Science.gov

Sample records for addressable memory tcam

  1. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  2. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  3. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  4. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  5. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  6. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  7. Construction and Evaluation of Content Addressable Memories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    M :: A A :: M M = Memory bit specified by d*<es 1 M := B B := M A = A tag register M := X X M B = B tag register 3 M := Y Y := M X = X tag...register 4 M := C A M Y = Y tag register 5 M : B B :: M C = broadcast Comparand Underline indicates jam transfer Non-Memory to Register Operations Op code...Activity register 0 i A:’=1 B - riQcondary Activity

  8. GETTYSBURG ADDRESS TABLET BESIDE ENTRANCE GATE AT MEMORIAL WALK. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GETTYSBURG ADDRESS TABLET BESIDE ENTRANCE GATE AT MEMORIAL WALK. VIEW TO EAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. Quadratic Hadamard Memories 1: Adaptive Stochastic Content-Addressable Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    learning mechanisms", Phys. Rev. A34, 4217 (1986). [4] I. Kanter and H. Sompolinsky , "Associative recall of memory without errors", Phys. Rev, A35...Acad. Sei. USA 79, 2554 (1982). [2] D. J. Aalt, H. Gutfreund, and H, Sompolinski , "Informa- tion storage in neural networks with low levels of activity

  10. Evaluation of architectural paradigms for addressing theprocessor-memory gap

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, Leonid; Gorden, Grime; Husbands, Parry; Chame, Jacqualine

    2003-07-04

    Many high performance applications run well below the peak arithmetic performance of the underlying machine, with inefficiencies often attributed to poor memory system behavior. In the context of scientific computing we examine three emerging processors designed to address the well-known gap between processor and memory performance through the exploitation of data parallelism. The VIRAM architecture uses novel PIM technology to combine embedded DRAM with a vector co-processor for exploiting its large bandwidth potential. The DIVA architecture incorporates a collection of PIM chips as smart-memory coprocessors to a conventional microprocessor, and relies on superword-level parallelism to make effective use of the available memory bandwidth. The Imagine architecture provides a stream-aware memory hierarchy to support the tremendous processing potential of SIMD controlled VLIW clusters. First we develop a scalable synthetic probe that allows us to parametize key performance attributes of VIRAM, DIVA and Imagine while capturing the performance crossover points of these architectures. Next we present results for scientific kernels with different sets of computational characteristics and memory access patterns. Our experiments allow us to evaluate the strategies employed to exploit data parallelism, isolate the set of application characteristics best suited to each architecture and show a promising direction towards interfacing leading-edge processor technology with high-end scientific computations.

  11. A flexible analog memory address list manager for PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Musrock, M.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Walker, J.W.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.; Allen, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    A programmable analog memory address list manager has been developed for use with all analog memory-based detector subsystems of PHENIX. The unit provides simultaneous read/write control, cell write-over protection for both a Level-1 trigger decision delay and digitization latency, and re-ordering of AMU addresses following conversion, at a beam crossing rate of 105 ns. Addresses are handled such that up to 5 Level-1 (LVL-1) events can be maintained in the AMU without write-over. Data tagging is implemented for handling overlapping and shared beam-event data packets. Full usage in all PHENIX analog memory-based detector subsystems is accomplished by the use of detector-specific programmable parameters--the number of data samples per valid LVL-1 trigger and the sample spacing. Architectural candidates for the system are discussed with emphasis on implementation implications. Details of the design are presented including application specifics, timing information, and test results from a full implementation using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).

  12. Content-addressable memory based enforcement of configurable policies

    DOEpatents

    Berg, Michael J

    2014-05-06

    A monitoring device for monitoring transactions on a bus includes content-addressable memory ("CAM") and a response policy unit. The CAM includes an input coupled to receive a bus transaction tag based on bus traffic on the bus. The CAM stores data tags associated with rules of a security policy to compare the bus transaction tag to the data tags. The CAM generates an output signal indicating whether one or more matches occurred. The response policy unit is coupled to the CAM to receive the output signal from the CAM and to execute a policy action in response to the output signal.

  13. Content-addressable read/write memories for image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. E.; Savage, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    The commonly encountered image analysis problems of region labeling and clustering are found to be cases of search-and-rename problem which can be solved in parallel by a system architecture that is inherently suitable for VLSI implementation. This architecture is a novel form of content-addressable memory (CAM) which provides parallel search and update functions, allowing speed reductions down to constant time per operation. It has been proposed in related investigations by Hall (1981) that, with VLSI, CAM-based structures with enhanced instruction sets for general purpose processing will be feasible.

  14. New generation of content addressable memories for associative processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. G., Jr.; Giambalov, Paul

    2000-05-01

    Content addressable memories (CAMS) store both key and association data. A key is presented to the CAN when it is searched and all of the addresses are scanned in parallel to find the address referenced by the key. When a match occurs, the corresponding association is returned. With the explosion of telecommunications packet switching protocols, large data base servers, routers and search engines a new generation of dense sub-micron high throughput CAMS has been developed. The introduction of this paper presents a brief history and tutorial on CAMS, their many uses and advantages, and describes the architecture and functionality of several of MUSIC Semiconductors CAM devices. In subsequent sections of the paper we address using Associative Processing to accommodate the continued increase in sensor resolution, number of spectral bands, required coverage, the desire to implement real-time target cueing, and the data flow and image processing required for optimum performance of reconnaissance and surveillance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). To be competitive the system designer must provide the most computational power, per watt, per dollar, per cubic inch, within the boundaries of cost effective UAV environmental control systems. To address these problems we demonstrate leveraging DARPA and DoD funded Commercial Off-the-Shelf technology to integrate CAM based Associative Processing into a real-time heterogenous multiprocessing system for UAVs and other platforms with limited weight, volume and power budgets.

  15. Addressing Working Memory in Children with Autism through Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltruschat, Lisa; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Tarbox, Jonathan; Dixon, Dennis R.; Najdowski, Adel C.; Mullins, Ryan D.; Gould, Evelyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism often struggle with executive function (EF) deficits, particularly with regard to working memory (WM). Despite the documented deficits in these areas, very little controlled research has evaluated treatments for remediation of EF or WM deficits in children with autism. This study examined the use of positive reinforcement for…

  16. Reprogrammable read only variable threshold transistor memory with isolated addressing buffer

    DOEpatents

    Lodi, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    A monolithic integrated circuit, fully decoded memory comprises a rectangular array of variable threshold field effect transistors organized into a plurality of multi-bit words. Binary address inputs to the memory are decoded by a field effect transistor decoder into a plurality of word selection lines each of which activates an address buffer circuit. Each address buffer circuit, in turn, drives a word line of the memory array. In accordance with the word line selected by the decoder the activated buffer circuit directs reading or writing voltages to the transistors comprising the memory words. All of the buffer circuits additionally are connected to a common terminal for clearing all of the memory transistors to a predetermined state by the application to the common terminal of a large magnitude voltage of a predetermined polarity. The address decoder, the buffer and the memory array, as well as control and input/output control and buffer field effect transistor circuits, are fabricated on a common substrate with means provided to isolate the substrate of the address buffer transistors from the remainder of the substrate so that the bulk clearing function of simultaneously placing all of the memory transistors into a predetermined state can be performed.

  17. Talking about the Way the World Wags. The Garth Boomer Memorial Address 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Garth Boomer had been a seminal influence on this author's practice and thinking as a young English teacher in the 1980s. When asked to present the Garth Boomer Memorial address in 2009, the author realised that he would be speaking on his fiftieth birthday, thus the desire to take the opportunity to reflect on his teaching life was overwhelming.…

  18. A light writable microfluidic "flash memory": optically addressed actuator array with latched operation for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zhishan; Pal, Rohit; Srivannavit, Onnop; Burns, Mark A; Gulari, Erdogan

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a novel optically addressed microactuator array (microfluidic "flash memory") with latched operation. Analogous to the address-data bus mediated memory address protocol in electronics, the microactuator array consists of individual phase-change based actuators addressed by localized heating through focused light patterns (address bus), which can be provided by a modified projector or high power laser pointer. A common pressure manifold (data bus) for the entire array is used to generate large deflections of the phase change actuators in the molten phase. The use of phase change material as the working media enables latched operation of the actuator array. After the initial light "writing" during which the phase is temporarily changed to molten, the actuated status is self-maintained by the solid phase of the actuator without power and pressure inputs. The microfluidic flash memory can be re-configured by a new light illumination pattern and common pressure signal. The proposed approach can achieve actuation of arbitrary units in a large-scale array without the need for complex external equipment such as solenoid valves and electrical modules, which leads to significantly simplified system implementation and compact system size. The proposed work therefore provides a flexible, energy-efficient, and low cost multiplexing solution for microfluidic applications based on physical displacements. As an example, the use of the latched microactuator array as "normally closed" or "normally open" microvalves is demonstrated. The phase-change wax is fully encapsulated and thus immune from contamination issues in fluidic environments.

  19. Integration Architecture of Content Addressable Memory and Massive-Parallel Memory-Embedded SIMD Matrix for Versatile Multimedia Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaki, Takeshi; Ishizaki, Masakatsu; Koide, Tetsushi; Mattausch, Hans Jürgen; Kuroda, Yasuto; Gyohten, Takayuki; Noda, Hideyuki; Dosaka, Katsumi; Arimoto, Kazutami; Saito, Kazunori

    This paper presents an integration architecture of content addressable memory (CAM) and a massive-parallel memory-embedded SIMD matrix for constructing a versatile multimedia processor. The massive-parallel memory-embedded SIMD matrix has 2,048 2-bit processing elements, which are connected by a flexible switching network, and supports 2-bit 2,048-way bit-serial and word-parallel operations with a single command. The SIMD matrix architecture is verified to be a better way for processing the repeated arithmetic operation types in multimedia applications. The proposed architecture, reported in this paper, exploits in addition CAM technology and enables therefore fast pipelined table-lookup coding operations. Since both arithmetic and table-lookup operations execute extremely fast, the proposed novel architecture can realize consequently efficient and versatile multimedia data processing. Evaluation results of the proposed CAM-enhanced massive-parallel SIMD matrix processor for the example of the frequently used JPEG image-compression application show that the necessary clock cycle number can be reduced by 86% in comparison to a conventional mobile DSP architecture. The determined performances in Mpixel/mm2 are factors 3.3 and 4.4 better than with a CAM-less massive-parallel memory-embedded SIMD matrix processor and a conventional mobile DSP, respectively.

  20. A flexible analog memory address list manager/controller for PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Walker, J.W.; Britton, C.L.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable analog memory address list manager/controller has been developed for use with all analog memory-based detector subsystems of PHENIX. The unit provides simultaneous read/write control, cell write-over protection for both a Level-1 trigger decision delay and digitization latency, and re-ordering of AMU addresses following conversion, at a beam crossing rate of 112 ns. Addresses are handled such that up to 5 Level-1 events can be maintained in the AMU without write-over. Data tagging is implemented for handling overlapping and shared beam event data packets. Full usage in all PHENIX analog memory-based detector sub-systems is accomplished by the use of detector-specific programmable parameters -- the number of data samples per Level-1 trigger valid and the swnple spacing. Architectural candidates for the system are discussed with emphasis on implementation implications. Details of the design are presented including design simulations, timing information, and test results from a full implementation using programmable logic devices.

  1. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E; Lavery, Leah L; Whiting, Gregory L; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic.

  2. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E.; Lavery, Leah L.; Whiting, Gregory L.; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic. PMID:22900143

  3. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E.; Lavery, Leah L.; Whiting, Gregory L.; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-08-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic.

  4. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  5. Development of a Handbook for Educators: Addressing Working Memory Capacity in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Julie Marie

    2013-01-01

    Working Memory (WM) refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for complex cognitive tasks such as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. WM also requires the simultaneous storage and processing of information. WM is directly related to academic performance in the classroom.…

  6. The use of content addressable memories in the level 2 trigger for the CLAS detector at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.C. Jr.; Hodson, R.F.; Allgood, D.; Bickley, M.; Campbell, S.; Putnam, T.; Spivak, R.; Lemon, S.; Wilson, W.C.

    1996-02-01

    The LEVEL 2 trigger in the CLAS detector will find tracks and associate a momentum and angle with each track within 2 {micro}s after the event. This is done through a hierarchical track finding design in which track segments are found in each drift chamber axial superlayer. An array of 384 custom content addressable (or associative) memories (CAMs) uses independent subfield matching to link these track segments into roads. The track parameters corresponding to each found road are then looked up in a separate memory. The authors present the overall architecture of the LEVEL 2 trigger, the details of how the CAM chip links tracks segments to find roads, and report on the performance of the prototype CAM chips.

