memory (CAM) and a massive-parallel memory-embedded SIMD matrix for constructing a versatile multimedia processor. The massive-parallel memory-embedded SIMD matrix has 2,048 2-bit processing elements, which are connected by a flexible switching network, and supports 2-bit 2,048-way bit-serial and word-parallel operations with a single command. The SIMD matrix architecture is verified to be a better way for processing the repeated arithmetic operation types in multimedia applications. The proposed architecture, reported in this paper, exploits in addition CAM technology and enables therefore fast pipelined table-lookup coding operations. Since both arithmetic and table-lookup operations execute extremely fast, the proposed novel architecture can realize consequently efficient and versatile multimedia data processing. Evaluation results of the proposed CAM-enhanced massive-parallel SIMD matrix processor for the example of the frequently used JPEG image-compression application show that the necessary clock cycle number can be reduced by 86% in comparison to a conventional mobile DSP architecture. The determined performances in Mpixel/mm2 are factors 3.3 and 4.4 better than with a CAM-less massive-parallel memory-embedded SIMD matrix processor and a conventional mobile DSP, respectively.

  18. A flexible analog memory address list manager/controller for PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Walker, J.W.; Britton, C.L.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable analog memory address list manager/controller has been developed for use with all analog memory-based detector subsystems of PHENIX. The unit provides simultaneous read/write control, cell write-over protection for both a Level-1 trigger decision delay and digitization latency, and re-ordering of AMU addresses following conversion, at a beam crossing rate of 112 ns. Addresses are handled such that up to 5 Level-1 events can be maintained in the AMU without write-over. Data tagging is implemented for handling overlapping and shared beam event data packets. Full usage in all PHENIX analog memory-based detector sub-systems is accomplished by the use of detector-specific programmable parameters -- the number of data samples per Level-1 trigger valid and the swnple spacing. Architectural candidates for the system are discussed with emphasis on implementation implications. Details of the design are presented including design simulations, timing information, and test results from a full implementation using programmable logic devices.

  19. Impact of Strategically Located White Matter Hyperintensities on Cognition in Memory Clinic Patients with Small Vessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hilal, Saima; Kuijf, Hugo J.; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Xu, Xin; Tan, Boon Yeow; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Postma, Albert; Biessels, Geert Jan; Chen, Christopher P. L. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Studies on the impact of small vessel disease (SVD) on cognition generally focus on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume. The extent to which WMH location relates to cognitive performance has received less attention, but is likely to be functionally important. We examined the relation between WMH location and cognition in a memory clinic cohort of patients with sporadic SVD. Methods A total of 167 patients with SVD were recruited from memory clinics. Assumption-free region of interest-based analyses based on major white matter tracts and voxel-wise analyses were used to determine the association between WMH location and executive functioning, visuomotor speed and memory. Results Region of interest-based analyses showed that WMHs located particularly within the anterior thalamic radiation and forceps minor were inversely associated with both executive functioning and visuomotor speed, independent of total WMH volume. Memory was significantly associated with WMH volume in the forceps minor, independent of total WMH volume. An independent assumption-free voxel-wise analysis identified strategic voxels in these same tracts. Region of interest-based analyses showed that WMH volume within the anterior thalamic radiation explained 6.8% of variance in executive functioning, compared to 3.9% for total WMH volume; WMH volume within the forceps minor explained 4.6% of variance in visuomotor speed and 4.2% of variance in memory, compared to 1.8% and 1.3% respectively for total WMH volume. Conclusions Our findings identify the anterior thalamic radiation and forceps minor as strategic white matter tracts in which WMHs are most strongly associated with cognitive impairment in memory clinic patients with SVD. WMH volumes in individual tracts explained more variance in cognition than total WMH burden, emphasizing the importance of lesion location when addressing the functional consequences of WMHs. PMID:27824925

  20. Memory for Faces Dissociates from Memory for Location Following Anterior Temporal Lobectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaravalloti, Nancy D.; Glosser, Guila

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the right and left mesial temporal lobes are specialized for processing different types of information for long-term memory (LTM). Although findings have been consistent in regard to the dominant role of the left mesial temporal lobe (MTL) in verbal memory, the role of the right MTL in non-verbal memory remains…

  1. 19 CFR 111.30 - Notification of change of business address, organization, name, or location of business records...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of change of business address, organization, name, or location of business records; status report; termination of brokerage business. 111.30... Notification of change of business address, organization, name, or location of business records; status...

  2. Sex and spatial position effects on object location memory following intentional learning of object identities.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Packard, Mark G; Peterson, Bradley S

    2002-01-01

    Memory for object location relative both to veridical center (left versus right visual hemispace) and to eccentricity (central versus peripheral objects) was measured in 26 males and 25 females using the Silverman and Eals Location Memory Task. A subset of participants (17 males and 13 females) also completed a measure of implicit learning, the mirror-tracing task. No sex differences were observed in memory for object identities. Further, in both sexes, memory for object locations was better for peripherally located objects than for centrally located objects. In contrast to these similarities in female and male task performance, females but not males showed better recovery of object locations in the right compared to the left visual hemispace. Moreover, memory for object locations in the right hemispace was associated with mirror-tracing performance in women but not in men. Together, these data suggest that the processing of object features and object identification in the left cerebral hemisphere may include processing of spatial information that may contribute to superior object location memory in females relative to males.

  3. Sex differences in spatial object-location memory in a virtual grocery store.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Mary V; Sakamoto, Maiko; Elliott, Richard J; Baumann, Steve

    2008-08-01

    The grocery shopping Virtual Reality Spatial Object-Location Test (VRSOLT) was developed to examine sex differences in spatial object-location memory in a 3D virtual environment that simulates the real world. Forty college students (20 males, 20 females) were tested on the VRSOLT as well as mental rotation and 2D object-location memory tasks. Both convergent and divergent validity was demonstrated. Males showed an advantage on mental rotation, and results of the VRSOLT grocery store test replicated the female object-location advantage seen in 2D tests. A strategy of systematically navigating the environment may aid female encoding for object location.

  4. Memory for pictures, words, and spatial location in older adults: evidence for pictorial superiority.

    PubMed

    Park, D C; Puglisi, J T; Sovacool, M

    1983-09-01

    In the present study the spatial location of picture and word stimuli was varied across four quadrants of photographic slides. Young and old people received either pictures or words to study and were told to remember either just the item or the item and its location. Recognition memory for items and memory for spatial location were tested. A pictorial superiority effect occurred for both old and young people's item recognition. Additionally, instructions to study position decreased item memory and facilitated position memory in both age groups. Spatial memory was markedly superior for pictures compared with matched words for old and young adults. The results are interpreted within the Hasher and Zacks framework of automatic processing. The implications of the data for designing mnemonic aids for elderly persons are considered.

  5. Location-based effects underlie feature conjunction benefits in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Benchi; Cao, Xiaohua; Theeuwes, Jan; Olivers, Christian N L; Wang, Zhiguo

    2016-09-01

    Studies of visual working memory (VWM) have reported that different features belonging to the same object (conjunctions) are better retained than the same features belonging to spatially separated objects (disjunctions). This conjunction benefit has been taken as evidence for the theory that VWM representations are object-based. However, compared to separate features, conjunctions also occupy fewer locations. Here we tested the alternative hypothesis that the conjunction benefit reflects a spatial-based rather than an object-based advantage. Experiment 1 shows a clear VWM conjunction benefit for spatially laid out displays of memory items. However, when the same items were presented sequentially at one location (i.e., location was noninformative), memory performance was equivalent for conjunction and disjunction conditions. Experiment 2 shows that only when the probe carries spatial information (i.e., it matches the location of the memory item) does a conjunction benefit occur. Taken together, these results put important boundaries on object-based theories of VWM.

  6. The Role of Experience in Location Estimation: Target Distributions Shift Location Memory Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinski, John; Simmering, Vanessa R.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Research based on the Category Adjustment model concluded that the spatial distribution of target locations does not influence location estimation responses [Huttenlocher, J., Hedges, L., Corrigan, B., & Crawford, L. E. (2004). Spatial categories and the estimation of location. "Cognition, 93", 75-97]. This conflicts with earlier results showing…

  7. The influence of location and visual features on visual object memory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hsin-Mei; Gordon, Robert D

    2010-12-01

    In five experiments, we examined the influence of contextual objects' location and visual features on visual memory. Participants' visual memory was tested with a change detection task in which they had to judge whether the orientation (Experiments 1A, 1B, and 2) or color (Experiments 3A and 3B) of a target object was the same. Furthermore, contextual objects' locations and visual features were manipulated in the test image. The results showed that change detection performance was better when contextual objects' locations remained the same from study to test, demonstrating that the original spatial configuration is important for subsequent visual memory retrieval. The results further showed that changes to contextual objects' orientation, but not color, reduced orientation change detection performance; and changes to contextual objects' color, but not orientation, impaired color change detection performance. Therefore, contextual objects' visual features are capable of affecting visual memory. However, selective attention plays an influential role in modulating such effects.

  8. Strategies and Biases in Location Memory in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farran, Emily K.

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) demonstrate impaired visuo-spatial abilities in comparison to their level of verbal ability. In particular, visuo-spatial construction is an area of relative weakness. It has been hypothesised that poor or atypical location coding abilities contribute strongly to the impaired abilities observed on…

  9. Memory for Object Locations in Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether 7- to 12-year-old boys with ADHD, relative to non-ADHD age-mates, exhibit greater difficulty learning and remembering object locations. The second purpose was to examine the functional utility of mnemonic strategies, specifically speech-to-self, used by boys with and without ADHD. Method: Boys with and without ADHD…

  10. Sex Differences in Object Location Memory: Some Further Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Peter; Neave, Nick; Hamilton, Colin; Gray, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Previously it has been reported that female performance on the recall of objects and their locations in a spatial array is superior to that of males. This may reflect underlying information-processing biases whereby males organize information in a self-referential manner while females adopt a more comprehensive approach. The known female advantage…

  11. Enhanced associative memory for colour (but not shape or location) in synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jamie; Rothen, Nicolas; Coolbear, Daniel; Ward, Jamie

    2013-05-01

    People with grapheme-colour synaesthesia have been shown to have enhanced memory on a range of tasks using both stimuli that induce synaesthesia (e.g. words) and, more surprisingly, stimuli that do not (e.g. certain abstract visual stimuli). This study examines the latter by using multi-featured stimuli consisting of shape, colour and location conjunctions (e.g. shape A+colour A+location A; shape B+colour B+location B) presented in a recognition memory paradigm. This enables distractor items to be created in which one of these features is 'unbound' with respect to the others (e.g. shape A+colour B+location A; shape A+colour A+location C). Synaesthetes had higher recognition rates suggesting an enhanced ability to bind certain visual features together into memory. Importantly, synaesthetes' false alarm rates were lower only when colour was the unbound feature, not shape or location. We suggest that synaesthetes are "colour experts" and that enhanced perception can lead to enhanced memory in very specific ways; but, not for instance, an enhanced ability to form associations per se. The results support contemporary models that propose a continuum between perception and memory.

  12. Seeing Like a Geologist: Bayesian Use of Expert Categories in Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Resnick, Ilyse; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for spatial location is typically biased, with errors trending toward the center of a surrounding region. According to the category adjustment model (CAM), this bias reflects the optimal, Bayesian combination of fine-grained and categorical representations of a location. However, there is disagreement about whether categories are malleable.…

  13. Sexual Orientation and Spatial Position Effects on Selective Forms of Object Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Qazi; Newland, Cherie; Smyth, Beatrice Mary

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated robust sex and sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory in humans. Here we show that this sexual variation may depend on the spatial position of target objects and the task-specific nature of the spatial array. We tested the recovery of object locations in three object arrays (object…

  14. Memory for Pictures, Words, and Spatial Location in Older Adults: Evidence for Pictorial Superiority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Denise Cortis; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Tested recognition memory for items and spatial location by varying picture and word stimuli across four slide quadrants. Results showed a pictorial superiority effect for item recognition and a greater ability to remember the spatial location of pictures versus words for both old and young adults (N=95). (WAS)

  15. A Category Adjustment Approach to Memory for Spatial Location in Natural Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Mark P.; Curby, Kim M.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Memories for spatial locations often show systematic errors toward the central value of the surrounding region. This bias has been explained using a Bayesian model in which fine-grained and categorical information are combined (Huttenlocher, Hedges, & Duncan, 1991). However, experiments testing this model have largely used locations contained in…

  16. Comparative Study Of Artificial Intelligence Techniques As Applied To The Location Of Address Blocks On Mail Pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koljonen, Juha T.; Glickman, Frederick R.

    1989-03-01

    Rule-based reasoning when applied to locating destination addresses on mail pieces can enhance system performance and accuracy. One of the critical steps in the automatic reading and sorting of mail by machine is in locating the block of text that is the destination address on a mail piece. This is complicated by the variation of global structure on mail piece faces, e.g., return and destination addresses can be anywhere on the mail piece, in any orientation and of any size. Compounding the problem is the addition of extraneous text and graphics such as advertising.

  17. Different effects of color-based and location-based selection on visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Saiki, Jun

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated how feature- and location-based selection influences visual working memory (VWM) encoding and maintenance. In Experiment 1, cue type (color, location) and cue timing (precue, retro-cue) were manipulated in a change detection task. The stimuli were color-location conjunction objects, and binding memory was tested. We found a significantly greater effect for color precues than for either color retro-cues or location precues, but no difference between location pre- and retro-cues, consistent with previous studies (e.g., Griffin & Nobre in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 1176-1194, 2003). We also found no difference between location and color retro-cues. Experiment 2 replicated the color precue advantage with more complex color-shape-location conjunction objects. Only one retro-cue effect was different from that in Experiment 1: Color retro-cues were significantly less effective than location retro-cues in Experiment 2, which may relate to a structural property of multidimensional VWM representations. In Experiment 3, a visual search task was used, and the result of a greater location than color precue effect suggests that the color precue advantage in a memory task is related to the modulation of VWM encoding rather than of sensation and perception. Experiment 4, using a task that required only memory for individual features but not for feature bindings, further confirmed that the color precue advantage is specific to binding memory. Together, these findings reveal new aspects of the interaction between attention and VWM and provide potentially important implications for the structural properties of VWM representations.

  18. Any effects of social orientation priming on object-location memory are smaller than initially reported.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Héloïse; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2015-12-01

    It has previously been reported that priming a collectivistic social orientation (compared with an individualistic one) boosts object-location memory (Kühnen & Oyserman, 2002; Oyserman, Sorensen, Reber, & Chen, 2009). We conducted 4 experiments to replicate this reported effect, using the same methods as in those initial reports. In Experiment 1 (n = 145), we found a hint of a priming effect on object-location memory, but also an unanticipated interaction between priming and gender. In Experiment 2 (n = 90), we included gender as a formal factor and doubled the "dosage" of the priming, yet did not see any priming effects on memory. In Experiment 3 (n = 101), we octupled the priming "dosage" and again saw no significant effects on memory. Finally, in Experiment 4 (n = 102), we performed an exact replication of the methods of the original reports and again found no priming effects on memory. Any effects of this type of social orientation priming on object-location memory appear to be smaller and/or less robust than initially thought.

  19. SKF 83566 attenuates the effects of ghrelin on performance in the object location memory task.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Sarah M; Currie, Paul J

    2011-10-31

    Increasing research implicates ghrelin, a metabolic signaling peptide, in memory processes including acquisition, consolidation, and retention. The present study investigated the effects of ghrelin on spatial memory acquisition by utilizing the object location memory task paradigm. Given the co-expression of ghrelin and dopamine D(1) receptors within hippocampal neurons, we examined a potential interaction between these two systems on memory performance. When injected into the dorsal third ventricle (D3V) of male Sprague-Dawley rats, proximal to hippocampal tissue, ghrelin (500 pmol) increased the amount of time spent with objects in novel locations. This effect was completely reversed by the D(1) antagonist SKF 83566 (100 μg/kg IP), although when administered alone, the antagonist had no effect on task performance (10-100 μg/kg). We also examined the feeding effects of D3V ghrelin and found that the peptide reliably increased food intake (500 pmol) but that this effect was not blocked by SKF 83566 (100 μg/kg). When given alone, SKF 83566 did not alter food intake (10-100 μg/kg). Our findings indicate that, in addition to an orexigenic effect, ghrelin improves acquisition of spatial location memories. Furthermore, D(1) receptor activation is necessary for ghrelin to improve the encoding of spatial memories but does not impact the increase in food intake elicited by the peptide.

  20. Binding objects to locations: the relationship between object files and visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Rasmussen, Ian P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between object files and visual working memory (VWM) was investigated in a new paradigm combining features of traditional VWM experiments (color change detection) and object-file experiments (memory for the properties of moving objects). Object-file theory was found to account for a key component of object-position binding in VWM: With motion, color memory came to be associated with the new locations of objects. However, robust binding to the original locations was found despite clear evidence that the objects had moved. This latter binding appears to constitute a scene-based component in VWM, which codes object location relative to the abstract spatial configuration of the display and is largely insensitive to the dynamic properties of objects.

  1. The Female Advantage in Object Location Memory According to the Foraging Hypothesis: A Critical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ecuyer-Dab, Isabelle; Robert, Michèle

    2007-12-01

    According to the evolutionary hypothesis of Silverman and Eals (1992, Sex differences in spatial abilities: Evolutionary theory and data. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 533-549). Oxford: Oxford University Press), women evolutionary hypothesis, women surpass men in object location memory as a result of a sexual division in foraging activities among early humans. After surveying the main anthropological information on ancestral sex-related foraging, we review the evidence on how robust women's advantage in object location memory is. This leads us to suggest that the functional understanding of this type of memory would benefit from comparing men and women in carefully designed and ecologically meaningful cognitive contexts involving, for instance, incidental versus intentional settings that call for either the absolute or relative encoding of the locations of common versus uncommon objects.

  2. Transformation of Visual Memory Revealed by Latency of Location-Specific Matching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-15

    Code) 7tf ADDRESS (Cit State. and ZIP Code) 3815 Walnut Street80Not QunySre Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 80Arlthn Viuin a Street OO 19104-6196 Alntn igna...Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Phillips, W. On the distinction between sensory storage and short-term visual memory. Perception & Psychophysics, 1974, 16(2

  3. A Bio-Inspired Memory Model Embedded with a Causality Reasoning Function for Structural Fault Location

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Wu, Chunxian

    2015-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is challenged by massive data storage pressure and structural fault location. In response to these issues, a bio-inspired memory model that is embedded with a causality reasoning function is proposed for fault location. First, the SHM data for processing are divided into three temporal memory areas to control data volume reasonably. Second, the inherent potential of the causal relationships in structural state monitoring is mined. Causality and dependence indices are also proposed to establish the mechanism of quantitative description of the reason and result events. Third, a mechanism of causality reasoning is developed for the reason and result events to locate faults in a SHM system. Finally, a deformation experiment conducted on a steel spring plate demonstrates that the proposed model can be applied to real-time acquisition, compact data storage, and system fault location in a SHM system. Moreover, the model is compared with some typical methods based on an experimental benchmark dataset. PMID:25798991

  4. Location Memory in the Real World: Category Adjustment Effects in 3-Dimensional Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remember spatial locations is critical to human functioning, both in an evolutionary and in an everyday sense. Yet spatial memories and judgments often show systematic errors and biases. Bias has been explained by models such as the Category Adjustment model (CAM), in which fine-grained and categorical information about locations…

  5. Describing Spatial Locations from Perception and Memory: The Influence of Intrinsic Axes on Reference Object Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoou; Carlson, Laura A.; Mou, Weimin; Williams, Mark R.; Miller, Jared E.

    2011-01-01

    A target object's location within a configuration of objects can be described by spatially relating it to a reference object that is selected from among its neighbors, with a preference for reference objects that are spatially close and aligned with the target. In the spatial memory literature, these properties of alignment and proximity are…

  6. Cognitive Operations on Space and Their Impact on the Precision of Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdale, Mark; Humphries, Joyce; Flynn, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Learning about object locations in space usually involves the summation of information from different experiences of that space and requires various cognitive operations to make this possible. These processes are poorly understood and, in the extreme, may not occur--leading to mutual exclusivity of memories (Baguley, Lansdale, Lines, & Parkin,…

  7. Memory for Object Locations: Priority Effect and Sex Differences in Associative Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinan, Sevtap; Atalay, Deniz; Sisman, Simge; Basbug, Gokce; Dervent-Ozbek, Sevinc; Teoman, Dalga D.; Karagoz, Ayca; Karadeniz, A. Yezdan; Beykurt, Sinem; Suleyman, Hediye; Memis, H. Ozge; Yurtsever, Ozgur D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments conducted to examine priority effects and sex differences in object location memory. A new task of paired position-learning was designed, based on the A-B A-C paradigm, which was used in paired word learning. There were three different paired position-learning conditions: (1) positions of several different…

  8. Effect of location of Si or Ge nanocrystals on the memory behavior of MNOS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Zs. J.; Basa, P.; Molnár, K. Z.; Molnár, Gy.; Jászi, T.; Pap, A. E.

    2013-06-01

    Charge injection and retention behaviors of metal-nitride-oxide-silicon (MNOS) memory structures with Si or Ge nanocrystals embedded at a depth of 3 nm in the nitride layer were studied. The effect of Si nanocrystals on these properties was opposite in comparison with that of Ge nanocrystals. To understand the origin of these opposite effects, the influence of the oxide thickness and of the depth, size and location of semiconductor nanocrystals has been studied on the charging behavior of MNOS non-volatile memory structures by the calculation of electron and hole tunneling probabilities, and by the simulation of memory window, memory hysteresis and retention behavior. For MNOS structures it is obtained that the presence of nanocrystals enhances the charge injection resulting in better performance, but only for structures with thin tunnel oxide layer (below 3 nm), and if the nanocrystals are located close to the oxide/nitride interface. In the case of very high tunneling probability, i.e., of high tunneling currents the system approaches equilibrium and the memory behavior collapses. There is a narrow range of oxide thickness or depth of nanocrystals, where the charging properties change very fast. Retention exhibits a very sharp dependence on the oxide thickness and on depth of nanocrystals as well. Most part of the experimental results can be explained on the basis of the results of simulations.

  9. Effects of healthy ageing on precision and binding of object location in visual short term memory.

    PubMed

    Pertzov, Yoni; Heider, Maike; Liang, Yuying; Husain, Masud

    2015-03-01

    Visual short term memory (STM) declines as people get older, but the nature of this deterioration is not well understood. We tested 139 healthy subjects (19-83 years) who were first required to identify a previously seen object and then report its location using a touchscreen. Results demonstrated an age-related decline in both object identification and localization. Deterioration in localization performance was apparent even when only 1 item had to be remembered, worsening disproportionately with increasing memory load. Thus, age-dependent memory degradation cannot be explained simply by a decrease in the number of items that can be held in visual STM but rather by the precision with which they are recalled. More important, there was no evidence for a significant decrease in object-location binding with increasing age. Thus, although precision for object identity and location declines with age, the ability to associate object identity to its location seems to remain unimpaired. As it has been reported that binding deficits in STM might be the first cognitive signs of early Alzheimer's disease (AD), the finding that object-location binding processes are relatively intact with normal aging supports the possible suitability of using misbinding as an index measures for probing early diagnosis of AD.

  10. What does visual suffix interference tell us about spatial location in working memory?

    PubMed

    Allen, Richard J; Castellà, Judit; Ueno, Taiji; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    A visual object can be conceived of as comprising a number of features bound together by their joint spatial location. We investigate the question of whether the spatial location is automatically bound to the features or whether the two are separable, using a previously developed paradigm whereby memory is disrupted by a visual suffix. Participants were shown a sample array of four colored shapes, followed by a postcue indicating the target for recall. On randomly intermixed trials, a to-be-ignored suffix array consisting of two different colored shapes was presented between the sample and the postcue. In a random half of suffix trials, one of the suffix items overlaid the location of the target. If location was automatically encoded, one might expect the colocation of target and suffix to differentially impair performance. We carried out three experiments, cuing for recall by spatial location (Experiment 1), color or shape (Experiment 2), or both randomly intermixed (Experiment 3). All three studies showed clear suffix effects, but the colocation of target and suffix was differentially disruptive only when a spatial cue was used. The results suggest that purely visual shape-color binding can be retained and accessed without requiring information about spatial location, even when task demands encourage the encoding of location, consistent with the idea of an abstract and flexible visual working memory system.

  11. Memory for object location and route direction in virtual large-scale space.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Gabriele

    2006-03-01

    In everyday life people have to deal with tasks such as finding a novel path to a certain goal location, finding one's way back, finding a short cut, or making a detour. In all of these tasks people acquire route knowledge. For finding the same way back they have to remember locations of objects like buildings and additionally direction changes. In three experiments using recognition tasks as well as conscious and unconscious spatial priming paradigms memory processes underlying wayfinding behaviour were investigated. Participants learned a route through a virtual environment with objects either placed at intersections (i.e., decision points) where another route could be chosen or placed along the route (non-decision points). Analyses indicate first that objects placed at decision points are recognized faster than other objects. Second, they indicate that the direction in which a route is travelled is represented only at locations that are relevant for wayfinding (e.g., decision points). The results point out the efficient way in which memory for object location and memory for route direction interact.

  12. Recognition memory for object form and object location: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Mecklinger, A; Meinshausen, R M

    1998-09-01

    In this study, the processes associated with retrieving object forms and object locations from working memory were examined with the use of simultaneously recorded event-related potential (ERP) activity. Subjects memorized object forms and their spatial locations and made either object-based or location-based recognition judgments. In Experiment 1, recognition performance was higher for object locations than for object forms. Old responses evoked more positive-going ERP activity between 0.3 and 1.8 sec poststimulus than did new responses. The topographic distribution of these old/new effects in the P300 time interval was task specific, with object-based recognition judgments being associated with anteriorly focused effects and location-based judgments with posteriorly focused effects. Late old/new effects were dominant at right frontal recordings. Using an interference paradigm, it was shown in Experiment 2 that visual representations were used to rehearse both object forms and object locations in working memory. The results of Experiment 3 indicated that the observed differential topographic distributions of the old/new effects in the P300 time interval are unlikely to reflect differences between easy and difficult recognition judgments. More specific effects were obtained for a subgroup of subjects for which the processing characteristics during location-based judgments presumably were similar to those in Experiment 1. These data, together with those from Experiment 1, indicate that different brain areas are engaged in retrieving object forms and object locations from working memory. Further analyses support the view that retrieval of object forms relies on conceptual semantic representation, whereas retrieving object locations is based on structural representations of spatial information. The effects in the later time intervals may play a functional role in post-retrieval processing, such as recollecting information from the study episode or other processes

  13. Spatial location and pathway memory compared in the reaching vs. walking domains.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, L; Bianchini, F; Nori, R; Marano, A; Iachini, F; Lasala, L; Guariglia, C

    2014-04-30

    Spatial information processing is influenced by the space in which an individual acts and the nature of the stimulus. This distinction is also present in spatial memory, where stimuli are processed differently because of their nature and the space in which they are released. The aim of the present study was to compare college students' performance on spatial location and pathway memory tasks in two different domains (reaching and walking). Reaching space refers to the portion of space within "grasping distance" and walking space to that beyond arm's reach. Research results indicate that it is easier to remember a pathway in the walking than the reaching domain and to remember single spatial locations in the reaching domain. Women are more able to perform the task in the walking domain than the reaching domain and men perform equally well in both domains.

  14. The modified Location Learning Test: norms for the assessment of spatial memory function in neuropsychological patients.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Roy P C; Nys, Gudrun M S; Brands, Augustina M A; van den Berg, Esther; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2006-12-01

    This study examines the applicability of the modified Location Learning Test (mLLT) as a test of spatial memory in neuropsychological patients. Three groups of participants were examined: stroke patients, patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy participants (N=411). Three error measures were computed, the Total Score (index of overall performance), the Learning Index (the learning curve over subsequent trials) and the Delayed Recall Score, measuring decay over time. The Learning Index was the most sensitive measure, showing differences between the three groups as well as lateralization effects within the stroke group. Also, the mLLT correlated significantly with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, as well as with age and education level. Regression-based normative data were computed based on the healthy participants. In all, the mLLT appears to be a sensitive and valid test for the detection of object-location memory impairments in clinical groups.

  15. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  16. Deployment of spatial attention towards locations in memory representations. An EEG study.

    PubMed

    Leszczyński, Marcin; Wykowska, Agnieszka; Perez-Osorio, Jairo; Müller, Hermann J

    2013-01-01

    Recalling information from visual short-term memory (VSTM) involves the same neural mechanisms as attending to an actually perceived scene. In particular, retrieval from VSTM has been associated with orienting of visual attention towards a location within a spatially-organized memory representation. However, an open question concerns whether spatial attention is also recruited during VSTM retrieval even when performing the task does not require access to spatial coordinates of items in the memorized scene. The present study combined a visual search task with a modified, delayed central probe protocol, together with EEG analysis, to answer this question. We found a temporal contralateral negativity (TCN) elicited by a centrally presented go-signal which was spatially uninformative and featurally unrelated to the search target and informed participants only about a response key that they had to press to indicate a prepared target-present vs. -absent decision. This lateralization during VSTM retrieval (TCN) provides strong evidence of a shift of attention towards the target location in the memory representation, which occurred despite the fact that the present task required no spatial (or featural) information from the search to be encoded, maintained, and retrieved to produce the correct response and that the go-signal did not itself specify any information relating to the location and defining feature of the target.

  17. Deployment of Spatial Attention towards Locations in Memory Representations. An EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Osorio, Jairo; Müller, Hermann J.

    2013-01-01

    Recalling information from visual short-term memory (VSTM) involves the same neural mechanisms as attending to an actually perceived scene. In particular, retrieval from VSTM has been associated with orienting of visual attention towards a location within a spatially-organized memory representation. However, an open question concerns whether spatial attention is also recruited during VSTM retrieval even when performing the task does not require access to spatial coordinates of items in the memorized scene. The present study combined a visual search task with a modified, delayed central probe protocol, together with EEG analysis, to answer this question. We found a temporal contralateral negativity (TCN) elicited by a centrally presented go-signal which was spatially uninformative and featurally unrelated to the search target and informed participants only about a response key that they had to press to indicate a prepared target-present vs. -absent decision. This lateralization during VSTM retrieval (TCN) provides strong evidence of a shift of attention towards the target location in the memory representation, which occurred despite the fact that the present task required no spatial (or featural) information from the search to be encoded, maintained, and retrieved to produce the correct response and that the go-signal did not itself specify any information relating to the location and defining feature of the target. PMID:24386295

  18. Sexual orientation and spatial position effects on selective forms of object location memory.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi; Newland, Cherie; Smyth, Beatrice Mary

    2011-04-01

    Prior research has demonstrated robust sex and sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory in humans. Here we show that this sexual variation may depend on the spatial position of target objects and the task-specific nature of the spatial array. We tested the recovery of object locations in three object arrays (object exchanges, object shifts, and novel objects) relative to veridical center (left compared to right side of the arrays) in a sample of 35 heterosexual men, 35 heterosexual women, and 35 homosexual men. Relative to heterosexual men, heterosexual women showed better location recovery in the right side of the array during object exchanges and homosexual men performed better in the right side during novel objects. However, the difference between heterosexual and homosexual men disappeared after controlling for IQ. Heterosexual women and homosexual men did not differ significantly from each other in location change detection with respect to task or side of array. These data suggest that visual space biases in processing categorical spatial positions may enhance aspects of object location memory in heterosexual women.

  19. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E; Lavery, Leah L; Whiting, Gregory L; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic.

  20. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E.; Lavery, Leah L.; Whiting, Gregory L.; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic. PMID:22900143

  1. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E.; Lavery, Leah L.; Whiting, Gregory L.; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-08-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic.

  2. High-resolution ERP mapping of cortical activation related to implicit object-location memory.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jonathan S; Wynne, Ciara E; O'Rourke, Edel M; Commins, Seán; Roche, Richard A P

    2009-12-01

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during an object recognition task which involved task-irrelevant changes in the location of studied objects. Participants categorised objects as studied or novel while data were analysed to ascertain the effect of the location changes on performance and waveform topography. Our results indicate that humans can classify objects faster and more accurately when using implicit spatial memory. Individual differences observed in object recognition proficiency were absent if objects were presented in their 'correct' location. In a second experiment we replicated the behavioural findings while manipulating viewpoint to discount scene recognition as an underlying factor. We propose a model which includes activation of the right medial temporal lobe prior to P300 elicitation to account for the prophylactic effect of implicit processing on object recognition. Hemispheric differences in parietal componentry dependant on sex of participant were also observed and are discussed in relation to differential strategies.

  3. Distinct Neural Substrates for Maintaining Locations and Spatial Relations in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Blacker, Kara J.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated a distinction between maintenance of two types of spatial information in working memory (WM): spatial locations and spatial relations. While a body of work has investigated the neural mechanisms of sensory-based information like spatial locations, little is known about how spatial relations are maintained in WM. In two experiments, we used fMRI to investigate the involvement of early visual cortex in the maintenance of spatial relations in WM. In both experiments, we found less quadrant-specific BOLD activity in visual cortex when a single spatial relation, compared to a single spatial location, was held in WM. Also across both experiments, we found a consistent set of brain regions that were differentially activated during maintenance of locations vs. relations. Maintaining a location, compared to a relation, was associated with greater activity in typical spatial WM regions like posterior parietal cortex and prefrontal regions. Whereas maintaining a relation, compared to a location, was associated with greater activity in the parahippocampal gyrus and precuneus/retrosplenial cortex. Further, in Experiment 2 we manipulated WM load and included trials where participants had to maintain three spatial locations or relations. Under this high load condition, the regions sensitive to locations vs. relations were somewhat different than under low load. We also identified regions that were sensitive to load specifically for location or relation maintenance, as well as overlapping regions sensitive to load more generally. These results suggest that the neural substrates underlying WM maintenance of spatial locations and relations are distinct from one another and that the neural representations of these distinct types of spatial information change with load. PMID:27932963

  4. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  5. The asymmetry and temporal dynamics of incidental letter-location bindings in working memory.

    PubMed

    Elsley, Jane V; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2015-01-01

    Verbal-spatial bindings are integral to routine cognitive operations (e.g., reading), yet the processes supporting them in working memory are little understood. Campo and colleagues [Campo, P., Poch, C., Parmentier, F. B. R., Moratti, S., Elsley, J. V., Castellanos, N., … Maestú, F. (2010). Oscillatory activity in prefrontal and posterior regions during implicit letter-location binding. Neuroimage, 49, 2807-2815] recently reported data suggesting obligatory letter-location binding when participants were directed to remember the letters in a display (of letters in locations), but no evidence for binding when instructed to remember the filled locations. The present study contrasted two explanations for this binding asymmetry. First, it may result from an obligatory dependence on "where" during the representation of "what" information, while "where" information may be held independently of its contents (the strong asymmetry hypothesis). Second, it may constitute a snapshot of a dynamic feature inhibition process that had partially completed by test: the asymmetrical inhibition hypothesis. Using Campo and colleagues' task with a variable retention interval between display and test, we presented four consonants in distinct locations and contrasted performance between "remember letters" and "remember locations" instructions. Our data supported the strong asymmetry hypothesis through demonstrating binding in the verbal task, but not in the spatial task. Critically, when present, verbal-spatial bindings were remarkably stable, enduring for at least 15 seconds.

  6. The Female Advantage in Object Location Memory is Robust to Verbalizability and Mode of Presentation of Test Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejbak, Lisa; Vrbancic, Mirna; Crossley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study extends Duff and Hampson's [Duff, S., & Hampson, E. (2001). A sex difference on a novel spatial working memory task in humans. "Brain and Cognition, 47," 470-493] finding of a sex-related difference in favor of females for an object location memory task. Twenty female and 20 male undergraduate students performed both manual and…

  7. Development of a Handbook for Educators: Addressing Working Memory Capacity in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Julie Marie

    2013-01-01

    Working Memory (WM) refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for complex cognitive tasks such as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. WM also requires the simultaneous storage and processing of information. WM is directly related to academic performance in the classroom.…

  8. "Good Is Up” Is Not Always Better: A Memory Advantage for Words in Metaphor-Incompatible Locations

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, L. Elizabeth; Cohn, Stephanie M.; Kim, Arnold B.

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether memory for positive and negative words depended on word location and vertical hand movements. Cognitive processing is known to be facilitated when valenced stimuli are presented in locations that are congruent with the GOOD is UP conceptual metaphor, relative to when they are presented in incongruent locations. In both free recall and recognition tasks, we find a memory advantage for words that had been studied in metaphor incongruent locations (positive down, negative up). This incongruity advantage depends on the location of words during encoding, but no evidence was found to suggest that other spatial associations, such as the vertical position of the hand at encoding or word location during retrieval, affect memory. The results indicate that metaphors, like schemas, categories, and stereotypes, can influence cognition in complex ways, producing variable outcomes across different tasks. PMID:25259846

  9. Of "what" and "where" in a natural search task: Active object handling supports object location memory beyond the object's identity.

    PubMed

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2016-08-01

    Looking for as well as actively manipulating objects that are relevant to ongoing behavioral goals are intricate parts of natural behavior. It is, however, not clear to what degree these two forms of interaction with our visual environment differ with regard to their memory representations. In a real-world paradigm, we investigated if physically engaging with objects as part of a search task influences identity and position memory differently for task-relevant versus irrelevant objects. Participants equipped with a mobile eye tracker either searched for cued objects without object interaction (Find condition) or actively collected the objects they found (Handle condition). In the following free-recall task, identity memory was assessed, demonstrating superior memory for relevant compared to irrelevant objects, but no difference between the Handle and Find conditions. Subsequently, location memory was inferred via times to first fixation in a final object search task. Active object manipulation and task-relevance interacted in that location memory for relevant objects was superior to irrelevant ones only in the Handle condition. Including previous object recall performance as a covariate in the linear mixed-model analysis of times to first fixation allowed us to explore the interaction between remembered/forgotten object identities and the execution of location memory. Identity memory performance predicted location memory in the Find but not the Handle condition, suggesting that active object handling leads to strong spatial representations independent of object identity memory. We argue that object handling facilitates the prioritization of relevant location information, but this might come at the cost of deprioritizing irrelevant information.

  10. The use of content addressable memories in the level 2 trigger for the CLAS detector at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.C. Jr.; Hodson, R.F.; Allgood, D.; Bickley, M.; Campbell, S.; Putnam, T.; Spivak, R.; Lemon, S.; Wilson, W.C.

    1996-02-01

    The LEVEL 2 trigger in the CLAS detector will find tracks and associate a momentum and angle with each track within 2 {micro}s after the event. This is done through a hierarchical track finding design in which track segments are found in each drift chamber axial superlayer. An array of 384 custom content addressable (or associative) memories (CAMs) uses independent subfield matching to link these track segments into roads. The track parameters corresponding to each found road are then looked up in a separate memory. The authors present the overall architecture of the LEVEL 2 trigger, the details of how the CAM chip links tracks segments to find roads, and report on the performance of the prototype CAM chips.

  11. Differential effects of spaced vs. massed training in long-term object-identity and object-location recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Bello-Medina, Paola C; Sánchez-Carrasco, Livia; González-Ornelas, Nadia R; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2013-08-01

    Here we tested whether the well-known superiority of spaced training over massed training is equally evident in both object identity and object location recognition memory. We trained animals with objects placed in a variable or in a fixed location to produce a location-independent object identity memory or a location-dependent object representation. The training consisted of 5 trials that occurred either on one day (Massed) or over the course of 5 consecutive days (Spaced). The memory test was done in independent groups of animals either 24h or 7 days after the last training trial. In each test the animals were exposed to either a novel object, when trained with the objects in variable locations, or to a familiar object in a novel location, when trained with objects in fixed locations. The difference in time spent exploring the changed versus the familiar objects was used as a measure of recognition memory. For the object-identity-trained animals, spaced training produced clear evidence of recognition memory after both 24h and 7 days, but massed-training animals showed it only after 24h. In contrast, for the object-location-trained animals, recognition memory was evident after both retention intervals and with both training procedures. When objects were placed in variable locations for the two types of training and the test was done with a brand-new location, only the spaced-training animals showed recognition at 24h, but surprisingly, after 7 days, animals trained using both procedures were able to recognize the change, suggesting a post-training consolidation process. We suggest that the two training procedures trigger different neural mechanisms that may differ in the two segregated streams that process object information and that may consolidate differently.

  12. Multifunctional shape memory electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators enabling high holding force and low-voltage multisegment addressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoul, David; Rosset, Samuel; Besse, Nadine; Shea, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are an attractive form of electromechanical transducer, possessing high energy densities, an efficient design, mechanical flexibility, high speed, and noiseless operation. They have been incorporated into a variety of elegant devices, such as microfluidic devices, tunable optics, haptic displays, and minimum-energy grippers. Dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures (DEMESs) take advantage of the prestretch of the DEA to bend a non-stretchable but flexible component to perform mechanical work. The gripper is perhaps the most intuitive type of DEMES, capable of grasping objects but with only small to moderate forces. We present a novel configuration of a DEA using electrodes made of a conductive shape-memory polymer (SMP), incorporated into the design of a gripper. The SMP electrodes allow the DEA to be rigid in the cold state, offering greater holding force than a conventional gripper. Joule heating applied to the SMP electrodes softens them, allowing for electrostatic actuation. Cooling then locks in the actuated position without the need for continued power to be supplied. Additionally, the Joule heating voltage is at least one order of magnitude less than electrostatic actuation voltages, allowing for addressing of multiple actuator elements using commercially available transistors. The shape memory gripper incorporates this addressing into its design, enabling the three segments of each finger to be controlled independently.

  13. Cross-modal and intra-modal binding between identity and location in spatial working memory: The identity of objects does not help recalling their locations.

    PubMed

    Del Gatto, Claudia; Brunetti, Riccardo; Delogu, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In this study we tested incidental feature-to-location binding in a spatial task, both in unimodal and cross-modal conditions. In Experiment 1 we administered a computerised version of the Corsi Block-Tapping Task (CBTT) in three different conditions: the first one analogous to the original CBTT test; the second one in which locations were associated with unfamiliar images; the third one in which locations were associated with non-verbal sounds. Results showed no effect on performance by the addition of identity information. In Experiment 2, locations on the screen were associated with pitched sounds in two different conditions: one in which different pitches were randomly associated with locations and the other in which pitches were assigned to match the vertical position of the CBTT squares congruently with their frequencies. In Experiment 2 we found marginal evidence of a pitch facilitation effect in the spatial memory task. We ran a third experiment to test the same conditions of Experiment 2 with a within-subject design. Results of Experiment 3 did not confirm the pitch-location facilitation effect. We concluded that the identity of objects does not affect recalling their locations. We discuss our results within the framework of the debate about the mechanisms of "what" and "where" feature binding in working memory.

  14. Cholinergic enhancement differentially modulates neural response to encoding during face identity and face location working memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Handjaras, Giacomo; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Szczepanik, Joanna; Pietrini, Pietro; Furey, Maura L

    2013-09-01

    Potentiation of cholinergic transmission influences stimulus processing by enhancing signal detection through suppression and/or filtering out of irrelevant information (bottom-up modulation) and with top-down task-oriented executive mechanisms based on the recruitment of prefrontal and parietal attentional systems. The cholinergic system also plays a critical role in working memory (WM) processes and preferentially modulates WM encoding, likely through stimulus-processing mechanisms. Previous research reported increased brain responses in visual extrastriate cortical regions during cholinergic enhancement in the encoding phase of WM, independently addressing object and spatial encoding. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the effects of cholinergic enhancement on encoding of key visual processing features. Subjects participated in two scanning sessions, one during an intravenous (i.v.) infusion of saline and the other during an infusion of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. In each scan session, subjects alternated between a face identity recognition and a spatial location WM. Enhanced cholinergic function increased neural activity in the ventral stream during encoding of face identity and in the dorsal stream during encoding of face location. Conversely, a reduction in brain response was found for scrambled sensorimotor control images. The cholinergic effects on neural activity in the ventral stream during encoding of face identity were stronger than those observed in the dorsal stream during encoding of face location, likely as a consequence of the role of acetylcholine in establishing the inherently relevant nature of face identity. Despite the limited sample-size, the results suggest the stimulus-dependent role of cholinergic system in signal detection, as they show that cholinergic potentiation enhances neural activity in regions associated with early perceptual processing in a selective manner depending on

  15. Contingency blindness: location-identity binding mismatches obscure awareness of spatial contingencies and produce profound interference in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Milliken, Bruce

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to highlight the role of location-identity binding mismatches in obscuring explicit awareness of a strong contingency. In a spatial-priming procedure, we introduced a high likelihood of location-repeat trials. Experiments 1, 2a, and 2b demonstrated that participants' explicit awareness of this contingency was heavily influenced by the local match in location-identity bindings. In Experiment 3, we sought to determine why location-identity binding mismatches produce such low levels of contingency awareness. Our results suggest that binding mismatches can interfere substantially with visual-memory performance. We attribute the low levels of contingency awareness to participants' inability to remember the critical location-identity binding in the prime on a trial-to-trial basis. These results imply a close interplay between object files and visual working memory.

  16. Object location and object recognition memory impairments, motivation deficits and depression in a model of Gulf War illness

    PubMed Central

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Mishra, Vikas; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shuai, Bing; Rao, Xiolan; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Memory and mood deficits are the enduring brain-related symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Both animal model and epidemiological investigations have indicated that these impairments in a majority of GW veterans are linked to exposures to chemicals such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB, an antinerve gas drug), permethrin (PM, an insecticide) and DEET (a mosquito repellant) encountered during the Persian Gulf War-1. Our previous study in a rat model has shown that combined exposures to low doses of GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals PB, PM, and DEET with or without 5-min of restraint stress (a mild stress paradigm) causes hippocampus-dependent spatial memory dysfunction in a water maze test (WMT) and increased depressive-like behavior in a forced swim test (FST). In this study, using a larger cohort of rats exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress, we investigated whether the memory deficiency identified earlier in a WMT is reproducible with an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent memory test such as the object location test (OLT). We also ascertained the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test (NORT), and alterations in mood function with additional tests for motivation and depression. Our results provide new evidence that exposure to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks causes deficits in hippocampus-dependent object location memory and perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory. An open field test performed prior to other behavioral analyses revealed that memory impairments were not associated with increased anxiety or deficits in general motor ability. However, behavioral tests for mood function such as a voluntary physical exercise paradigm and a novelty suppressed feeding test (NSFT) demonstrated decreased motivation levels and depression. Thus, exposure to GWIR-chemicals and stress causes both hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent memory

  17. Object location and object recognition memory impairments, motivation deficits and depression in a model of Gulf War illness.

    PubMed

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Mishra, Vikas; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shuai, Bing; Rao, Xiolan; Shetty, Ashok K

    2014-01-01

    Memory and mood deficits are the enduring brain-related symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Both animal model and epidemiological investigations have indicated that these impairments in a majority of GW veterans are linked to exposures to chemicals such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB, an antinerve gas drug), permethrin (PM, an insecticide) and DEET (a mosquito repellant) encountered during the Persian Gulf War-1. Our previous study in a rat model has shown that combined exposures to low doses of GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals PB, PM, and DEET with or without 5-min of restraint stress (a mild stress paradigm) causes hippocampus-dependent spatial memory dysfunction in a water maze test (WMT) and increased depressive-like behavior in a forced swim test (FST). In this study, using a larger cohort of rats exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress, we investigated whether the memory deficiency identified earlier in a WMT is reproducible with an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent memory test such as the object location test (OLT). We also ascertained the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test (NORT), and alterations in mood function with additional tests for motivation and depression. Our results provide new evidence that exposure to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks causes deficits in hippocampus-dependent object location memory and perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory. An open field test performed prior to other behavioral analyses revealed that memory impairments were not associated with increased anxiety or deficits in general motor ability. However, behavioral tests for mood function such as a voluntary physical exercise paradigm and a novelty suppressed feeding test (NSFT) demonstrated decreased motivation levels and depression. Thus, exposure to GWIR-chemicals and stress causes both hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent memory

  18. Cortical Activation Patterns during Long-Term Memory Retrieval of Visually or Haptically Encoded Objects and Locations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Oliver; Roder, Brigitte; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Rosler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to delineate cortical networks that are activated when objects or spatial locations encoded either visually (visual encoding group, n = 10) or haptically (haptic encoding group, n = 10) had to be retrieved from long-term memory. Participants learned associations between auditorily…

  19. Hippocampal lesions in rats impair learning and memory for locations on a touch-sensitive computer screen: the "ASAT" task.

    PubMed

    Talpos, J C; Dias, R; Bussey, T J; Saksida, L M

    2008-10-10

    It has been repeatedly demonstrated across species that the hippocampus is critical for spatial learning and memory. Consequently, numerous paradigms have been created to study spatial learning in the rodent. Most of these tasks, such as the Morris water maze, 8-arm radial maze, and T-maze, are non-automated procedures. It was our goal to create an automated task in the rodent that is quickly learned, hippocampal-dependent, and minimizes the confounding variables present in most tests measuring hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. To accomplish this, we created a novel search task using a standard operant box fitted with a touch-sensitive computer monitor. Subjects were required to locate an S+ "hidden" amongst other identical stimuli on the monitor. In two versions of the task the S+ stayed in the same location within a session but shifted location between sessions. In a third version of the task the S+ was moved to a new location after every 10 trials. It was found that the location of the S+ was quickly acquired each day (within 10 trials), and that the hippocampal-lesion group was impaired when compared to their control cohort. With the benefits inherent in automation, these tasks confer significant advantages over traditional tasks used to study spatial learning and memory in the rodent. When combined with previously developed non-spatial cognitive tests that can also be run in the touch-screen apparatus, the result is a powerful cognitive test battery for the rodent.

  20. Distinct Roles for Medial Temporal Lobe Structures in Memory for Objects and Their Locations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalo, Elizabeth A.; Bellgowan, Patrick S. F.; Martin, Alex

    2006-01-01

    The ability to learn and retain novel information depends on a system of structures in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) including the hippocampus and the surrounding entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices. Damage to these structures produces profound memory deficits; however, the unique contribution to memory of each of these…

  1. Binding Objects to Locations: The Relationship between Object Files and Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Rasmussen, Ian P.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between object files and visual working memory (VWM) was investigated in a new paradigm combining features of traditional VWM experiments (color change detection) and object-file experiments (memory for the properties of moving objects). Object-file theory was found to account for a key component of object-position binding in VWM:…

  2. Automatic multi-banking of memory for microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A microprocessor system is provided with added memories to expand its address spaces beyond its address word length capacity by using indirect addressing instructions of a type having a detectable operations code and dedicating designated address spaces of memory to each of the added memories, one space to a memory. By decoding each operations code of instructions read from main memory into a decoder to identify indirect addressing instructions of the specified type, and then decoding the address that follows in a decoder to determine which added memory is associated therewith, the associated added memory is selectively enabled through a unit while the main memory is disabled to permit the instruction to be executed on the location to which the effective address of the indirect address instruction points, either before the indirect address is read from main memory or afterwards, depending on how the system is arranged by a switch.

  3. Large scale integration of flexible non-volatile, re-addressable memories using P(VDF-TrFE) and amorphous oxide transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Cobb, Brian; van Breemen, Albert J. J. M.; Myny, Kris

    2015-07-01

    Ferroelectric polymers and amorphous metal oxide semiconductors have emerged as important materials for re-programmable non-volatile memories and high-performance, flexible thin-film transistors, respectively. However, realizing sophisticated transistor memory arrays has proven to be a challenge, and demonstrating reliable writing to and reading from such a large scale memory has thus far not been demonstrated. Here, we report an integration of ferroelectric, P(VDF-TrFE), transistor memory arrays with thin-film circuitry that can address each individual memory element in that array. n-type indium gallium zinc oxide is used as the active channel material in both the memory and logic thin-film transistors. The maximum process temperature is 200 °C, allowing plastic films to be used as substrate material. The technology was scaled up to 150 mm wafer size, and offers good reproducibility, high device yield and low device variation. This forms the basis for successful demonstration of memory arrays, read and write circuitry, and the integration of these.

  4. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  5. Memory for Complex Visual Objects but Not for Allocentric Locations during the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupierrix, Eve; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Although human infants demonstrate early competence to retain visual information, memory capacities during infancy remain largely undocumented. In three experiments, we used a Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task to examine abilities to encode identity (Experiment 1) and spatial properties (Experiments 2a and 2b) of unfamiliar complex visual…

  6. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) exhibit novelty preference in the novel location memory task with 24-h retention periods.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jayakrishnan; Topka, Marlene; Khani, Abbas; Isenschmid, Manuela; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Novelty preference is pervasive in mammalian species, and describes an inherent tendency to preferentially explore novelty. The novel location memory task studied here assesses the ability of animals to form accurate memories of a spatial configuration, consisting of several identical objects placed within an arena. Tree shrews were first familiarized with a particular object configuration during several sessions, and then an object was displaced during a test session. Tree shrews exhibited enhanced exploration when confronted with this novel configuration. The most reliable indicator associated with novelty preference was an enhancement in directed exploration towards the novel object, although we also observed a non-specific overall increase in exploration in one experiment. During the test session, we also observed an exploration of the location, which had previously been occupied by the displaced object, an effect termed empty quadrant. Our behavioral findings suggest multiple stages of spatial memory formation in tree shrews that are associated with various forms of behavioral responses to novelty. Reduced novelty preference has been linked to major depressive disorder in human patients. Given the established social conflict depression model in tree shrews, we anticipate that the study of the neural circuits of novelty preference and their malfunction during depression may have implications for understanding or treating depression in humans.

  7. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) exhibit novelty preference in the novel location memory task with 24-h retention periods

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jayakrishnan; Topka, Marlene; Khani, Abbas; Isenschmid, Manuela; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Novelty preference is pervasive in mammalian species, and describes an inherent tendency to preferentially explore novelty. The novel location memory task studied here assesses the ability of animals to form accurate memories of a spatial configuration, consisting of several identical objects placed within an arena. Tree shrews were first familiarized with a particular object configuration during several sessions, and then an object was displaced during a test session. Tree shrews exhibited enhanced exploration when confronted with this novel configuration. The most reliable indicator associated with novelty preference was an enhancement in directed exploration towards the novel object, although we also observed a non-specific overall increase in exploration in one experiment. During the test session, we also observed an exploration of the location, which had previously been occupied by the displaced object, an effect termed empty quadrant. Our behavioral findings suggest multiple stages of spatial memory formation in tree shrews that are associated with various forms of behavioral responses to novelty. Reduced novelty preference has been linked to major depressive disorder in human patients. Given the established social conflict depression model in tree shrews, we anticipate that the study of the neural circuits of novelty preference and their malfunction during depression may have implications for understanding or treating depression in humans. PMID:24782805

  8. True-3D accentuating of grids and streets in urban topographic maps enhances human object location memory.

    PubMed

    Edler, Dennis; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Kuchinke, Lars; Dickmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems) or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids), provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distortions in their mental representations. In recent years, the television industry has started to establish True-3D (autostereoscopic) displays as mass media. These modern displays make it possible to watch dynamic and static images including depth illusions without additional devices, such as 3D glasses. In these images, visual details can be distributed over different positions along the depth axis. Some empirical studies of vision research provided first evidence that 3D stereoscopic content attracts higher attention and is processed faster. So far, the impact of True-3D accentuating has not yet been explored concerning spatial memory tasks and cartography. This paper reports the results of two empirical studies that focus on investigations whether True-3D accentuating of artificial, regular overlaying line features (i.e. grids) and content-related, irregular line features (i.e. highways and main streets) in official urban topographic maps (scale 1/10,000) further improves human object location memory performance. The memory performance is measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled object locations (hit rate) and the mean distances of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy). It is shown that the True-3D accentuating of grids (depth offset: 5 cm) significantly enhances the spatial accuracy of recalled map object locations, whereas the True-3D emphasis of streets significantly improves the hit rate of recalled map object locations. These results show the potential of True-3D displays for an improvement of the cognitive representation of learned cartographic information.

  9. True-3D Accentuating of Grids and Streets in Urban Topographic Maps Enhances Human Object Location Memory

    PubMed Central

    Edler, Dennis; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Kuchinke, Lars; Dickmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems) or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids), provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distortions in their mental representations. In recent years, the television industry has started to establish True-3D (autostereoscopic) displays as mass media. These modern displays make it possible to watch dynamic and static images including depth illusions without additional devices, such as 3D glasses. In these images, visual details can be distributed over different positions along the depth axis. Some empirical studies of vision research provided first evidence that 3D stereoscopic content attracts higher attention and is processed faster. So far, the impact of True-3D accentuating has not yet been explored concerning spatial memory tasks and cartography. This paper reports the results of two empirical studies that focus on investigations whether True-3D accentuating of artificial, regular overlaying line features (i.e. grids) and content-related, irregular line features (i.e. highways and main streets) in official urban topographic maps (scale 1/10,000) further improves human object location memory performance. The memory performance is measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled object locations (hit rate) and the mean distances of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy). It is shown that the True-3D accentuating of grids (depth offset: 5 cm) significantly enhances the spatial accuracy of recalled map object locations, whereas the True-3D emphasis of streets significantly improves the hit rate of recalled map object locations. These results show the potential of True-3D displays for an improvement of the cognitive representation of learned cartographic information. PMID:25679208

  10. Selective deficit in spatial location memory in extremely low birth weight children at age six: the PETIT study.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ida Sue; Brandt, Jason; Ahronovich, Margot D; Baker, Robin; Erickson, Kristine; Litman, Fern R

    2012-01-01

    Spatial location memory has rarely been assessed in young children due to a scarcity of developmentally appropriate tests. This study sought to compare nonverbal learning and recall in children born extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) and less than 33 gestational weeks (GW) with term-born children at early school age using a recently developed and adapted test. We administered a modification of the Hopkins Board to 210 children at age six; 84 born ELBW (35 born < 26 GW; 49 born 26-33 GW) and 126 term-born. Six measures were obtained: naming, trials-to-criterion, errors-to-criterion, delayed item recall, delayed location recall, and percent retention. After age correction, ELBW children had worse general cognition, item naming, delayed item recall, delayed location recall, and percent retention than term-born children. Delayed item recall and percent retention performances of ELBW children remained worse after correction for general cognition. ELBW groups (< 26 GW and 26-33 GW) groups performed worse than term-born children in naming and delayed item recall with chronological age as covariate. Those born before 26 GW, but not 26-33 GW, performed worse than term-born children in delayed location recall and percent retention. Differences remained significant after controlling for gender, maternal education, and delivery type. All three groups' performance declined from final learning trial to delayed location recall, with a decline greater for less than 26 GW than term-born children. Extreme prematurity (< 26 GW) and ELBW are significant risk factors for spatial location memory deficit. The modified Hopkins Board discriminated high-risk preterm and term-born children at early school age and appears to be a useful test to measure this rarely studied cognitive capacity.

  11. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  12. Effects of Spatial Ability, Gender Differences, and Pictorial Training on Children Using 2-D and 3-D Environments to Recall Landmark Locations from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopcha, Theodore J.; Otumfuor, Beryl A.; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of spatial ability, gender differences, and pictorial training on fourth grade students' ability to recall landmark locations from memory. Ninety-six students used Google Earth over a 3-week period to locate landmarks (3-D) and mark their location on a 2-D topographical map. Analysis of covariance on posttest scores…

  13. MELOC - Memory and Location Optimized Caching for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    locations PZID, CZID, <CD> list O/P: Cache Reallocation Operation Notations: PZ Previous Zone CZ Current Zone NCD List of nodes whose original...zone C Cache location crossing the zone CD[C] Cached data of C Trigger :( Cache Location moving from PZ to CZ) if (( NCD minus NPZ)> NCD /2) then...Insert CD[C] into H [PZ] Else No operation if (( NCD minus NCZ)> NCD /2) then No operation Else Delete CD[C] from C

  14. Brain regions involved in subprocesses of small-space episodic object-location memory: a systematic review of lesion and functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Eschen, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Object-location memory (OLM) enables us to keep track of the locations of objects in our environment. The neurocognitive model of OLM (Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2004). The neuropsychology of object-location memory. In G. L. Allen (Ed.), Human spatial memory: Remembering where (pp. 143-160). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2008). How the brain remembers and forgets where things are: The neurocognition of object-location memory. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 1339-1345. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.05.001 ) proposes that distinct brain regions are specialised for different subprocesses of OLM (object processing, location processing, and object-location binding; categorical and coordinate OLM; egocentric and allocentric OLM). It was based mainly on findings from lesion studies. However, recent episodic memory studies point to a contribution of additional or different brain regions to object and location processing within episodic OLM. To evaluate and update the neurocognitive model of OLM, we therefore conducted a systematic literature search for lesion as well as functional neuroimaging studies contrasting small-space episodic OLM with object memory or location memory. We identified 10 relevant lesion studies and 8 relevant functional neuroimaging studies. We could confirm some of the proposals of the neurocognitive model of OLM, but also differing hypotheses from episodic memory research, about which brain regions are involved in the different subprocesses of small-space episodic OLM. In addition, we were able to identify new brain regions as well as important research gaps.