  7. Multifunctional shape memory electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators enabling high holding force and low-voltage multisegment addressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoul, David; Rosset, Samuel; Besse, Nadine; Shea, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are an attractive form of electromechanical transducer, possessing high energy densities, an efficient design, mechanical flexibility, high speed, and noiseless operation. They have been incorporated into a variety of elegant devices, such as microfluidic devices, tunable optics, haptic displays, and minimum-energy grippers. Dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures (DEMESs) take advantage of the prestretch of the DEA to bend a non-stretchable but flexible component to perform mechanical work. The gripper is perhaps the most intuitive type of DEMES, capable of grasping objects but with only small to moderate forces. We present a novel configuration of a DEA using electrodes made of a conductive shape-memory polymer (SMP), incorporated into the design of a gripper. The SMP electrodes allow the DEA to be rigid in the cold state, offering greater holding force than a conventional gripper. Joule heating applied to the SMP electrodes softens them, allowing for electrostatic actuation. Cooling then locks in the actuated position without the need for continued power to be supplied. Additionally, the Joule heating voltage is at least one order of magnitude less than electrostatic actuation voltages, allowing for addressing of multiple actuator elements using commercially available transistors. The shape memory gripper incorporates this addressing into its design, enabling the three segments of each finger to be controlled independently.

  8. Experiences and meanings of integration of TCAM (Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medical) providers in three Indian states: results from a cross-sectional, qualitative implementation research study

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, D; Narayan, V V; Josyula, L K; Porter, J D H; Sathyanarayana, T N; Sheikh, K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Efforts to engage Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medical (TCAM) practitioners in the public health workforce have growing relevance for India's path to universal health coverage. We used an action-centred framework to understand how policy prescriptions related to integration were being implemented in three distinct Indian states. Setting Health departments and district-level primary care facilities in the states of Kerala, Meghalaya and Delhi. Participants In each state, two or three districts were chosen that represented a variation in accessibility and distribution across TCAM providers (eg, small or large proportions of local health practitioners, Homoeopaths, Ayurvedic and/or Unani practitioners). Per district, two blocks or geographical units were selected. TCAM and allopathic practitioners, administrators and representatives of the community at the district and state levels were chosen based on publicly available records from state and municipal authorities. A total of 196 interviews were carried out: 74 in Kerala, and 61 each in Delhi and Meghalaya. Primary and secondary outcome measures We sought to understand experiences and meanings associated with integration across stakeholders, as well as barriers and facilitators to implementing policies related to integration of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative (TCA) providers at the systems level. Results We found that individual and interpersonal attributes tended to facilitate integration, while system features and processes tended to hinder it. Collegiality, recognition of stature, as well as exercise of individual personal initiative among TCA practitioners and of personal experience of TCAM among allopaths enabled integration. The system, on the other hand, was characterised by the fragmentation of jurisdiction and facilities, intersystem isolation, lack of trust in and awareness of TCA systems, and inadequate infrastructure and resources for TCA service delivery. Conclusions

  9. Large scale integration of flexible non-volatile, re-addressable memories using P(VDF-TrFE) and amorphous oxide transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Cobb, Brian; van Breemen, Albert J. J. M.; Myny, Kris

    2015-07-01

    Ferroelectric polymers and amorphous metal oxide semiconductors have emerged as important materials for re-programmable non-volatile memories and high-performance, flexible thin-film transistors, respectively. However, realizing sophisticated transistor memory arrays has proven to be a challenge, and demonstrating reliable writing to and reading from such a large scale memory has thus far not been demonstrated. Here, we report an integration of ferroelectric, P(VDF-TrFE), transistor memory arrays with thin-film circuitry that can address each individual memory element in that array. n-type indium gallium zinc oxide is used as the active channel material in both the memory and logic thin-film transistors. The maximum process temperature is 200 °C, allowing plastic films to be used as substrate material. The technology was scaled up to 150 mm wafer size, and offers good reproducibility, high device yield and low device variation. This forms the basis for successful demonstration of memory arrays, read and write circuitry, and the integration of these.

  10. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  11. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  12. TCAMS lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the CINC mobile alternate headquarters and the tech control automation, maintenance and support facility. A discussion on software cost reduction by reuse is given as well as managing risk by assessment and mitigation.

  13. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  14. Energy-Efficient High-Performance Routers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Mishra collaboratively researched TCAM (Ternary Content Addressable Memory) architectures for Internet packet classifiers. The objective was to develop...consumption are achieved. 15. SUBJECT TERMS TCAM (Ternary Content Addressable Memory), Internet packet classifiers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17... Internet packets are classified into different flows based on packet header fields and using a table of rules in which each rule is of the form (F,A

  15. FPS-RAM: Fast Prefix Search RAM-Based Hardware for Forwarding Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsu, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Koji; Kuroda, Yasuto; Inoue, Kazunari; Ata, Shingo; Oka, Ikuo

    Ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) is becoming very popular for designing high-throughput forwarding engines on routers. However, TCAM has potential problems in terms of hardware and power costs, which limits its ability to deploy large amounts of capacity in IP routers. In this paper, we propose new hardware architecture for fast forwarding engines, called fast prefix search RAM-based hardware (FPS-RAM). We designed FPS-RAM hardware with the intent of maintaining the same search performance and physical user interface as TCAM because our objective is to replace the TCAM in the market. Our RAM-based hardware architecture is completely different from that of TCAM and has dramatically reduced the costs and power consumption to 62% and 52%, respectively. We implemented FPS-RAM on an FPGA to examine its lookup operation.

  16. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  17. The Royal Road to Time: How Understanding of the Evolution of Time in the Brain Addresses Memory, Dreaming, Flow, and Other Psychological Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    It has been claimed that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious mind. The present work argues that dreams and associated brain states such as memory, attention, flow, and perhaps even consciousness itself arise from diverse conflicts over control of time in the brain. Dreams are the brain's offline efforts to distill projections of the future, while memory represents the vestiges of the past successes and survived failures of those and other conscious projections. Memory thus acts to inform and improve the prediction of possible future states through the use of conscious prospects (planning) and unconscious prospective memory (dreams). When successful, these prospects result in states of flow for conscious planning and déjà vu for its unconscious comparator. In consequence, and contrary to normal expectation, memory is overwhelmingly oriented to deal with the future. Consciousness is the comparable process operating in the present moment. Thus past, present, and future are homeomorphic with the parts of memory (episodic and autobiographical) that recall a personal past, consciousness, and the differing dimensions of prospective memory to plan for future circumstances, respectively. Dreaming (i.e., unconscious prospective memory), has the luxury to run multiple "what if" simulations of many possible futures, essentially offline. I explicate these propositions and their relations to allied constructs such as déjà vu and flow. More generally, I propose that what appear to us as a range of normal psychological experiences are actually manifestations of an ongoing pathological battle for control within the brain. The landscape of this conflict is time. I suggest that there are at least 3 general systems bidding for this control, and in the process of evolution, each system has individually conferred a sequentially increasing survival advantage, but only at the expense of a still incomplete functional integration. Through juxtaposition of these respective brain

  18. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  19. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  20. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  1. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  2. Is random access memory random?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

  3. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  4. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  5. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  6. Parallel Memory Addressing Using Coincident Optical Pulses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-15

    diodes, and NEC NDL2102 avalanche photodiodes, are specified to operate in excess of I GHz. 2) The percentage of overlap for coincident pulses must be...Donald M. Chiarulli is an assistant professor of Rami G. Melhem has been with the faculty of Steven P. Levitan is the Wellington C. Carl computer

  7. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperis, S.

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  8. Quadratic Hadamard Memories II. Adaptive Stochastic Content. Addressable Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Dreyfus, "Collective computational properties of neural networks: New learning mechanisms", Phys. Rev. A34, 4217 (1986) 5] 1. Kanter and H. Sompolinski ... Sompolinsky , "Information storage in neural networks with low levels of activity", Phys. Rev. A35, 2293 (1987) [4] L. Personnaz, I. Guyon, and G

  9. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  10. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

  11. 76 FR 73666 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    .... Karshner Memorial Museum at the address below by December 29, 2011. ADDRESSES: Brian Fox, Director of... Fox, Director of Instructional Leadership, Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA,...

  12. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  13. Automatic multi-banking of memory for microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A microprocessor system is provided with added memories to expand its address spaces beyond its address word length capacity by using indirect addressing instructions of a type having a detectable operations code and dedicating designated address spaces of memory to each of the added memories, one space to a memory. By decoding each operations code of instructions read from main memory into a decoder to identify indirect addressing instructions of the specified type, and then decoding the address that follows in a decoder to determine which added memory is associated therewith, the associated added memory is selectively enabled through a unit while the main memory is disabled to permit the instruction to be executed on the location to which the effective address of the indirect address instruction points, either before the indirect address is read from main memory or afterwards, depending on how the system is arranged by a switch.

  14. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  15. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R.

    1992-09-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  16. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  17. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  18. Psychotherapy and Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, D. Stephen

    This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic…

  19. Bubble Memory Module.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    104 7-13 Four switch drive hybrid ........................................................................ 104 7-14...operation. Address Ready. - This signal is an output signal to the user which acknowledges that the module is busy. Input address is latched in the...expandable in 6.55 M bit increments. Detector noise is minimized by locating sense circuits, cell select switches , and memory cells on the same board

  20. Configurable memory system and method for providing atomic counting operations in a memory device

    DOEpatents

    Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2010-09-14

    A memory system and method for providing atomic memory-based counter operations to operating systems and applications that make most efficient use of counter-backing memory and virtual and physical address space, while simplifying operating system memory management, and enabling the counter-backing memory to be used for purposes other than counter-backing storage when desired. The encoding and address decoding enabled by the invention provides all this functionality through a combination of software and hardware.

  1. Distributed multiport memory architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, W. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiport memory architecture is diclosed for each of a plurality of task centers connected to a command and data bus. Each task center, includes a memory and a plurality of devices which request direct memory access as needed. The memory includes an internal data bus and an internal address bus to which the devices are connected, and direct timing and control logic comprised of a 10-state ring counter for allocating memory devices by enabling AND gates connected to the request signal lines of the devices. The outputs of AND gates connected to the same device are combined by OR gates to form an acknowledgement signal that enables the devices to address the memory during the next clock period. The length of the ring counter may be effectively lengthened to any multiple of ten to allow for more direct memory access intervals in one repetitive sequence. One device is a network bus adapter which serially shifts onto the command and data bus, a data word (8 bits plus control and parity bits) during the next ten direct memory access intervals after it has been granted access. The NBA is therefore allocated only one access in every ten intervals, which is a predetermined interval for all centers. The ring counters of all centers are periodically synchronized by DMA SYNC signal to assure that all NBAs be able to function in synchronism for data transfer from one center to another.

  2. Multi-port, optically addressed RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor); Esener, Sadik (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A random access memory addressing system utilizing optical links between memory and the read/write logic circuits comprises addressing circuits including a plurality of light signal sources, a plurality of optical gates including optical detectors associated with the memory cells, and a holographic optical element adapted to reflect and direct the light signals to the desired memory cell locations. More particularly, it is a multi-port, binary computer memory for interfacing with a plurality of computers. There are a plurality of storage cells for containing bits of binary information, the storage cells being disposed at the intersections of a plurality of row conductors and a plurality of column conductors. There is interfacing logic for receiving information from the computers directing access to ones of the storage cells. There are first light sources associated with the interfacing logic for transmitting a first light beam with the access information modulated thereon. First light detectors are associated with the storage cells for receiving the first light beam, for generating an electrical signal containing the access information, and for conducting the electrical signal to the one of the storage cells to which it is directed. There are holographic optical elements for reflecting the first light beam from the first light sources to the first light detectors.

  3. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  4. System and method for memory allocation in a multiclass memory system

    DOEpatents

    Loh, Gabriel; Meswani, Mitesh; Ignatowski, Michael; Nutter, Mark

    2016-06-28

    A system for memory allocation in a multiclass memory system includes a processor coupleable to a plurality of memories sharing a unified memory address space, and a library store to store a library of software functions. The processor identifies a type of a data structure in response to a memory allocation function call to the library for allocating memory to the data structure. Using the library, the processor allocates portions of the data structure among multiple memories of the multiclass memory system based on the type of the data structure.

  5. Memory performance of Prolog architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Tick, E.

    1988-01-01

    Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures addresses these problems and reports dynamic data and instruction referencing characteristics of both sequential and parallel prolog architectures and corresponding uni-processor and multi-processor memory-hierarchy performance tradeoffs. Computer designers and logic programmers will find this work to be a valuable reference with many practical applications. Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures will also serve as an important textbook for graduate level courses in computer architecture and/or performance analysis.