  15. Bubble Memory Module.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    104 7-13 Four switch drive hybrid ........................................................................ 104 7-14...operation. Address Ready. - This signal is an output signal to the user which acknowledges that the module is busy. Input address is latched in the...expandable in 6.55 M bit increments. Detector noise is minimized by locating sense circuits, cell select switches , and memory cells on the same board

  16. Effects of acute restraint stress on different components of memory as assessed by object-recognition and object-location tasks in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Fan, Ya-Xin; Wang, Wei; Tang, Yi-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    Studies on how acute stress and the stress-related hormones affect learning and memory have yielded inconsistent findings, which might be due to some variables such as the properties of stressors, the nature of memory, the protocols for behavioral tasks and the characteristics of the subjects. However, the impacts of acute stress on different memory components have not been clearly demonstrated within one single experiment. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of 1-h restraint stress and the stress-induced plasma corticosterone elevation on memory acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval in mice, using object-recognition task (ORT) and object-location task (OLT) with a 4-h or 24-h intertrial interval (ITI). The results showed that, regardless of ITI, the recognition memory retrieval was significantly disrupted by acute restraint stress exposure, which started 75 min before the test session of both ORT and OLT. Acute restraint stress performed immediately after memory acquisition interrupted the consolidation of short-term recognition memories (4-h ITI) into long-term ones (24-h ITI). Moreover, the disrupted memory retrieval or consolidation was strongly related to the stress-induced plasma corticosterone elevation in a negative manner. These preliminary results clarified that acute restraint stress differently impacts three memory components, and the enhanced plasma corticosterone level under stressful situation plays critical roles in the information processing of memory under the stressful situation.

  17. Differential roles for Nr4a1 and Nr4a2 in object location vs. object recognition long-term memory.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Susan E; Barrett, Ruth M; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Malvaez, Melissa; Hernandez, Nicole; Davatolhagh, M Felicia; Matheos, Dina P; Schiffman, Aaron; Wood, Marcelo A

    2012-11-16

    Nr4a1 and Nr4a2 are transcription factors and immediate early genes belonging to the nuclear receptor Nr4a family. In this study, we examine their role in long-term memory formation for object location and object recognition. Using siRNA to block expression of either Nr4a1 or Nr4a2, we found that Nr4a2 is necessary for both long-term memory for object location and object recognition. In contrast, Nr4a1 appears to be necessary only for object location. Indeed, their roles in these different types of long-term memory may be dependent on their expression in the brain, as NR4A2 was found to be expressed in hippocampal neurons (associated with object location memory) as well as in the insular and perirhinal cortex (associated with object recognition memory), whereas NR4A1 showed minimal neuronal expression in these cortical areas. These results begin to elucidate how NR4A1 and NR4A2 differentially contribute to object location versus object recognition memory.

  18. Locating Temporal Functional Dynamics of Visual Short-Term Memory Binding using Graph Modular Dirichlet Energy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Keith; Ricaud, Benjamin; Shahid, Nauman; Rhodes, Stephen; Starr, John M; Ibáñez, Augustin; Parra, Mario A; Escudero, Javier; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2017-02-10

    Visual short-term memory binding tasks are a promising early marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). To uncover functional deficits of AD in these tasks it is meaningful to first study unimpaired brain function. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from encoding and maintenance periods of tasks performed by healthy young volunteers. We probe the task's transient physiological underpinnings by contrasting shape only (Shape) and shape-colour binding (Bind) conditions, displayed in the left and right sides of the screen, separately. Particularly, we introduce and implement a novel technique named Modular Dirichlet Energy (MDE) which allows robust and flexible analysis of the functional network with unprecedented temporal precision. We find that connectivity in the Bind condition is less integrated with the global network than in the Shape condition in occipital and frontal modules during the encoding period of the right screen condition. Using MDE we are able to discern driving effects in the occipital module between 100-140 ms, coinciding with the P100 visually evoked potential, followed by a driving effect in the frontal module between 140-180 ms, suggesting that the differences found constitute an information processing difference between these modules. This provides temporally precise information over a heterogeneous population in promising tasks for the detection of AD.

  19. Locating Temporal Functional Dynamics of Visual Short-Term Memory Binding using Graph Modular Dirichlet Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Keith; Ricaud, Benjamin; Shahid, Nauman; Rhodes, Stephen; Starr, John M.; Ibáñez, Augustin; Parra, Mario A.; Escudero, Javier; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Visual short-term memory binding tasks are a promising early marker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To uncover functional deficits of AD in these tasks it is meaningful to first study unimpaired brain function. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from encoding and maintenance periods of tasks performed by healthy young volunteers. We probe the task’s transient physiological underpinnings by contrasting shape only (Shape) and shape-colour binding (Bind) conditions, displayed in the left and right sides of the screen, separately. Particularly, we introduce and implement a novel technique named Modular Dirichlet Energy (MDE) which allows robust and flexible analysis of the functional network with unprecedented temporal precision. We find that connectivity in the Bind condition is less integrated with the global network than in the Shape condition in occipital and frontal modules during the encoding period of the right screen condition. Using MDE we are able to discern driving effects in the occipital module between 100–140 ms, coinciding with the P100 visually evoked potential, followed by a driving effect in the frontal module between 140–180 ms, suggesting that the differences found constitute an information processing difference between these modules. This provides temporally precise information over a heterogeneous population in promising tasks for the detection of AD.

  20. Locating Temporal Functional Dynamics of Visual Short-Term Memory Binding using Graph Modular Dirichlet Energy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Keith; Ricaud, Benjamin; Shahid, Nauman; Rhodes, Stephen; Starr, John M.; Ibáñez, Augustin; Parra, Mario A.; Escudero, Javier; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Visual short-term memory binding tasks are a promising early marker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To uncover functional deficits of AD in these tasks it is meaningful to first study unimpaired brain function. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from encoding and maintenance periods of tasks performed by healthy young volunteers. We probe the task’s transient physiological underpinnings by contrasting shape only (Shape) and shape-colour binding (Bind) conditions, displayed in the left and right sides of the screen, separately. Particularly, we introduce and implement a novel technique named Modular Dirichlet Energy (MDE) which allows robust and flexible analysis of the functional network with unprecedented temporal precision. We find that connectivity in the Bind condition is less integrated with the global network than in the Shape condition in occipital and frontal modules during the encoding period of the right screen condition. Using MDE we are able to discern driving effects in the occipital module between 100–140 ms, coinciding with the P100 visually evoked potential, followed by a driving effect in the frontal module between 140–180 ms, suggesting that the differences found constitute an information processing difference between these modules. This provides temporally precise information over a heterogeneous population in promising tasks for the detection of AD. PMID:28186173

  1. Neuropeptide S enhances memory and mitigates memory impairment induced by MK801, scopolamine or Aβ₁₋₄₂ in mice novel object and object location recognition tasks.

    PubMed

    Han, Ren-Wen; Zhang, Rui-San; Xu, Hong-Jiao; Chang, Min; Peng, Ya-Li; Wang, Rui

    2013-07-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS), the endogenous ligand of NPSR, has been shown to promote arousal and anxiolytic-like effects. According to the predominant distribution of NPSR in brain tissues associated with learning and memory, NPS has been reported to modulate cognitive function in rodents. Here, we investigated the role of NPS in memory formation, and determined whether NPS could mitigate memory impairment induced by selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK801, muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist scopolamine or Aβ₁₋₄₂ in mice, using novel object and object location recognition tasks. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of 1 nmol NPS 5 min after training not only facilitated object recognition memory formation, but also prolonged memory retention in both tasks. The improvement of object recognition memory induced by NPS could be blocked by the selective NPSR antagonist SHA 68, indicating pharmacological specificity. Then, we found that i.c.v. injection of NPS reversed memory disruption induced by MK801, scopolamine or Aβ₁₋₄₂ in both tasks. In summary, our results indicate that NPS facilitates memory formation and prolongs the retention of memory through activation of the NPSR, and mitigates amnesia induced by blockage of glutamatergic or cholinergic system or by Aβ₁₋₄₂, suggesting that NPS/NPSR system may be a new target for enhancing memory and treating amnesia.

  2. System and method for programmable bank selection for banked memory subsystems

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Hoenicke, Dirk; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2010-09-07

    A programmable memory system and method for enabling one or more processor devices access to shared memory in a computing environment, the shared memory including one or more memory storage structures having addressable locations for storing data. The system comprises: one or more first logic devices associated with a respective one or more processor devices, each first logic device for receiving physical memory address signals and programmable for generating a respective memory storage structure select signal upon receipt of pre-determined address bit values at selected physical memory address bit locations; and, a second logic device responsive to each of the respective select signal for generating an address signal used for selecting a memory storage structure for processor access. The system thus enables each processor device of a computing environment memory storage access distributed across the one or more memory storage structures.

  3. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  4. Maternal separation enhances object location memory and prevents exercise-induced MAPK/ERK signalling in adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Makena, Nokuthula; Bugarith, Kishor; Russell, Vivienne A

    2012-09-01

    Early life stress increases the risk of developing psychopathology accompanied by reduced cognitive function in later life. Maternal separation induces anxiety-like behaviours and is associated with impaired memory. On the other hand, exercise has been shown to diminish anxiety-like behaviours and improve cognitive function. The effects of maternal separation and exercise on anxiety, memory and hippocampal proteins were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Maternal separation produced anxiety-like behaviours which were reversed by exercise. Maternal separation also enhanced object location memory which was not affected by exercise. Exercise did, however, increase synaptophysin and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the hippocampus of non-separated rats and this effect was not observed in maternally separated rats. These findings show that maternal separation selectively enhanced n memory and prevented activation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway in the adult rat hippocampus.

  5. Maternal separation enhances object location memory and prevents exercise-induced MAPK/ERK signalling in adult Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Bugarith, Kishor; Russell, Vivienne A

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress increases the risk of developing psychopathology accompanied by reduced cognitive function in later life. Maternal separation induces anxiety-like behaviours and is associated with impaired memory. On the other hand, exercise has been shown to diminish anxiety-like behaviours and improve cognitive function. The effects of maternal separation and exercise on anxiety, memory and hippocampal proteins were investigated in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Maternal separation produced anxiety-like behaviours which were reversed by exercise. Maternal separation also enhanced object location memory which was not affected by exercise. Exercise did, however, increase synaptophysin and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the hippocampus of non-separated rats and this effect was not observed in maternally separated rats. These findings show that maternal separation selectively enhanced n memory and prevented activation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway in the adult rat hippocampus. PMID:22476924

  6. Task complexity and location specific changes of cortical thickness in executive and salience networks after working memory training

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Foley, Sonya; Jones, Derek K.

    2016-01-01

    Novel activities and experiences shape the brain's structure and organisation and, hence, our behaviour. However, evidence from structural plasticity studies remains mixed and the neural correlates of learning and practice are still poorly understood. We conducted a robustly designed study into grey matter plasticity following 2 months of working memory training. We generated a priori hypotheses regarding the location of plastic effects across three cognitive control networks (executive, anterior salience and basal ganglia networks), and compared the effects of adaptive training (n = 20) with a well-matched active control group (n = 20) which differed in training complexity and included extensive cognitive assessment before and after the training. Adaptive training relative to control activities resulted in a complex pattern of subtle and localised structural changes: Training was associated with increases in cortical thickness in right-lateralised executive regions, notably the right caudal middle frontal cortex, as well as increases in the volume of the left pallidum. In addition the training group showed reductions of thickness in the right insula, which were correlated with training-induced improvements in backward digit span performance. Unexpectedly, control activities were associated with reductions in thickness in the right pars triangularis. These results suggest that the direction of activity-induced plastic changes depend on the level of training complexity as well as brain location. These observations are consistent with the view that the brain responds dynamically to environmental demands by focusing resources on task relevant networks and eliminating irrelevant processing for the purpose of energy reduction. PMID:26806288

  7. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  8. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  9. Partitioned key-value store with atomic memory operations

    DOEpatents

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2017-02-07

    A partitioned key-value store is provided that supports atomic memory operations. A server performs a memory operation in a partitioned key-value store by receiving a request from an application for at least one atomic memory operation, the atomic memory operation comprising a memory address identifier; and, in response to the atomic memory operation, performing one or more of (i) reading a client-side memory location identified by the memory address identifier and storing one or more key-value pairs from the client-side memory location in a local key-value store of the server; and (ii) obtaining one or more key-value pairs from the local key-value store of the server and writing the obtained one or more key-value pairs into the client-side memory location identified by the memory address identifier. The server can perform functions obtained from a client-side memory location and return a result to the client using one or more of the atomic memory operations.

  10. Shared memory for a fault-tolerant computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilley, G. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A system is described for sharing a memory in a fault-tolerant computer. The memory is under the direct control and monitoring of error detecting and error diagnostic units in the fault-tolerant computer. This computer verifies that data to and from the memory is legally encoded and verifies that words read from the memory at a desired address are, in fact, actually delivered from that desired address. The means are provided for a second processor, which is independent of the direct control and monitoring of the error checking and diagnostic units of the fault-tolerant computer, and to share the memory of the fault-tolerant computer. Circuitry is included to verify that: (1) the processor has properly accessed a desired memory location in the memory; (2) a data word read-out from the memory is properly coded; and (3) no inactive memory was erroneously outputting data onto the shared memory bus.

  11. Differential Roles for "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" in Object Location vs. Object Recognition Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Susan E.; Barrett, Ruth M.; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Malvaez, Melissa; Hernandez, Nicole; Davatolhagh, M. Felicia; Matheos, Dina P.; Schiffman, Aaron; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" are transcription factors and immediate early genes belonging to the nuclear receptor Nr4a family. In this study, we examine their role in long-term memory formation for object location and object recognition. Using siRNA to block expression of either "Nr4a1" or "Nr4a2", we found that "Nr4a2" is necessary for both long-term…

  12. A class of designs for a sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    A general class of designs for a space distributed memory (SDM) is described. The author shows that Kanerva's original design and the selected-coordinate design are related, and that there is a series of possible intermediate designs between those two designs. In each such design, the set of addresses that activate a memory location is a sphere in the address space. We can also have hybrid designs, in which the memory locations may be a mixture of those found in the other designs. In some applications, the bits of the read and write addresses that will actually be used might be mostly zeros; that is, the addresses might lie on or near z hyperplane in the address space. The author describes a hyperplane design which is adapted to this situation and compares it to an adaptation of Kanerva's design. To study the performance of these designs, he computes the expected number of memory locations activated by both of two addresses.

  13. Weather prediction using a genetic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David

    1990-01-01

    Kanaerva's sparse distributed memory (SDM) is an associative memory model based on the mathematical properties of high dimensional binary address spaces. Holland's genetic algorithms are a search technique for high dimensional spaces inspired by evolutional processes of DNA. Genetic Memory is a hybrid of the above two systems, in which the memory uses a genetic algorithm to dynamically reconfigure its physical storage locations to reflect correlations between the stored addresses and data. This architecture is designed to maximize the ability of the system to scale-up to handle real world problems.

  14. Visuospatial working memory for locations, colours, and binding in typically developing children and in children with dyslexia and non-verbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Tripodi, Doriana; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-03-01

    This study examined forward and backward recall of locations and colours and the binding of locations and colours, comparing typically developing children - aged between 8 and 10 years - with two different groups of children of the same age with learning disabilities (dyslexia in one group, non-verbal learning disability [NLD] in the other). Results showed that groups with learning disabilities had different visuospatial working memory problems and that children with NLD had particular difficulties in the backward recall of locations. The differences between the groups disappeared, however, when locations and colours were bound together. It was concluded that specific processes may be involved in children in the binding and backward recall of different types of information, as they are not simply the resultant of combining the single processes needed to recall single features.

  15. HDAC Inhibition Modulates Hippocampus-Dependent Long-Term Memory for Object Location in a CBP-Dependent Manner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haettig, Jakob; Stefanko, Daniel P.; Multani, Monica L.; Figueroa, Dario X.; McQuown, Susan C.; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription of genes required for long-term memory not only involves transcription factors, but also enzymatic protein complexes that modify chromatin structure. Chromatin-modifying enzymes, such as the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB (cyclic-AMP response element binding) binding protein (CBP), are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation…

  16. Caffeine suppresses exercise-enhanced long-term and location memory in middle-aged rats: Involvement of hippocampal Akt and CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; da Rocha, Juliana T; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Gai, Bibiana M; Soares, Félix A A; Bresciani, Guilherme; Royes, Luiz F F; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-11-05

    The cognitive function decline is closely related with brain changes generated by age. The ability of caffeine and exercise to prevent memory impairment has been reported in animal models and humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether swimming exercise and caffeine administration enhance memory in middle-aged Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats (18months) received caffeine at a dose of 30mg/kg, 5days per week by a period of 4weeks. Animals were subjected to swimming training with a workload (3% of body weight, 20min per day for 4weeks). After 4weeks, the object recognition test (ORT) and the object location test (OLT) were performed. The results of this study demonstrated that caffeine suppressed exercise-enhanced long-term (ORT) and spatial (OLT) memory in middle-aged and this effect may be related to a decrease in hippocampal p-CREB signaling. This study also provided evidence that the effects of this protocol on memory were not accompanied by alterations in the levels of activated Akt. The [(3)H] glutamate uptake was reduced in hippocampus of rats administered with caffeine and submitted to swimming protocol.

  17. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  18. Sparse distributed memory: Principles and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, M. J.; Kanerva, P.; Bhadkamkar, N.

    1989-01-01

    Sparse distributed memory is a generalized random access memory (RAM) for long (1000 bit) binary words. Such words can be written into and read from the memory, and they can also be used to address the memory. The main attribute of the memory is sensitivity to similarity, meaning that a word can be read back not only by giving the original write address but also by giving one close to it as measured by the Hamming distance between addresses. Large memories of this kind are expected to have wide use in speech recognition and scene analysis, in signal detection and verification, and in adaptive control of automated equipment, in general, in dealing with real world information in real time. The memory can be realized as a simple, massively parallel computer. Digital technology has reached a point where building large memories is becoming practical. Major design issues were resolved which were faced in building the memories. The design is described of a prototype memory with 256 bit addresses and from 8 to 128 K locations for 256 bit words. A key aspect of the design is extensive use of dynamic RAM and other standard components.

  19. Sparse distributed memory prototype: Principles of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael J.; Kanerva, Pentti; Ahanin, Bahram; Bhadkamkar, Neal; Flaherty, Paul; Hickey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Sparse distributed memory is a generalized random access memory (RAM) for long binary words. Such words can be written into and read from the memory, and they can be used to address the memory. The main attribute of the memory is sensitivity to similarity, meaning that a word can be read back not only by giving the original right address but also by giving one close to it as measured by the Hamming distance between addresses. Large memories of this kind are expected to have wide use in speech and scene analysis, in signal detection and verification, and in adaptive control of automated equipment. The memory can be realized as a simple, massively parallel computer. Digital technology has reached a point where building large memories is becoming practical. The research is aimed at resolving major design issues that have to be faced in building the memories. The design of a prototype memory with 256-bit addresses and from 8K to 128K locations for 256-bit words is described. A key aspect of the design is extensive use of dynamic RAM and other standard components.

  20. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats alters hippocampal neurogenesis and produces deficits in spatial location memory in adulthood.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Thomas, Catherine M; Sheridan, Cheryl S; Nixon, Feather; Flynn, Jennifer A; Mathews, Iva Z

    2012-06-01

    The ongoing development of the hippocampus in adolescence may be vulnerable to stressors. The effects of social instability stress (SS) in adolescence (daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partner postnatal days 30-45) on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adolescence (on days 33 and 46, experiment 1) and in adulthood (experiment 2) was examined in Long Evans male rats and compared to nonstressed controls (CTL). Additionally, in experiment 2, a separate group of SS and CTL rats was tested on either a spatial (hippocampal-dependent) or nonspatial (nonhippocampal dependent) version of an object memory test and also were used to investigate hippocampal expression of markers of synaptic plasticity. No memory impairment was evident until the SS rats were adults, and the impairment was only on the spatial test. SS rats initially (postnatal day 33) had increased cell proliferation based on counts of Ki67 immunoreactive (ir) cells and greater survival of immature neurons based on counts of doublecortin ir cells on day 46 and in adulthood, irrespective of behavioral testing. Counts of microglia in the DG did not differ by stress group, but behavioral testing was associated with reduced microglia counts compared to nontested rats. As adults, SS and CTL rats did not differ in hippocampal expression of synaptophysin, but compared to CTL rats, SS rats had higher expression of basal calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CamKII), and lower expression of the phosphorylated CamKII subunit threonine 286, signaling molecules related to synaptic plasticity. The results are contrasted with those from previous reports of chronic stress in adult rats, and we conclude that adolescent stress alters the ongoing development of the hippocampus leading to impaired spatial memory in adulthood, highlighting the heightened vulnerability to stressors in adolescence.

  1. Multi-port, optically addressed RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor); Esener, Sadik (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A random access memory addressing system utilizing optical links between memory and the read/write logic circuits comprises addressing circuits including a plurality of light signal sources, a plurality of optical gates including optical detectors associated with the memory cells, and a holographic optical element adapted to reflect and direct the light signals to the desired memory cell locations. More particularly, it is a multi-port, binary computer memory for interfacing with a plurality of computers. There are a plurality of storage cells for containing bits of binary information, the storage cells being disposed at the intersections of a plurality of row conductors and a plurality of column conductors. There is interfacing logic for receiving information from the computers directing access to ones of the storage cells. There are first light sources associated with the interfacing logic for transmitting a first light beam with the access information modulated thereon. First light detectors are associated with the storage cells for receiving the first light beam, for generating an electrical signal containing the access information, and for conducting the electrical signal to the one of the storage cells to which it is directed. There are holographic optical elements for reflecting the first light beam from the first light sources to the first light detectors.

  2. Discrete capacity limits and neuroanatomical correlates of visual short-term memory for objects and spatial locations.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, Nikos; Constantinidou, Fofi; Kanai, Ryota

    2017-02-01

    Working memory is responsible for keeping information in mind when it is no longer in view, linking perception with higher cognitive functions. Despite such crucial role, short-term maintenance of visual information is severely limited. Research suggests that capacity limits in visual short-term memory (VSTM) are correlated with sustained activity in distinct brain areas. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structure of the brain is reflected in individual differences of behavioral capacity estimates for spatial and object VSTM. Behavioral capacity estimates were calculated separately for spatial and object information using a novel adaptive staircase procedure and were found to be unrelated, supporting domain-specific VSTM capacity limits. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses revealed dissociable neuroanatomical correlates of spatial versus object VSTM. Interindividual variability in spatial VSTM was reflected in the gray matter density of the inferior parietal lobule. In contrast, object VSTM was reflected in the gray matter density of the left insula. These dissociable findings highlight the importance of considering domain-specific estimates of VSTM capacity and point to the crucial brain regions that limit VSTM capacity for different types of visual information. Hum Brain Mapp 38:767-778, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Silent store detection and recording in memory storage

    DOEpatents

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Nair, Ravi

    2017-03-07

    An aspect includes receiving a write request that includes a memory address and write data. Stored data is read from a memory location at the memory address. Based on determining that the memory location was not previously modified, the stored data is compared to the write data. Based on the stored data matching the write data, the write request is completed without writing the write data to the memory and a corresponding silent store bit, in a silent store bitmap is set. Based on the stored data not matching the write data, the write data is written to the memory location, the silent store bit is reset and a corresponding modified bit is set. At least one of an application and an operating system is provided access to the silent store bitmap.

  4. Silent store detection and recording in memory storage

    DOEpatents

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Nair, Ravi

    2017-03-14

    An aspect includes receiving a write request that includes a memory address and write data. Stored data is read from a memory location at the memory address. Based on determining that the memory location was not previously modified, the stored data is compared to the write data. Based on the stored data matching the write data, the write request is completed without writing the write data to the memory and a corresponding silent store bit, in a silent store bitmap is set. Based on the stored data not matching the write data, the write data is written to the memory location, the silent store bit is reset and a corresponding modified bit is set. At least one of an application and an operating system is provided access to the silent store bitmap.

  5. Silent store detection and recording in memory storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Nair, Ravi

    2016-09-20

    An aspect includes receiving a write request that includes a memory address and write data. Stored data is read from a memory location at the memory address. Based on determining that the memory location was not previously modified, the stored data is compared to the write data. Based on the stored data matching the write data, the write request is completed without writing the write data to the memory and a corresponding silent store bit, in a silent store bitmap is set. Based on the stored data not matching the write data, the write data is written to the memory location, the silent store bit is reset and a corresponding modified bit is set. At least one of an application and an operating system is provided access to the silent store bitmap.

  6. Mnemonic strategy training improves memory for object location associations in both healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, single-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Hampstead, Benjamin M.; Sathian, K.; Phillips, Pamela A.; Amaraneni, Akshay; Delaune, William R.; Stringer, Anthony Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of mnemonic strategy training versus a matched-exposure control condition and also to examine the relationship between training-related gains, neuropsychological abilities, and medial temporal lobe volumetrics in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and age-matched healthy controls. Methods Twenty-three of 45 screened healthy controls and 29 of 42 screened aMCI were randomized to mnemonic strategy or matched-exposure groups. Groups were run in parallel, with participants blind to the other intervention. All participants completed five sessions within two weeks. Memory testing for object-location associations was performed during sessions one and five and at a one-month follow-up. During sessions 2–4, participants received either mnemonic strategy training or a matched number of exposures with corrective feedback for a total of 45 object-location associations. Structural MRI was performed in most participants and medial temporal lobe volumetrics were acquired. Results Twenty-one healthy controls and 28 aMCI patients were included in data analysis. Mnemonic strategy training was significantly more beneficial than matched-exposure immediately after training, p =.006, pη2 = .16, and at one month, p<.001, pη2 = .35, regardless of diagnostic group (healthy controls or aMCI). Although aMCI patients demonstrated gains comparable to the healthy control groups, their overall performance generally remained reduced. Mnemonic strategy-related improvement was positively correlated with baseline memory and executive functioning and negatively with inferior lateral ventricle volume in aMCI patients; no significant relationships were evident in matched-exposure patients. Conclusions Mnemonic strategies effectively improve memory for specific content for at least one month in aMCI. PMID:22409311

  7. Object Location Memory: Integration and Competition between Multiple Context Objects but Not between Observers' Body and Context Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mou, Weimin; Spetch, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined the integration and competition between body and context objects in locating an object. Participants briefly viewed a target object in a virtual environment and detected whether the target object was moved or not after a 10 s interval. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that performance when both the observer body and the context…

  8. The Royal Road to Time: How Understanding of the Evolution of Time in the Brain Addresses Memory, Dreaming, Flow, and Other Psychological Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    It has been claimed that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious mind. The present work argues that dreams and associated brain states such as memory, attention, flow, and perhaps even consciousness itself arise from diverse conflicts over control of time in the brain. Dreams are the brain's offline efforts to distill projections of the future, while memory represents the vestiges of the past successes and survived failures of those and other conscious projections. Memory thus acts to inform and improve the prediction of possible future states through the use of conscious prospects (planning) and unconscious prospective memory (dreams). When successful, these prospects result in states of flow for conscious planning and déjà vu for its unconscious comparator. In consequence, and contrary to normal expectation, memory is overwhelmingly oriented to deal with the future. Consciousness is the comparable process operating in the present moment. Thus past, present, and future are homeomorphic with the parts of memory (episodic and autobiographical) that recall a personal past, consciousness, and the differing dimensions of prospective memory to plan for future circumstances, respectively. Dreaming (i.e., unconscious prospective memory), has the luxury to run multiple "what if" simulations of many possible futures, essentially offline. I explicate these propositions and their relations to allied constructs such as déjà vu and flow. More generally, I propose that what appear to us as a range of normal psychological experiences are actually manifestations of an ongoing pathological battle for control within the brain. The landscape of this conflict is time. I suggest that there are at least 3 general systems bidding for this control, and in the process of evolution, each system has individually conferred a sequentially increasing survival advantage, but only at the expense of a still incomplete functional integration. Through juxtaposition of these respective brain

  9. The representation of response effector and response location in episodic memory for newly acquired actions: evidence from retrieval-induced forgetting.

    PubMed

    Reppa, Irene; Worth, E Rhian; Greville, W James; Saunders, Jo

    2013-06-01

    Information retrieval can cause forgetting for related but non-retrieved information. Such retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) has been previously found for semantically and episodically related information. The current study used RIF to examine whether response effector and location are encoded explicitly in action memory. Participants learned unique touchscreen responses to ten novel objects. Correct actions to each object involved left-hand or right-hand pushing of one of four possible object buttons. After learning, participants practiced two of the ten object-specific sequences. Unpracticed actions could share hand only, button only, both hand and button, or neither hand nor button, with the practiced actions. Subsequent testing showed significant RIF (in retrieval accuracy and speed measures) for actions that shared hand only, button only, or both hand and button with the practiced action. The results have implications for understanding the representations mediating episodic action memory, and for the potential of RIF as a tool for elucidating feature-based representations in this and other domains.

  10. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  11. Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.

  12. Memory-based parallel data output controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A memory-based parallel data output controller employs associative memories and memory mapping to decommutate multiple channels of telemetry data. The output controller contains a random access memory (RAM) which has at least as many address locations as there are channels. A word counter addresses the RAM which provides as it outputs an encoded peripheral device number and a MSB/LSB-first flag. The encoded device number and a bit counter address a second RAM which contains START and STOP flags to pick out the required bits from the specified word number. The LSB/MSB, START and STOP flags, along with the serial input digital data go to a control block which selectively fills a shift register used to drive the parallel data output bus.

  13. Memory Optimization for Phase-field Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Gaston; John Peterson; Andrew Slaughter; Cody Permann; David Andrs

    2014-08-01

    Phase-field simulations are computationally and memory intensive applications. Many of the phase-field simulations being conducted in support of NEAMS were not capable of running on “normal clusters” with 2-4GB of RAM per core, and instead required specialized “big-memory” clusters with 64GB per core. To address this issue, the MOOSE team developed a new Python-based utility called MemoryLogger, and applied it to locate, diagnose, and eradicate memory bottlenecks within the MOOSE framework. MemoryLogger allows for a better understanding of the memory usage of an application being run in parallel across a cluster. Memory usage information is captured for every individual process in a parallel job, and communicated to the head node of the cluster. Console text output from the application itself is automatically matched with this memory usage information to produce a detailed picture of memory usage over time, making it straightforward to identify the subroutines which contribute most to the application’s peak memory usage. The information produced by the MemoryLogger quickly and effectively narrows the search for memory optimizations to the most data-intensive parts of the simulation.

  14. Evaluation of passive oxide layer formation-biocompatibility relationship in NiTi shape memory alloys: geometry and body location dependency.

    PubMed

    Toker, S M; Canadinc, D; Maier, H J; Birer, O

    2014-03-01

    A systematic set of ex-situ experiments were carried out on Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA) in order to identify the dependence of its biocompatibility on sample geometry and body location. NiTi samples with three different geometries were immersed into three different fluids simulating different body parts. The changes observed in alloy surface and chemical content of fluids upon immersion experiments designed for four different time periods were analyzed in terms of ion release, oxide layer formation, and chemical composition of the surface layer. The results indicate that both sample geometry and immersion fluid significantly affect the alloy biocompatibility, as evidenced by the passive oxide layer formation on the alloy surface and ion release from the samples. Upon a 30 day immersion period, all three types of NiTi samples exhibited lower ion release than the critical value for clinic applications. However; a significant amount of ion release was detected in the case of gastric fluid, warranting a thorough investigation prior to utility of NiTi in gastrointestinal treatments involving long-time contact with tissue. Furthermore, certain geometries appear to be safer than the others for each fluid, providing a new set of guidelines to follow while designing implants making use of NiTi SMAs to be employed in treatments targeting specific body parts.

  15. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  16. Locating the Environmental in Environmental Education Research: A Review of Research on Nature's Nature, Its Inscription in Language and Recent Memory Work on Relating to the Natural World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Memory-work is a feminist research methodology that is used by research collectives to study socialization within the dominant values that make up a particular culture. The power of memory-work lies with its potential to interrupt hegemonic ways of seeing and knowing the world. Consequently, it can open up possibilities for individual and social…

  17. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  18. Is random access memory random?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

  19. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  20. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  1. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  2. Parallel Memory Addressing Using Coincident Optical Pulses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-15

    diodes, and NEC NDL2102 avalanche photodiodes, are specified to operate in excess of I GHz. 2) The percentage of overlap for coincident pulses must be...Donald M. Chiarulli is an assistant professor of Rami G. Melhem has been with the faculty of Steven P. Levitan is the Wellington C. Carl computer

  3. Working memory and reference memory tests of spatial navigation in mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ah; Tucci, Valter; Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-05-01

    Researchers in spatial cognition have debated for decades the specificity of the mechanisms through which spatial information is processed and stored. Interestingly, although rodents are the preferred animal model for studying spatial navigation, the behavioral methods traditionally used to assess spatial memory do not effectively test the predictions of specificity in their representation. To address such issues, the present study tested the ability of mice to use boundary geometry and features to remember a goal location across 2 types of tasks--a working memory task with a changing goal location, and a reference memory task with 1 rewarded goal location. We show for the first time that mice, like other animals, can successfully encode boundary geometry in a working memory spatial mapping task, just as they do in a reference memory task. Their use of a nongeometric featural cue (striped pattern), in contrast, was more limited in the working memory task, although it quickly improved in the reference memory task. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research on the neural and genetic underpinnings of spatial representations.

  4. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperis, S.

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  5. Quadratic Hadamard Memories II. Adaptive Stochastic Content. Addressable Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Dreyfus, "Collective computational properties of neural networks: New learning mechanisms", Phys. Rev. A34, 4217 (1986) 5] 1. Kanter and H. Sompolinski ... Sompolinsky , "Information storage in neural networks with low levels of activity", Phys. Rev. A35, 2293 (1987) [4] L. Personnaz, I. Guyon, and G

  6. Recognition of simple visual images using a sparse distributed memory: Some implementations and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1990-01-01

    Previously, a method was described of representing a class of simple visual images so that they could be used with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). Herein, two possible implementations are described of a SDM, for which these images, suitably encoded, will serve both as addresses to the memory and as data to be stored in the memory. A key feature of both implementations is that a pattern that is represented as an unordered set with a variable number of members can be used as an address to the memory. In the 1st model, an image is encoded as a 9072 bit string to be used as a read or write address; the bit string may also be used as data to be stored in the memory. Another representation, in which an image is encoded as a 256 bit string, may be used with either model as data to be stored in the memory, but not as an address. In the 2nd model, an image is not represented as a vector of fixed length to be used as an address. Instead, a rule is given for determining which memory locations are to be activated in response to an encoded image. This activation rule treats the pieces of an image as an unordered set. With this model, the memory can be simulated, based on a method of computing the approximate result of a read operation.

  7. Neuroanatomical correlates of locative prepositions.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Daniel; Kemmerer, David

    2004-10-01

    Very little research has explored which neural systems may be important for retrieving the meanings of locative prepositions (e.g., in, on, around). To begin to address this knowledge gap, we conducted a lesion study in which we tested the hypothesis that processing the meanings of locative prepositions depends on neural structures in the left inferior prefrontal cortex and left inferior parietal cortex. Seventy-eight subjects with focal, stable lesions to various parts of the telencephalon and a comparison group of 60 normal participants were studied with tasks that require production, comprehension, and semantic analysis of locative prepositions. In support of our hypothesis, we found that in subjects with impaired knowledge of locative prepositions, the highest region of lesion overlap was in the left frontal operculum and the left supramarginal gyrus, and in the white matter subjacent to these two areas. In a second study, focused on six subjects who had pervasive defects for locative preposition knowledge, we confirmed that such defects were associated specifically with damage to the posterior left frontal operculum, white matter subjacent to this region, and white matter underneath the inferior parietal operculum. These subjects did not have basic impairments in spatial processing or working memory, and they had relatively well-preserved processing of conceptual knowledge for actions and various categories of concrete entities (e.g., persons, animals, tools). All six subjects, however, had defects in naming actions, and some of them also had defective naming of some categories of concrete entities. Overall, the findings converge nicely with recent results from functional imaging approaches, and with classic studies from the aphasia-based literature, and suggest that the left inferior prefrontal and left inferior parietal regions have crucial-albeit not exclusive-roles in processing knowledge associated with locative prepositions.

  8. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  9. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

  10. 76 FR 73666 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    .... Karshner Memorial Museum at the address below by December 29, 2011. ADDRESSES: Brian Fox, Director of... Fox, Director of Instructional Leadership, Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA,...

  11. Electrically Variable Resistive Memory Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Shangqing; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex; Charlson, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Nonvolatile electronic memory devices that store data in the form of electrical- resistance values, and memory circuits based on such devices, have been invented. These devices and circuits exploit an electrically-variable-resistance phenomenon that occurs in thin films of certain oxides that exhibit the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) effect. It is worth emphasizing that, as stated in the immediately preceding article, these devices function at room temperature and do not depend on externally applied magnetic fields. A device of this type is basically a thin film resistor: it consists of a thin film of a CMR material located between, and in contact with, two electrical conductors. The application of a short-duration, low-voltage current pulse via the terminals changes the electrical resistance of the film. The amount of the change in resistance depends on the size of the pulse. The direction of change (increase or decrease of resistance) depends on the polarity of the pulse. Hence, a datum can be written (or a prior datum overwritten) in the memory device by applying a pulse of size and polarity tailored to set the resistance at a value that represents a specific numerical value. To read the datum, one applies a smaller pulse - one that is large enough to enable accurate measurement of resistance, but small enough so as not to change the resistance. In writing, the resistance can be set to any value within the dynamic range of the CMR film. Typically, the value would be one of several discrete resistance values that represent logic levels or digits. Because the number of levels can exceed 2, a memory device of this type is not limited to binary data. Like other memory devices, devices of this type can be incorporated into a memory integrated circuit by laying them out on a substrate in rows and columns, along with row and column conductors for electrically addressing them individually or collectively.

  12. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  13. Location Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    With rapid development of sensor and wireless mobile devices, it is easy to access mobile users' location information anytime and anywhere. On one hand, LBS is becoming more and more valuable and important. On the other hand, location privacy issues raised by such applications have also gained more attention. However, due to the specificity of location information, traditional privacy-preserving techniques in data publishing cannot be used. In this chapter, we will introduce location privacy, and analyze the challenges of location privacy-preserving, and give a survey of existing work including the system architecture, location anonymity and query processing.

  14. Serriform Strip Crosstie Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    edge effect of the margin serrations upon magnetization, a form of shape anisotropy, inherently defines memory cell boundaries in the domain walls, thereby giving the crossties and Bloch lines preferred locations and allowing the use of a simplified propagation

  15. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  16. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R.

    1992-09-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  17. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  18. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  19. First Words and First Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

  20. Psychotherapy and Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, D. Stephen

    This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic…

  1. Configurable memory system and method for providing atomic counting operations in a memory device

    DOEpatents

    Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2010-09-14

    A memory system and method for providing atomic memory-based counter operations to operating systems and applications that make most efficient use of counter-backing memory and virtual and physical address space, while simplifying operating system memory management, and enabling the counter-backing memory to be used for purposes other than counter-backing storage when desired. The encoding and address decoding enabled by the invention provides all this functionality through a combination of software and hardware.

  2. Distributed multiport memory architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, W. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiport memory architecture is diclosed for each of a plurality of task centers connected to a command and data bus. Each task center, includes a memory and a plurality of devices which request direct memory access as needed. The memory includes an internal data bus and an internal address bus to which the devices are connected, and direct timing and control logic comprised of a 10-state ring counter for allocating memory devices by enabling AND gates connected to the request signal lines of the devices. The outputs of AND gates connected to the same device are combined by OR gates to form an acknowledgement signal that enables the devices to address the memory during the next clock period. The length of the ring counter may be effectively lengthened to any multiple of ten to allow for more direct memory access intervals in one repetitive sequence. One device is a network bus adapter which serially shifts onto the command and data bus, a data word (8 bits plus control and parity bits) during the next ten direct memory access intervals after it has been granted access. The NBA is therefore allocated only one access in every ten intervals, which is a predetermined interval for all centers. The ring counters of all centers are periodically synchronized by DMA SYNC signal to assure that all NBAs be able to function in synchronism for data transfer from one center to another.

  3. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  4. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., James Madison Memorial Building, Room LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000..., SE., Washington, DC. This mail must be delivered to the Congressional Courier Acceptance Site (CCAS) located at Second and D Street, NE., Washington, DC. The CCAS will accept items from couriers with...

  5. Fine-grained versus categorical: Pupil size differentiates between strategies for spatial working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Starc, Martina; Anticevic, Alan; Repovš, Grega

    2017-01-27

    Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories. We asked 30 participants (15 female, aged 19-31) to remember the position of targets presented at various locations along a hidden radial grid. After a delay, participants indicated the remembered location with a high-precision joystick providing a parametric measure of trial-to-trial accuracy. We recorded participants' pupil dilations continuously during task performance. Results showed a significant relation between pupil dilation during preparation/early encoding and the precision of responses, possibly reflecting the attentional resources devoted to memory encoding. In contrast, pupil dilation at late maintenance and response predicted larger shifts of responses toward prototypical locations, possibly reflecting larger reliance on categorical representation. On an intraindividual level, smaller pupil dilations during encoding predicted larger dilations during late maintenance and response. On an interindividual level, participants relying more on categorical representation also produced larger precision errors. The results confirm the link between pupil size and the quality of spatial working memory representation. They suggest compensatory strategies of spatial working memory performance-loss of precise spatial representation likely increases reliance on generalized spatial categories.

  6. System and method for memory allocation in a multiclass memory system

    DOEpatents

    Loh, Gabriel; Meswani, Mitesh; Ignatowski, Michael; Nutter, Mark

    2016-06-28

    A system for memory allocation in a multiclass memory system includes a processor coupleable to a plurality of memories sharing a unified memory address space, and a library store to store a library of software functions. The processor identifies a type of a data structure in response to a memory allocation function call to the library for allocating memory to the data structure. Using the library, the processor allocates portions of the data structure among multiple memories of the multiclass memory system based on the type of the data structure.

  7. Constructing representations of spatial location from briefly presented displays.

    PubMed

    Gunzelmann, Glenn; Lyon, Don R

    2017-02-01

    Spatial memory and reasoning rely heavily on allocentric (often map-like) representations of spatial knowledge. While research has documented many ways in which spatial information can be represented in allocentric form, less is known about how such representations are constructed. For example: Are the very early, pre-attentive parts of the process hard-wired, or can they be altered by experience? We addressed this issue by presenting sub-saccadic (53 ms) masked stimuli consisting of a target among one to three reference features. We then shifted the location of the feature array, and asked participants to identify the target's new relative location. Experience altered feature processing even when the display duration was too short to allow attention re-allocation. The results demonstrate the importance of early perceptual processes in the creation of representations of spatial location, and the malleability of those processes based on experience and expectations.

  8. Human learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M K; Hasher, L

    1987-01-01

    source of interdisciplinary stimulation. Research on topics such as memory for spatial location, the relation between memory and affect, and autobiographical memory reminds us that general theories of memory based on studies of verbal materials alone are limited. Investigating how people remember complex natural events should provide us with a larger set of memory phenomena to explain and consequently insight into a wider range of memory principles or a deeper understanding of the ones we already accept (e.g. the role of repetition, encoding specificity), including their functional significance for human behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  9. Memory performance of Prolog architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Tick, E.

    1988-01-01

    Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures addresses these problems and reports dynamic data and instruction referencing characteristics of both sequential and parallel prolog architectures and corresponding uni-processor and multi-processor memory-hierarchy performance tradeoffs. Computer designers and logic programmers will find this work to be a valuable reference with many practical applications. Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures will also serve as an important textbook for graduate level courses in computer architecture and/or performance analysis.

  10. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  11. Kanerva's sparse distributed memory with multiple hamming thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohja, Seppo; Kaski, Kimmo

    1992-01-01

    If the stored input patterns of Kanerva's Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) are highly correlated, utilization of the storage capacity is very low compared to the case of uniformly distributed random input patterns. We consider a variation of SDM that has a better storage capacity utilization for correlated input patterns. This approach uses a separate selection threshold for each physical storage address or hard location. The selection of the hard locations for reading or writing can be done in parallel of which SDM implementations can benefit.

  12. Direct access inter-process shared memory

    DOEpatents

    Brightwell, Ronald B; Pedretti, Kevin; Hudson, Trammell B

    2013-10-22

    A technique for directly sharing physical memory between processes executing on processor cores is described. The technique includes loading a plurality of processes into the physical memory for execution on a corresponding plurality of processor cores sharing the physical memory. An address space is mapped to each of the processes by populating a first entry in a top level virtual address table for each of the processes. The address space of each of the processes is cross-mapped into each of the processes by populating one or more subsequent entries of the top level virtual address table with the first entry in the top level virtual address table from other processes.

  13. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  14. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  15. Stress disrupts response memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2013-08-01

    Stress effects on memory are well-known. Most studies, however, focused on the impact of stress on hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory processes. Less is known about whether stress influences also striatum-based memory processes, such as stimulus-response (S-R) memory. First evidence from rodent experiments shows that glucocorticoid stress hormones may enhance the consolidation of S-R memories. Whether stress affects also S-R memory retrieval remains largely elusive. Therefore, we tested in the present experiment in humans the effect of stress on the retrieval of S-R memories. Healthy men and women were trained to locate three objects in an S-R version of a virtual eight-arm radial maze. One week later, participants underwent a stressor or a control condition before their memory of the S-R task was tested. Our results showed that participants (n=43) who were exposed to the stressor before retention testing made significantly more errors in this test trial, suggesting that stress impaired S-R memory retrieval. Moreover, high cortisol concentrations were associated with reduced S-R memory. These findings indicate that stress may affect memory retrieval processes in humans beyond hippocampal 'declarative' memory.

  16. Radiation Tolerant Embedded Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 ...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1 . REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 27-06-2003 2. REPORT TYPE SBIR...Tolerant Embedded Memory 1 Table of Contents: Table of Contents

  17. 14 CFR 47.45 - Change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in a registered owner's mailing address, the registered owner must notify the Registry in writing of... registered owner also must provide that owner's physical address or location. Upon acceptance, the Registry... registered owner's physical address or location changes, the registered owner must notify the Registry...

  18. 14 CFR 47.45 - Change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in a registered owner's mailing address, the registered owner must notify the Registry in writing of... registered owner also must provide that owner's physical address or location. Upon acceptance, the Registry... registered owner's physical address or location changes, the registered owner must notify the Registry...

  19. 14 CFR 47.45 - Change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in a registered owner's mailing address, the registered owner must notify the Registry in writing of... registered owner also must provide that owner's physical address or location. Upon acceptance, the Registry... registered owner's physical address or location changes, the registered owner must notify the Registry...

  20. 14 CFR 47.45 - Change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in a registered owner's mailing address, the registered owner must notify the Registry in writing of... registered owner also must provide that owner's physical address or location. Upon acceptance, the Registry... registered owner's physical address or location changes, the registered owner must notify the Registry...

  1. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    DOEpatents

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  2. Auditory location as an encoding dimension.

    PubMed

    Weeks, R A

    1975-05-01

    In two experiments, subjects were given five successive short-term memory tests. In Experiment 1, recall was not significantly facilitated when memory material in the final test was delivered to the ear opposite to the one that received the memory material in the four preceding tests. In Experiment 2, events were presented from two differentially located speakers rather than through headphones. A shift across speakers on the final test did produce proactive interference release. These findings suggest spatial location as a potential encoding dimension of verbal material.

  3. Implementing a bubble memory hierarchy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segura, R.; Nichols, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on implementation of a magnetic bubble memory in a two-level hierarchial system. The hierarchy used a major-minor loop device and RAM under microprocessor control. Dynamic memory addressing, dual bus primary memory, and hardware data modification detection are incorporated in the system to minimize access time. It is the objective of the system to incorporate the advantages of bipolar memory with that of bubble domain memory to provide a smart, optimal memory system which is easy to interface and independent of user's system.

  4. Photochromic transduction layers in organic memory elements.

    PubMed

    Shallcross, R Clayton; Zacharias, Philipp; Köhnen, Anne; Körner, Peter O; Maibach, Eduard; Meerholz, Klaus

    2013-01-18

    Photochromic molecules provide an intriguing and relatively untapped alternative to traditional materials utilized in organic memory devices. Here, we review recent progress in the implementation of photochromic molecules in electrically-addressed organic memory devices. Recent results for a lightemitting photochromic organic diode are highlighted in the context of multifunctional devices with the ability to simultaneously operate as multilevel memory, signage and display elements. Furthermore, a set of design rules for successful implementation of photochromic compounds in organic memory devices are suggested.

  5. Notes on implementation of sparsely distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeler, J. D.; Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Sparsely Distributed Memory (SDM) developed by Kanerva is an unconventional memory design with very interesting and desirable properties. The memory works in a manner that is closely related to modern theories of human memory. The SDM model is discussed in terms of its implementation in hardware. Two appendices discuss the unconventional approaches of the SDM: Appendix A treats a resistive circuit for fast, parallel address decoding; and Appendix B treats a systolic array for high throughput read and write operations.

  6. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood vessel (which carries the blood) bursts. continue Brain Injuries Affect Memory At any age, an injury to ... with somebody's memory. Some people who recover from brain injuries need to learn old things all over again, ...

  7. Indoor location estimation using radio beacons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Uzair; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoug; Park, Chongkug

    2007-12-01

    We present a simple location estimation method for developing radio beacon based location system in the indoor environments. It employs an online learning approach for making large scale location systems in a short time collaboratively. The salient features of our method are low memory requirements and simple computations which make it suitable for both distributed location-aware applications based on client-server model as well as privacy sensitive applications residing on stand alone devices.

  8. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  9. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  10. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  11. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  12. Stress Disrupts Context-Dependent Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohringer, Andreas; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2009-01-01

    Memory is facilitated when the retrieval context resembles the learning context. The brain structures underlying contextual influences on memory are susceptible to stress. Whether stress interferes with context-dependent memory is still unknown. We exposed healthy adults to stress or a control procedure before they learned an object-location task…

  13. Memory Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  14. Accelerated food source location in aging Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Egenriether, Sada M; Chow, Eileen S; Krauth, Nathalie; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

    2015-10-01

    Adequate energy stores are essential for survival, and sophisticated neuroendocrine mechanisms evolved to stimulate foraging in response to nutrient deprivation. Food search behavior is usually investigated in young animals, and it is not known how aging alters this behavior. To address this question in Drosophila melanogaster, we compared the ability to locate food by olfaction in young and old flies using a food-filled trap. As aging is associated with a decline in motor functions, learning, and memory, we expected that aged flies would take longer to enter the food trap than their young counterparts. Surprisingly, old flies located food with significantly shorter latency than young ones. Robust food search behavior was associated with significantly lower fat reserves and lower starvation resistance in old flies. Food-finding latency (FFL) was shortened in young wild-type flies that were starved until their fat was depleted but also in heterozygous chico mutants with reduced insulin receptor activity and higher fat deposits. Conversely, food trap entry was delayed in old flies with increased insulin signaling. Our results suggest that the difference in FFL between young and old flies is linked to age-dependent differences in metabolic status and may be mediated by reduced insulin signaling.

  15. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  16. Autobiographical Memory Functioning among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children: The Overgeneral Memory Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Kristin; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background: This investigation addresses whether there are differences in the form and content of autobiographical memory recall as a function of maltreatment, and examines the roles of self-system functioning and psychopathology in autobiographical memory processes. Methods: Autobiographical memory for positive and negative nontraumatic events…

  17. Design and Implementation of High Performance Content-Addressable Memories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Logic store matches in Match Store 4 (GONT 1) store matches into Temporary Match Store (LDTEMP = 1) any match ? (RESULT =1 ?) yes no . .-.- MMR produces...matches in Match Store (CONT = 1) yes more search ?.1yes S . no store matches into Temporary Match Store (LDTEMP = 1) any match ? (RESULT =1 ?) I yes no MMR... ENGINEERING UNLRSIIE WHSHINN DEC 85 AFIT/GE/ENG/85D-39 F/G 915 N ?,e Ll" L 11L61 02.01 %iiii 1 L A 2 IIII 5 II MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART OF 1

  18. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  19. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  20. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  1. A general model for memory interference in a multiprocessor system with memory hierarchy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taha, Badie A.; Standley, Hilda M.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of memory interference in a multiprocessor system with a hierarchy of shared buses and memories is addressed. The behavior of the processors is represented by a sequence of memory requests with each followed by a determined amount of processing time. A statistical queuing network model for determining the extent of memory interference in multiprocessor systems with clusters of memory hierarchies is presented. The performance of the system is measured by the expected number of busy memory clusters. The results of the analytic model are compared with simulation results, and the correlation between them is found to be very high.

  2. Flashbulb Memories

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    We review and analyze the key theories, debates, findings, and omissions of the existing literature on flashbulb memories (FBMs), including what factors affect their formation, retention, and degree of confidence. We argue that FBMs do not require special memory mechanisms and are best characterized as involving both forgetting and mnemonic distortions, despite a high level of confidence. Factual memories for FBM-inducing events generally follow a similar pattern. Although no necessary and sufficient factors straightforwardly account for FBM retention, media attention particularly shapes memory for the events themselves. FBMs are best characterized in term of repetitions, even of mnemonic distortions, whereas event memories evidence corrections. The bearing of this literature on social identity and traumatic memories is also discussed. PMID:26997762

  3. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  4. Skilled Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-06

    Morse code (Bryan & Harter , 1899). In every case, memory performance of the expert seems to violate the established limits of short- term memory. How is...of immediate memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental psychology, 1958, 10, 12-21. Bryan, W. L., & Harter N. psychological Review, 1899, 6, 345-375...16, 1980 Page 5 Civil Govt Non Govt Dr. Susan Chipman 1 Dr. John R. Anderson Learning and Development Department of Psychology National Institute of

  5. Shared-memory parallel programming in C++

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, B. )

    1990-07-01

    This paper discusses how researchers have produced a set of portable parallel-programming constructs for C, implemented in M4 macros. These parallel-programming macros are available under the name Parmacs. The Parmacs macros let one write parallel C programs for shared-memory, distributed-memory, and mixed-memory (shared and distributed) systems. They have been implemented on several machines. Because Parmacs offers useful parallel-programming features, the author has considered how these problems might be overcome or avoided. The author thought that using C++, rather than C, would address these problems adequately, and describes the C++ features exploited. The work described addresses shared-memory constructs.

  6. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  7. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  8. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  9. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  10. Locating the stranger rapist.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Dale, A

    1996-04-01

    As part of a larger project evaluating aspects of offender profiling, an initial study was undertaken of the geographic aspects of approximately 300 sexual offences carried out by 79 stranger rapists. The objective was to focus further research on the topic into potentially useful channels, but information thought to be of immediate use to investigating officers was also produced. It was ascertained that at least one-fifth of the sample of stranger rapists were itinerant to a greater or lesser extent. Analysis of the cases where both the offender's address and the location where he approached the victim were known, indicated that the majority of attacks (75 per cent) were initiated within five miles of the offenders' homes. The apparent reasons for victims being approached unusually far away included targeting of locations where numbers of suitable victims were available; raping during relatively sophisticated property offences; 'prowling' or 'hunting' over large areas by subjects who spent considerable amounts of time so doing; access to transport; and familiarity with widely dispersed neighbourhoods, often due to the offender having lived in two or more locations. As a result of this work, future research on the geography of rape will be directed towards those aspects of the offences which have been identified as relevant to the distance between an offender's base and the site where he approached his victim.

  11. Conditional load and store in a shared memory

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Ohmacht, Martin

    2015-02-03

    A method, system and computer program product for implementing load-reserve and store-conditional instructions in a multi-processor computing system. The computing system includes a multitude of processor units and a shared memory cache, and each of the processor units has access to the memory cache. In one embodiment, the method comprises providing the memory cache with a series of reservation registers, and storing in these registers addresses reserved in the memory cache for the processor units as a result of issuing load-reserve requests. In this embodiment, when one of the processor units makes a request to store data in the memory cache using a store-conditional request, the reservation registers are checked to determine if an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor unit. If an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor, the data are stored at this address.

  12. Spatial memory in foraging games.

    PubMed

    Kerster, Bryan E; Rhodes, Theo; Kello, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Foraging and foraging-like processes are found in spatial navigation, memory, visual search, and many other search functions in human cognition and behavior. Foraging is commonly theorized using either random or correlated movements based on Lévy walks, or a series of decisions to remain or leave proximal areas known as "patches". Neither class of model makes use of spatial memory, but search performance may be enhanced when information about searched and unsearched locations is encoded. A video game was developed to test the role of human spatial memory in a canonical foraging task. Analyses of search trajectories from over 2000 human players yielded evidence that foraging movements were inherently clustered, and that clustering was facilitated by spatial memory cues and influenced by memory for spatial locations of targets found. A simple foraging model is presented in which spatial memory is used to integrate aspects of Lévy-based and patch-based foraging theories to perform a kind of area-restricted search, and thereby enhance performance as search unfolds. Using only two free parameters, the model accounts for a variety of findings that individually support competing theories, but together they argue for the integration of spatial memory into theories of foraging.

  13. The Benefits of Targeted Memory Reactivation for Consolidation in Sleep are Contingent on Memory Accuracy and Direct Cue-Memory Associations

    PubMed Central

    Cairney, Scott A.; Lindsay, Shane; Sobczak, Justyna M.; Paller, Ken A.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate how the effects of targeted memory reactivation (TMR) are influenced by memory accuracy prior to sleep and the presence or absence of direct cue-memory associations. Methods: 30 participants associated each of 50 pictures with an unrelated word and then with a screen location in two separate tasks. During picture-location training, each picture was also presented with a semantically related sound. The sounds were therefore directly associated with the picture locations but indirectly associated with the words. During a subsequent nap, half of the sounds were replayed in slow wave sleep (SWS). The effect of TMR on memory for the picture locations (direct cue-memory associations) and picture-word pairs (indirect cue-memory associations) was then examined. Results: TMR reduced overall memory decay for recall of picture locations. Further analyses revealed a benefit of TMR for picture locations recalled with a low degree of accuracy prior to sleep, but not those recalled with a high degree of accuracy. The benefit of TMR for low accuracy memories was predicted by time spent in SWS. There was no benefit of TMR for memory of the picture-word pairs, irrespective of memory accuracy prior to sleep. Conclusions: TMR provides the greatest benefit to memories recalled with a low degree of accuracy prior to sleep. The memory benefits of TMR may also be contingent on direct cue-memory associations. Citation: Cairney SA, Lindsay S, Sobczak JM, Paller KA, Gaskell MG. The benefits of targeted memory reactivation for consolidation in sleep are contingent on memory accuracy and direct cue-memory associations. SLEEP 2016;39(5):1139–1150. PMID:26856905

  14. 41 CFR 105-53.120 - Address and telephone numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... located at 18th and F Streets NW., Washington, DC 20405. The Federal Acquisition Service is located at 2200 Crystal Drive Room 1000, Arlington, VA 22202-3713; however, the mailing address is Washington, DC... Appeals (CBCA) is located at 1800 M Street NW., 6th Floor, Washington, DC 20036; however, the CBCA...

  15. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  16. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  17. Memory formation under stress: quantity and quality.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T; Oitzl, Melly S

    2010-03-01

    Stress shapes memory. Depending on the timing of the stress exposure facilitating and impairing effects of stress are reported on how much is learned and remembered. Beyond such stress-induced changes in the quantity of memory, recent research suggests that stress also affects the contribution of multiple memory systems to performance. Under stress, rigid 'habit' memory gets favored over more flexible 'cognitive' memory. Thus, stress has an impact on the way we learn and remember, that is the quality of memory. This shift between different behavioral strategies on "environmental demands" may facilitate adaptive responses. Here, we review stress effects on both quantity and quality of memory and address possible implications of these effects for the understanding of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  18. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003257.htm Memory loss To use the sharing features on this ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  19. Spatial Inferences in Narrative Comprehension: the Role of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Irrazabal, Natalia; Burin, Debora

    2016-03-14

    During the comprehension of narrative texts, readers keep a mental representation of the location of protagonists and objects; a breach in spatial coherence is detected by longer online reading times (consistency effect). We addressed whether these spatial inferences involve verbal or spatial working memory in two experiments, combining the consistency paradigm with selective verbal and spatial working memory concurrent tasks. The first experiment found longer reading times with a concurrent spatial task under imagery instructions (t33 = 2.87, p = .021). The second experiment, under comprehension reading instructions, found effects of verbal interference on reading times and accuracy. With a verbal secondary task, reading times for the target sentence were shorter (t45 = 3.60, p = .004) and the error rate was significantly higher (t47 = 2.95, p = .005) than without interference. This pattern of results suggests that spatial inferences in narrative comprehension rely mainly on verbal resources, and spatial working memory resources are recruited when imagery is required.

  20. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  1. Does virtual reality have a future for the study of episodic memory in aging?

    PubMed

    Abichou, Kouloud; La Corte, Valentina; Piolino, Pascale

    2017-03-01

    Episodic memory is the memory of personally lived events located in time and space, it shapes our identity and allows us to project ourselves into the past and the future. This form of memory is vulnerable to the effects of age and its alteration, hindering the autonomy of the subjects, can predict the evolution towards neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, a better understanding of this type of memory is a priority in the field of public health. Actually, traditional neuropsychological tools are often decontextualized, using simplistic situations that did not require the mobilization of all the characteristics of episodic memory, thus they just offer a partial measure of this complex mnemonic capacity. Nowadays, the virtual reality (VR) is a tool allowing the immersion of subjects in simulations of real situations, rich in spatial and temporal naturalistic contexts. Due to its many characteristics, the VR allows to solve several limitations of the traditional tests. The purpose of this review is to expose studies that investigated episodic memory in normal and Alzheimer's disease using VR in order to address its relevance as a new tool in the future practice of neuropsychology of aging.

  2. Address block localization based on graph theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaceb, Djamel; Eglin, Véronique; Lebourgeois, Frank; Emptoz, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    An efficient mail sorting system is mainly based on an accurate optical recognition of the addresses on the envelopes. However, the localizing of the address block (ABL) should be done before the OCR recognition process. The location step is very crucial as it has a great impact on the global performance of the system. Currently, a good localizing step leads to a better recognition rate. The limit of current methods is mainly caused by modular linear architectures used for ABL: their performances greatly depend on each independent module performance. We are presenting in this paper a new approach for ABL based on a pyramidal data organization and on a hierarchical graph coloring for classification process. This new approach presents the advantage to guarantee a good coherence between different modules and reduces both the computation time and the rejection rate. The proposed method gives a very satisfying rate of 98% of good locations on a set of 750 envelope images.