  6. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  7. Direct access inter-process shared memory

    DOEpatents

    Brightwell, Ronald B; Pedretti, Kevin; Hudson, Trammell B

    2013-10-22

    A technique for directly sharing physical memory between processes executing on processor cores is described. The technique includes loading a plurality of processes into the physical memory for execution on a corresponding plurality of processor cores sharing the physical memory. An address space is mapped to each of the processes by populating a first entry in a top level virtual address table for each of the processes. The address space of each of the processes is cross-mapped into each of the processes by populating one or more subsequent entries of the top level virtual address table with the first entry in the top level virtual address table from other processes.

  8. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  9. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  10. Radiation Tolerant Embedded Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 ...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1 . REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 27-06-2003 2. REPORT TYPE SBIR...Tolerant Embedded Memory 1 Table of Contents: Table of Contents

  11. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    DOEpatents

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  12. Implementing a bubble memory hierarchy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segura, R.; Nichols, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on implementation of a magnetic bubble memory in a two-level hierarchial system. The hierarchy used a major-minor loop device and RAM under microprocessor control. Dynamic memory addressing, dual bus primary memory, and hardware data modification detection are incorporated in the system to minimize access time. It is the objective of the system to incorporate the advantages of bipolar memory with that of bubble domain memory to provide a smart, optimal memory system which is easy to interface and independent of user's system.

  13. Photochromic transduction layers in organic memory elements.

    PubMed

    Shallcross, R Clayton; Zacharias, Philipp; Köhnen, Anne; Körner, Peter O; Maibach, Eduard; Meerholz, Klaus

    2013-01-18

    Photochromic molecules provide an intriguing and relatively untapped alternative to traditional materials utilized in organic memory devices. Here, we review recent progress in the implementation of photochromic molecules in electrically-addressed organic memory devices. Recent results for a lightemitting photochromic organic diode are highlighted in the context of multifunctional devices with the ability to simultaneously operate as multilevel memory, signage and display elements. Furthermore, a set of design rules for successful implementation of photochromic compounds in organic memory devices are suggested.

  14. Notes on implementation of sparsely distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeler, J. D.; Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Sparsely Distributed Memory (SDM) developed by Kanerva is an unconventional memory design with very interesting and desirable properties. The memory works in a manner that is closely related to modern theories of human memory. The SDM model is discussed in terms of its implementation in hardware. Two appendices discuss the unconventional approaches of the SDM: Appendix A treats a resistive circuit for fast, parallel address decoding; and Appendix B treats a systolic array for high throughput read and write operations.

  15. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood vessel (which carries the blood) bursts. continue Brain Injuries Affect Memory At any age, an injury to ... with somebody's memory. Some people who recover from brain injuries need to learn old things all over again, ...

  16. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  17. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  18. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  19. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  20. Memory Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  1. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  2. Autobiographical Memory Functioning among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children: The Overgeneral Memory Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Kristin; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background: This investigation addresses whether there are differences in the form and content of autobiographical memory recall as a function of maltreatment, and examines the roles of self-system functioning and psychopathology in autobiographical memory processes. Methods: Autobiographical memory for positive and negative nontraumatic events…

  3. Sparse distributed memory: Principles and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, M. J.; Kanerva, P.; Bhadkamkar, N.

    1989-01-01

    Sparse distributed memory is a generalized random access memory (RAM) for long (1000 bit) binary words. Such words can be written into and read from the memory, and they can also be used to address the memory. The main attribute of the memory is sensitivity to similarity, meaning that a word can be read back not only by giving the original write address but also by giving one close to it as measured by the Hamming distance between addresses. Large memories of this kind are expected to have wide use in speech recognition and scene analysis, in signal detection and verification, and in adaptive control of automated equipment, in general, in dealing with real world information in real time. The memory can be realized as a simple, massively parallel computer. Digital technology has reached a point where building large memories is becoming practical. Major design issues were resolved which were faced in building the memories. The design is described of a prototype memory with 256 bit addresses and from 8 to 128 K locations for 256 bit words. A key aspect of the design is extensive use of dynamic RAM and other standard components.

  4. Sparse distributed memory prototype: Principles of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael J.; Kanerva, Pentti; Ahanin, Bahram; Bhadkamkar, Neal; Flaherty, Paul; Hickey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Sparse distributed memory is a generalized random access memory (RAM) for long binary words. Such words can be written into and read from the memory, and they can be used to address the memory. The main attribute of the memory is sensitivity to similarity, meaning that a word can be read back not only by giving the original right address but also by giving one close to it as measured by the Hamming distance between addresses. Large memories of this kind are expected to have wide use in speech and scene analysis, in signal detection and verification, and in adaptive control of automated equipment. The memory can be realized as a simple, massively parallel computer. Digital technology has reached a point where building large memories is becoming practical. The research is aimed at resolving major design issues that have to be faced in building the memories. The design of a prototype memory with 256-bit addresses and from 8K to 128K locations for 256-bit words is described. A key aspect of the design is extensive use of dynamic RAM and other standard components.

  5. Design and Implementation of High Performance Content-Addressable Memories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Logic store matches in Match Store 4 (GONT 1) store matches into Temporary Match Store (LDTEMP = 1) any match ? (RESULT =1 ?) yes no . .-.- MMR produces...matches in Match Store (CONT = 1) yes more search ?.1yes S . no store matches into Temporary Match Store (LDTEMP = 1) any match ? (RESULT =1 ?) I yes no MMR... ENGINEERING UNLRSIIE WHSHINN DEC 85 AFIT/GE/ENG/85D-39 F/G 915 N ?,e Ll" L 11L61 02.01 %iiii 1 L A 2 IIII 5 II MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART OF 1

  6. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  7. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  8. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  9. A general model for memory interference in a multiprocessor system with memory hierarchy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taha, Badie A.; Standley, Hilda M.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of memory interference in a multiprocessor system with a hierarchy of shared buses and memories is addressed. The behavior of the processors is represented by a sequence of memory requests with each followed by a determined amount of processing time. A statistical queuing network model for determining the extent of memory interference in multiprocessor systems with clusters of memory hierarchies is presented. The performance of the system is measured by the expected number of busy memory clusters. The results of the analytic model are compared with simulation results, and the correlation between them is found to be very high.

  10. Flashbulb Memories

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    We review and analyze the key theories, debates, findings, and omissions of the existing literature on flashbulb memories (FBMs), including what factors affect their formation, retention, and degree of confidence. We argue that FBMs do not require special memory mechanisms and are best characterized as involving both forgetting and mnemonic distortions, despite a high level of confidence. Factual memories for FBM-inducing events generally follow a similar pattern. Although no necessary and sufficient factors straightforwardly account for FBM retention, media attention particularly shapes memory for the events themselves. FBMs are best characterized in term of repetitions, even of mnemonic distortions, whereas event memories evidence corrections. The bearing of this literature on social identity and traumatic memories is also discussed. PMID:26997762

  11. Shared memory for a fault-tolerant computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilley, G. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A system is described for sharing a memory in a fault-tolerant computer. The memory is under the direct control and monitoring of error detecting and error diagnostic units in the fault-tolerant computer. This computer verifies that data to and from the memory is legally encoded and verifies that words read from the memory at a desired address are, in fact, actually delivered from that desired address. The means are provided for a second processor, which is independent of the direct control and monitoring of the error checking and diagnostic units of the fault-tolerant computer, and to share the memory of the fault-tolerant computer. Circuitry is included to verify that: (1) the processor has properly accessed a desired memory location in the memory; (2) a data word read-out from the memory is properly coded; and (3) no inactive memory was erroneously outputting data onto the shared memory bus.

  12. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  13. Skilled Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-06

    Morse code (Bryan & Harter , 1899). In every case, memory performance of the expert seems to violate the established limits of short- term memory. How is...of immediate memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental psychology, 1958, 10, 12-21. Bryan, W. L., & Harter N. psychological Review, 1899, 6, 345-375...16, 1980 Page 5 Civil Govt Non Govt Dr. Susan Chipman 1 Dr. John R. Anderson Learning and Development Department of Psychology National Institute of

  14. Weather prediction using a genetic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David

    1990-01-01

    Kanaerva's sparse distributed memory (SDM) is an associative memory model based on the mathematical properties of high dimensional binary address spaces. Holland's genetic algorithms are a search technique for high dimensional spaces inspired by evolutional processes of DNA. Genetic Memory is a hybrid of the above two systems, in which the memory uses a genetic algorithm to dynamically reconfigure its physical storage locations to reflect correlations between the stored addresses and data. This architecture is designed to maximize the ability of the system to scale-up to handle real world problems.

  15. Shared-memory parallel programming in C++

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, B. )

    1990-07-01

    This paper discusses how researchers have produced a set of portable parallel-programming constructs for C, implemented in M4 macros. These parallel-programming macros are available under the name Parmacs. The Parmacs macros let one write parallel C programs for shared-memory, distributed-memory, and mixed-memory (shared and distributed) systems. They have been implemented on several machines. Because Parmacs offers useful parallel-programming features, the author has considered how these problems might be overcome or avoided. The author thought that using C++, rather than C, would address these problems adequately, and describes the C++ features exploited. The work described addresses shared-memory constructs.

  16. System and method for programmable bank selection for banked memory subsystems

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Hoenicke, Dirk; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2010-09-07

    A programmable memory system and method for enabling one or more processor devices access to shared memory in a computing environment, the shared memory including one or more memory storage structures having addressable locations for storing data. The system comprises: one or more first logic devices associated with a respective one or more processor devices, each first logic device for receiving physical memory address signals and programmable for generating a respective memory storage structure select signal upon receipt of pre-determined address bit values at selected physical memory address bit locations; and, a second logic device responsive to each of the respective select signal for generating an address signal used for selecting a memory storage structure for processor access. The system thus enables each processor device of a computing environment memory storage access distributed across the one or more memory storage structures.

  17. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  18. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  19. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  20. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  1. Conditional load and store in a shared memory

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Ohmacht, Martin

    2015-02-03

    A method, system and computer program product for implementing load-reserve and store-conditional instructions in a multi-processor computing system. The computing system includes a multitude of processor units and a shared memory cache, and each of the processor units has access to the memory cache. In one embodiment, the method comprises providing the memory cache with a series of reservation registers, and storing in these registers addresses reserved in the memory cache for the processor units as a result of issuing load-reserve requests. In this embodiment, when one of the processor units makes a request to store data in the memory cache using a store-conditional request, the reservation registers are checked to determine if an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor unit. If an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor, the data are stored at this address.

  2. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  3. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  4. Memory formation under stress: quantity and quality.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T; Oitzl, Melly S

    2010-03-01

    Stress shapes memory. Depending on the timing of the stress exposure facilitating and impairing effects of stress are reported on how much is learned and remembered. Beyond such stress-induced changes in the quantity of memory, recent research suggests that stress also affects the contribution of multiple memory systems to performance. Under stress, rigid 'habit' memory gets favored over more flexible 'cognitive' memory. Thus, stress has an impact on the way we learn and remember, that is the quality of memory. This shift between different behavioral strategies on "environmental demands" may facilitate adaptive responses. Here, we review stress effects on both quantity and quality of memory and address possible implications of these effects for the understanding of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  5. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003257.htm Memory loss To use the sharing features on this ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  6. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  7. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    SciTech Connect

    Welcome, Michael L.; Bell, Christian S.

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address space languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.

  8. Partitioned key-value store with atomic memory operations

    DOEpatents

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2017-02-07

    A partitioned key-value store is provided that supports atomic memory operations. A server performs a memory operation in a partitioned key-value store by receiving a request from an application for at least one atomic memory operation, the atomic memory operation comprising a memory address identifier; and, in response to the atomic memory operation, performing one or more of (i) reading a client-side memory location identified by the memory address identifier and storing one or more key-value pairs from the client-side memory location in a local key-value store of the server; and (ii) obtaining one or more key-value pairs from the local key-value store of the server and writing the obtained one or more key-value pairs into the client-side memory location identified by the memory address identifier. The server can perform functions obtained from a client-side memory location and return a result to the client using one or more of the atomic memory operations.

  9. Study of performance on SMP and distributed memory architectures using a shared memory programming model

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, E.D.; Warren, K.H.

    1997-08-08

    In this paper we examine the use of a shared memory programming model to address the problem of portability of application codes between distributed memory and shared memory architectures. We do this with an extension of the Parallel C Preprocessor. The extension, borrowed from Split-C and AC, uses type qualifiers instead of storage class modifiers to declare variables that are shared among processors. The type qualifier declaration supports an abstract shared memory facility on distributed memory machines while making direct use of hardware support on shared memory architectures. Our benchmarking study spans a wide range of shared memory and distributed memory platforms. Benchmarks include Gaussian elimination with back substitution, a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform, and a matrix-matrix multiply. We find that the type-qualifier-based shared memory programming model is capable of efficiently spanning both distributed memory and shared memory architectures. Although the resulting shared memory programming model is portable, it does not remove the need to arrange for overlapped or blocked remote memory references on platforms that require these tuning measures in order to obtain good performance.