  3. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    SciTech Connect

    Welcome, Michael L.; Bell, Christian S.

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address space languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.

  4. "The Politics of Location": Text as Opposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Renee

    Eduardo Galeano's "Memory of Fire: Genesis" raises a number of questions concerning the "politics of location," a term that may be defined as the intersections, tensions, and complications that people of color bring to space and what space means in terms of hierarchies and power, racial and gender stratifications. Text can also…

  5. Study of performance on SMP and distributed memory architectures using a shared memory programming model

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, E.D.; Warren, K.H.

    1997-08-08

    In this paper we examine the use of a shared memory programming model to address the problem of portability of application codes between distributed memory and shared memory architectures. We do this with an extension of the Parallel C Preprocessor. The extension, borrowed from Split-C and AC, uses type qualifiers instead of storage class modifiers to declare variables that are shared among processors. The type qualifier declaration supports an abstract shared memory facility on distributed memory machines while making direct use of hardware support on shared memory architectures. Our benchmarking study spans a wide range of shared memory and distributed memory platforms. Benchmarks include Gaussian elimination with back substitution, a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform, and a matrix-matrix multiply. We find that the type-qualifier-based shared memory programming model is capable of efficiently spanning both distributed memory and shared memory architectures. Although the resulting shared memory programming model is portable, it does not remove the need to arrange for overlapped or blocked remote memory references on platforms that require these tuning measures in order to obtain good performance.

  6. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general.

  7. Optical associative memories for sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, Lynda M.; Yoepp, John H.; Bardos, Andrew M.

    1992-08-01

    Modern military mission scenarios require very efficient access to multiple, large databases. Static `reference' databases and highly volatile databases which contain intelligence from sensors and other sources must be processed, cross referenced, and correlated. An architecture has been developed for a content addressable (associative) optical memory system. The system exploits the parallel access capabilities of optical disk memories to provide keyword correlation of free form text or structured databases within one revolution of the disk. The system consists of an optical disk drive augmented with an optical correlator and related electronics and software. The search string (keyword) is loaded into a spatial light modulator and optical matched filtering provides massively parallel readout to locate the desired data patterns on the disk. A digital degree-of-match (DOM) word is generated for each sector on the disk. Post processing based in digital electronics and software performs fuzzy computations to combine the DOMs for the current and previous keywords enabling the system to efficiently perform multi-step, content-based searches of the disk. Data stored in the best matching sectors is retrieved during the next revolution of the disk using the drive's standard read mechanism. The sustained processing rate of the optical correlator is 71 gigabits per second.

  8. Neural activity reveals perceptual grouping in working memory.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Laura R; Roberts, Daniel M; McDonald, Craig G; Peterson, Matthew S

    2017-03-01

    There is extensive evidence that the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a scalp recorded event-related brain potential, provides a reliable index of the number of objects held in visual working memory. Here we present evidence that the CDA not only indexes visual object working memory, but also the number of locations held in spatial working memory. In addition, we demonstrate that the CDA can be predictably modulated by the type of encoding strategy employed. When individual locations were held in working memory, the pattern of CDA modulation mimicked previous findings for visual object working memory. Specifically, CDA amplitude increased monotonically until working memory capacity was reached. However, when participants were instructed to group individual locations to form a constellation, the CDA was prolonged and reached an asymptote at two locations. This result provides neural evidence for the formation of a unitary representation of multiple spatial locations.

  9. 18. INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF STAINED GLASS WINDOW LOCATED AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF STAINED GLASS WINDOW LOCATED AT SOUTH SIDE OF ALTAR, NOTE INSCRIPTION DEDICATED IN THE MEMORY OF FATHER DAMIEN - St. Francis Catholic Church, Moloka'i Island, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  10. 222. NORTH END OF DIVIDING STRIP LOCATED NEAR LITTLE HUNTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    222. NORTH END OF DIVIDING STRIP LOCATED NEAR LITTLE HUNTING CREEK ON GWMP LOOKING SOUTH, 1946. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  11. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for applications and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... delivery address. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 2777 S. Crystal Dr... physically located in Rm. S-4400, One Potomac Yard (South Bldg.), 2777 S. Crystal Dr., Arlington, VA...

  12. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for applications and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... delivery address. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 2777 S. Crystal Dr... physically located in Rm. S-4400, One Potomac Yard (South Bldg.), 2777 S. Crystal Dr., Arlington, VA...

  13. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for applications and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... delivery address. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 2777 S. Crystal Dr... physically located in Rm. S-4400, One Potomac Yard (South Bldg.), 2777 S. Crystal Dr., Arlington, VA...

  14. 36 CFR 7.76 - Wright Brothers National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Memorial. 7.76 Section 7.76 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.76 Wright Brothers National Memorial. (a) Designated airstrip. Wright Brothers National Memorial Airstrip, located at Kill Devil Hills,...

  15. 36 CFR 7.76 - Wright Brothers National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Memorial. 7.76 Section 7.76 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.76 Wright Brothers National Memorial. (a) Designated airstrip. Wright Brothers National Memorial Airstrip, located at Kill Devil Hills,...

  16. Spatial Working Memory Effects in Early Visual Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munneke, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated how spatial working memory recruits early visual cortex. Participants were required to maintain a location in working memory while changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals were measured during the retention interval in which no visual stimulation was present. We show working memory effects during the…

  17. Autobiographical memory functioning among abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children: The overgeneral memory effect

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Kristin; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-01-01

    Background This investigation addresses whether there are differences in the form and content of autobiographical memory recall as a function of maltreatment, and examines the roles of self-system functioning and psychopathology in autobiographical memory processes. Methods Autobiographical memory for positive and negative nontraumatic events was evaluated among abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated school-aged children. Results Abused children’s memories were more overgeneral and contained more negative self-representations than did those of the nonmaltreated children. Negative self-representations and depression were significantly related to overgeneral memory, but did not mediate the relation between abuse and overgeneral memory. Conclusions The meaning of these findings for models of memory and for the development of overgenerality is emphasized. Moreover, the clinical implications of the current research are discussed. PMID:19490313

  18. A Cerebellar-model Associative Memory as a Generalized Random-access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1989-01-01

    A versatile neural-net model is explained in terms familiar to computer scientists and engineers. It is called the sparse distributed memory, and it is a random-access memory for very long words (for patterns with thousands of bits). Its potential utility is the result of several factors: (1) a large pattern representing an object or a scene or a moment can encode a large amount of information about what it represents; (2) this information can serve as an address to the memory, and it can also serve as data; (3) the memory is noise tolerant--the information need not be exact; (4) the memory can be made arbitrarily large and hence an arbitrary amount of information can be stored in it; and (5) the architecture is inherently parallel, allowing large memories to be fast. Such memories can become important components of future computers.

  19. Fueling Memories

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Pollizzi, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of the adaptive immune response is rapid and robust activation upon rechallenge. In the current issue of Immunity van der Windt et al. (2012) provide an important link between mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the development of CD8+ T cell memory. PMID:22284413

  20. Childhood Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz

    2001-01-01

    Describes how artwork can be a valuable catalyst for discussions in preservice education classes, allowing students to explore how their work as educators relates to their childhood memories and can be shaped by childhood experiences. Examines an art exhibition in which diverse artists depicted autobiographical text in their paintings. Discusses…

  1. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  2. Hollow memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    A hollow-core optical fibre filled with warm caesium atoms can temporarily store the properties of photons. Michael Sprague from the University of Oxford, UK, explains to Nature Photonics how this optical memory could be a useful building block for fibre-based quantum optics.

  3. Hippocampus and neocortex: recognition and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Vann, Seralynne D; Albasser, Mathieu M

    2011-06-01

    Recognition and spatial memory are typically associated with the perirhinal cortex and hippocampal formation, respectively. Solely focusing on these structures for these specific mnemonic functions may, however, be limiting progress in the field. The distinction between these subdivisions of memory is becoming less defined as, for example, hippocampal cells traditionally considered to encode locations also encode place-object associations. There is increasing evidence for the involvement of overlapping networks of brain structures for aspects of both spatial and recognition memory. Future models of spatial and recognition memory will have to extend beyond the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex to incorporate a wider network of cortical and subcortical structures.

  4. 17 CFR 10.4 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business address; hours. 10.4 Section 10.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.4 Business address; hours. The Office of Proceedings is located at Three...

  5. 17 CFR 10.4 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business address; hours. 10.4 Section 10.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.4 Business address; hours. The Office of Proceedings is located at Three...

  6. Terms of Address in the Chinese Business Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Sultan, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study examines terms of address currently used by employees of Chinese business enterprises. The authors find that a speaker's address selections are related significantly to the gender of the speaker, the location of the enterprise in Eastern or Western China, and the ownership type of the enterprise; that is, whether the enterprise is…

  7. Compact Spare-Row Decoder For Computer Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Rakow, Glenn P.; Bickler, Thomas C.; Barto, Rod

    1992-01-01

    Spare-row memory-address-decoder circuit commanded to address ninth row in computer memory instead of addressing one of eight others it would address normally. Variants used to construct small, highly reliable computers. Spare-row decoder offers advantages of compactness, efficiency, and performance. Requires only 12.5 percent memory overhead. System equipped with spare-row decoder requires less glue logic and exhibits greater through-put. Applications include computers in Hitchhiker Central Unit embedded computer on Cassini spacecraft. Concept of circuit applicable to most flight computer systems.

  8. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence. PMID:26257650

  9. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence.

  10. Positional error in automated geocoding of residential addresses

    PubMed Central

    Cayo, Michael R; Talbot, Thomas O

    2003-01-01

    Background Public health applications using geographic information system (GIS) technology are steadily increasing. Many of these rely on the ability to locate where people live with respect to areas of exposure from environmental contaminants. Automated geocoding is a method used to assign geographic coordinates to an individual based on their street address. This method often relies on street centerline files as a geographic reference. Such a process introduces positional error in the geocoded point. Our study evaluated the positional error caused during automated geocoding of residential addresses and how this error varies between population densities. We also evaluated an alternative method of geocoding using residential property parcel data. Results Positional error was determined for 3,000 residential addresses using the distance between each geocoded point and its true location as determined with aerial imagery. Error was found to increase as population density decreased. In rural areas of an upstate New York study area, 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 2,872 m of their true location. Suburban areas revealed less error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 421 m. Urban areas demonstrated the least error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 152 m of their true location. As an alternative to using street centerline files for geocoding, we used residential property parcel points to locate the addresses. In the rural areas, 95 percent of the parcel points were within 195 m of the true location. In suburban areas, this distance was 39 m while in urban areas 95 percent of the parcel points were within 21 m of the true location. Conclusion Researchers need to determine if the level of error caused by a chosen method of geocoding may affect the results of their project. As an alternative method, property data can be used for geocoding addresses if the error caused by traditional methods is found to be unacceptable. PMID

  11. 47 CFR 1.1113 - Filing locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the locations and addresses set forth in §§ 1.1102 through 1.1109. (1) Tariff filings shall be filed....1109, as set forth on the bill sent by the Commission. Payments must be accompanied by the bill sent by.... 158(d)(1) or § 1.1116 of this subpart shall file their applications in the appropriate location as...

  12. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    , between the positive and negative FFET saturation values. This signal value would represent a numerical value of interest corresponding to multiple bits: for example, if the memory circuit were designed to distinguish among 16 different analog values, then each cell could store 4 bits. Simultaneously with writing the signal value in the storage FFET, a negative saturation signal value would be stored in the control FFET. The decay of this control-FFET signal from the saturation value would serve as a model of the decay, for use in regenerating the numerical value of interest from its decaying analog signal value. The memory circuit would include addressing, reading, and writing circuitry that would have features in common with the corresponding parts of other memory circuits, but would also have several distinctive features. The writing circuitry would include a digital-to-analog converter (DAC); the reading circuitry would include an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). For writing a numerical value of interest in a given cell, that cell would be addressed, the saturation value would be written in the control FFET in that cell, and the non-saturation analog value representing the numerical value of interest would be generated by use of the DAC and stored in the storage FFET in that cell. For reading the numerical value of interest stored in a given cell, the cell would be addressed, the ADC would convert the decaying control and storage analog signal values to digital values, and an associated fast digital processing circuit would regenerate the numerical value from digital values.

  13. Working memory performance inversely predicts spontaneous delta and theta-band scaling relations.

    PubMed

    Euler, Matthew J; Wiltshire, Travis J; Niermeyer, Madison A; Butner, Jonathan E

    2016-04-15

    Electrophysiological studies have strongly implicated theta-band activity in human working memory processes. Concurrently, work on spontaneous, non-task-related oscillations has revealed the presence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) within sub-bands of the ongoing EEG, and has begun to demonstrate their functional significance. However, few studies have yet assessed the relation of LRTCs (also called scaling relations) to individual differences in cognitive abilities. The present study addressed the intersection of these two literatures by investigating the relation of narrow-band EEG scaling relations to individual differences in working memory ability, with a particular focus on the theta band. Fifty-four healthy adults completed standardized assessments of working memory and separate recordings of their spontaneous, non-task-related EEG. Scaling relations were quantified in each of the five classical EEG frequency bands via the estimation of the Hurst exponent obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis. A multilevel modeling framework was used to characterize the relation of working memory performance to scaling relations as a function of general scalp location in Cartesian space. Overall, results indicated an inverse relationship between both delta and theta scaling relations and working memory ability, which was most prominent at posterior sensors, and was independent of either spatial or individual variability in band-specific power. These findings add to the growing literature demonstrating the relevance of neural LRTCs for understanding brain functioning, and support a construct- and state-dependent view of their functional implications.

  14. 47 CFR 0.401 - Location of Commission offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....401 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General.... (i) Documents submitted by mail to this office should be addressed to: Federal Communications... located near Columbia, Maryland. The mailing address is: Federal Communications Commission,...

  15. 47 CFR 0.401 - Location of Commission offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....401 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General.... (i) Documents submitted by mail to this office should be addressed to: Federal Communications... located near Columbia, Maryland. The mailing address is: Federal Communications Commission,...

  16. 47 CFR 0.401 - Location of Commission offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....401 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General.... (i) Documents submitted by mail to this office should be addressed to: Federal Communications... located near Columbia, Maryland. The mailing address is: Federal Communications Commission,...

  17. 47 CFR 0.401 - Location of Commission offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....401 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General.... (i) Documents submitted by mail to this office should be addressed to: Federal Communications... located near Columbia, Maryland. The mailing address is: Federal Communications Commission,...

  18. Displacement of location in illusory line motion.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2013-05-01

    Six experiments examined displacement in memory for the location of the line in illusory line motion (ILM; appearance or disappearance of a stationary cue is followed by appearance of a stationary line that is presented all at once, but the stationary line is perceived to "unfold" or "be drawn" from the end closest to the cue to the end most distant from the cue). If ILM was induced by having a single cue appear, then memory for the location of the line was displaced toward the cue, and displacement was larger if the line was closer to the cue. If ILM was induced by having one of two previously visible cues vanish, then memory for the location of the line was displaced away from the cue that vanished. In general, the magnitude of displacement increased and then decreased as retention interval increased from 50 to 250 ms and from 250 to 450 ms, respectively. Displacement of the line (a) is consistent with a combination of a spatial averaging of the locations of the cue and the line with a relatively weaker dynamic in the direction of illusory motion, (b) might be implemented in a spreading activation network similar to networks previously suggested to implement displacement resulting from implied or apparent motion, and (c) provides constraints and challenges for theories of ILM.

  19. Locative Inversion in Cantonese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Sui-Sang

    This study investigates the phenomenon of "Locative Inversion" in Cantonese. The term "Locative Inversion" indicates that the locative phrase (LP) syntactic process in Cantonese and the appears at the sentence-initial position and its logical subject occurs postverbally. It is demonstrated that this Locative Inversion is a…

  20. Location, Location, Location: Development of Spatiotemporal Sequence Learning in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Natasha Z.; Slemmer, Jonathan A.; Richardson, Daniel C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated infants' sensitivity to spatiotemporal structure. In Experiment 1, circles appeared in a statistically defined spatial pattern. At test 11-month-olds, but not 8-month-olds, looked longer at a novel spatial sequence. Experiment 2 presented different color/shape stimuli, but only the location sequence was violated during test;…

  1. Human short-term spatial memory: precision predicts capacity.

    PubMed

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Boujon, Valérie; Ndarugendamwo, Angélique; Lavenex, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Here, we aimed to determine the capacity of human short-term memory for allocentric spatial information in a real-world setting. Young adults were tested on their ability to learn, on a trial-unique basis, and remember over a 1-min interval the location(s) of 1, 3, 5, or 7 illuminating pads, among 23 pads distributed in a 4m×4m arena surrounded by curtains on three sides. Participants had to walk to and touch the pads with their foot to illuminate the goal locations. In contrast to the predictions from classical slot models of working memory capacity limited to a fixed number of items, i.e., Miller's magical number 7 or Cowan's magical number 4, we found that the number of visited locations to find the goals was consistently about 1.6 times the number of goals, whereas the number of correct choices before erring and the number of errorless trials varied with memory load even when memory load was below the hypothetical memory capacity. In contrast to resource models of visual working memory, we found no evidence that memory resources were evenly distributed among unlimited numbers of items to be remembered. Instead, we found that memory for even one individual location was imprecise, and that memory performance for one location could be used to predict memory performance for multiple locations. Our findings are consistent with a theoretical model suggesting that the precision of the memory for individual locations might determine the capacity of human short-term memory for spatial information.

  2. Improvement of Allocentric Spatial Memory Resolution in Children from 2 to 4 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Farfalla Ribordy; Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2015-01-01

    Allocentric spatial memory, the memory for locations coded in relation to objects comprising our environment, is a fundamental component of episodic memory and is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampal formation in adulthood. Previous research from different laboratories reported that basic allocentric spatial memory abilities are reliably…

  3. [Neural correlates of memory].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2013-01-01

    Memory can be divided into several types, although all of them involve three successive processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. In terms of the duration of retention, neurologists classify memory into immediate, recent, and remote memories, whereas psychologists classify memory into short-term and long-term memories. In terms of the content, episodic, semantic, and procedural memories are considered to be different types of memory. Furthermore, researchers on memory have proposed relatively new concepts of memory, i.e., working memory and prospective memory. This article first provides explanations for these several types of memory. Next, neuropsychological characteristics of amnesic syndrome are briefly outlined. Finally, how several different types of memory are affected (or preserved) in patients with amnesic syndrome is described.

  4. Estimating location without external cues.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Allen

    2014-10-01

    The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system.

  5. Sleeping at work: not all about location, location, location.

    PubMed

    Jay, Sarah M; Aisbett, Brad; Sprajcer, Madeline; Ferguson, Sally A

    2015-02-01

    Working arrangements in industries that use non-standard hours sometimes necessitate an 'onsite' workforce where workers sleep in accommodation within or adjacent to the workplace. Of particular relevance to these workers is the widely held (and largely anecdotal) assumption that sleep at home is better than sleep away, particularly when away for work. This narrative review explores the idea that sleep outcomes in these unique work situations are the product of an interaction between numerous factors including timing and duration of breaks, commute length, sleeping environment (noise, movement, vibration, light), circadian phase, demographic factors and familiarity with the sleep location. Based on the data presented in this review, it is our contention that the location of sleep, whilst important, is secondary to other factors such as the timing and duration of sleep periods. We suggest that future research should include measures that allow conceptualisation of other critical factors such as familiarity with the sleeping environment.

  6. Location, Location, Location! Demonstrating the Mnemonic Benefit of the Method of Loci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Classroom demonstrations of empirically supported learning and memory strategies have the potential to boost students' knowledge about their own memory and convince them to change the way they approach memory tasks in and beyond the classroom. Students in a "Human Learning and Memory" course learned about the "Method of Loci"…

  7. Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, George S.; Grafe, Victor Gerald

    1997-01-01

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.

  8. Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.

    1997-10-07

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.

  9. Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, Michael Andrew; Blanchard, Sean P.; Debardeleben, Nathan A.

    2014-07-25

    As supercomputers continue to get faster and more powerful in the future, they will also have more nodes. If nothing is done, then the amount of memory in supercomputer clusters will soon grow large enough that memory failures will be unmanageable to deal with by manually replacing memory DIMMs. "Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux" is a process oriented method to solve this problem by using the Linux kernel to disable (offline) faulty memory pages containing bad addresses, preventing them from being used again by a process. The process of offlining memory pages simplifies error handling and results in reducing both hardware and manpower costs required to run Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) clusters. This process will be necessary for the future of supercomputing to allow the development of exascale computers. It will not be feasible without memory error handling to manually replace the number of DIMMs that will fail daily on a machine consisting of 32-128 petabytes of memory. Testing reveals the process of offlining memory pages works and is relatively simple to use. As more and more testing is conducted, the entire process will be automated within the high-performance computing (HPC) monitoring software, Zenoss, at LANL.

  10. Interaction between categorical knowledge and episodic memory across domains

    PubMed Central

    Hemmer, Pernille; Persaud, Kimele

    2014-01-01

    Categorical knowledge and episodic memory have traditionally been viewed as separate lines of inquiry. Here, we present a perspective on the interrelatedness of categorical knowledge and reconstruction from memory. We address three underlying questions: what knowledge do people bring to the task of remembering? How do people integrate that knowledge with episodic memory? Is this the optimal way for the memory system to work? In the review of five studies spanning four category domains (discrete, continuous, temporal, and linguistic), we evaluate the relative contribution and the structure of influence of categorical knowledge on long-term episodic memory. These studies suggest a robustness of peoples’ knowledge of the statistical regularities of the environment, and provide converging evidence of the quality and influence of category knowledge on reconstructive memory. Lastly, we argue that combining categorical knowledge and episodic memory is an efficient strategy of the memory system. PMID:24966848

  11. Modafinil as a cognitive enhancer of spatial working memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Helen M; Ekstrand, Dylan; Tarchick, Matthew; Wideman, Cyrilla H

    2015-04-01

    The present experiment examined the influence of modafinil on working memory in rats. Control and experimental rats were placed in cages equipped with a running wheel. The study was divided into three periods: 1) habituation, 2) experimental - in which modafinil was orally administered to experimental animals, and 3) withdrawal. Spatial working memory was tested utilizing the Morris Water Maze. Animals were given two trials in each session: 1) a sample trial in which they discovered the location of the platform and 2) a test trial in which they recalled the location of the platform. Platform placement and starting place location of the rats were changed every session. Performance of control animals during sample trials and test trials showed no difference in time to reach the platform; whereas, experimental animals demonstrated faster attainment of the goal during the test trial. In withdrawal, there was no difference in time between the two trials for experimental animals. Wheel running activity of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group during the experimental period. This study supports the hypothesis that modafinil has a positive effect on working memory in rats. It is suggested that benefits of modafinil can extend beyond its prescribed usage; however, these advantages of modafinil use should be addressed in discussions related to ethical concerns associated with neuroenhancers.

  12. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in the National Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in the National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), 14th ND PHOG No. 15233. U.S. Navy photograph, 1942. VIEW SHOWS CONSTRUCTION OF DRYDOCK NO. 3 (FACILITY S781). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Facilities, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2000: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings for the Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2000 that was held on November 15-16, 2000 in Arlington, Virginia. The proceedings contains a wide range of papers that cover the presentations of myriad advances in the nonvolatile memory technology during the recent past including memory cell design, simulations, radiation environment, and emerging memory technologies. The papers presented in the proceedings address the design challenges and applications and deals with newer, emerging memory technologies as well as related issues of radiation environment and die packaging.

  14. Memory and law: what can cognitive neuroscience contribute?

    PubMed

    Schacter, Daniel L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-02-01

    A recent decision in the United States by the New Jersey Supreme Court has led to improved jury instructions that incorporate psychological research showing that memory does not operate like a video recording. Here we consider how cognitive neuroscience could contribute to addressing memory in the courtroom. We discuss conditions in which neuroimaging can distinguish true and false memories in the laboratory and note reasons to be skeptical about its use in courtroom cases. We also discuss neuroscience research concerning false and imagined memories, misinformation effects and reconsolidation phenomena that may enhance understanding of why memory does not operate like a video recording.

  15. A Concept of Corporate Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-17

    CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER^*; N00014-75.-C-0462. ». PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Department of Decision Sciences ’ The Wharton School...Decision Sciences The Wharton School University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104 "Tftis foi P^ut- -^ urUlnil This paper will be presented at the...Philadelphia PA 19104 A CONCEPT OF CORPORATE MEMORY Howard L. Morgan and David J. Root Dept. of Decision Sciences , The Whart’on School Abstract An

  16. (U) Computation acceleration using dynamic memory

    SciTech Connect

    Hakel, Peter

    2014-10-24

    Many computational applications require the repeated use of quantities, whose calculations can be expensive. In order to speed up the overall execution of the program, it is often advantageous to replace computation with extra memory usage. In this approach, computed values are stored and then, when they are needed again, they are quickly retrieved from memory rather than being calculated again at great cost. Sometimes, however, the precise amount of memory needed to store such a collection is not known in advance, and only emerges in the course of running the calculation. One problem accompanying such a situation is wasted memory space in overdimensioned (and possibly sparse) arrays. Another issue is the overhead of copying existing values to a new, larger memory space, if the original allocation turns out to be insufficient. In order to handle these runtime problems, the programmer therefore has the extra task of addressing them in the code.

  17. Dual-rail optical gradient echo memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbottom, D. B.; Geng, J.; Campbell, G. T.; Hosseini, M.; Cao, M. T.; Sparkes, B. M.; Bernu, J.; Robins, N. P.; Lam, P. K.; Buchler, B. C.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce a scheme for the parallel storage of frequency separated signals in an optical memory and demonstrate that this dual-rail storage is a suitable memory for high fidelity frequency qubits. The two signals are stored simultaneously in the Zeeman-split Raman absorption lines of a cold atom ensemble using gradient echo memory techniques. Analysis of the split-Zeeman storage shows that the memory can be configured to preserve the relative amplitude and phase of the frequency separated signals. In an experimental demonstration dual-frequency pulses are recalled with 35% efficiency, 82% interference fringe visibility, and 6 degrees phase stability. The fidelity of the frequency-qubit memory is limited by frequency-dependent polarisation rotation and ambient magnetic field fluctuations, our analysis describes how these can be addressed in an alternative configuration.

  18. Integer sparse distributed memory: analysis and results.

    PubMed

    Snaider, Javier; Franklin, Stan; Strain, Steve; George, E Olusegun

    2013-10-01

    Sparse distributed memory is an auto-associative memory system that stores high dimensional Boolean vectors. Here we present an extension of the original SDM, the Integer SDM that uses modular arithmetic integer vectors rather than binary vectors. This extension preserves many of the desirable properties of the original SDM: auto-associativity, content addressability, distributed storage, and robustness over noisy inputs. In addition, it improves the representation capabilities of the memory and is more robust over normalization. It can also be extended to support forgetting and reliable sequence storage. We performed several simulations that test the noise robustness property and capacity of the memory. Theoretical analyses of the memory's fidelity and capacity are also presented.

  19. The molecular basis of memory.

    PubMed

    Marx, Gerard; Gilon, Chaim

    2012-08-15

    We propose a tripartite biochemical mechanism for memory. Three physiologic components are involved, namely, the neuron (individual and circuit), the surrounding neural extracellular matrix, and the various trace metals distributed within the matrix. The binding of a metal cation affects a corresponding nanostructure (shrinking, twisting, expansion) and dielectric sensibility of the chelating node (address) within the matrix lattice, sensed by the neuron. The neural extracellular matrix serves as an electro-elastic lattice, wherein neurons manipulate multiple trace metals (n > 10) to encode, store, and decode coginive information. The proposed mechanism explains brains low energy requirements and high rates of storage capacity described in multiples of Avogadro number (N(A) = 6 × 10(23)). Supportive evidence correlates memory loss to trace metal toxicity or deficiency, or breakdown in the delivery/transport of metals to the matrix, or its degradation. Inherited diseases revolving around dysfunctional trace metal metabolism and memory dysfunction, include Alzheimer's disease (Al, Zn, Fe), Wilson's disease (Cu), thalassemia (Fe), and autism (metallothionein). The tripartite mechanism points to the electro-elastic interactions of neurons with trace metals distributed within the neural extracellular matrix, as the molecular underpinning of "synaptic plasticity" affecting short-term memory, long-term memory, and forgetting.

  20. The Molecular Basis of Memory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We propose a tripartite biochemical mechanism for memory. Three physiologic components are involved, namely, the neuron (individual and circuit), the surrounding neural extracellular matrix, and the various trace metals distributed within the matrix. The binding of a metal cation affects a corresponding nanostructure (shrinking, twisting, expansion) and dielectric sensibility of the chelating node (address) within the matrix lattice, sensed by the neuron. The neural extracellular matrix serves as an electro-elastic lattice, wherein neurons manipulate multiple trace metals (n > 10) to encode, store, and decode coginive information. The proposed mechanism explains brains low energy requirements and high rates of storage capacity described in multiples of Avogadro number (NA = 6 × 1023). Supportive evidence correlates memory loss to trace metal toxicity or deficiency, or breakdown in the delivery/transport of metals to the matrix, or its degradation. Inherited diseases revolving around dysfunctional trace metal metabolism and memory dysfunction, include Alzheimer's disease (Al, Zn, Fe), Wilson’s disease (Cu), thalassemia (Fe), and autism (metallothionein). The tripartite mechanism points to the electro-elastic interactions of neurons with trace metals distributed within the neural extracellular matrix, as the molecular underpinning of “synaptic plasticity” affecting short-term memory, long-term memory, and forgetting. PMID:23050060

  1. Memory device for two-dimensional radiant energy array computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D. H.; Strong, J. P., III (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A memory device for two dimensional radiant energy array computers was developed, in which the memory device stores digital information in an input array of radiant energy digital signals that are characterized by ordered rows and columns. The memory device contains a radiant energy logic storing device having a pair of input surface locations for receiving a pair of separate radiant energy digital signal arrays and an output surface location adapted to transmit a radiant energy digital signal array. A regenerative feedback device that couples one of the input surface locations to the output surface location in a manner for causing regenerative feedback is also included

  2. Location, Location, Location: Where Do Location-Based Services Fit into Your Institution's Social Media Mix?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekritz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Foursquare is a location-based social networking service that allows users to share their location with friends. Some college administrators have been thinking about whether and how to take the leap into location-based services, which are also known as geosocial networking services. These platforms, which often incorporate gaming elements like…

  3. Locatives in Kpelle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuha, Mai

    This paper examines the differences between locative expressions in Kpelle and English, based on the dialect of one native speaker of Kpelle. It discusses the crucial role of the reference object in defining the meaning of locatives in Kpelle, in contrast to English, where the characteristics of the object to be located are less important. An…

  4. Memory Transformation Enhances Reinforcement Learning in Dynamic Environments.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Adam; Frankland, Paul W; Richards, Blake A

    2016-11-30

    Over the course of systems consolidation, there is a switch from a reliance on detailed episodic memories to generalized schematic memories. This switch is sometimes referred to as "memory transformation." Here we demonstrate a previously unappreciated benefit of memory transformation, namely, its ability to enhance reinforcement learning in a dynamic environment. We developed a neural network that is trained to find rewards in a foraging task where reward locations are continuously changing. The network can use memories for specific locations (episodic memories) and statistical patterns of locations (schematic memories) to guide its search. We find that switching from an episodic to a schematic strategy over time leads to enhanced performance due to the tendency for the reward location to be highly correlated with itself in the short-term, but regress to a stable distribution in the long-term. We also show that the statistics of the environment determine the optimal utilization of both types of memory. Our work recasts the theoretical question of why memory transformation occurs, shifting the focus from the avoidance of memory interference toward the enhancement of reinforcement learning across multiple timescales.