  10. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general.

  11. Memory Optimization for Phase-field Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Gaston; John Peterson; Andrew Slaughter; Cody Permann; David Andrs

    2014-08-01

    Phase-field simulations are computationally and memory intensive applications. Many of the phase-field simulations being conducted in support of NEAMS were not capable of running on “normal clusters” with 2-4GB of RAM per core, and instead required specialized “big-memory” clusters with 64GB per core. To address this issue, the MOOSE team developed a new Python-based utility called MemoryLogger, and applied it to locate, diagnose, and eradicate memory bottlenecks within the MOOSE framework. MemoryLogger allows for a better understanding of the memory usage of an application being run in parallel across a cluster. Memory usage information is captured for every individual process in a parallel job, and communicated to the head node of the cluster. Console text output from the application itself is automatically matched with this memory usage information to produce a detailed picture of memory usage over time, making it straightforward to identify the subroutines which contribute most to the application’s peak memory usage. The information produced by the MemoryLogger quickly and effectively narrows the search for memory optimizations to the most data-intensive parts of the simulation.

  12. Memory-based parallel data output controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A memory-based parallel data output controller employs associative memories and memory mapping to decommutate multiple channels of telemetry data. The output controller contains a random access memory (RAM) which has at least as many address locations as there are channels. A word counter addresses the RAM which provides as it outputs an encoded peripheral device number and a MSB/LSB-first flag. The encoded device number and a bit counter address a second RAM which contains START and STOP flags to pick out the required bits from the specified word number. The LSB/MSB, START and STOP flags, along with the serial input digital data go to a control block which selectively fills a shift register used to drive the parallel data output bus.

  13. Autobiographical memory functioning among abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children: The overgeneral memory effect

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Kristin; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-01-01

    Background This investigation addresses whether there are differences in the form and content of autobiographical memory recall as a function of maltreatment, and examines the roles of self-system functioning and psychopathology in autobiographical memory processes. Methods Autobiographical memory for positive and negative nontraumatic events was evaluated among abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated school-aged children. Results Abused children’s memories were more overgeneral and contained more negative self-representations than did those of the nonmaltreated children. Negative self-representations and depression were significantly related to overgeneral memory, but did not mediate the relation between abuse and overgeneral memory. Conclusions The meaning of these findings for models of memory and for the development of overgenerality is emphasized. Moreover, the clinical implications of the current research are discussed. PMID:19490313

  14. A Cerebellar-model Associative Memory as a Generalized Random-access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1989-01-01

    A versatile neural-net model is explained in terms familiar to computer scientists and engineers. It is called the sparse distributed memory, and it is a random-access memory for very long words (for patterns with thousands of bits). Its potential utility is the result of several factors: (1) a large pattern representing an object or a scene or a moment can encode a large amount of information about what it represents; (2) this information can serve as an address to the memory, and it can also serve as data; (3) the memory is noise tolerant--the information need not be exact; (4) the memory can be made arbitrarily large and hence an arbitrary amount of information can be stored in it; and (5) the architecture is inherently parallel, allowing large memories to be fast. Such memories can become important components of future computers.

  15. Fueling Memories

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Pollizzi, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of the adaptive immune response is rapid and robust activation upon rechallenge. In the current issue of Immunity van der Windt et al. (2012) provide an important link between mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the development of CD8+ T cell memory. PMID:22284413

  16. Childhood Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz

    2001-01-01

    Describes how artwork can be a valuable catalyst for discussions in preservice education classes, allowing students to explore how their work as educators relates to their childhood memories and can be shaped by childhood experiences. Examines an art exhibition in which diverse artists depicted autobiographical text in their paintings. Discusses…

  17. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  18. Hollow memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    A hollow-core optical fibre filled with warm caesium atoms can temporarily store the properties of photons. Michael Sprague from the University of Oxford, UK, explains to Nature Photonics how this optical memory could be a useful building block for fibre-based quantum optics.

  19. Compact Spare-Row Decoder For Computer Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Rakow, Glenn P.; Bickler, Thomas C.; Barto, Rod

    1992-01-01

    Spare-row memory-address-decoder circuit commanded to address ninth row in computer memory instead of addressing one of eight others it would address normally. Variants used to construct small, highly reliable computers. Spare-row decoder offers advantages of compactness, efficiency, and performance. Requires only 12.5 percent memory overhead. System equipped with spare-row decoder requires less glue logic and exhibits greater through-put. Applications include computers in Hitchhiker Central Unit embedded computer on Cassini spacecraft. Concept of circuit applicable to most flight computer systems.

  20. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence. PMID:26257650

  1. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence.

  2. A class of designs for a sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    A general class of designs for a space distributed memory (SDM) is described. The author shows that Kanerva's original design and the selected-coordinate design are related, and that there is a series of possible intermediate designs between those two designs. In each such design, the set of addresses that activate a memory location is a sphere in the address space. We can also have hybrid designs, in which the memory locations may be a mixture of those found in the other designs. In some applications, the bits of the read and write addresses that will actually be used might be mostly zeros; that is, the addresses might lie on or near z hyperplane in the address space. The author describes a hyperplane design which is adapted to this situation and compares it to an adaptation of Kanerva's design. To study the performance of these designs, he computes the expected number of memory locations activated by both of two addresses.

  3. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    , between the positive and negative FFET saturation values. This signal value would represent a numerical value of interest corresponding to multiple bits: for example, if the memory circuit were designed to distinguish among 16 different analog values, then each cell could store 4 bits. Simultaneously with writing the signal value in the storage FFET, a negative saturation signal value would be stored in the control FFET. The decay of this control-FFET signal from the saturation value would serve as a model of the decay, for use in regenerating the numerical value of interest from its decaying analog signal value. The memory circuit would include addressing, reading, and writing circuitry that would have features in common with the corresponding parts of other memory circuits, but would also have several distinctive features. The writing circuitry would include a digital-to-analog converter (DAC); the reading circuitry would include an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). For writing a numerical value of interest in a given cell, that cell would be addressed, the saturation value would be written in the control FFET in that cell, and the non-saturation analog value representing the numerical value of interest would be generated by use of the DAC and stored in the storage FFET in that cell. For reading the numerical value of interest stored in a given cell, the cell would be addressed, the ADC would convert the decaying control and storage analog signal values to digital values, and an associated fast digital processing circuit would regenerate the numerical value from digital values.

  4. [Neural correlates of memory].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2013-01-01

    Memory can be divided into several types, although all of them involve three successive processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. In terms of the duration of retention, neurologists classify memory into immediate, recent, and remote memories, whereas psychologists classify memory into short-term and long-term memories. In terms of the content, episodic, semantic, and procedural memories are considered to be different types of memory. Furthermore, researchers on memory have proposed relatively new concepts of memory, i.e., working memory and prospective memory. This article first provides explanations for these several types of memory. Next, neuropsychological characteristics of amnesic syndrome are briefly outlined. Finally, how several different types of memory are affected (or preserved) in patients with amnesic syndrome is described.

  5. Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, George S.; Grafe, Victor Gerald

    1997-01-01

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.

  6. Direct match data flow memory for data driven computing

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.

    1997-10-07

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status bit to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.

  7. Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, Michael Andrew; Blanchard, Sean P.; Debardeleben, Nathan A.

    2014-07-25

    As supercomputers continue to get faster and more powerful in the future, they will also have more nodes. If nothing is done, then the amount of memory in supercomputer clusters will soon grow large enough that memory failures will be unmanageable to deal with by manually replacing memory DIMMs. "Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux" is a process oriented method to solve this problem by using the Linux kernel to disable (offline) faulty memory pages containing bad addresses, preventing them from being used again by a process. The process of offlining memory pages simplifies error handling and results in reducing both hardware and manpower costs required to run Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) clusters. This process will be necessary for the future of supercomputing to allow the development of exascale computers. It will not be feasible without memory error handling to manually replace the number of DIMMs that will fail daily on a machine consisting of 32-128 petabytes of memory. Testing reveals the process of offlining memory pages works and is relatively simple to use. As more and more testing is conducted, the entire process will be automated within the high-performance computing (HPC) monitoring software, Zenoss, at LANL.

  8. Interaction between categorical knowledge and episodic memory across domains

    PubMed Central

    Hemmer, Pernille; Persaud, Kimele

    2014-01-01

    Categorical knowledge and episodic memory have traditionally been viewed as separate lines of inquiry. Here, we present a perspective on the interrelatedness of categorical knowledge and reconstruction from memory. We address three underlying questions: what knowledge do people bring to the task of remembering? How do people integrate that knowledge with episodic memory? Is this the optimal way for the memory system to work? In the review of five studies spanning four category domains (discrete, continuous, temporal, and linguistic), we evaluate the relative contribution and the structure of influence of categorical knowledge on long-term episodic memory. These studies suggest a robustness of peoples’ knowledge of the statistical regularities of the environment, and provide converging evidence of the quality and influence of category knowledge on reconstructive memory. Lastly, we argue that combining categorical knowledge and episodic memory is an efficient strategy of the memory system. PMID:24966848

  9. Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2000: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings for the Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2000 that was held on November 15-16, 2000 in Arlington, Virginia. The proceedings contains a wide range of papers that cover the presentations of myriad advances in the nonvolatile memory technology during the recent past including memory cell design, simulations, radiation environment, and emerging memory technologies. The papers presented in the proceedings address the design challenges and applications and deals with newer, emerging memory technologies as well as related issues of radiation environment and die packaging.

  10. Memory and law: what can cognitive neuroscience contribute?

    PubMed

    Schacter, Daniel L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-02-01

    A recent decision in the United States by the New Jersey Supreme Court has led to improved jury instructions that incorporate psychological research showing that memory does not operate like a video recording. Here we consider how cognitive neuroscience could contribute to addressing memory in the courtroom. We discuss conditions in which neuroimaging can distinguish true and false memories in the laboratory and note reasons to be skeptical about its use in courtroom cases. We also discuss neuroscience research concerning false and imagined memories, misinformation effects and reconsolidation phenomena that may enhance understanding of why memory does not operate like a video recording.

  11. A Concept of Corporate Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-17

    CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER^*; N00014-75.-C-0462. ». PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Department of Decision Sciences ’ The Wharton School...Decision Sciences The Wharton School University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104 "Tftis foi P^ut- -^ urUlnil This paper will be presented at the...Philadelphia PA 19104 A CONCEPT OF CORPORATE MEMORY Howard L. Morgan and David J. Root Dept. of Decision Sciences , The Whart’on School Abstract An

  12. (U) Computation acceleration using dynamic memory

    SciTech Connect

    Hakel, Peter

    2014-10-24

    Many computational applications require the repeated use of quantities, whose calculations can be expensive. In order to speed up the overall execution of the program, it is often advantageous to replace computation with extra memory usage. In this approach, computed values are stored and then, when they are needed again, they are quickly retrieved from memory rather than being calculated again at great cost. Sometimes, however, the precise amount of memory needed to store such a collection is not known in advance, and only emerges in the course of running the calculation. One problem accompanying such a situation is wasted memory space in overdimensioned (and possibly sparse) arrays. Another issue is the overhead of copying existing values to a new, larger memory space, if the original allocation turns out to be insufficient. In order to handle these runtime problems, the programmer therefore has the extra task of addressing them in the code.

  13. Dual-rail optical gradient echo memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbottom, D. B.; Geng, J.; Campbell, G. T.; Hosseini, M.; Cao, M. T.; Sparkes, B. M.; Bernu, J.; Robins, N. P.; Lam, P. K.; Buchler, B. C.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce a scheme for the parallel storage of frequency separated signals in an optical memory and demonstrate that this dual-rail storage is a suitable memory for high fidelity frequency qubits. The two signals are stored simultaneously in the Zeeman-split Raman absorption lines of a cold atom ensemble using gradient echo memory techniques. Analysis of the split-Zeeman storage shows that the memory can be configured to preserve the relative amplitude and phase of the frequency separated signals. In an experimental demonstration dual-frequency pulses are recalled with 35% efficiency, 82% interference fringe visibility, and 6 degrees phase stability. The fidelity of the frequency-qubit memory is limited by frequency-dependent polarisation rotation and ambient magnetic field fluctuations, our analysis describes how these can be addressed in an alternative configuration.

  14. Integer sparse distributed memory: analysis and results.

    PubMed

    Snaider, Javier; Franklin, Stan; Strain, Steve; George, E Olusegun

    2013-10-01

    Sparse distributed memory is an auto-associative memory system that stores high dimensional Boolean vectors. Here we present an extension of the original SDM, the Integer SDM that uses modular arithmetic integer vectors rather than binary vectors. This extension preserves many of the desirable properties of the original SDM: auto-associativity, content addressability, distributed storage, and robustness over noisy inputs. In addition, it improves the representation capabilities of the memory and is more robust over normalization. It can also be extended to support forgetting and reliable sequence storage. We performed several simulations that test the noise robustness property and capacity of the memory. Theoretical analyses of the memory's fidelity and capacity are also presented.

  15. The molecular basis of memory.

    PubMed

    Marx, Gerard; Gilon, Chaim

    2012-08-15

    We propose a tripartite biochemical mechanism for memory. Three physiologic components are involved, namely, the neuron (individual and circuit), the surrounding neural extracellular matrix, and the various trace metals distributed within the matrix. The binding of a metal cation affects a corresponding nanostructure (shrinking, twisting, expansion) and dielectric sensibility of the chelating node (address) within the matrix lattice, sensed by the neuron. The neural extracellular matrix serves as an electro-elastic lattice, wherein neurons manipulate multiple trace metals (n > 10) to encode, store, and decode coginive information. The proposed mechanism explains brains low energy requirements and high rates of storage capacity described in multiples of Avogadro number (N(A) = 6 × 10(23)). Supportive evidence correlates memory loss to trace metal toxicity or deficiency, or breakdown in the delivery/transport of metals to the matrix, or its degradation. Inherited diseases revolving around dysfunctional trace metal metabolism and memory dysfunction, include Alzheimer's disease (Al, Zn, Fe), Wilson's disease (Cu), thalassemia (Fe), and autism (metallothionein). The tripartite mechanism points to the electro-elastic interactions of neurons with trace metals distributed within the neural extracellular matrix, as the molecular underpinning of "synaptic plasticity" affecting short-term memory, long-term memory, and forgetting.

  16. The Molecular Basis of Memory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We propose a tripartite biochemical mechanism for memory. Three physiologic components are involved, namely, the neuron (individual and circuit), the surrounding neural extracellular matrix, and the various trace metals distributed within the matrix. The binding of a metal cation affects a corresponding nanostructure (shrinking, twisting, expansion) and dielectric sensibility of the chelating node (address) within the matrix lattice, sensed by the neuron. The neural extracellular matrix serves as an electro-elastic lattice, wherein neurons manipulate multiple trace metals (n > 10) to encode, store, and decode coginive information. The proposed mechanism explains brains low energy requirements and high rates of storage capacity described in multiples of Avogadro number (NA = 6 × 1023). Supportive evidence correlates memory loss to trace metal toxicity or deficiency, or breakdown in the delivery/transport of metals to the matrix, or its degradation. Inherited diseases revolving around dysfunctional trace metal metabolism and memory dysfunction, include Alzheimer's disease (Al, Zn, Fe), Wilson’s disease (Cu), thalassemia (Fe), and autism (metallothionein). The tripartite mechanism points to the electro-elastic interactions of neurons with trace metals distributed within the neural extracellular matrix, as the molecular underpinning of “synaptic plasticity” affecting short-term memory, long-term memory, and forgetting. PMID:23050060

  17. Electronic device aspects of neural network memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambe, J.; Moopenn, A.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    The basic issues related to the electronic implementation of the neural network model (NNM) for content addressable memories are examined. A brief introduction to the principles of the NNM is followed by an analysis of the information storage of the neural network in the form of a binary connection matrix and the recall capability of such matrix memories based on a hardware simulation study. In addition, materials and device architecture issues involved in the future realization of such networks in VLSI-compatible ultrahigh-density memories are considered. A possible space application of such devices would be in the area of large-scale information storage without mechanical devices.

  18. Reconsolidation and the fate of consolidated memories.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, Lia R; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-12-01

    The predominant view about memory formation states that a consolidation process stabilizes newly acquired traces until they are safely stored in the brain. However, during the last ten years evidence has accumulated to indicate that, upon retrieval, consolidated memories are rendered again vulnerable to the action of metabolic blockers, notably protein synthesis inhibitors. This has led to the hypothesis that memories are reconsolidated at the time of retrieval, and that this requires protein synthesis in different brain regions. Here we will address the consolidation-reconsolidation debate and discuss some controversial issues about the reconsolidation hypothesis, in particular the biological role of this process.

  19. Staging memory for massively parallel processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batcher, Kenneth E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention herein relates to a computer organization capable of rapidly processing extremely large volumes of data. A staging memory is provided having a main stager portion consisting of a large number of memory banks which are accessed in parallel to receive, store, and transfer data words simultaneous with each other. Substager portions interconnect with the main stager portion to match input and output data formats with the data format of the main stager portion. An address generator is coded for accessing the data banks for receiving or transferring the appropriate words. Input and output permutation networks arrange the lineal order of data into and out of the memory banks.

  20. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  1. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  2. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  3. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  4. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  5. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  6. A Beginner's Guide to Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    1981-01-01

    This article is designed to equip the reader with the information needed to deal with questions of computer memory. Discussed are core memory; semiconductor memory; size of memory; expanding memory; charge-coupled device memories; magnetic bubble memory; and read-only and read-mostly memories. (KC)

  7. A New Conceptualization of Human Visual Sensory-Memory.

    PubMed

    Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Memory is an essential component of cognition and disorders of memory have significant individual and societal costs. The Atkinson-Shiffrin "modal model" forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores: Sensory Memory (SM), whose visual component is called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM; also called working memory, WM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM). Since its inception, shortcomings of all three components of the modal model have been identified. While the theories of STM and LTM underwent significant modifications to address these shortcomings, models of the iconic memory remained largely unchanged: A high capacity but rapidly decaying store whose contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, i.e., according to how the stimulus is projected on the retina. The fundamental shortcoming of iconic memory models is that, because contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, the iconic memory cannot hold any useful information under normal viewing conditions when objects or the subject are in motion. Hence, half-century after its formulation, it remains an unresolved problem whether and how the first stage of the modal model serves any useful function and how subsequent stages of the modal model receive inputs from the environment. Here, we propose a new conceptualization of human visual sensory memory by introducing an additional component whose reference-frame consists of motion-grouping based coordinates rather than retinotopic coordinates. We review data supporting this new model and discuss how it offers solutions to the paradoxes of the traditional model of sensory memory.

  8. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  9. Quantifying Precision and Availability of Location Memory in Everyday Pictures and Some Implications for Picture Database Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdale, Mark W.; Oliff, Lynda; Baguley, Thom S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is…

  10. Analyzing the trade-off between multiple memory controllers and memory channels on multi-core processor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Sancho Pitarch, Jose Carlos; Kerbyson, Darren; Lang, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the core-count on current and future processors is posing critical challenges to the memory subsystem to efficiently handle concurrent memory requests. The current trend to cope with this challenge is to increase the number of memory channels available to the processor's memory controller. In this paper we investigate the effectiveness of this approach on the performance of parallel scientific applications. Specifically, we explore the trade-off between employing multiple memory channels per memory controller and the use of multiple memory controllers. Experiments conducted on two current state-of-the-art multicore processors, a 6-core AMD Istanbul and a 4-core Intel Nehalem-EP, for a wide range of production applications shows that there is a diminishing return when increasing the number of memory channels per memory controller. In addition, we show that this performance degradation can be efficiently addressed by increasing the ratio of memory controllers to channels while keeping the number of memory channels constant. Significant performance improvements can be achieved in this scheme, up to 28%, in the case of using two memory controllers with each with one channel compared with one controller with two memory channels.

  11. Silent store detection and recording in memory storage

    DOEpatents

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Nair, Ravi

    2017-03-07

    An aspect includes receiving a write request that includes a memory address and write data. Stored data is read from a memory location at the memory address. Based on determining that the memory location was not previously modified, the stored data is compared to the write data. Based on the stored data matching the write data, the write request is completed without writing the write data to the memory and a corresponding silent store bit, in a silent store bitmap is set. Based on the stored data not matching the write data, the write data is written to the memory location, the silent store bit is reset and a corresponding modified bit is set. At least one of an application and an operating system is provided access to the silent store bitmap.

  12. Silent store detection and recording in memory storage

    DOEpatents

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Nair, Ravi

    2017-03-14

    An aspect includes receiving a write request that includes a memory address and write data. Stored data is read from a memory location at the memory address. Based on determining that the memory location was not previously modified, the stored data is compared to the write data. Based on the stored data matching the write data, the write request is completed without writing the write data to the memory and a corresponding silent store bit, in a silent store bitmap is set. Based on the stored data not matching the write data, the write data is written to the memory location, the silent store bit is reset and a corresponding modified bit is set. At least one of an application and an operating system is provided access to the silent store bitmap.

  13. Silent store detection and recording in memory storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Nair, Ravi

    2016-09-20

    An aspect includes receiving a write request that includes a memory address and write data. Stored data is read from a memory location at the memory address. Based on determining that the memory location was not previously modified, the stored data is compared to the write data. Based on the stored data matching the write data, the write request is completed without writing the write data to the memory and a corresponding silent store bit, in a silent store bitmap is set. Based on the stored data not matching the write data, the write data is written to the memory location, the silent store bit is reset and a corresponding modified bit is set. At least one of an application and an operating system is provided access to the silent store bitmap.

  14. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  15. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  16. The cellular memory disc of reprogrammed cells.

    PubMed

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2013-04-01

    The crucial facts underlying the low efficiency of cellular reprogramming are poorly understood. Cellular reprogramming occurs in nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation, cell fusion, and lineage-switching experiments. Despite these advances, there are three fundamental problems to be addressed: (1) the majority of cells cannot be reprogrammed, (2) the efficiency of reprogramming cells is usually low, and (3) the reprogrammed cells developed from a patient's own cells activate immune responses. These shortcomings present major obstacles for using reprogramming approaches in customised cell therapy. In this Perspective, the author synthesises past and present observations in the field of cellular reprogramming to propose a theoretical picture of the cellular memory disc. The current hypothesis is that all cells undergo an endogenous and exogenous holographic memorisation such that parts of the cellular memory dramatically decrease the efficiency of reprogramming cells, act like a barrier against reprogramming in the majority of cells, and activate immune responses. Accordingly, the focus of this review is mainly to describe the cellular memory disc (CMD). Based on the present theory, cellular memory includes three parts: a reprogramming-resistance memory (RRM), a switch-promoting memory (SPM) and a culture-induced memory (CIM). The cellular memory arises genetically, epigenetically and non-genetically and affects cellular behaviours. [corrected].

  17. Order-memory and association-memory.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Two highly studied memory functions are memory for associations (items presented in pairs, such as SALT-PEPPER) and memory for order (a list of items whose order matters, such as a telephone number). Order- and association-memory are at the root of many forms of behaviour, from wayfinding, to language, to remembering people's names. Most researchers have investigated memory for order separately from memory for associations. Exceptions to this, associative-chaining models build an ordered list from associations between pairs of items, quite literally understanding association- and order-memory together. Alternatively, positional-coding models have been used to explain order-memory as a completely distinct function from association-memory. Both classes of model have found empirical support and both have faced serious challenges. I argue that models that combine both associative chaining and positional coding are needed. One such hybrid model, which relies on brain-activity rhythms, is promising, but remains to be tested rigourously. I consider two relatively understudied memory behaviours that demand a combination of order- and association-information: memory for the order of items within associations (is it William James or James William?) and judgments of relative order (who left the party earlier, Hermann or William?). Findings from these underexplored procedures are already difficult to reconcile with existing association-memory and order-memory models. Further work with such intermediate experimental paradigms has the potential to provide powerful findings to constrain and guide models into the future, with the aim of explaining a large range of memory functions, encompassing both association- and order-memory.

  18. Emotional memory persists longer than event memory.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition performance for event memory differs from that for emotional memory. Although event recognition deteriorated equally for episodes that were or were not emotionally salient, emotional recognition remained high for only stimuli related to emotional episodes. Recognition performance pertaining to delayed emotional memory is an accurate predictor of the context of past episodes.