  5. Electronic device aspects of neural network memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambe, J.; Moopenn, A.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    The basic issues related to the electronic implementation of the neural network model (NNM) for content addressable memories are examined. A brief introduction to the principles of the NNM is followed by an analysis of the information storage of the neural network in the form of a binary connection matrix and the recall capability of such matrix memories based on a hardware simulation study. In addition, materials and device architecture issues involved in the future realization of such networks in VLSI-compatible ultrahigh-density memories are considered. A possible space application of such devices would be in the area of large-scale information storage without mechanical devices.

  6. Reconsolidation and the fate of consolidated memories.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, Lia R; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-12-01

    The predominant view about memory formation states that a consolidation process stabilizes newly acquired traces until they are safely stored in the brain. However, during the last ten years evidence has accumulated to indicate that, upon retrieval, consolidated memories are rendered again vulnerable to the action of metabolic blockers, notably protein synthesis inhibitors. This has led to the hypothesis that memories are reconsolidated at the time of retrieval, and that this requires protein synthesis in different brain regions. Here we will address the consolidation-reconsolidation debate and discuss some controversial issues about the reconsolidation hypothesis, in particular the biological role of this process.

  7. Staging memory for massively parallel processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batcher, Kenneth E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention herein relates to a computer organization capable of rapidly processing extremely large volumes of data. A staging memory is provided having a main stager portion consisting of a large number of memory banks which are accessed in parallel to receive, store, and transfer data words simultaneous with each other. Substager portions interconnect with the main stager portion to match input and output data formats with the data format of the main stager portion. An address generator is coded for accessing the data banks for receiving or transferring the appropriate words. Input and output permutation networks arrange the lineal order of data into and out of the memory banks.

  8. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  9. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  10. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  11. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  12. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  13. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  14. Optical memory based on the ellipsometric principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Roger; Arwin, Hans; Lundstroem, Ingemar

    1990-07-01

    An optical three-dimensional multilayer memory device based on the effipsometric principle is presented. The possibilty to utilize the flexibility of organic layers e. g. conducting polymers will be discussed. PRINCIPLES A concept of an optical three-dimensional memory device based on the ellipsometric principle1 is presented. This " effipsometric" memory is a thin film multilayez device with an optical read-out. The information is contained in the optical properties of thin films and is read by analyzing the state of polarization ofa polarized light beam reflted at oblique incidence from a memory cell. The device is here examplified with the case of two layers on a substrate which is equivalent to a memory cell capable of storing one 2-bit word. If the optical properties of the two layers can be controlled independently we can generate 4 different states of polarization in the reflected beam corresponding to the " logical states" (0 (0 (1 and (1 ofthe memory cell. In a generalization to n layers it is possible to have 2fl different states. In other words an n-bit word can be stored at one location. Fig. 1. An optical memory device having 2-bit memory cells. With an ellipsometric read-out the state of polarization in the reflected beam is described by the two ellipsometric angles and These angles can be determined with a precision better than 0. 01''. The lateral resolution limiting the memory

  15. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T

    2011-01-28

    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  16. Autobiographical memory specificity in dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Wessel, Ineke; Hermans, Dirk; van Minnen, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a specific event from memory located in time and place. Previous studies of overgeneral memory have not included patients with dissociative disorders. These patients are interesting to consider, as they are hypothesized to have the ability to selectively compartmentalize information linked to negative emotions. This study examined avoidance and overgeneral memory in patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID; n = 12). The patients completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Their performance was compared with control groups of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients (n = 26), healthy controls (n = 29), and DID simulators (n = 26). Specifically, we compared the performance of separate identity states in DID hypothesized to diverge in the use of avoidance as a coping strategy to deal with negative affect. No significant differences in memory specificity were found between the separate identities in DID. Irrespective of identity state, DID patients were characterized by a lack of memory specificity, which was similar to the lack of memory specificity found in PTSD patients. The converging results for DID and PTSD patients add empirical evidence for the role of overgeneral memory involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic psychopathology.

  17. Mental Imagery and Visual Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory - but not iconic visual memory - can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage. PMID:22195024

  18. A Beginner's Guide to Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    1981-01-01

    This article is designed to equip the reader with the information needed to deal with questions of computer memory. Discussed are core memory; semiconductor memory; size of memory; expanding memory; charge-coupled device memories; magnetic bubble memory; and read-only and read-mostly memories. (KC)

  19. A New Conceptualization of Human Visual Sensory-Memory.

    PubMed

    Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Memory is an essential component of cognition and disorders of memory have significant individual and societal costs. The Atkinson-Shiffrin "modal model" forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores: Sensory Memory (SM), whose visual component is called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM; also called working memory, WM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM). Since its inception, shortcomings of all three components of the modal model have been identified. While the theories of STM and LTM underwent significant modifications to address these shortcomings, models of the iconic memory remained largely unchanged: A high capacity but rapidly decaying store whose contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, i.e., according to how the stimulus is projected on the retina. The fundamental shortcoming of iconic memory models is that, because contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, the iconic memory cannot hold any useful information under normal viewing conditions when objects or the subject are in motion. Hence, half-century after its formulation, it remains an unresolved problem whether and how the first stage of the modal model serves any useful function and how subsequent stages of the modal model receive inputs from the environment. Here, we propose a new conceptualization of human visual sensory memory by introducing an additional component whose reference-frame consists of motion-grouping based coordinates rather than retinotopic coordinates. We review data supporting this new model and discuss how it offers solutions to the paradoxes of the traditional model of sensory memory.

  20. The limits of arousal's memory impairing effects on nearby information

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Showing an arousing central stimulus in a scene often leads to enhanced memory for the arousing central information and impaired memory for peripheral details. However, it is not clear from previous work whether arousing stimuli impair memory for all non-arousing nearby information or just background information. In several experiments, we tested how emotionally arousing pictures affect memory for nearby pictures and for background information. We found that when two pictures were presented together, having one of the pictures be arousing did not affect item and location memory for the other picture. In contrast, an arousing picture impaired memory for a background pattern. These findings suggest that arousal impairs memory for information that is the target of perceptual suppression, such as background information when there is a figure-ground distinction, but does not impair memory for other foreground information. PMID:19827704

  1. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  2. Analyzing the trade-off between multiple memory controllers and memory channels on multi-core processor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Sancho Pitarch, Jose Carlos; Kerbyson, Darren; Lang, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the core-count on current and future processors is posing critical challenges to the memory subsystem to efficiently handle concurrent memory requests. The current trend to cope with this challenge is to increase the number of memory channels available to the processor's memory controller. In this paper we investigate the effectiveness of this approach on the performance of parallel scientific applications. Specifically, we explore the trade-off between employing multiple memory channels per memory controller and the use of multiple memory controllers. Experiments conducted on two current state-of-the-art multicore processors, a 6-core AMD Istanbul and a 4-core Intel Nehalem-EP, for a wide range of production applications shows that there is a diminishing return when increasing the number of memory channels per memory controller. In addition, we show that this performance degradation can be efficiently addressed by increasing the ratio of memory controllers to channels while keeping the number of memory channels constant. Significant performance improvements can be achieved in this scheme, up to 28%, in the case of using two memory controllers with each with one channel compared with one controller with two memory channels.

  3. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  4. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  5. The cellular memory disc of reprogrammed cells.

    PubMed

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2013-04-01

    The crucial facts underlying the low efficiency of cellular reprogramming are poorly understood. Cellular reprogramming occurs in nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation, cell fusion, and lineage-switching experiments. Despite these advances, there are three fundamental problems to be addressed: (1) the majority of cells cannot be reprogrammed, (2) the efficiency of reprogramming cells is usually low, and (3) the reprogrammed cells developed from a patient's own cells activate immune responses. These shortcomings present major obstacles for using reprogramming approaches in customised cell therapy. In this Perspective, the author synthesises past and present observations in the field of cellular reprogramming to propose a theoretical picture of the cellular memory disc. The current hypothesis is that all cells undergo an endogenous and exogenous holographic memorisation such that parts of the cellular memory dramatically decrease the efficiency of reprogramming cells, act like a barrier against reprogramming in the majority of cells, and activate immune responses. Accordingly, the focus of this review is mainly to describe the cellular memory disc (CMD). Based on the present theory, cellular memory includes three parts: a reprogramming-resistance memory (RRM), a switch-promoting memory (SPM) and a culture-induced memory (CIM). The cellular memory arises genetically, epigenetically and non-genetically and affects cellular behaviours. [corrected].

  6. Order-memory and association-memory.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Two highly studied memory functions are memory for associations (items presented in pairs, such as SALT-PEPPER) and memory for order (a list of items whose order matters, such as a telephone number). Order- and association-memory are at the root of many forms of behaviour, from wayfinding, to language, to remembering people's names. Most researchers have investigated memory for order separately from memory for associations. Exceptions to this, associative-chaining models build an ordered list from associations between pairs of items, quite literally understanding association- and order-memory together. Alternatively, positional-coding models have been used to explain order-memory as a completely distinct function from association-memory. Both classes of model have found empirical support and both have faced serious challenges. I argue that models that combine both associative chaining and positional coding are needed. One such hybrid model, which relies on brain-activity rhythms, is promising, but remains to be tested rigourously. I consider two relatively understudied memory behaviours that demand a combination of order- and association-information: memory for the order of items within associations (is it William James or James William?) and judgments of relative order (who left the party earlier, Hermann or William?). Findings from these underexplored procedures are already difficult to reconcile with existing association-memory and order-memory models. Further work with such intermediate experimental paradigms has the potential to provide powerful findings to constrain and guide models into the future, with the aim of explaining a large range of memory functions, encompassing both association- and order-memory.

  7. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOEpatents

    Satterfield, David L; Sexton, James C

    2013-10-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  8. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOEpatents

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  9. Emotional memory persists longer than event memory.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition performance for event memory differs from that for emotional memory. Although event recognition deteriorated equally for episodes that were or were not emotionally salient, emotional recognition remained high for only stimuli related to emotional episodes. Recognition performance pertaining to delayed emotional memory is an accurate predictor of the context of past episodes.

  10. Encoding of Fear Memory in High and Low Fear Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-18

    Fear Memory in High and Low Fear Mice” Period of Award 01AUG2011-31JUL2013 Applicant Organization Henry M. Jackson Foundation Address of...1. REPORT DATE 18 NOV 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 01 AUG 2011 - 31 JUL 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Encoding of Fear Memory ...neurobiological illness and improve quality of life for nurses and patients. 15. SUBJECT TERMS fear memory , PTSD, high fear, neurobiological illness, fit

  11. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved.

  12. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  13. Heterogeneity of nervous system mitochondria: location, location, location!

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Janet M

    2009-08-01

    Mitochondrial impairments have been associated with many neurological disorders, from inborn errors of metabolism or genetic disorders to age and environmentally linked diseases of aging (DiMauro S., Schon E.A. 2008. Mitochondrial disorders in the nervous system. Annu. Rev., Neurosci. 31, 91-123.). In these disorders, specific nervous system components or brain regions appear to be initially more susceptible to the triggering event or pathological process. Such regional variation in susceptibility to multiple types of stressors raises the possibility that inherent differences in mitochondrial function may mediate some aspect of pathogenesis. Regional differences in the distribution or number of mitochondria, mitochondrial enzyme activities, enzyme expression levels, mitochondrial genes or availability of necessary metabolites become attractive explanations for selective vulnerability of a nervous system structure. While regionally selective mitochondrial vulnerability has been documented, regional variations in other cellular and tissue characteristics may also contribute to metabolic impairment. Such environmental variables include high tonic firing rates, neurotransmitter phenotype, location of mitochondria within a neuron, or the varied tissue perfusion pressure of different cerebral arterial branches. These contextual variables exert regionally distinct regulatory influences on mitochondria to tune their energy production to local demands. Thus to understand variations in mitochondrial functioning and consequent selective vulnerability to injury, the organelle must be placed within the context of its cellular, functional, developmental and neuroanatomical environment.

  14. CARAVAN: Providing Location Privacy for VANET

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    vehicles. However, many challenges including the security and privacy issues remain to be addressed [ 4 ], [5], [6]. The unique requirements of maintaining...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE CARAVAN: Providing Location Privacy for VANET 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...pseudonym update, it is still possible to link the new and old pseudonyms of a node using temporal and spatial relation between the new and old locations of

  15. Sleep Deprivation affects Extinction but Not Acquisition Memory in Honeybees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussaini, Syed Abid; Bogusch, Lisa; Landgraf, Tim; Menzel, Randolf

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-like behavior has been studied in honeybees before, but the relationship between sleep and memory formation has not been explored. Here we describe a new approach to address the question if sleep in bees, like in other animals, improves memory consolidation. Restrained bees were observed by a web camera, and their antennal activities were…

  16. Temporal Codes for Memories: Issues and Problems. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Benton J.

    Little is known about the accuracy of temporal codes for memories, and still less about the nature of the codes. This report addresses the central question of the mechanisms by which order information is attached to memories. The results of 16 experiments indicate the role of some independent variables on temporal coding in relatively short-term…

  17. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory and Traumatic Events: An Evaluative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sally A.; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2007-01-01

    Does trauma exposure impair retrieval of autobiographical memories? Many theorists have suggested that the reduced ability to access specific memories of life events, termed overgenerality, is a protective mechanism helping attenuate painful emotions associated with trauma. The authors addressed this question by reviewing 24 studies that assessed…

  18. Money Enhances Memory Consolidation--But Only for Boring Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Money's ability to enhance memory has received increased attention in recent research. However, previous studies have not directly addressed the time-dependent nature of monetary effects on memory, which are suggested to exist by research in cognitive neuroscience, and the possible detrimental effects of monetary rewards on learning interesting…

  19. Orbito-Frontal Cortex Is Necessary for Temporal Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Audrey; Henson, Richard N.; Knight, Robert T.; Emery, Tina; Graham, Kim S.

    2010-01-01

    Lesion and neuroimaging studies suggest that orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) supports temporal aspects of episodic memory. However, it is unclear whether OFC contributes to the encoding and/or retrieval of temporal context and whether it is selective for temporal relative to nontemporal (spatial) context memory. We addressed this issue with two…

  20. Medial Temporal Lobe Memory in Childhood: Developmental Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Elise L.; Richmond, Jenny L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Thomas, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) support declarative memory and mature structurally and functionally during the postnatal years in humans. Although recent work has addressed the development of declarative memory in early childhood, less is known about continued development beyond this period of time. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  1. Radiation and Reliability Concerns for Modern Nonvolatile Memory Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Friendlich, Mark R.; Kim, Hak S.; Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Buchner, S. P.; McMorrow, D.; Mavis, D. G.; Eaton, P. H.; Castillo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial nonvolatile memory technology is attractive for space applications, but radiation issues are serious concerns. In addition, we discuss combined radiation/reliability concerns which are only beginning to be addressed.

  2. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  3. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  4. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  5. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  6. Reversible micromachining locator

    SciTech Connect

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    2002-01-01

    A locator with a part support is used to hold a part onto the kinematic mount of a tooling machine so that the part can be held in or replaced in exactly the same position relative to the cutting tool for machining different surfaces of the part or for performing different machining operations on the same or different surfaces of the part. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls placed at equidistant positions around the planar surface of the locator and the kinematic mount has a plurality of magnets which alternate with grooves which accommodate the portions of the steel balls projecting from the locator. The part support holds the part to be machined securely in place in the locator. The locator can be easily detached from the kinematic mount, turned over, and replaced onto the same kinematic mount or another kinematic mount on another tooling machine without removing the part to be machined from the locator so that there is no need to touch or reposition the part within the locator, thereby assuring exact replication of the position of the part in relation to the cutting tool on the tooling machine for each machining operation on the part.

  7. A 128K-bit CCD buffer memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemens, K. H.; Wallace, R. W.; Robinson, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype system was implemented to demonstrate that CCD's can be applied advantageously to the problem of low power digital storage and particularly to the problem of interfacing widely varying data rates. 8K-bit CCD shift register memories were used to construct a feasibility model 128K-bit buffer memory system. Peak power dissipation during a data transfer is less than 7 W., while idle power is approximately 5.4 W. The system features automatic data input synchronization with the recirculating CCD memory block start address. Descriptions are provided of both the buffer memory system and a custom tester that was used to exercise the memory. The testing procedures and testing results are discussed. Suggestions are provided for further development with regards to the utilization of advanced versions of CCD memory devices to both simplified and expanded memory system applications.

  8. The past, the future and the biology of memory storage.

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, E R; Pittenger, C

    1999-01-01

    We here briefly review a century of accomplishments in studying memory storage and delineate the two major questions that have dominated thinking in this area: the systems question of memory, which concerns where in the brain storage occurs; and the molecular question of memory, which concerns the mechanisms whereby memories are stored and maintained. We go on to consider the themes that memory research may be able to address in the 21st century. Finally, we reflect on the clinical and societal import of our increasing understanding of the mechanisms of memory, discussing possible therapeutic approaches to diseases that manifest with disruptions of learning and possible ethical implication of the ability, which is on the horizon, to ameliorate or even enhance human memory. PMID:10670023

  9. Automatic vehicle location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

  10. What kind of memory has evolution wrought? Introductory article for the special issue of memory: adaptive memory: the emergence and nature of proximate mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    It is without question that our memory system evolved through a process of natural selection. However, basic research into the evolutionary foundations of memory has begun in earnest only recently. This is quite peculiar as the majority, perhaps even all, of memory research relates to whether memory is adaptive or not. In this Special Issue of Memory we have assembled a variety of papers that represent the cutting edge in research on the evolution of memory. These papers are centred on issues about the ultimate and proximate explanations of memory, the development of the adaptive functions of memory, as well as the positive consequences that arise from the current evolutionary form that our memory has taken. In this introductory article we briefly outline these different areas and indicate why they are vital for a more complete theory of memory. Further we argue that, by adopting a more applied stance in the area of the evolution of memory, one of the many future directions in this field could be a new branch of psychology that addresses questions in evolutionary legal psychology.

  11. Event Memory: A Theory of Memory for Laboratory, Autobiographical, and Fictional Events

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, David C.; Umanath, Sharda

    2015-01-01

    An event memory is a mental construction of a scene recalled as a single occurrence. It therefore requires the hippocampus and ventral visual stream needed for all scene construction. The construction need not come with a sense of reliving or be made by a participant in the event, and it can be a summary of occurrences from more than one encoding. The mental construction, or physical rendering, of any scene must be done from a specific location and time; this introduces a ‘self’ located in space and time, which is a necessary, but need not be a sufficient, condition for a sense of reliving. We base our theory on scene construction rather than reliving because this allows the integration of many literatures and because there is more accumulated knowledge about scene construction’s phenomenology, behavior, and neural basis. Event memory differs from episodic memory in that it does not conflate the independent dimensions of whether or not a memory is relived, is about the self, is recalled voluntarily, or is based on a single encoding with whether it is recalled as a single occurrence of a scene. Thus, we argue that event memory provides a clearer contrast to semantic memory, which also can be about the self, be recalled voluntarily, and be from a unique encoding; allows for a more comprehensive dimensional account of the structure of explicit memory; and better accounts for laboratory and real world behavioral and neural results, including those from neuropsychology and neuroimaging, than does episodic memory. PMID:25330330

  12. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  13. The Double-H Maze: A Robust Behavioral Test for Learning and Memory in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Kirch, Robert D; Pinnell, Richard C; Hofmann, Ulrich G; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2015-07-08

    Spatial cognition research in rodents typically employs the use of maze tasks, whose attributes vary from one maze to the next. These tasks vary by their behavioral flexibility and required memory duration, the number of goals and pathways, and also the overall task complexity. A confounding feature in many of these tasks is the lack of control over the strategy employed by the rodents to reach the goal, e.g., allocentric (declarative-like) or egocentric (procedural) based strategies. The double-H maze is a novel water-escape memory task that addresses this issue, by allowing the experimenter to direct the type of strategy learned during the training period. The double-H maze is a transparent device, which consists of a central alleyway with three arms protruding on both sides, along with an escape platform submerged at the extremity of one of these arms. Rats can be trained using an allocentric strategy by alternating the start position in the maze in an unpredictable manner (see protocol 1; §4.7), thus requiring them to learn the location of the platform based on the available allothetic cues. Alternatively, an egocentric learning strategy (protocol 2; §4.8) can be employed by releasing the rats from the same position during each trial, until they learn the procedural pattern required to reach the goal. This task has been proven to allow for the formation of stable memory traces. Memory can be probed following the training period in a misleading probe trial, in which the starting position for the rats alternates. Following an egocentric learning paradigm, rats typically resort to an allocentric-based strategy, but only when their initial view on the extra-maze cues differs markedly from their original position. This task is ideally suited to explore the effects of drugs/perturbations on allocentric/egocentric memory performance, as well as the interactions between these two memory systems.

  14. Memory Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

  15. Sensors Locate Radio Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    After receiving a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, Soneticom Inc., based in West Melbourne, Florida, created algorithms for time difference of arrival and radio interferometry, which it used in its Lynx Location System (LLS) to locate electromagnetic interference that can disrupt radio communications. Soneticom is collaborating with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to install and test the LLS at its field test center in New Jersey in preparation for deploying the LLS at commercial airports. The software collects data from each sensor in order to compute the location of the interfering emitter.

  16. Malware Memory Analysis for Non-specialists: Investigating Publicly Available Memory Image 0zapftis (R2D2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    file. This suspicious DLL has been found in memory at address 0x015b8128 and it may have been used to carry out DLL injection . Unfortunately...clues concerning the infection. It is now known that a covert communication channel was in use by some process/thread hidden/ injected under/into...the plugin Volatility’s malfind plugin was specifically designed to search for malware hidden through code injection . If memory address offsets are

  17. Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future: A Neural Model of Spatial Memory and Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Patrick; Becker, Suzanna; Burgess, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The authors model the neural mechanisms underlying spatial cognition, integrating neuronal systems and behavioral data, and address the relationships between long-term memory, short-term memory, and imagery, and between egocentric and allocentric and visual and ideothetic representations. Long-term spatial memory is modeled as attractor dynamics…

  18. Effects of Emotional Arousal on Multiple Memory Systems: Evidence from Declarative and Procedural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Adam K.; Steidl, Stephan; Mohi-uddin, Salwa

    2006-01-01

    Extensive evidence documents emotional modulation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory in humans. However, little is known about the emotional modulation of striatum-dependent procedural memory. To address how emotional arousal influences declarative and procedural memory, the current study utilized (1) a picture recognition and (2) a…

  19. On Auditing Auditory Information: The Influence of Mood on Memory for Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, David; Haddock, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that memory for music possesses a number of similarities to the more frequently studied modalities of verbal and visual memory. The present study addresses a yet uninvestigated factor involved in the memory for music: mood. Specifically, the study explored whether a mood-congruency effect is attained using major and…

  20. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  1. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  2. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  3. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  4. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Simultaneous Time, Wavelength and Intensity Measurement of Optical Memory Subsystems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    SIMULTANEOUS TIME, WAVELENGTH AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENT PE - 61102F OF OPTICAL MEMORY SUBSYSTEMS PR - 2300 6. AUTHOR( S ) TA - 06 WU -03 Joseph Osman and...Rebecca Bussjager 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AFRL/SNDP25 letnic AFRL-SN-RS-TR- 1998...12025 Electronic Pky Rome, NY 13441-4515 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER

  6. Using memory in the Cedar system

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, R.E.; Emrath, P.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the virtual memory system for the Cedar multiprocessor under construction at the University of Illinois is discussed. The Cedar architecture features a hierarchy of memory, some shared by all processors, and some shared by subsets of processors. The Xylem operating system is based on Alliant Computer Systems CONCENTRIX(TM) operating system, which is based on 4.2BSD UNIX(TM). Xylem supports multi-tasking and demand paging of parts of the memory hierarchy into a linear virtual address space. Memory may be private to a task or shared between all the tasks. The locality and attributes of a page may be modified during the execution of a program. Examples of how these mechanisms can be used are discussed. 14 figs.

  7. Projected phase-change memory devices

    PubMed Central

    Koelmans, Wabe W.; Sebastian, Abu; Jonnalagadda, Vara Prasad; Krebs, Daniel; Dellmann, Laurent; Eleftheriou, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale memory devices, whose resistance depends on the history of the electric signals applied, could become critical building blocks in new computing paradigms, such as brain-inspired computing and memcomputing. However, there are key challenges to overcome, such as the high programming power required, noise and resistance drift. Here, to address these, we present the concept of a projected memory device, whose distinguishing feature is that the physical mechanism of resistance storage is decoupled from the information-retrieval process. We designed and fabricated projected memory devices based on the phase-change storage mechanism and convincingly demonstrate the concept through detailed experimentation, supported by extensive modelling and finite-element simulations. The projected memory devices exhibit remarkably low drift and excellent noise performance. We also demonstrate active control and customization of the programming characteristics of the device that reliably realize a multitude of resistance states. PMID:26333363

  8. Electronic apex locators.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M P J; Chandler, N P

    2004-07-01

    Prior to root canal treatment at least one undistorted radiograph is required to assess canal morphology. The apical extent of instrumentation and the final root filling have a role in treatment success, and are primarily determined radiographically. Electronic apex locators reduce the number of radiographs required and assist where radiographic methods create difficulty. They may also indicate cases where the apical foramen is some distance from the radiographic apex. Other roles include the detection of root canal perforation. A review of the literature focussed first on the subject of electronic apex location. A second review used the names of apex location devices. From the combined searches, 113 pertinent articles in English were found. This paper reviews the development, action, use and types of electronic apex locators.

  9. Smart Location Mapping

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  10. Uranium Location Database Compilation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has compiled mine location information from federal, state, and Tribal agencies into a single database as part of its investigation into the potential environmental hazards of wastes from abandoned uranium mines in the western United States.

  11. Serial nonvolatile 1024 bit MNOS memory

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, W. H.; Sokel, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics and operation of a nonvolatile MNOS sequential memory designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories for DOD are described. First, a general description and block diagram are presented, followed by the power, voltage, clock and address requirements, and then operating descriptions for the control and data signals. 1 figure, 1 table.

  12. Optoelectronic Terminal-Attractor-Based Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Barhen, Jacob; Farhat, Nabil H.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents theoretical and experimental study of optically and electronically addressable optical implementation of artificial neural network that performs associative recall. Shows by computer simulation that terminal-attractor-based associative memory can have perfect convergence in associative retrieval and increased storage capacity. Spurious states reduced by exploiting terminal attractors.

  13. Transitional behavior of quantum Gaussian memory channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.

    2010-05-01

    We address the question of optimality of entangled input states in quantum Gaussian memory channels. For a class of such channels, which can be traced back to the memoryless setting, we state a criterion which relates the optimality of entangled inputs to the symmetry properties of the channels’ action. Several examples of channel models belonging to this class are discussed.

  14. Lunar Impact Flash Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    A bright impact flash detected by the NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring Program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. A process for locating the impact flash, and presumably its associated crater, was developed using commercially available software tools. The process was successfully applied to the March 2013 impact flash and put into production on an additional 300 impact flashes. The goal today: provide a description of the geolocation technique developed.

  15. Single-Item and Associative Working Memory in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Hendriks, Marc P. H.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined working memory performance of stroke patients. A previous study assessing amnesia patients found deficits on an associative working memory task, although standard neuropsychological working memory tests did not detect any deficits. We now examine whether this may be the case for stoke patients as well. The current task contained three conditions: one spatial condition, one object condition and one binding condition in which both object and location had to be remembered. In addition, subsequent long-term memory was assessed. The results indicate that our sample of stroke patients shows a working memory deficit, but only on the single-feature conditions. The binding condition was more difficult than both single-feature conditions, but patients performed equally well as compared to matched healthy controls. No deficits were found on the subsequent long-term memory task. These results suggest that associative working memory may be mediated by structures of the medial temporal lobe. PMID:22713422

  16. Reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Forcato, Cecilia; Burgos, Valeria L.; Argibay, Pablo F.; Molina, Victor A.; Pedreira, María E.; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-01-01

    The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but not the human declarative one. Here we provide evidence for both consolidation and reconsolidation in a paired-associate learning (i.e., learning an association between a cue syllable and the respective response syllable). Subjects were given two training sessions with a 24-h interval on distinct verbal material, and afterward, they received at testing two successive retrievals corresponding to the first and second learning, respectively. Two main results are noted. First, the first acquired memory was impaired when a reminder was presented 5 min before the second training (reconsolidation), and also when the second training was given 5 min instead of 24 h after the first one (consolidation). Second, the first retrieval proved to influence negatively on the later one (the retrieval-induced forgetting [RIF] effect), and we used the absence of this RIF effect as a very indicator of the target memory impairment. We consider the demonstration of reconsolidation in human declarative memory as backing the universality of this phenomenon and having potential clinical relevance. On the other hand, we discuss the possibility of using the human declarative memory as a model to address several key topics of the reconsolidation hypothesis. PMID:17522018

  17. Serotonin and emotion, learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo; Liy-Salmeron, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamien, 5-HT) has been linked to emotional and motivational aspects of human behavior, including anxiety, depression, impulsivity, etc. Several clinically effective drugs exert effects via 5-HT systems. Growing evidence suggests that those effects play an important role in learning and memory. Whether the role of serotonin is related to memory and/or behavioral or emotional aspects remains an important question. A key question that remains is whether 5-HT markers (e.g., receptors) directly or indirectly participate and/or contribute to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis. The major aim of this paper is to re-examine some recent advances regarding mammalian 5-HT receptors and transporter in light of their physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for memory. We particularly address evidence involving 5-HT systems in behavioral, pharmacological, molecular, genetic and imaging results and memory. Finally, this paper aims to summarize a portion of the evidence about serotonin, memory and emotion from animal and human studies and provide an overview of potential tools, markers and cellular and molecular candidate mechanisms. It should be noted that there are several subjects that this paper only briefly touches upon, presenting only what may be the most salient findings in the context of memory, emotion and serotonin.

  18. 46 CFR 170.265 - Class 3 doors; required locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 3 doors; required locations. 170.265 Section 170... STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Watertight Bulkhead Doors § 170.265 Class 3 doors; required locations. The following doors must always be Class 3: (a) Doors in all locations not addressed in §§...