  19. Encoding of Fear Memory in High and Low Fear Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-18

    Fear Memory in High and Low Fear Mice” Period of Award 01AUG2011-31JUL2013 Applicant Organization Henry M. Jackson Foundation Address of...1. REPORT DATE 18 NOV 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 01 AUG 2011 - 31 JUL 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Encoding of Fear Memory ...neurobiological illness and improve quality of life for nurses and patients. 15. SUBJECT TERMS fear memory , PTSD, high fear, neurobiological illness, fit

  20. Electrically Variable Resistive Memory Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Shangqing; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex; Charlson, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Nonvolatile electronic memory devices that store data in the form of electrical- resistance values, and memory circuits based on such devices, have been invented. These devices and circuits exploit an electrically-variable-resistance phenomenon that occurs in thin films of certain oxides that exhibit the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) effect. It is worth emphasizing that, as stated in the immediately preceding article, these devices function at room temperature and do not depend on externally applied magnetic fields. A device of this type is basically a thin film resistor: it consists of a thin film of a CMR material located between, and in contact with, two electrical conductors. The application of a short-duration, low-voltage current pulse via the terminals changes the electrical resistance of the film. The amount of the change in resistance depends on the size of the pulse. The direction of change (increase or decrease of resistance) depends on the polarity of the pulse. Hence, a datum can be written (or a prior datum overwritten) in the memory device by applying a pulse of size and polarity tailored to set the resistance at a value that represents a specific numerical value. To read the datum, one applies a smaller pulse - one that is large enough to enable accurate measurement of resistance, but small enough so as not to change the resistance. In writing, the resistance can be set to any value within the dynamic range of the CMR film. Typically, the value would be one of several discrete resistance values that represent logic levels or digits. Because the number of levels can exceed 2, a memory device of this type is not limited to binary data. Like other memory devices, devices of this type can be incorporated into a memory integrated circuit by laying them out on a substrate in rows and columns, along with row and column conductors for electrically addressing them individually or collectively.

  1. Sleep Deprivation affects Extinction but Not Acquisition Memory in Honeybees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussaini, Syed Abid; Bogusch, Lisa; Landgraf, Tim; Menzel, Randolf

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-like behavior has been studied in honeybees before, but the relationship between sleep and memory formation has not been explored. Here we describe a new approach to address the question if sleep in bees, like in other animals, improves memory consolidation. Restrained bees were observed by a web camera, and their antennal activities were…

  2. Temporal Codes for Memories: Issues and Problems. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Benton J.

    Little is known about the accuracy of temporal codes for memories, and still less about the nature of the codes. This report addresses the central question of the mechanisms by which order information is attached to memories. The results of 16 experiments indicate the role of some independent variables on temporal coding in relatively short-term…

  3. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory and Traumatic Events: An Evaluative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sally A.; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2007-01-01

    Does trauma exposure impair retrieval of autobiographical memories? Many theorists have suggested that the reduced ability to access specific memories of life events, termed overgenerality, is a protective mechanism helping attenuate painful emotions associated with trauma. The authors addressed this question by reviewing 24 studies that assessed…

  4. Money Enhances Memory Consolidation--But Only for Boring Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Money's ability to enhance memory has received increased attention in recent research. However, previous studies have not directly addressed the time-dependent nature of monetary effects on memory, which are suggested to exist by research in cognitive neuroscience, and the possible detrimental effects of monetary rewards on learning interesting…

  5. Orbito-Frontal Cortex Is Necessary for Temporal Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Audrey; Henson, Richard N.; Knight, Robert T.; Emery, Tina; Graham, Kim S.

    2010-01-01

    Lesion and neuroimaging studies suggest that orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) supports temporal aspects of episodic memory. However, it is unclear whether OFC contributes to the encoding and/or retrieval of temporal context and whether it is selective for temporal relative to nontemporal (spatial) context memory. We addressed this issue with two…

  6. Medial Temporal Lobe Memory in Childhood: Developmental Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Elise L.; Richmond, Jenny L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Thomas, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) support declarative memory and mature structurally and functionally during the postnatal years in humans. Although recent work has addressed the development of declarative memory in early childhood, less is known about continued development beyond this period of time. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  7. Radiation and Reliability Concerns for Modern Nonvolatile Memory Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Friendlich, Mark R.; Kim, Hak S.; Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Buchner, S. P.; McMorrow, D.; Mavis, D. G.; Eaton, P. H.; Castillo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial nonvolatile memory technology is attractive for space applications, but radiation issues are serious concerns. In addition, we discuss combined radiation/reliability concerns which are only beginning to be addressed.

  8. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  9. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  10. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  11. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  12. A 128K-bit CCD buffer memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemens, K. H.; Wallace, R. W.; Robinson, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype system was implemented to demonstrate that CCD's can be applied advantageously to the problem of low power digital storage and particularly to the problem of interfacing widely varying data rates. 8K-bit CCD shift register memories were used to construct a feasibility model 128K-bit buffer memory system. Peak power dissipation during a data transfer is less than 7 W., while idle power is approximately 5.4 W. The system features automatic data input synchronization with the recirculating CCD memory block start address. Descriptions are provided of both the buffer memory system and a custom tester that was used to exercise the memory. The testing procedures and testing results are discussed. Suggestions are provided for further development with regards to the utilization of advanced versions of CCD memory devices to both simplified and expanded memory system applications.

  13. The past, the future and the biology of memory storage.

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, E R; Pittenger, C

    1999-01-01

    We here briefly review a century of accomplishments in studying memory storage and delineate the two major questions that have dominated thinking in this area: the systems question of memory, which concerns where in the brain storage occurs; and the molecular question of memory, which concerns the mechanisms whereby memories are stored and maintained. We go on to consider the themes that memory research may be able to address in the 21st century. Finally, we reflect on the clinical and societal import of our increasing understanding of the mechanisms of memory, discussing possible therapeutic approaches to diseases that manifest with disruptions of learning and possible ethical implication of the ability, which is on the horizon, to ameliorate or even enhance human memory. PMID:10670023

  14. What kind of memory has evolution wrought? Introductory article for the special issue of memory: adaptive memory: the emergence and nature of proximate mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    It is without question that our memory system evolved through a process of natural selection. However, basic research into the evolutionary foundations of memory has begun in earnest only recently. This is quite peculiar as the majority, perhaps even all, of memory research relates to whether memory is adaptive or not. In this Special Issue of Memory we have assembled a variety of papers that represent the cutting edge in research on the evolution of memory. These papers are centred on issues about the ultimate and proximate explanations of memory, the development of the adaptive functions of memory, as well as the positive consequences that arise from the current evolutionary form that our memory has taken. In this introductory article we briefly outline these different areas and indicate why they are vital for a more complete theory of memory. Further we argue that, by adopting a more applied stance in the area of the evolution of memory, one of the many future directions in this field could be a new branch of psychology that addresses questions in evolutionary legal psychology.

  15. Memory Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

  16. Malware Memory Analysis for Non-specialists: Investigating Publicly Available Memory Image 0zapftis (R2D2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    file. This suspicious DLL has been found in memory at address 0x015b8128 and it may have been used to carry out DLL injection . Unfortunately...clues concerning the infection. It is now known that a covert communication channel was in use by some process/thread hidden/ injected under/into...the plugin Volatility’s malfind plugin was specifically designed to search for malware hidden through code injection . If memory address offsets are

  17. Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future: A Neural Model of Spatial Memory and Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Patrick; Becker, Suzanna; Burgess, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The authors model the neural mechanisms underlying spatial cognition, integrating neuronal systems and behavioral data, and address the relationships between long-term memory, short-term memory, and imagery, and between egocentric and allocentric and visual and ideothetic representations. Long-term spatial memory is modeled as attractor dynamics…

  18. Effects of Emotional Arousal on Multiple Memory Systems: Evidence from Declarative and Procedural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Adam K.; Steidl, Stephan; Mohi-uddin, Salwa

    2006-01-01

    Extensive evidence documents emotional modulation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory in humans. However, little is known about the emotional modulation of striatum-dependent procedural memory. To address how emotional arousal influences declarative and procedural memory, the current study utilized (1) a picture recognition and (2) a…

  19. On Auditing Auditory Information: The Influence of Mood on Memory for Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, David; Haddock, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that memory for music possesses a number of similarities to the more frequently studied modalities of verbal and visual memory. The present study addresses a yet uninvestigated factor involved in the memory for music: mood. Specifically, the study explored whether a mood-congruency effect is attained using major and…

  20. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  1. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  2. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  3. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  4. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Simultaneous Time, Wavelength and Intensity Measurement of Optical Memory Subsystems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    SIMULTANEOUS TIME, WAVELENGTH AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENT PE - 61102F OF OPTICAL MEMORY SUBSYSTEMS PR - 2300 6. AUTHOR( S ) TA - 06 WU -03 Joseph Osman and...Rebecca Bussjager 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AFRL/SNDP25 letnic AFRL-SN-RS-TR- 1998...12025 Electronic Pky Rome, NY 13441-4515 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER

  6. Using memory in the Cedar system

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, R.E.; Emrath, P.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the virtual memory system for the Cedar multiprocessor under construction at the University of Illinois is discussed. The Cedar architecture features a hierarchy of memory, some shared by all processors, and some shared by subsets of processors. The Xylem operating system is based on Alliant Computer Systems CONCENTRIX(TM) operating system, which is based on 4.2BSD UNIX(TM). Xylem supports multi-tasking and demand paging of parts of the memory hierarchy into a linear virtual address space. Memory may be private to a task or shared between all the tasks. The locality and attributes of a page may be modified during the execution of a program. Examples of how these mechanisms can be used are discussed. 14 figs.

  7. Projected phase-change memory devices

    PubMed Central

    Koelmans, Wabe W.; Sebastian, Abu; Jonnalagadda, Vara Prasad; Krebs, Daniel; Dellmann, Laurent; Eleftheriou, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale memory devices, whose resistance depends on the history of the electric signals applied, could become critical building blocks in new computing paradigms, such as brain-inspired computing and memcomputing. However, there are key challenges to overcome, such as the high programming power required, noise and resistance drift. Here, to address these, we present the concept of a projected memory device, whose distinguishing feature is that the physical mechanism of resistance storage is decoupled from the information-retrieval process. We designed and fabricated projected memory devices based on the phase-change storage mechanism and convincingly demonstrate the concept through detailed experimentation, supported by extensive modelling and finite-element simulations. The projected memory devices exhibit remarkably low drift and excellent noise performance. We also demonstrate active control and customization of the programming characteristics of the device that reliably realize a multitude of resistance states. PMID:26333363

  8. Serial nonvolatile 1024 bit MNOS memory

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, W. H.; Sokel, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics and operation of a nonvolatile MNOS sequential memory designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories for DOD are described. First, a general description and block diagram are presented, followed by the power, voltage, clock and address requirements, and then operating descriptions for the control and data signals. 1 figure, 1 table.

  9. Optoelectronic Terminal-Attractor-Based Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Barhen, Jacob; Farhat, Nabil H.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents theoretical and experimental study of optically and electronically addressable optical implementation of artificial neural network that performs associative recall. Shows by computer simulation that terminal-attractor-based associative memory can have perfect convergence in associative retrieval and increased storage capacity. Spurious states reduced by exploiting terminal attractors.

  10. Transitional behavior of quantum Gaussian memory channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.

    2010-05-01

    We address the question of optimality of entangled input states in quantum Gaussian memory channels. For a class of such channels, which can be traced back to the memoryless setting, we state a criterion which relates the optimality of entangled inputs to the symmetry properties of the channels’ action. Several examples of channel models belonging to this class are discussed.

  11. Reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Forcato, Cecilia; Burgos, Valeria L.; Argibay, Pablo F.; Molina, Victor A.; Pedreira, María E.; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-01-01

    The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but not the human declarative one. Here we provide evidence for both consolidation and reconsolidation in a paired-associate learning (i.e., learning an association between a cue syllable and the respective response syllable). Subjects were given two training sessions with a 24-h interval on distinct verbal material, and afterward, they received at testing two successive retrievals corresponding to the first and second learning, respectively. Two main results are noted. First, the first acquired memory was impaired when a reminder was presented 5 min before the second training (reconsolidation), and also when the second training was given 5 min instead of 24 h after the first one (consolidation). Second, the first retrieval proved to influence negatively on the later one (the retrieval-induced forgetting [RIF] effect), and we used the absence of this RIF effect as a very indicator of the target memory impairment. We consider the demonstration of reconsolidation in human declarative memory as backing the universality of this phenomenon and having potential clinical relevance. On the other hand, we discuss the possibility of using the human declarative memory as a model to address several key topics of the reconsolidation hypothesis. PMID:17522018

  12. Serotonin and emotion, learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo; Liy-Salmeron, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamien, 5-HT) has been linked to emotional and motivational aspects of human behavior, including anxiety, depression, impulsivity, etc. Several clinically effective drugs exert effects via 5-HT systems. Growing evidence suggests that those effects play an important role in learning and memory. Whether the role of serotonin is related to memory and/or behavioral or emotional aspects remains an important question. A key question that remains is whether 5-HT markers (e.g., receptors) directly or indirectly participate and/or contribute to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis. The major aim of this paper is to re-examine some recent advances regarding mammalian 5-HT receptors and transporter in light of their physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for memory. We particularly address evidence involving 5-HT systems in behavioral, pharmacological, molecular, genetic and imaging results and memory. Finally, this paper aims to summarize a portion of the evidence about serotonin, memory and emotion from animal and human studies and provide an overview of potential tools, markers and cellular and molecular candidate mechanisms. It should be noted that there are several subjects that this paper only briefly touches upon, presenting only what may be the most salient findings in the context of memory, emotion and serotonin.

  13. Memory beyond expression.

    PubMed

    Delorenzi, A; Maza, F J; Suárez, L D; Barreiro, K; Molina, V A; Stehberg, J

    2014-01-01

    The idea that memories are not invariable after the consolidation process has led to new perspectives about several mnemonic processes. In this framework, we review our studies on the modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation. We propose that during both memory consolidation and reconsolidation, neuromodulators can determine the probability of the memory trace to guide behavior, i.e. they can either increase or decrease its behavioral expressibility without affecting the potential of persistent memories to be activated and become labile. Our hypothesis is based on the findings that positive modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation occurs even if memories are behaviorally unexpressed. This review discusses the original approach taken in the studies of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata, which was then successfully applied to test the hypothesis in rodent fear memory. Data presented offers a new way of thinking about both weak trainings and experimental amnesia: memory retrieval can be dissociated from memory expression. Furthermore, the strategy presented here allowed us to show in human declarative memory that the periods in which long-term memory can be activated and become labile during reconsolidation exceeds the periods in which that memory is expressed, providing direct evidence that conscious access to memory is not needed for reconsolidation. Specific controls based on the constraints of reminders to trigger reconsolidation allow us to distinguish between obliterated and unexpressed but activated long-term memories after amnesic treatments, weak trainings and forgetting. In the hypothesis discussed, memory expressibility--the outcome of experience-dependent changes in the potential to behave--is considered as a flexible and modulable attribute of long-term memories. Expression seems to be just one of the possible fates of re-activated memories.

  14. Benzodiazepines and memory

    PubMed Central

    Roth, T.; Roehrs, T.; Wittig, R.; Zorick, F.

    1984-01-01

    1 Benzodiazepines possess anterograde amnesic properties, disrupting both short-term and long-term memory function. 2 The amount of amnesia is systematically related to dose effects and half-life differences among the benzodiazepines. 3 Memory deficits are found for episodic, semantic, and iconic memory function. 4 The deficits in long-term memory are probably the result of a disruption of consolidation of information in memory and not retrieval from memory. The disruption is produced by rapid sleep onset. 5 Thus the long-term amnesia is really a retrograde effect of sleep and not the anterograde effect of the drug. PMID:6151849

  15. Problems of neural memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaelian, Andrei L.

    2005-01-01

    The paper considers the neural memory of the human brain from the viewpoint of visual information processing. A model that explains the principle of data recording and storing, memory relaxation, associative remembering and other memory functions is offered. The model of associative memory is based on the methods of holography, "wave biochemistry" and autowaves. Brief consideration is given to the associative properties of holographic neural structures and the memory architecture using running chemical reactions. The paper also outlines the problem of developing artificial memory elements for restoring the brain functions and possible interface devices for coupling neurons to electronic systems.

  16. Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.

  17. Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2001: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh; Daud, Taher; Strauss, Karl

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings for the Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2001 that was held on November 7-8, 2001 in San Diego, CA. The proceedings contains a a wide range of papers that cover current and new memory technologies including Flash memories, Magnetic Random Access Memories (MRAM and GMRAM), Ferro-electric RAM (FeRAM), and Chalcogenide RAM (CRAM). The papers presented in the proceedings address the use of these technologies for space applications as well as radiation effects and packaging issues.

  18. Memory for complex emotional material in dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Barlow, M Rose

    2011-01-01

    Eleven women with dissociative identity disorder (DID) participated in an experiment that included a variety of memory measures. DID participants were faster than a group of 13 female students at producing autobiographical memories in response to cue words. DID participants had difficulty answering detailed questions about a story containing fear compared with a neutral story; the student group did not. The DID group reported experiencing significantly more childhood trauma than did the student group. Effect sizes were moderate to high. This preliminary study uses a broad conceptualization of memory functioning, combining ecologically valid testing with experimental paradigms and addressing the impact of emotion on memory in trauma survivors.

  19. Urban-rural differences in children's earliest memories.

    PubMed

    Göz, İlyas; Çeven, Z İrem; Tekcan, Ali I

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to address the effects of urban vs. rural upbringing on earliest autobiographical memories. We asked children (aged 10-13) brought up in an urban vs. in a rural setting to report their earliest memories. Earliest memories of children from rural areas were a year later than those of children from urban areas. Moreover, memories of children from rural areas were more likely to contain social interactions and tended to be less detailed compared to those from urban areas. The groups, however, were not different in specificity, autonomous orientation, or emotion. Results are discussed in the context of a social cultural developmental approach.

  20. Briefly Cuing Memories Leads to Suppression of Their Neural Representations

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have linked partial memory activation with impaired subsequent memory retrieval (e.g., Detre et al., 2013) but have not provided an account of this phenomenon at the level of memory representations: How does partial activation change the neural pattern subsequently elicited when the memory is cued? To address this question, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which participants studied word-scene paired associates. Later, we weakly reactivated some memories by briefly presenting the cue word during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task; other memories were more strongly reactivated or not reactivated at all. We tested participants' memory for the paired associates before and after RSVP. Cues that were briefly presented during RSVP triggered reduced levels of scene activity on the post-RSVP memory test, relative to the other conditions. We used pattern similarity analysis to assess how representations changed as a function of the RSVP manipulation. For briefly cued pairs, we found that neural patterns elicited by the same cue on the pre- and post-RSVP tests (preA–postA; preB–postB) were less similar than neural patterns elicited by different cues (preA–postB; preB–postA). These similarity reductions were predicted by neural measures of memory activation during RSVP. Through simulation, we show that our pattern similarity results are consistent with a model in which partial memory activation triggers selective weakening of the strongest parts of the memory. PMID:24899722

  1. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  2. Optical Bidirectional Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosko, Bart; Guest, Clark

    1987-06-01

    Four optical implementations of bidirectional associative memories (BAMs) are presented. BAMs are heteroassociative content addressable memories (CAMs). A BAM stores the m binary associations (A1, B1), ..., (Am, Bm) , where A is a point in the Boolean n-cube and B is a point in the Boolean p-cube. A is a neural network of n bivalent or continuous neurons ai; B is a network of p bivalent or continuous neurons bi. The fixed synaptic connections between the A and B networks are represented by some n-by-p real matrix M. Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, in neural nets produces two-way associative search for the nearest stored pair (Ai, Bi) to an input key. Every matrix is a bidirectionally stable hetero-associative CAM for boh bivalent and continuous networks. This generalizes the well-known unidirectional stability for autoassociative networks with square symmetric M. When the BAM neurons are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of two-pattern reverberation, or pseudo-adaptive resonance. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. Heteroassociative pairs (Ai, Bi) are encoded in a BAM M by summing bipolar correlation matrices, M = X1T Y1 + ... + XmT Ym , where Xi (Yi) is the bipolar version of Ai (Bi), with -1s replacing Os. the BAM storage capacity for reliable recall is roughly m < min(n, p)--pattern number is bounded by pattern dimensionality. BAM optical implementations are divided into two approaches: matrix vector multipliers and holographic correlators. The four optical BAMs described respectively emphasize a spatial light modulator, laser diodes and high-speed detectors, a reflection hologram, and a transmission hologram.

  3. Modulation of working memory updating: Does long-term memory lexical association matter?

    PubMed

    Artuso, Caterina; Palladino, Paola

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how working memory updating for verbal material is modulated by enduring properties of long-term memory. Two coexisting perspectives that account for the relation between long-term representation and short-term performance were addressed. First, evidence suggests that performance is more closely linked to lexical properties, that is, co-occurrences within the language. Conversely, other evidence suggests that performance is linked more to long-term representations which do not entail lexical/linguistic representations. Our aim was to investigate how these two kinds of long-term memory associations (i.e., lexical or nonlexical) modulate ongoing working memory activity. Therefore, we manipulated (between participants) the strength of the association in letters based on either frequency of co-occurrences (lexical) or contiguity along the sequence of the alphabet (nonlexical). Results showed a cost in working memory updating for strongly lexically associated stimuli only. Our findings advance knowledge of how lexical long-term memory associations between consonants affect working memory updating and, in turn, contribute to the study of factors which impact the updating process across memory systems.

  4. Searching for repressed memory.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the work of my research group on adults who report either repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or who report no history of CSA. Adapting paradigms from cognitive psychology, we tested hypotheses inspired by both the "repressed memory" and "false memory" perspectives on recovered memories of CSA. We found some evidence for the false memory perspective, but no evidence for the repressed memory perspective. However, our work also suggests a third perspective on recovered memories that does not require the concept of repression. Some children do not understand their CSA when it occurs, and do not experience terror. Years later, they recall the experience, and understanding it as abuse, suffer intense distress. The memory failed to come to mind for years, partly because the child did not encode it as terrifying (i.e., traumatic), not because the person was unable to recall it.

  5. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  6. Memory and the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2005-01-01

    The Self-Memory System (SMS) is a conceptual framework that emphasizes the interconnectedness of self and memory. Within this framework memory is viewed as the data base of the self. The self is conceived as a complex set of active goals and associated self-images, collectively referred to as the "working self." The relationship between the…

  7. Music, memory and emotion.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  8. False memories with age: Neural and cognitive underpinnings.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Aleea L; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-10-01

    As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research.

  9. "HES Presidential Address": Confessions of a Positivist--How Foucault Led Me to a Meta-Narrative about School Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Philo

    2012-01-01

    This address derives from the intellectual contributions of young scholars and doctoral students, in faded memory of the author's life as a doctoral student and young scholar. This address has three purposes: (1) to define school desegregation; (2) to place--albeit briefly--that definition within the larger context of the literature on school…

  10. Processor-Group Aware Runtime Support for Shared-and Global-Address Space Models

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Tipparaju, Vinod; Palmer, Bruce; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2004-12-07

    Exploiting multilevel parallelism using processor groups is becoming increasingly important for programming on high-end systems. This paper describes a group-aware run-time support for shared-/global- address space programming models. The current effort has been undertaken in the context of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) [5], a portable runtime system used as a communication layer for Global Arrays [6], Co-Array Fortran (CAF) [9], GPSHMEM [10], Co-Array Python [11], and also end-user applications. The paper describes the management of shared memory, integration of shared memory communication and RDMA on clusters with SMP nodes, and registration. These are all required for efficient multi- method and multi-protocol communication on modern systems. Focus is placed on techniques for supporting process groups while maximizing communication performance and efficiently managing global memory system-wide.

  11. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    PubMed Central

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  12. Main memory unit. [hybrid computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development of a main memory unit (MMU) for the space ultrareliable module computer (SUMC) model HTC is discussed. The design, fabrication, and test of basic memory modules (BMM) which were to be used in the design and construction of the MMU are described. The BMM was designed from state-of-the-art technologies which included large scale integration devices mounted and interconnected on a substrate to form a functional module to be utilized in the MMU development. A SUMC memory system design study is discussed which addressed itself to the BMM design and analysis to be conducted to determine the most efficient organization of the BMM in order to establish such modularity features as: word length expandability without redesign, high reliability, and fault tolerance. One MMU was designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered which will be electrical and mechanically compatible with the hybrid technology computer (HTC) model of the SUMC family of computers. The MMU will contain a storage capacity of 8196 36 bit words which includes a parity bit for each 8 bit byte of data.

  13. A wide bandwidth CCD buffer memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemens, K.; Wallace, R. W.; Robinson, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    A prototype system was implemented to demonstrate that CCD's can be applied advantageously to the problem of low power digital storage and particularly to the problem of interfacing widely varying data rates. CCD shift register memories (8K bit) were used to construct a feasibility model 128 K-bit buffer memory system. Serial data that can have rates between 150 kHz and 4.0 MHz can be stored in 4K-bit, randomly-accessible memory blocks. Peak power dissipation during a data transfer is less than 7 W, while idle power is approximately 5.4 W. The system features automatic data input synchronization with the recirculating CCD memory block start address. System expansion to accommodate parallel inputs or a greater number of memory blocks can be performed in a modular fashion. Since the control logic does not increase proportionally to increase in memory capacity, the power requirements per bit of storage can be reduced significantly in a larger system.