  19. 46 CFR 170.265 - Class 3 doors; required locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 3 doors; required locations. 170.265 Section 170... STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Watertight Bulkhead Doors § 170.265 Class 3 doors; required locations. The following doors must always be Class 3: (a) Doors in all locations not addressed in §§...

  20. Memory beyond expression.

    PubMed

    Delorenzi, A; Maza, F J; Suárez, L D; Barreiro, K; Molina, V A; Stehberg, J

    2014-01-01

    The idea that memories are not invariable after the consolidation process has led to new perspectives about several mnemonic processes. In this framework, we review our studies on the modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation. We propose that during both memory consolidation and reconsolidation, neuromodulators can determine the probability of the memory trace to guide behavior, i.e. they can either increase or decrease its behavioral expressibility without affecting the potential of persistent memories to be activated and become labile. Our hypothesis is based on the findings that positive modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation occurs even if memories are behaviorally unexpressed. This review discusses the original approach taken in the studies of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata, which was then successfully applied to test the hypothesis in rodent fear memory. Data presented offers a new way of thinking about both weak trainings and experimental amnesia: memory retrieval can be dissociated from memory expression. Furthermore, the strategy presented here allowed us to show in human declarative memory that the periods in which long-term memory can be activated and become labile during reconsolidation exceeds the periods in which that memory is expressed, providing direct evidence that conscious access to memory is not needed for reconsolidation. Specific controls based on the constraints of reminders to trigger reconsolidation allow us to distinguish between obliterated and unexpressed but activated long-term memories after amnesic treatments, weak trainings and forgetting. In the hypothesis discussed, memory expressibility--the outcome of experience-dependent changes in the potential to behave--is considered as a flexible and modulable attribute of long-term memories. Expression seems to be just one of the possible fates of re-activated memories.

  1. Both a Nicotinic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and a Noradrenergic SNP Modulate Working Memory Performance when Attention Is Manipulated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Pamela M.; Sundararajan, Ramya; Lin, Ming-Kuan; Kumar, Reshma; Fryxell, Karl J.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relation between the two systems of visuospatial attention and working memory by examining the effect of normal variation in cholinergic and noradrenergic genes on working memory performance under attentional manipulation. We previously reported that working memory for location was impaired following large location precues,…

  2. School-Based Health Centers and Childhood Obesity: "An Ideal Location to Address a Complex Issue"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…

  3. Benzodiazepines and memory

    PubMed Central

    Roth, T.; Roehrs, T.; Wittig, R.; Zorick, F.

    1984-01-01

    1 Benzodiazepines possess anterograde amnesic properties, disrupting both short-term and long-term memory function. 2 The amount of amnesia is systematically related to dose effects and half-life differences among the benzodiazepines. 3 Memory deficits are found for episodic, semantic, and iconic memory function. 4 The deficits in long-term memory are probably the result of a disruption of consolidation of information in memory and not retrieval from memory. The disruption is produced by rapid sleep onset. 5 Thus the long-term amnesia is really a retrograde effect of sleep and not the anterograde effect of the drug. PMID:6151849

  4. Problems of neural memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaelian, Andrei L.

    2005-01-01

    The paper considers the neural memory of the human brain from the viewpoint of visual information processing. A model that explains the principle of data recording and storing, memory relaxation, associative remembering and other memory functions is offered. The model of associative memory is based on the methods of holography, "wave biochemistry" and autowaves. Brief consideration is given to the associative properties of holographic neural structures and the memory architecture using running chemical reactions. The paper also outlines the problem of developing artificial memory elements for restoring the brain functions and possible interface devices for coupling neurons to electronic systems.

  5. Reconstructions of information in visual spatial working memory degrade with memory load

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Thomas C; Ester, Edward F; Serences, John T

    2014-01-01

    Summary Working memory (WM) enables the maintenance and manipulation of information relevant to behavioral goals. Variability in WM ability is strongly correlated with IQ [1] and WM function is impaired in many neurological and psychiatric disorders [2, 3], suggesting that this system is a core component of higher cognition. WM storage is thought to be mediated by patterns of activity in neural populations selective for specific properties (e.g., color, orientation, location, motion direction) of memoranda [4–13]. Accordingly, many models propose that differences in the amplitude of these population responses should be related to differences in memory performance [14, 15]. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and an image reconstruction technique based on a spatial encoding model [16] to visualize and quantify population-level memory representations supported by multivoxel patterns of activation within regions of occipital, parietal and frontal cortex while participants precisely remembered the location(s) of 0, 1, or 2 small stimuli. We successfully reconstructed images containing representations of the remembered – but not forgotten – locations within regions of occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex using delay-period activation patterns. Critically, the amplitude of representations of remembered locations and behavioral performance both decreased with increasing memory load. These results suggest that differences in visual WM performance between memory load conditions are mediated by changes in the fidelity of large-scale population response profiles distributed across multiple areas of human cortex. PMID:25201683

  6. Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2001: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh; Daud, Taher; Strauss, Karl

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings for the Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2001 that was held on November 7-8, 2001 in San Diego, CA. The proceedings contains a a wide range of papers that cover current and new memory technologies including Flash memories, Magnetic Random Access Memories (MRAM and GMRAM), Ferro-electric RAM (FeRAM), and Chalcogenide RAM (CRAM). The papers presented in the proceedings address the use of these technologies for space applications as well as radiation effects and packaging issues.

  7. Memory for complex emotional material in dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Barlow, M Rose

    2011-01-01

    Eleven women with dissociative identity disorder (DID) participated in an experiment that included a variety of memory measures. DID participants were faster than a group of 13 female students at producing autobiographical memories in response to cue words. DID participants had difficulty answering detailed questions about a story containing fear compared with a neutral story; the student group did not. The DID group reported experiencing significantly more childhood trauma than did the student group. Effect sizes were moderate to high. This preliminary study uses a broad conceptualization of memory functioning, combining ecologically valid testing with experimental paradigms and addressing the impact of emotion on memory in trauma survivors.

  8. Urban-rural differences in children's earliest memories.

    PubMed

    Göz, İlyas; Çeven, Z İrem; Tekcan, Ali I

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to address the effects of urban vs. rural upbringing on earliest autobiographical memories. We asked children (aged 10-13) brought up in an urban vs. in a rural setting to report their earliest memories. Earliest memories of children from rural areas were a year later than those of children from urban areas. Moreover, memories of children from rural areas were more likely to contain social interactions and tended to be less detailed compared to those from urban areas. The groups, however, were not different in specificity, autonomous orientation, or emotion. Results are discussed in the context of a social cultural developmental approach.

  9. Sex Differences for Selective Forms of Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Albert; Jager, Gerry; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Koppeschaar, Hans P. F.; van Honk, Jack

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, a systematic comparison of sex differences for several tests of spatial memory was conducted. Clear evidence for more accurate male performance was obtained for precise metric positional information in a wayfinding task and in an object location memory task. In contrast, no sex difference characterized topological information…

  10. Multiple Systems of Spatial Memory: Evidence from Described Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamides, Marios N.; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent models in spatial cognition posit that distinct memory systems are responsible for maintaining transient and enduring spatial relations. The authors used perspective-taking performance to assess the presence of these enduring and transient spatial memories for locations encoded through verbal descriptions. Across 3 experiments, spatial…

  11. Layout Geometry in Encoding and Retrieval of Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mou, Weimin; Liu, Xianyun; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the spatial reference directions that are used to specify objects' locations in memory can be solely determined by layout geometry. Participants studied a layout of objects from a single viewpoint while their eye movements were recorded. Subsequently, participants used memory to make judgments of relative…

  12. Modeling Age-Related Differences in Immediate Memory Using SIMPLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surprenant, Aimee M.; Neath, Ian; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the SIMPLE model (Scale Invariant Memory and Perceptual Learning), performance on memory tasks is determined by the locations of items in multidimensional space, and better performance is associated with having fewer close neighbors. Unlike most previous simulations with SIMPLE, the ones reported here used measured, rather than assumed,…

  13. Briefly Cuing Memories Leads to Suppression of Their Neural Representations

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have linked partial memory activation with impaired subsequent memory retrieval (e.g., Detre et al., 2013) but have not provided an account of this phenomenon at the level of memory representations: How does partial activation change the neural pattern subsequently elicited when the memory is cued? To address this question, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which participants studied word-scene paired associates. Later, we weakly reactivated some memories by briefly presenting the cue word during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task; other memories were more strongly reactivated or not reactivated at all. We tested participants' memory for the paired associates before and after RSVP. Cues that were briefly presented during RSVP triggered reduced levels of scene activity on the post-RSVP memory test, relative to the other conditions. We used pattern similarity analysis to assess how representations changed as a function of the RSVP manipulation. For briefly cued pairs, we found that neural patterns elicited by the same cue on the pre- and post-RSVP tests (preA–postA; preB–postB) were less similar than neural patterns elicited by different cues (preA–postB; preB–postA). These similarity reductions were predicted by neural measures of memory activation during RSVP. Through simulation, we show that our pattern similarity results are consistent with a model in which partial memory activation triggers selective weakening of the strongest parts of the memory. PMID:24899722

  14. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  15. Optical Bidirectional Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosko, Bart; Guest, Clark

    1987-06-01

    Four optical implementations of bidirectional associative memories (BAMs) are presented. BAMs are heteroassociative content addressable memories (CAMs). A BAM stores the m binary associations (A1, B1), ..., (Am, Bm) , where A is a point in the Boolean n-cube and B is a point in the Boolean p-cube. A is a neural network of n bivalent or continuous neurons ai; B is a network of p bivalent or continuous neurons bi. The fixed synaptic connections between the A and B networks are represented by some n-by-p real matrix M. Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, in neural nets produces two-way associative search for the nearest stored pair (Ai, Bi) to an input key. Every matrix is a bidirectionally stable hetero-associative CAM for boh bivalent and continuous networks. This generalizes the well-known unidirectional stability for autoassociative networks with square symmetric M. When the BAM neurons are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of two-pattern reverberation, or pseudo-adaptive resonance. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. Heteroassociative pairs (Ai, Bi) are encoded in a BAM M by summing bipolar correlation matrices, M = X1T Y1 + ... + XmT Ym , where Xi (Yi) is the bipolar version of Ai (Bi), with -1s replacing Os. the BAM storage capacity for reliable recall is roughly m < min(n, p)--pattern number is bounded by pattern dimensionality. BAM optical implementations are divided into two approaches: matrix vector multipliers and holographic correlators. The four optical BAMs described respectively emphasize a spatial light modulator, laser diodes and high-speed detectors, a reflection hologram, and a transmission hologram.

  16. Modulation of working memory updating: Does long-term memory lexical association matter?

    PubMed

    Artuso, Caterina; Palladino, Paola

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how working memory updating for verbal material is modulated by enduring properties of long-term memory. Two coexisting perspectives that account for the relation between long-term representation and short-term performance were addressed. First, evidence suggests that performance is more closely linked to lexical properties, that is, co-occurrences within the language. Conversely, other evidence suggests that performance is linked more to long-term representations which do not entail lexical/linguistic representations. Our aim was to investigate how these two kinds of long-term memory associations (i.e., lexical or nonlexical) modulate ongoing working memory activity. Therefore, we manipulated (between participants) the strength of the association in letters based on either frequency of co-occurrences (lexical) or contiguity along the sequence of the alphabet (nonlexical). Results showed a cost in working memory updating for strongly lexically associated stimuli only. Our findings advance knowledge of how lexical long-term memory associations between consonants affect working memory updating and, in turn, contribute to the study of factors which impact the updating process across memory systems.

  17. Positron Scanner for Locating Brain Tumors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rankowitz, S.; Robertson, J. S.; Higinbotham, W. A.; Rosenblum, M. J.

    1962-03-01

    A system is described that makes use of positron emitting isotopes for locating brain tumors. This system inherently provides more information about the distribution of radioactivity in the head in less time than existing scanners which use one or two detectors. A stationary circular array of 32 scintillation detectors scans a horizontal layer of the head from many directions simultaneously. The data, consisting of the number of counts in all possible coincidence pairs, are coded and stored in the memory of a Two-Dimensional Pulse-Height Analyzer. A unique method of displaying and interpreting the data is described that enables rapid approximate analysis of complex source distribution patterns. (auth)

  18. RFI emitter location techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using Doppler techniques for determining the location of ground based emitters causing radio frequency interference with low orbiting satellites. An error analysis indicates that it is possible to find the emitter location within an error range of 2 n.mi. The parameters which determine the required satellite receiver characteristic are discussed briefly along with the non-real time signal processing which may by used in obtaining the Doppler curve. Finally, the required characteristics of the satellite antenna are analyzed.

  19. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  20. Searching for repressed memory.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the work of my research group on adults who report either repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or who report no history of CSA. Adapting paradigms from cognitive psychology, we tested hypotheses inspired by both the "repressed memory" and "false memory" perspectives on recovered memories of CSA. We found some evidence for the false memory perspective, but no evidence for the repressed memory perspective. However, our work also suggests a third perspective on recovered memories that does not require the concept of repression. Some children do not understand their CSA when it occurs, and do not experience terror. Years later, they recall the experience, and understanding it as abuse, suffer intense distress. The memory failed to come to mind for years, partly because the child did not encode it as terrifying (i.e., traumatic), not because the person was unable to recall it.

  1. Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Karan K.; Bruzewicz, Colin D.; McConnell, Robert; Ram, Rajeev J.; Sage, Jeremy M.; Chiaverini, John

    2016-12-01

    The long coherence times and strong Coulomb interactions afforded by trapped ion qubits have enabled realizations of the necessary primitives for quantum information processing and the highest-fidelity quantum operations in any qubit to date. Although light delivery to each individual ion in a system is essential for general quantum manipulations and readout, experiments so far have employed optical systems that are cumbersome to scale to even a few tens of qubits. Here we demonstrate lithographically defined nanophotonic waveguide devices for light routing and ion addressing that are fully integrated within a surface-electrode ion trap chip. Ion qubits are addressed at multiple locations via focusing grating couplers emitting through openings in the trap electrodes to ions trapped 50 μm above the chip; using this light, we perform quantum coherent operations on the optical qubit transition in individual 88Sr+ ions. The grating focuses the beam to a diffraction-limited spot near the ion position with 2 μm 1/e2 radius along the trap axis, and we measure crosstalk errors between 10-2 and 4 × 10-4 at distances 7.5-15 μm from the beam centre. Owing to the scalability of the planar fabrication technique employed, together with the tight focusing and stable alignment afforded by the integration of the optics within the trap chip, this approach presents a path to creating the optical systems required for large-scale trapped-ion quantum information processing.

  2. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  3. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in the National Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in the National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), 14th ND Temp. No. 890. U.S. Navy photograph, circa 1935. CONSTRUCTION OF THE REPAIR BASIN (FACILITIES B12 THROUGH B21) PROCEEDED QUICKLY AS DID THE ERECTION OF THE 200-TON HAMMERHEAD CRANE (BASE VISIBLE ON LEFT). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Facilities, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), PHOG No. P.H. 3309-42. U.S. Navy photograph, 1942. BEGINNING CONSTRUCTION ON THE BOMBPROOF POWER PLANT (FACILITY 177) AT HOSPITAL POINT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bombproof Facilities, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), PHOG No. P.H. 3470-42. U.S. Navy photograph, August 1942. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE HOSPITAL POINT POWER PLANT (FACILITY 177). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bombproof Facilities, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in the National Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in the National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), 14th ND PHOG No. 2984. U.S. Navy photograph, August 1919. VIEW OF COALING STATION FROM RADIO TOWER NO. 1. REMNANTS OF THE COAL STATION WALLS AND PIER (FACILITY O1) REMAIN. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Facilities, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in the National Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in the National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), 14th ND PHOG No. P.H. 4175-42. U.S. Navy photograph, 1942. THE NAVAL SUPPLY DEPOT’S HUGE FUELING PIER (FACILITY H1-H4) HELPED KEEP THE FLEET MOVING DURING WORLD WAR II. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Facilities, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in the National Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in the National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), 14th ND Temp. No. 722. U.S. Navy photograph, early 1930s. BERTHING AT THE SUBMARINE BASE INCLUDED THE FOUR PIERS (NOW GONE) AND SOME OF THE QUAYWALL (FACILITIES S10 TO S12) ALONG MAGAZINE LOCK. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Facilities, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Uranium Location Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata was cooperatively compiled from Federal and State agency data sets and enables the user to conduct geographic and analytical studies on mine impacts on the public and environment.

  10. Optimal Facility-Location.

    PubMed

    Goldman, A J

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Christoph Witzgall, the honoree of this Symposium, can count among his many contributions to applied mathematics and mathematical operations research a body of widely-recognized work on the optimal location of facilities. The present paper offers to non-specialists a sketch of that field and its evolution, with emphasis on areas most closely related to Witzgall's research at NBS/NIST.

  11. Particle impact location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.

    1974-01-01

    Detector includes delay lines connected to each detector surface strip. When several particles strike different strips simultaneously, pulses generated by each strip are time delayed by certain intervals. Delay time for each strip is known. By observing time delay in pulse, it is possible to locate strip that is struck by particle.

  12. LOCATING AREAS OF CONCERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple method to locate changes in vegetation cover, which can be used to identify areas under stress. The method only requires inexpensive NDVI data. The use of remotely sensed data is far more cost-effective than field studies and can be performed more quickly. Local knowledg...

  13. Locating gravitational potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeports, David

    2017-01-01

    Where does gravitational potential energy reside when a ball is in the air? The perfectly correct answer is that it is located in the ball-Earth system. Still, mechanical energy conservation problems are routinely solved by assigning a potential energy to the ball alone. Provided here is a proof that such an assignment introduces only an entirely undetectable error.

  14. Memory and the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2005-01-01

    The Self-Memory System (SMS) is a conceptual framework that emphasizes the interconnectedness of self and memory. Within this framework memory is viewed as the data base of the self. The self is conceived as a complex set of active goals and associated self-images, collectively referred to as the "working self." The relationship between the…

  15. Music, memory and emotion.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  16. VA Health Care Facilities Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... VA » Locations » Find Locations Locations Find Locations The javascript used here is for validation purpose only. Your browser doesn't seem to support javascript or has it disabled. This site is a ...

  17. False memories with age: Neural and cognitive underpinnings.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Aleea L; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-10-01

    As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research.

  18. "HES Presidential Address": Confessions of a Positivist--How Foucault Led Me to a Meta-Narrative about School Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Philo

    2012-01-01

    This address derives from the intellectual contributions of young scholars and doctoral students, in faded memory of the author's life as a doctoral student and young scholar. This address has three purposes: (1) to define school desegregation; (2) to place--albeit briefly--that definition within the larger context of the literature on school…

  19. Auditory Memory Distortion for Spoken Prose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Joanna L.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Ferrandino, Blaise; Brigante, Ryan; Wright, Jamie M.; Rypma, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Observers often remember a scene as containing information that was not presented but that would have likely been located just beyond the observed boundaries of the scene. This effect is called "boundary extension" (BE; e.g., Intraub & Richardson, 1989). Previous studies have observed BE in memory for visual and haptic stimuli, and…

  20. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  1. Processor-Group Aware Runtime Support for Shared-and Global-Address Space Models

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Tipparaju, Vinod; Palmer, Bruce; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2004-12-07

    Exploiting multilevel parallelism using processor groups is becoming increasingly important for programming on high-end systems. This paper describes a group-aware run-time support for shared-/global- address space programming models. The current effort has been undertaken in the context of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) [5], a portable runtime system used as a communication layer for Global Arrays [6], Co-Array Fortran (CAF) [9], GPSHMEM [10], Co-Array Python [11], and also end-user applications. The paper describes the management of shared memory, integration of shared memory communication and RDMA on clusters with SMP nodes, and registration. These are all required for efficient multi- method and multi-protocol communication on modern systems. Focus is placed on techniques for supporting process groups while maximizing communication performance and efficiently managing global memory system-wide.

  2. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    PubMed Central

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  3. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6)

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Antonio J.; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F.; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  4. IPv6 addressing proxy: mapping native addressing from legacy technologies and devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6).

    PubMed

    Jara, Antonio J; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-05-17

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6.

  5. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  6. Underwater hydrophone location survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Jack B.

    1993-01-01

    The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) is a U.S. Navy test range located on Andros Island, Bahamas, and a Division of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, RI. The Headquarters of AUTEC is located at a facility in West Palm Beach, FL. AUTEC's primary mission is to provide the U.S. Navy with a deep-water test and evaluation facility for making underwater acoustic measurements, testing and calibrating sonars, and providing accurate underwater, surface, and in-air tracking data on surface ships, submarines, aircraft, and weapon systems. Many of these programs are in support of Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW), undersea research and development programs, and Fleet assessment and operational readiness trials. Most tests conducted at AUTEC require precise underwater tracking (plus or minus 3 yards) of multiple acoustic signals emitted with the correct waveshape and repetition criteria from either a surface craft or underwater vehicle.

  7. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  8. Main memory unit. [hybrid computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development of a main memory unit (MMU) for the space ultrareliable module computer (SUMC) model HTC is discussed. The design, fabrication, and test of basic memory modules (BMM) which were to be used in the design and construction of the MMU are described. The BMM was designed from state-of-the-art technologies which included large scale integration devices mounted and interconnected on a substrate to form a functional module to be utilized in the MMU development. A SUMC memory system design study is discussed which addressed itself to the BMM design and analysis to be conducted to determine the most efficient organization of the BMM in order to establish such modularity features as: word length expandability without redesign, high reliability, and fault tolerance. One MMU was designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered which will be electrical and mechanically compatible with the hybrid technology computer (HTC) model of the SUMC family of computers. The MMU will contain a storage capacity of 8196 36 bit words which includes a parity bit for each 8 bit byte of data.

  9. A wide bandwidth CCD buffer memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemens, K.; Wallace, R. W.; Robinson, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    A prototype system was implemented to demonstrate that CCD's can be applied advantageously to the problem of low power digital storage and particularly to the problem of interfacing widely varying data rates. CCD shift register memories (8K bit) were used to construct a feasibility model 128 K-bit buffer memory system. Serial data that can have rates between 150 kHz and 4.0 MHz can be stored in 4K-bit, randomly-accessible memory blocks. Peak power dissipation during a data transfer is less than 7 W, while idle power is approximately 5.4 W. The system features automatic data input synchronization with the recirculating CCD memory block start address. System expansion to accommodate parallel inputs or a greater number of memory blocks can be performed in a modular fashion. Since the control logic does not increase proportionally to increase in memory capacity, the power requirements per bit of storage can be reduced significantly in a larger system.

  10. Complementary Skyrmion Racetrack Memory With Voltage Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wang; Zheng, Chentian; Huang, Yangqi; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Lv, Weifeng; Zhao, Weisheng

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic skyrmion holds promise as information carriers in the next-generation memory and logic devices, owing to the topological stability, small size and extremely low current needed to drive it. One of the most potential applications of skyrmion is to design racetrack memory (RM), named Sk-RM, instead of utilizing domain wall (DW). However, current studies face some key design challenges, e.g., skyrmion manipulation, data representation and synchronization etc. To address these challenges, we propose here a complementary Sk-RM structure with voltage manipulation. Functionality and performance of the proposed design are investigated with micromagnetic simulations.

  11. Coso MT Site Locations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2011-05-04

    This data includes the locations of the MT data collected in and around the Coso Geothermal field that covered the West Flank area. These are the data that the 3D MT models were created from that were discussed in Phase 1 of the West Flank FORGE project. The projected coordinate system is NAD 1927 State Plane California IV FIPS 0404 and the Projection is Lambert Conformal Conic. Units are in feet.

  12. Magnetic Location Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Ferrofluidic device indicates point of highest magnetic-flux density in workspace. Consists of bubble of ferrofluid in immiscible liquid carrier in clear plastic case. Used in flat block or tube. Axes of centering circle on flat-block version used to mark location of maximum flux density when bubble in circle. Device used to find point on wall corresponding to known point on opposite side of wall.

  13. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  14. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  15. Working memory and intelligibility of hearing-aid processed speech.

    PubMed

    Souza, Pamela E; Arehart, Kathryn H; Shen, Jing; Anderson, Melinda; Kates, James M

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggested that individuals with low working memory capacity may be at a disadvantage in adverse listening environments, including situations with background noise or substantial modification of the acoustic signal. This study explored the relationship between patient factors (including working memory capacity) and intelligibility and quality of modified speech for older individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. The modification was created using a combination of hearing aid processing [wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC) and frequency compression (FC)] applied to sentences in multitalker babble. The extent of signal modification was quantified via an envelope fidelity index. We also explored the contribution of components of working memory by including measures of processing speed and executive function. We hypothesized that listeners with low working memory capacity would perform more poorly than those with high working memory capacity across all situations, and would also be differentially affected by high amounts of signal modification. Results showed a significant effect of working memory capacity for speech intelligibility, and an interaction between working memory, amount of hearing loss and signal modification. Signal modification was the major predictor of quality ratings. These data add to the literature on hearing-aid processing and working memory by suggesting that the working memory-intelligibility effects may be related to aggregate signal fidelity, rather than to the specific signal manipulation. They also suggest that for individuals with low working memory capacity, sensorineural loss may be most appropriately addressed with WDRC and/or FC parameters that maintain the fidelity of the signal envelope.

  16. Working memory and intelligibility of hearing-aid processed speech

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Pamela E.; Arehart, Kathryn H.; Shen, Jing; Anderson, Melinda; Kates, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggested that individuals with low working memory capacity may be at a disadvantage in adverse listening environments, including situations with background noise or substantial modification of the acoustic signal. This study explored the relationship between patient factors (including working memory capacity) and intelligibility and quality of modified speech for older individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. The modification was created using a combination of hearing aid processing [wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC) and frequency compression (FC)] applied to sentences in multitalker babble. The extent of signal modification was quantified via an envelope fidelity index. We also explored the contribution of components of working memory by including measures of processing speed and executive function. We hypothesized that listeners with low working memory capacity would perform more poorly than those with high working memory capacity across all situations, and would also be differentially affected by high amounts of signal modification. Results showed a significant effect of working memory capacity for speech intelligibility, and an interaction between working memory, amount of hearing loss and signal modification. Signal modification was the major predictor of quality ratings. These data add to the literature on hearing-aid processing and working memory by suggesting that the working memory-intelligibility effects may be related to aggregate signal fidelity, rather than to the specific signal manipulation. They also suggest that for individuals with low working memory capacity, sensorineural loss may be most appropriately addressed with WDRC and/or FC parameters that maintain the fidelity of the signal envelope. PMID:25999874

  17. Separatrix location in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Frederick; Maingi, Rajesh; Maqueda, Ricky; Menard, Jon; Leblanc, Ben; Bell, Ron; Paul, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    The separatrix location and corresponding plasma parameters in NSTX were estimated for H-mode discharge 117125 containing both MARFEs and ELMs and for Type V ELMy H-mode discharge 128337. Since equilibrium reconstructions with LRDFIT did not accurately locate the LFS separatrix, a method based on the strong electron parallel heat conductivity was used to map the LFS magnetic flux surfaces to the HFS since the innermost Thomson scattering measurement of Te(R) is the most accurate. During a MARFE or at MARFE onset in NSTX shot 117125, this method estimated the electron temperature at the LFS separatrix, Te,sep, to vary between 31 and 41 eV. At times with no MARFE or ELM, Te,sep ranged between 41 and 93 eV. These Te,sep values compare well with Te,sep values (28-35 eV) in TEXTOR just before MARFE onset.^1 In NSTX shot 128337 late in the Type V ELMy phase, Te,sep was estimated to be ˜100 eV. These separatrix locations place the Er well outside the separatrix. [1] F.A. Kelly, W.M. Stacey, J. Rapp and M. Brix, Phys. Plasmas 8 (2001) 3382.

  18. Scientific developments of liquid crystal-based optical memory: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Jai; Chandran, Achu; Biradar, Ashok M.

    2017-01-01

    The memory behavior in liquid crystals (LCs), although rarely observed, has made very significant headway over the past three decades since their discovery in nematic type LCs. It has gone from a mere scientific curiosity to application in variety of commodities. The memory element formed by numerous LCs have been protected by patents, and some commercialized, and used as compensation to non-volatile memory devices, and as memory in personal computers and digital cameras. They also have the low cost, large area, high speed, and high density memory needed for advanced computers and digital electronics. Short and long duration memory behavior for industrial applications have been obtained from several LC materials, and an LC memory with interesting features and applications has been demonstrated using numerous LCs. However, considerable challenges still exist in searching for highly efficient, stable, and long-lifespan materials and methods so that the development of useful memory devices is possible. This review focuses on the scientific and technological approach of fascinating applications of LC-based memory. We address the introduction, development status, novel design and engineering principles, and parameters of LC memory. We also address how the amalgamation of LCs could bring significant change/improvement in memory effects in the emerging field of nanotechnology, and the application of LC memory as the active component for futuristic and interesting memory devices.

  19. Nonvolatile random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A nonvolatile magnetic random access memory can be achieved by an array of magnet-Hall effect (M-H) elements. The storage function is realized with a rectangular thin-film ferromagnetic material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and inplane bipolar remanent magnetization states. The thin-film magnetic element is magnetized by a local applied field, whose direction is used to form either a 0 or 1 state. The element remains in the 0 or 1 state until a switching field is applied to change its state. The stored information is detcted by a Hall-effect sensor which senses the fringing field from the magnetic storage element. The circuit design for addressing each cell includes transistor switches for providing a current of selected polarity to store a binary digit through a separate conductor overlying the magnetic element of the cell. To read out a stored binary digit, transistor switches are employed to provide a current through a row of Hall-effect sensors connected in series and enabling a differential voltage amplifier connected to all Hall-effect sensors of a column in series. To avoid read-out voltage errors due to shunt currents through resistive loads of the Hall-effect sensors of other cells in the same column, at least one transistor switch is provided between every pair of adjacent cells in every row which are not turned on except in the row of the selected cell.

  20. Remote direct memory access

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  1. Immunological memory is associative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  2. Flexible Kernel Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces. PMID:20552013

  3. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise.

  4. Object and spatial memory after neonatal perirhinal lesions in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Alison R; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the perirhinal cortex (PRh) to recognition memory is well characterized in adults, yet the same lesions have limited effect on recognition of spatial locations. Here, we assessed whether the same outcomes will follow when perirhinal lesions are performed in infancy. Monkeys with neonatal perirhinal (Neo-PRh) lesions and control animals were tested in three operant recognition tasks as they reached adulthood: Delayed Nonmatching-to-Sample (DNMS) and Object Memory Span (OMS), measuring object recognition, and Spatial Memory Span (SMS), measuring recognition of spatial locations. Although Neo-PRh lesions did not impact acquisition of the DNMS rule, they did impair performance when the delays were extended from 30s to 600s. In contrast, the same neonatal lesions had no impact on either the object or spatial memory span tasks, suggesting that the lesions impacted the maintenance of information across longer delays and not memory capacity. Finally, the magnitude of recognition memory impairment after the Neo-PRh lesions was similar to that previously observed after adult-onset perirhinal lesions, indicating minimal, or no, functional compensation after the early PRh lesions. Overall, the results indicate that the PRh is a cortical structure that is important for the normal development of mechanisms supporting object recognition memory. Its contribution may be relevant to the memory impairment observed with human cases of temporal lobe epilepsy without hippocampal sclerosis, but not to the memory impairment found in developmental amnesia cases. PMID:26593109

  5. Stochastic memory: memory enhancement due to noise.

    PubMed

    Stotland, Alexander; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO(2) thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  6. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  7. Natural disasters between memory and oblivion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, M.; La Longa, F.; Lanza, T.

    2012-04-01

    studies on memory as: subjectivity, emotion, context, time and evolution, the tension between memory and oblivion, information, memory as a construction process. Today there is no single definition of memory because memory is a dynamic process: a procedural memory, which reshapes itself according to the present. So what should we do today to develop effective risk communication strategies? Starting from the assumption of Mieke Bal (1999, 9. VII), that cultural memory has to be seen "as an activity that takes place in the present, in which the past is continuously modified and re-described, even when it continues to shape the future", we can not forget that the problem of memory is always located in the relationship between those who "produce memory" and those who "benefit from it". To overcome the dichotomy between individual emotional experience and collective historical experience and to counteract the effect of oblivion, those who involved in communication and risk reduction should move towards a constructive direction of memory, capable of enhancing the past, live the present and orientate the future.

  8. A study of the viability of exploiting memory content similarity to improve resilience to memory errors

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Scott; Ferreira, Kurt B.; Bridges, Patrick G.; Thompson, Aidan P.; Trott, Christian

    2014-12-09

    Building the next-generation of extreme-scale distributed systems will require overcoming several challenges related to system resilience. As the number of processors in these systems grow, the failure rate increases proportionally. One of the most common sources of failure in large-scale systems is memory. In this paper, we propose a novel runtime for transparently exploiting memory content similarity to improve system resilience by reducing the rate at which memory errors lead to node failure. We evaluate the viability of this approach by examining memory snapshots collected from eight high-performance computing (HPC) applications and two important HPC operating systems. Based on the characteristics of the similarity uncovered, we conclude that our proposed approach shows promise for addressing system resilience in large-scale systems.

  9. A study of the viability of exploiting memory content similarity to improve resilience to memory errors

    DOE PAGES

    Levy, Scott; Ferreira, Kurt B.; Bridges, Patrick G.; ...

    2014-12-09

    Building the next-generation of extreme-scale distributed systems will require overcoming several challenges related to system resilience. As the number of processors in these systems grow, the failure rate increases proportionally. One of the most common sources of failure in large-scale systems is memory. In this paper, we propose a novel runtime for transparently exploiting memory content similarity to improve system resilience by reducing the rate at which memory errors lead to node failure. We evaluate the viability of this approach by examining memory snapshots collected from eight high-performance computing (HPC) applications and two important HPC operating systems. Based on themore » characteristics of the similarity uncovered, we conclude that our proposed approach shows promise for addressing system resilience in large-scale systems.« less

  10. Addressing Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Mining Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Mining companies deal with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) issues on their sites in two ways, avoidance and management. Avoidance simply means that to the extent practical, new mines are located in areas where NOA is unlikely to occur. Where mines are located in areas where NOA may be present, mines implement management procedures to identify and control potential sources of NOA. Management practices may include procedures set forth in regulations such as California's Air Toxicity Control Measure that deals with surface mining, voluntary procedures, or a combination of both. The mining industry generally recognizes that addressing NOA issues is a cost of doing business.;

  11. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  12. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  13. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  14. Cellular dynamical mechanisms for encoding the time and place of events along spatiotemporal trajectories in episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Hasselmo, Michael E.; Giocomo, Lisa M.; Yoshida, Motoharu

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of episodic memory requires linking behavioural data and lesion effects to data on the dynamics of cellular membrane potentials and population interactions within these brain regions. Linking behavior to specific membrane channels and neurochemicals has implications for therapeutic applications. Lesions of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and subcortical nuclei impair episodic memory function in humans and animals, and unit recording data from these regions in behaving animals indicate episodic memory processes. Intracellular recording in these regions demonstrates specific cellular properties including resonance, membrane potential oscillations and bistable persistent spiking that could underlie the encoding and retrieval of episodic trajectories. A model presented here shows how intrinsic dynamical properties of neurons could mediate the encoding of episodic memories as complex spatiotemporal trajectories. The dynamics of neurons allow encoding and retrieval of unique episodic trajectories in multiple continuous dimensions including temporal intervals, personal location, the spatial coordinates and sensory features of perceived objects and generated actions, and associations between these elements. The model also addresses how cellular dynamics could underlie unit firing data suggesting mechanisms for coding continuous dimensions of space, time, sensation and action. PMID:20018213

  15. Memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Yu, Li-Zhen; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices, the structure of [top Au anode/9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) active layer/bottom Au cathode] was deposited using a thermal deposition system. The Au atoms migrated into the ADN active layer was observed from the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The density of 9.6×1016 cm-3 and energy level of 0.553 eV of the induced trapping centers caused by the migrated Au atoms in the ADN active layer were calculated. The induced trapping centers did not influence the carrier injection barrier height between Au and ADN active layer. Therefore, the memory bistable behaviors of the organic memory devices were attributed to the induced trapping centers. The energy diagram was established to verify the mechanisms.

  16. Are There Multiple Kinds of Episodic Memory? An fMRI Investigation Comparing Autobiographical and Recognition Memory Tasks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Yu; Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2017-03-08

    What brain regions underlie retrieval from episodic memory? The bulk of research addressing this question with fMRI has relied upon recognition memory for materials encoded within the laboratory. Another, less dominant tradition has used autobiographical methods, whereby people recall events from their lifetime, often after being cued with words or pictures. The current study addresses how the neural substrates of successful memory retrieval differed as a function of the targeted memory when the experimental parameters were held constant in the two conditions (except for instructions). Human participants studied a set of scenes and then took two types of memory test while undergoing fMRI scanning. In one condition (the picture memory test), participants reported for each scene (32 studied, 64 nonstudied) whether it was recollected from the prior study episode. In a second condition (the life memory test), participants reported for each scene (32 studied, 64 nonstudied) whether it reminded them of a specific event from their preexperimental lifetime. An examination of successful retrieval (yes responses) for recently studied scenes for the two test types revealed pronounced differences; that is, autobiographical retrieval instantiated with the life memory test preferentially activated the default mode network, whereas hits in the picture memory test preferentially engaged the parietal memory network as well as portions of the frontoparietal control network. When experimental cueing parameters are held constant, the neural underpinnings of successful memory retrieval differ when remembering life events and recently learned events.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memory is often discussed as a solitary construct. However, experimental traditions examining episodic memory use very different approaches, and these are rarely compared to one another. When the neural correlates associated with each approach have been directly contrasted, results have varied considerably and

  17. Sonar Locator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An underwater locator device called a Pinger is attached to an airplane's flight recorder for recovery in case of a crash. Burnett Electronics Pinger Model 512 resulted from a Burnett Electronics Laboratory, Inc./Langley Research Center contract for development of a search system for underwater mines. The Pinger's battery-powered transmitter is activated when immersed in water, and sends multidirectional signals for up to 500 hours. When a surface receiver picks up the signal, a diver can retrieve the pinger and the attached airplane flight recorder. Other pingers are used to track whales, mark underwater discoveries and assist oil drilling vessels.

  18. Location of Planet X

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  19. A Middleware Based Approach to Dynamically Deploy Location Based Services onto Heterogeneous Mobile Devices Using Bluetooth in Indoor Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhukhan, Pampa; Sen, Rijurekha; Das, Pradip K.

    Several methods for providing location based service (LBS) to mobile devices in indoor environment using wireless technologies like WLAN, RFID and Bluetooth have been proposed, implemented and evaluated. However, most of them do not focus on heterogeneity of mobile platforms, memory constraint of mobile devices, the adaptability of client or device to the new services it discovers whenever it reaches a new location. In this paper, we have proposed a Middleware based approach of LBS provision in the indoor environment, where a Bluetooth enabled Base Station (BS) detects Bluetooth enabled mobile devices and pushes a proper client application only to those devices that belong to some registered subscriber of LBS. This dynamic deployment enables the mobile clients to access any new service without having preinstalled interface to that service beforehand and thus the client's memory consumption is reduced. Our proposed work also addresses the other issues like authenticating the clients before providing them LBSs and introducing paid services. We have evaluated its performance in term of file transfer time with respect to file size and throughput with respect to distance. Experimental results on service consumption time by the mobile client for different services are also presented.

  20. Post-training, intrahippocampal HDAC inhibition differentially impacts neural circuits underlying spatial memory in adult and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Malorie; Micheau, Jacques; Decorte, Laurence; Beracochea, Daniel; Mons, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Converging evidence indicates that pharmacologically elevating histone acetylation using post-training, systemic or intrahippocampal, administration of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) can enhance memory consolidation processes in young rodents but it is not yet clear, whether such treatment is sufficient to prevent memory impairments associated with aging. To address this question, we used a 1-day massed spatial learning task in the water maze to investigate the effects of immediate post-training injection of the HDACi trichostatin A (TSA) into the dorsal hippocampus on long-term memory consolidation in 3-4 and 18-20 month-old mice. We show that TSA improved the 24 h-memory retention for the hidden platform location in young-adults, but failed to rescue memory impairments in older mice. The results further indicate that Young-TSA mice sacrificed 1 h after training had a robust increase in histone H4 acetylation in the dorsal hippocampal CA1 region (dCA1) and the dorsomedial part of the striatum (DMS), a structure important for spatial information processing. Importantly, TSA infusion in aged mice completely rescued altered H4 acetylation in the dCA1 but failed to alleviate age-associated decreased H4 acetylation in the DMS. Moreover, intrahippocampal TSA infusion produced concomitant decreases (in adults) or increases (in older mice) of acetylated histone levels in the ventral hippocampus (vCA1 and vCA3) and the lateral amygdala, two structures critically involved in stress and emotional responses. These data suggest that the failure of post-training, intrahippocampal TSA injection to reverse age-associated memory impairments may be related to an inability to recruit appropriate circuit-specific epigenetic patterns during early consolidation processes.

  1. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  2. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  3. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  4. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  5. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  6. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  7. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  8. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  9. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  10. Visual memory capacity in transsaccadic integration.

    PubMed

    Prime, Steven L; Tsotsos, Lia; Keith, Gerald P; Crawford, J Douglas

    2007-07-01

    How we perceive the visual world as stable and unified suggests the existence of transsaccadic integration that retains and integrates visual information from one eye fixation to another eye fixation across saccadic eye movements. However, the capacity of transsaccadic integration is still a subject of controversy. We tested our subjects' memory capacity of two basic visual features, i.e. luminance (Experiment 1) and orientation (Experiment 2), both within a single fixation (i.e. visual working memory) and between separate fixations (i.e. transsaccadic memory). Experiment 2 was repeated, but attention allocation was manipulated using attentional cues at either the target or distracter (Experiment 3). Subjects were able to retain 3-4 objects in transsaccadic memory for luminance and orientation; errors generally increased as saccade size increased; and, subjects were more accurate when attention was allocated to the same location as the impending target. These results were modelled by inputting a noisy extra-retinal signal into an eye-centered feature map. Our results suggest that transsaccadic memory has a similar capacity for storing simple visual features as basic visual memory, but this capacity is dependent both on the metrics of the saccade and allocation of attention.

  11. Similarity effects in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Lee, Hyejin J; Asaad, Anthony; Remington, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Perceptual similarity is an important property of multiple stimuli. Its computation supports a wide range of cognitive functions, including reasoning, categorization, and memory recognition. It is important, therefore, to determine why previous research has found conflicting effects of inter-item similarity on visual working memory. Studies reporting a similarity advantage have used simple stimuli whose similarity varied along a featural continuum. Studies reporting a similarity disadvantage have used complex stimuli from either a single or multiple categories. To elucidate stimulus conditions for similarity effects in visual working memory, we tested memory for complex stimuli (faces) whose similarity varied along a morph continuum. Participants encoded 3 morphs generated from a single face identity in the similar condition, or 3 morphs generated from different face identities in the dissimilar condition. After a brief delay, a test face appeared at one of the encoding locations for participants to make a same/different judgment. Two experiments showed that similarity enhanced memory accuracy without changing the response criterion. These findings support previous computational models that incorporate featural variance as a component of working memory load. They delineate limitations of models that emphasize cortical resources or response decisions.

  12. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  13. A New Conceptualization of Human Visual Sensory-Memory

    PubMed Central

    Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Memory is an essential component of cognition and disorders of memory have significant individual and societal costs. The Atkinson–Shiffrin “modal model” forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores: Sensory Memory (SM), whose visual component is called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM; also called working memory, WM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM). Since its inception, shortcomings of all three components of the modal model have been identified. While the theories of STM and LTM underwent significant modifications to address these shortcomings, models of the iconic memory remained largely unchanged: A high capacity but rapidly decaying store whose contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, i.e., according to how the stimulus is projected on the retina. The fundamental shortcoming of iconic memory models is that, because contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, the iconic memory cannot hold any useful information under normal viewing conditions when objects or the subject are in motion. Hence, half-century after its formulation, it remains an unresolved problem whether and how the first stage of the modal model serves any useful function and how subsequent stages of the modal model receive inputs from the environment. Here, we propose a new conceptualization of human visual sensory memory by introducing an additional component whose reference-frame consists of motion-grouping based coordinates rather than retinotopic coordinates. We review data supporting this new model and discuss how it offers solutions to the paradoxes of the traditional model of sensory memory. PMID:27375519

  14. Memory Benchmarks for SMP-Based High Performance Parallel Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, A B; de Supinski, B; Mueller, F; Mckee, S A

    2001-11-20

    As the speed gap between CPU and main memory continues to grow, memory accesses increasingly dominates the performance of many applications. The problem is particularly acute for symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) systems, where the shared memory may be accessed concurrently by a group of threads running on separate CPUs. Unfortunately, several key issues governing memory system performance in current systems are not well understood. Complex interactions between the levels of the memory hierarchy, buses or switches, DRAM back-ends, system software, and application access patterns can make it difficult to pinpoint bottlenecks and determine appropriate optimizations, and the situation is even more complex for SMP systems. To partially address this problem, we formulated a set of multi-threaded microbenchmarks for characterizing and measuring the performance of the underlying memory system in SMP-based high-performance computers. We report our use of these microbenchmarks on two important SMP-based machines. This paper has four primary contributions. First, we introduce a microbenchmark suite to systematically assess and compare the performance of different levels in SMP memory hierarchies. Second, we present a new tool based on hardware performance monitors to determine a wide array of memory system characteristics, such as cache sizes, quickly and easily; by using this tool, memory performance studies can be targeted to the full spectrum of performance regimes with many fewer data points than is otherwise required. Third, we present experimental results indicating that the performance of applications with large memory footprints remains largely constrained by memory. Fourth, we demonstrate that thread-level parallelism further degrades memory performance, even for the latest SMPs with hardware prefetching and switch-based memory interconnects.

  15. Spontaneous Recovery of Human Spatial Memory in a Virtual Water Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, David; Martínez, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous recovery in human spatial memory was assessed using a virtual environment. In Experiment 1, spatial memory was established by training participants to locate a hidden platform in a virtual water maze using a set of four distal landmarks. In Experiment 2, after learning about the location of a hidden platform, the…

  16. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  17. Evidences of the role of the rodent hippocampus in the non-spatial recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jee Hyun; Park, Hye Jin; Kim, Byeong C; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2016-01-15

    The hippocampus is a key region responsible for processing spatial information. However, the role of the hippocampus in non-spatial recognition memory is still controversial. In the present study, we performed hippocampal lesioning to address this controversy. The hippocampi of mice were disrupted with bilateral cytotoxic lesions, and standard object recognition (non-spatial) and object location recognition (spatial) were tested. In the habituation period, mice with hippocampal lesions needed a significantly longer time to fully habituate to the test box. Interestingly, after 4 days of habituation (insufficient habituation), the recognition index was similar in the sham and hippocampal lesion groups. However, exploration time was significantly shorter in mice with hippocampal lesions compared with that in control mice. Interestingly, if mice were subjected to a 10-days-long period of habituation (full habituation), the recognition index was significantly lower in mice with hippocampal lesions compared with that in control mice; however, total exploration time was similar in both groups. Furthermore, the object recognition test after full habituation occluded hippocampal long-term potentiation, a cellular model of memory. These results indicate that sufficient habituation is required to observe the effects of hippocampal lesions on object recognition memory.

  18. Quantifying geocode location error using GIS methods

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Matthew J; Siffel, Csaba; Gardner, Bennett R; Berzen, Alissa K; Correa, Adolfo

    2007-01-01

    Background The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) collects maternal address information at the time of delivery for infants and fetuses with birth defects. These addresses have been geocoded by two independent agencies: (1) the Georgia Division of Public Health Office of Health Information and Policy (OHIP) and (2) a commercial vendor. Geographic information system (GIS) methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the two sets of geocodes using orthoimagery and tax parcel datasets. Methods We sampled 599 infants and fetuses with birth defects delivered during 1994–2002 with maternal residence in either Fulton or Gwinnett County. Tax parcel datasets were obtained from the tax assessor's offices of Fulton and Gwinnett County. High-resolution orthoimagery for these counties was acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. For each of the 599 addresses we attempted to locate the tax parcel corresponding to the maternal address. If the tax parcel was identified the distance and the angle between the geocode and the residence were calculated. We used simulated data to characterize the impact of geocode location error. In each county 5,000 geocodes were generated and assigned their corresponding Census 2000 tract. Each geocode was then displaced at a random angle by a random distance drawn from the distribution of observed geocode location errors. The census tract of the displaced geocode was determined. We repeated this process 5,000 times and report the percentage of geocodes that resolved into incorrect census tracts. Results Median location error was less than 100 meters for both OHIP and commercial vendor geocodes; the distribution of angles appeared uniform. Median location error was approximately 35% larger in Gwinnett (a suburban county) relative to Fulton (a county with urban and suburban areas). Location error occasionally caused the simulated geocodes to be displaced into incorrect census tracts; the median percentage of geocodes resolving

  19. Towards Distributed Memory Parallel Program Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T

    2008-06-17

    This paper presents a parallel attribute evaluation for distributed memory parallel computer architectures where previously only shared memory parallel support for this technique has been developed. Attribute evaluation is a part of how attribute grammars are used for program analysis within modern compilers. Within this work, we have extended ROSE, a open compiler infrastructure, with a distributed memory parallel attribute evaluation mechanism to support user defined global program analysis required for some forms of security analysis which can not be addressed by a file by file view of large scale applications. As a result, user defined security analyses may now run in parallel without the user having to specify the way data is communicated between processors. The automation of communication enables an extensible open-source parallel program analysis infrastructure.

  20. Memory for Items and Relationships among Items Embedded in Realistic Scenes: Disproportionate Relational Memory Impairments in Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Allen, John S.; Kirchhoff, Brenda A.; Nickel, Allison E.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of item memory and relational memory on medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. Patients with amnesia, who either had extensive MTL damage or damage that was relatively restricted to the hippocampus, were tested, as was a matched comparison group. Disproportionate relational memory impairments were predicted for both patient groups, and those with extensive MTL damage were also expected to have impaired item memory. Method Participants studied scenes, and were tested with interleaved two-alternative forced-choice probe trials. Probe trials were either presented immediately after the corresponding study trial (lag 1), five trials later (lag 5), or nine trials later (lag 9) and consisted of the studied scene along with a manipulated version of that scene in which one item was replaced with a different exemplar (item memory test) or was moved to a new location (relational memory test). Participants were to identify the exact match of the studied scene. Results As predicted, patients were disproportionately impaired on the test of relational memory. Item memory performance was marginally poorer among patients with extensive MTL damage, but both groups were impaired relative to matched comparison participants. Impaired performance was evident at all lags, including the shortest possible lag (lag 1). Conclusions The results are consistent with the proposed role of the hippocampus in relational memory binding and representation, even at short delays, and suggest that the hippocampus may also contribute to successful item memory when items are embedded in complex scenes. PMID:25068665

  1. Conscious and Unconscious Memory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Squire, Larry R.; Dede, Adam J.O.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that memory is not a single mental faculty has a long and interesting history but became a topic of experimental and biologic inquiry only in the mid-20th century. It is now clear that there are different kinds of memory, which are supported by different brain systems. One major distinction can be drawn between working memory and long-term memory. Long-term memory can be separated into declarative (explicit) memory and a collection of nondeclarative (implicit) forms of memory that include habits, skills, priming, and simple forms of conditioning. These memory systems depend variously on the hippocampus and related structures in the parahippocampal gyrus, as well as on the amygdala, the striatum, cerebellum, and the neocortex. This work recounts the discovery of declarative and nondeclarative memory and then describes the nature of declarative memory, working memory, nondeclarative memory, and the relationship between memory systems. PMID:25731765

  2. A generalized memory test algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    A general algorithm for testing digital computer memory is presented. The test checks that (1) every bit can be cleared and set in each memory work, and (2) bits are not erroneously cleared and/or set elsewhere in memory at the same time. The algorithm can be applied to any size memory block and any size memory word. It is concise and efficient, requiring the very few cycles through memory. For example, a test of 16-bit-word-size memory requries only 384 cycles through memory. Approximately 15 seconds were required to test a 32K block of such memory, using a microcomputer having a cycle time of 133 nanoseconds.

  3. Regulatory T cell memory

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Michael D.; Way, Sing Sing; Abbas, Abul K.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime challenge models of infection. However, recent work has also identified persistently expanded populations of antigen-specific regulatory T cells that protect against aberrant immune responses. In this Review, we consider the parallels between memory effector T cells and memory regulatory T cells, along with the functional implications of regulatory memory in autoimmunity, antimicrobial host defence and maternal fetal tolerance. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence for regulatory T cell memory in humans and key unanswered questions in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26688349

  4. Shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  5. Memory Load and Dump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Alan

    2009-07-01

    This proposal is a test and verification of the STIS dump of memory capability.Areas of Control Section {CS} to dump include: EDAC RAM, EEPROM, and CS PROM {with the CS in Operate}. Areas of MIE memory to dump include: MIE RAM and MIE PROM {with the MIE in Operate}. Note that the MIE memory must first be copied to CS buffer RAM as images, which are then dumped.Supports Activity STIS-02

  6. Memory Golf Clubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

  7. Why Narrating Changes Memory: A Contribution to an Integrative Model of Memory and Narrative Processes.

    PubMed

    Smorti, Andrea; Fioretti, Chiara

    2016-06-01

    This paper aims to reflect on the relation between autobiographical memory (ME) and autobiographical narrative (NA), examining studies on the effects of narrating on the narrator and showing how studying these relations can make more comprehensible both memory's and narrating's way of working. Studies that address explicitly on ME and NA are scarce and touch this issue indirectly. Authors consider different trends of studies of ME and NA: congruency vs incongruency hypotheses on retrieving, the way of organizing memories according to gist or verbatim format and their role in organizing positive and negative emotional experiences, the social roots of ME and NA, the rules of conversation based on narrating. Analysis of investigations leads the Authors to point out three basic results of their research. Firstly, NA transforms ME because it narrativizes memories according to a narrative format. This means that memories, when are narrated, are transformed in stories (verbal language) and socialised. Secondly, the narrativization process is determined by the act of telling something within a communicative situation. Thus, relational situation of narrating act, by modifying the story, modifies also memories. The Authors propose the RE.NA.ME model (RElation, NArration, MEmory) to understand and study ME and NA. Finally, this study claims that ME and NA refer to two different types of processes having a wide area of overlapping. This is due to common social, developmental and cultural roots that make NA to include part of ME (narrative of memory) and ME to include part of NA (memory of personal events that have been narrated).

  8. Networks of Memories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    2000). The construction of  autobiographical   memories in the self­memory system. Psychological Review, 107(2), 261­288. Dennis, S., & Chapman, A. (2010...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0131 Networks of Memories Simon Dennis, Mikhail Belkin Ohio State University March 2013 Final...Back (Rev. 8/98) 1 Networks of  Memories FA9550­09­1­0614 Professor Jay Myung PI: Simon Dennis Ohio State University February 15, 2013 2 Introduction

  9. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    PubMed Central

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-01-01

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

  10. New gravitational memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasterski, Sabrina; Strominger, Andrew; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    The conventional gravitational memory effect is a relative displacement in the position of two detectors induced by radiative energy flux. We find a new type of gravitational `spin memory' in which beams on clockwise and counterclockwise orbits acquire a relative delay induced by radiative angular momentum flux. It has recently been shown that the displacement memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of Weinberg's soft graviton theorem. Here we see that the spin memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of the recently-discovered subleading soft graviton theorem.

  11. Sparse distributed memory overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raugh, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

  12. The future of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  13. Early remodeling of the neocortex upon episodic memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Bero, Adam W; Meng, Jia; Cho, Sukhee; Shen, Abra H; Canter, Rebecca G; Ericsson, Maria; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2014-08-12

    Understanding the mechanisms by which long-term memories are formed and stored in the brain represents a central aim of neuroscience. Prevailing theory suggests that long-term memory encoding involves early plasticity within hippocampal circuits, whereas reorganization of the neocortex is thought to occur weeks to months later to subserve remote memory storage. Here we report that long-term memory encoding can elicit early transcriptional, structural, and functional remodeling of the neocortex. Parallel studies using genome-wide RNA sequencing, ultrastructural imaging, and whole-cell recording in wild-type mice suggest that contextual fear conditioning initiates a transcriptional program in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that is accompanied by rapid expansion of the synaptic active zone and postsynaptic density, enhanced dendritic spine plasticity, and increased synaptic efficacy. To address the real-time contribution of the mPFC to long-term memory encoding, we performed temporally precise optogenetic inhibition of excitatory mPFC neurons during contextual fear conditioning. Using this approach, we found that real-time inhibition of the mPFC inhibited activation of the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit and impaired the formation of long-term associative memory. These findings suggest that encoding of long-term episodic memory is associated with early remodeling of neocortical circuits, identify the prefrontal cortex as a critical regulator of encoding-induced hippocampal activation and long-term memory formation, and have important implications for understanding memory processing in healthy and diseased brain states.

  14. `Unlearning' has a stabilizing effect in collective memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfield, J. J.; Feinstein, D. I.; Palmer, R. G.

    1983-07-01

    Crick and Mitchison1 have presented a hypothesis for the functional role of dream sleep involving an `unlearning' process. We have independently carried out mathematical and computer modelling of learning and `unlearning' in a collective neural network of 30-1,000 neurones. The model network has a content-addressable memory or `associative memory' which allows it to learn and store many memories. A particular memory can be evoked in its entirety when the network is stimulated by any adequate-sized subpart of the information of that memory2. But different memories of the same size are not equally easy to recall. Also, when memories are learned, spurious memories are also created and can also be evoked. Applying an `unlearning' process, similar to the learning processes but with a reversed sign and starting from a noise input, enhances the performance of the network in accessing real memories and in minimizing spurious ones. Although our model was not motivated by higher nervous function, our system displays behaviours which are strikingly parallel to those needed for the hypothesized role of `unlearning' in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.

  15. Scope on the Skies: The Law of Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This article explains how the sky would look from different locations, specifically from other locations within our solar system. Answers to the following questions are addressed: Do the constellation patterns we see from Earth look different from another planet in our solar system? What would the Sun look like from greater distances? (Contains 2…

  16. 47 CFR 101.1329 - EA Station license, location, modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EA Station license, location, modifications... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems System Requirements § 101.1329 EA Station license, location, modifications. EA licensees may construct master and remote stations...

  17. Memory Effects on Movement Behavior in Animal Foraging.

    PubMed

    Bracis, Chloe; Gurarie, Eliezer; Van Moorter, Bram; Goodwin, R Andrew

    2015-01-01

    An individual's choices are shaped by its experience, a fundamental property of behavior important to understanding complex processes. Learning and memory are observed across many taxa and can drive behaviors, including foraging behavior. To explore the conditions under which memory provides an advantage, we present a continuous-space, continuous-time model of animal movement that incorporates learning and memory. Using simulation models, we evaluate the benefit memory provides across several types of landscapes with variable-quality resources and compare the memory model within a nested hierarchy of simpler models (behavioral switching and random walk). We find that memory almost always leads to improved foraging success, but that this effect is most marked in landscapes containing sparse, contiguous patches of high-value resources that regenerate relatively fast and are located in an otherwise devoid landscape. In these cases, there is a large payoff for finding a resource patch, due to size, value, or locational difficulty. While memory-informed search is difficult to differentiate from other factors using solely movement data, our results suggest that disproportionate spatial use of higher value areas, higher consumption rates, and consumption variability all point to memory influencing the movement direction of animals in certain ecosystems.

  18. Memory Effects on Movement Behavior in Animal Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Bracis, Chloe; Gurarie, Eliezer; Van Moorter, Bram; Goodwin, R. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    An individual’s choices are shaped by its experience, a fundamental property of behavior important to understanding complex processes. Learning and memory are observed across many taxa and can drive behaviors, including foraging behavior. To explore the conditions under which memory provides an advantage, we present a continuous-space, continuous-time model of animal movement that incorporates learning and memory. Using simulation models, we evaluate the benefit memory provides across several types of landscapes with variable-quality resources and compare the memory model within a nested hierarchy of simpler models (behavioral switching and random walk). We find that memory almost always leads to improved foraging success, but that this effect is most marked in landscapes containing sparse, contiguous patches of high-value resources that regenerate relatively fast and are located in an otherwise devoid landscape. In these cases, there is a large payoff for finding a resource patch, due to size, value, or locational difficulty. While memory-informed search is difficult to differentiate from other factors using solely movement data, our results suggest that disproportionate spatial use of higher value areas, higher consumption rates, and consumption variability all point to memory influencing the movement direction of animals in certain ecosystems. PMID:26288228

  19. Towards neuro-memory-chip: Imprinting multiple memories in cultured neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Baruchi, Itay; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2007-05-15

    We show that using local chemical stimulations it is possible to imprint persisting (days) multiple memories (collective modes of neuron firing) in the activity of cultured neural networks. Microdroplets of inhibitory antagonist are injected at a location selected based on real-time analysis of the recorded activity. The neurons at the stimulated locations turn into a focus for initiating synchronized bursting events (the collective modes) each with its own specific spatiotemporal pattern of neuron firing.

  20. Hormones, stress, and cognition: The effects of glucocorticoids and oxytocin on memory

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Hormones have nuanced effects on learning and memory processes. The degree and direction of the effect (e.g., is memory impaired or enhanced?) depends on the dose, type and stage of memory, and type of material being learned, among other factors. This review will focus on two specific topics within the realm of effects of hormones on memory: (1) How glucocorticoids (the output hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) affect long-term memory consolidation, retrieval, and working memory, with a focus on neural mechanisms and effects of emotion; and (2) How oxytocin affects memory, with emphasis on a speculative hypothesis that oxytocin might exert its myriad effects on human social cognition and behavior via impacts on more general cognitive processes. Oxytocin-glucocorticoid interactions will be briefly addressed. These effects of hormones on memory will also be considered from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:25893159