  14. Complementary Skyrmion Racetrack Memory With Voltage Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wang; Zheng, Chentian; Huang, Yangqi; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Lv, Weifeng; Zhao, Weisheng

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic skyrmion holds promise as information carriers in the next-generation memory and logic devices, owing to the topological stability, small size and extremely low current needed to drive it. One of the most potential applications of skyrmion is to design racetrack memory (RM), named Sk-RM, instead of utilizing domain wall (DW). However, current studies face some key design challenges, e.g., skyrmion manipulation, data representation and synchronization etc. To address these challenges, we propose here a complementary Sk-RM structure with voltage manipulation. Functionality and performance of the proposed design are investigated with micromagnetic simulations.

  15. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  16. Working memory and intelligibility of hearing-aid processed speech.

    PubMed

    Souza, Pamela E; Arehart, Kathryn H; Shen, Jing; Anderson, Melinda; Kates, James M

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggested that individuals with low working memory capacity may be at a disadvantage in adverse listening environments, including situations with background noise or substantial modification of the acoustic signal. This study explored the relationship between patient factors (including working memory capacity) and intelligibility and quality of modified speech for older individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. The modification was created using a combination of hearing aid processing [wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC) and frequency compression (FC)] applied to sentences in multitalker babble. The extent of signal modification was quantified via an envelope fidelity index. We also explored the contribution of components of working memory by including measures of processing speed and executive function. We hypothesized that listeners with low working memory capacity would perform more poorly than those with high working memory capacity across all situations, and would also be differentially affected by high amounts of signal modification. Results showed a significant effect of working memory capacity for speech intelligibility, and an interaction between working memory, amount of hearing loss and signal modification. Signal modification was the major predictor of quality ratings. These data add to the literature on hearing-aid processing and working memory by suggesting that the working memory-intelligibility effects may be related to aggregate signal fidelity, rather than to the specific signal manipulation. They also suggest that for individuals with low working memory capacity, sensorineural loss may be most appropriately addressed with WDRC and/or FC parameters that maintain the fidelity of the signal envelope.

  17. Working memory and intelligibility of hearing-aid processed speech

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Pamela E.; Arehart, Kathryn H.; Shen, Jing; Anderson, Melinda; Kates, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggested that individuals with low working memory capacity may be at a disadvantage in adverse listening environments, including situations with background noise or substantial modification of the acoustic signal. This study explored the relationship between patient factors (including working memory capacity) and intelligibility and quality of modified speech for older individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. The modification was created using a combination of hearing aid processing [wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC) and frequency compression (FC)] applied to sentences in multitalker babble. The extent of signal modification was quantified via an envelope fidelity index. We also explored the contribution of components of working memory by including measures of processing speed and executive function. We hypothesized that listeners with low working memory capacity would perform more poorly than those with high working memory capacity across all situations, and would also be differentially affected by high amounts of signal modification. Results showed a significant effect of working memory capacity for speech intelligibility, and an interaction between working memory, amount of hearing loss and signal modification. Signal modification was the major predictor of quality ratings. These data add to the literature on hearing-aid processing and working memory by suggesting that the working memory-intelligibility effects may be related to aggregate signal fidelity, rather than to the specific signal manipulation. They also suggest that for individuals with low working memory capacity, sensorineural loss may be most appropriately addressed with WDRC and/or FC parameters that maintain the fidelity of the signal envelope. PMID:25999874

  18. Scientific developments of liquid crystal-based optical memory: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Jai; Chandran, Achu; Biradar, Ashok M.

    2017-01-01

    The memory behavior in liquid crystals (LCs), although rarely observed, has made very significant headway over the past three decades since their discovery in nematic type LCs. It has gone from a mere scientific curiosity to application in variety of commodities. The memory element formed by numerous LCs have been protected by patents, and some commercialized, and used as compensation to non-volatile memory devices, and as memory in personal computers and digital cameras. They also have the low cost, large area, high speed, and high density memory needed for advanced computers and digital electronics. Short and long duration memory behavior for industrial applications have been obtained from several LC materials, and an LC memory with interesting features and applications has been demonstrated using numerous LCs. However, considerable challenges still exist in searching for highly efficient, stable, and long-lifespan materials and methods so that the development of useful memory devices is possible. This review focuses on the scientific and technological approach of fascinating applications of LC-based memory. We address the introduction, development status, novel design and engineering principles, and parameters of LC memory. We also address how the amalgamation of LCs could bring significant change/improvement in memory effects in the emerging field of nanotechnology, and the application of LC memory as the active component for futuristic and interesting memory devices.

  19. Nonvolatile random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A nonvolatile magnetic random access memory can be achieved by an array of magnet-Hall effect (M-H) elements. The storage function is realized with a rectangular thin-film ferromagnetic material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and inplane bipolar remanent magnetization states. The thin-film magnetic element is magnetized by a local applied field, whose direction is used to form either a 0 or 1 state. The element remains in the 0 or 1 state until a switching field is applied to change its state. The stored information is detcted by a Hall-effect sensor which senses the fringing field from the magnetic storage element. The circuit design for addressing each cell includes transistor switches for providing a current of selected polarity to store a binary digit through a separate conductor overlying the magnetic element of the cell. To read out a stored binary digit, transistor switches are employed to provide a current through a row of Hall-effect sensors connected in series and enabling a differential voltage amplifier connected to all Hall-effect sensors of a column in series. To avoid read-out voltage errors due to shunt currents through resistive loads of the Hall-effect sensors of other cells in the same column, at least one transistor switch is provided between every pair of adjacent cells in every row which are not turned on except in the row of the selected cell.

  20. Remote direct memory access

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  1. Immunological memory is associative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  2. Flexible Kernel Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces. PMID:20552013

  3. Stochastic memory: memory enhancement due to noise.

    PubMed

    Stotland, Alexander; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO(2) thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  4. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  5. A study of the viability of exploiting memory content similarity to improve resilience to memory errors

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Scott; Ferreira, Kurt B.; Bridges, Patrick G.; Thompson, Aidan P.; Trott, Christian

    2014-12-09

    Building the next-generation of extreme-scale distributed systems will require overcoming several challenges related to system resilience. As the number of processors in these systems grow, the failure rate increases proportionally. One of the most common sources of failure in large-scale systems is memory. In this paper, we propose a novel runtime for transparently exploiting memory content similarity to improve system resilience by reducing the rate at which memory errors lead to node failure. We evaluate the viability of this approach by examining memory snapshots collected from eight high-performance computing (HPC) applications and two important HPC operating systems. Based on the characteristics of the similarity uncovered, we conclude that our proposed approach shows promise for addressing system resilience in large-scale systems.

  6. A study of the viability of exploiting memory content similarity to improve resilience to memory errors

    DOE PAGES

    Levy, Scott; Ferreira, Kurt B.; Bridges, Patrick G.; ...

    2014-12-09

    Building the next-generation of extreme-scale distributed systems will require overcoming several challenges related to system resilience. As the number of processors in these systems grow, the failure rate increases proportionally. One of the most common sources of failure in large-scale systems is memory. In this paper, we propose a novel runtime for transparently exploiting memory content similarity to improve system resilience by reducing the rate at which memory errors lead to node failure. We evaluate the viability of this approach by examining memory snapshots collected from eight high-performance computing (HPC) applications and two important HPC operating systems. Based on themore » characteristics of the similarity uncovered, we conclude that our proposed approach shows promise for addressing system resilience in large-scale systems.« less

  7. Working memory and reference memory tests of spatial navigation in mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ah; Tucci, Valter; Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-05-01

    Researchers in spatial cognition have debated for decades the specificity of the mechanisms through which spatial information is processed and stored. Interestingly, although rodents are the preferred animal model for studying spatial navigation, the behavioral methods traditionally used to assess spatial memory do not effectively test the predictions of specificity in their representation. To address such issues, the present study tested the ability of mice to use boundary geometry and features to remember a goal location across 2 types of tasks--a working memory task with a changing goal location, and a reference memory task with 1 rewarded goal location. We show for the first time that mice, like other animals, can successfully encode boundary geometry in a working memory spatial mapping task, just as they do in a reference memory task. Their use of a nongeometric featural cue (striped pattern), in contrast, was more limited in the working memory task, although it quickly improved in the reference memory task. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research on the neural and genetic underpinnings of spatial representations.

  8. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  9. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  10. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  11. Memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Yu, Li-Zhen; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices, the structure of [top Au anode/9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) active layer/bottom Au cathode] was deposited using a thermal deposition system. The Au atoms migrated into the ADN active layer was observed from the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The density of 9.6×1016 cm-3 and energy level of 0.553 eV of the induced trapping centers caused by the migrated Au atoms in the ADN active layer were calculated. The induced trapping centers did not influence the carrier injection barrier height between Au and ADN active layer. Therefore, the memory bistable behaviors of the organic memory devices were attributed to the induced trapping centers. The energy diagram was established to verify the mechanisms.

  12. Are There Multiple Kinds of Episodic Memory? An fMRI Investigation Comparing Autobiographical and Recognition Memory Tasks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Yu; Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2017-03-08

    What brain regions underlie retrieval from episodic memory? The bulk of research addressing this question with fMRI has relied upon recognition memory for materials encoded within the laboratory. Another, less dominant tradition has used autobiographical methods, whereby people recall events from their lifetime, often after being cued with words or pictures. The current study addresses how the neural substrates of successful memory retrieval differed as a function of the targeted memory when the experimental parameters were held constant in the two conditions (except for instructions). Human participants studied a set of scenes and then took two types of memory test while undergoing fMRI scanning. In one condition (the picture memory test), participants reported for each scene (32 studied, 64 nonstudied) whether it was recollected from the prior study episode. In a second condition (the life memory test), participants reported for each scene (32 studied, 64 nonstudied) whether it reminded them of a specific event from their preexperimental lifetime. An examination of successful retrieval (yes responses) for recently studied scenes for the two test types revealed pronounced differences; that is, autobiographical retrieval instantiated with the life memory test preferentially activated the default mode network, whereas hits in the picture memory test preferentially engaged the parietal memory network as well as portions of the frontoparietal control network. When experimental cueing parameters are held constant, the neural underpinnings of successful memory retrieval differ when remembering life events and recently learned events.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memory is often discussed as a solitary construct. However, experimental traditions examining episodic memory use very different approaches, and these are rarely compared to one another. When the neural correlates associated with each approach have been directly contrasted, results have varied considerably and

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  14. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  15. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  16. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  17. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  18. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  19. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  20. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  1. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  2. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  3. A New Conceptualization of Human Visual Sensory-Memory

    PubMed Central

    Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Memory is an essential component of cognition and disorders of memory have significant individual and societal costs. The Atkinson–Shiffrin “modal model” forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores: Sensory Memory (SM), whose visual component is called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM; also called working memory, WM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM). Since its inception, shortcomings of all three components of the modal model have been identified. While the theories of STM and LTM underwent significant modifications to address these shortcomings, models of the iconic memory remained largely unchanged: A high capacity but rapidly decaying store whose contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, i.e., according to how the stimulus is projected on the retina. The fundamental shortcoming of iconic memory models is that, because contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, the iconic memory cannot hold any useful information under normal viewing conditions when objects or the subject are in motion. Hence, half-century after its formulation, it remains an unresolved problem whether and how the first stage of the modal model serves any useful function and how subsequent stages of the modal model receive inputs from the environment. Here, we propose a new conceptualization of human visual sensory memory by introducing an additional component whose reference-frame consists of motion-grouping based coordinates rather than retinotopic coordinates. We review data supporting this new model and discuss how it offers solutions to the paradoxes of the traditional model of sensory memory. PMID:27375519

  4. Memory Benchmarks for SMP-Based High Performance Parallel Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, A B; de Supinski, B; Mueller, F; Mckee, S A

    2001-11-20

    As the speed gap between CPU and main memory continues to grow, memory accesses increasingly dominates the performance of many applications. The problem is particularly acute for symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) systems, where the shared memory may be accessed concurrently by a group of threads running on separate CPUs. Unfortunately, several key issues governing memory system performance in current systems are not well understood. Complex interactions between the levels of the memory hierarchy, buses or switches, DRAM back-ends, system software, and application access patterns can make it difficult to pinpoint bottlenecks and determine appropriate optimizations, and the situation is even more complex for SMP systems. To partially address this problem, we formulated a set of multi-threaded microbenchmarks for characterizing and measuring the performance of the underlying memory system in SMP-based high-performance computers. We report our use of these microbenchmarks on two important SMP-based machines. This paper has four primary contributions. First, we introduce a microbenchmark suite to systematically assess and compare the performance of different levels in SMP memory hierarchies. Second, we present a new tool based on hardware performance monitors to determine a wide array of memory system characteristics, such as cache sizes, quickly and easily; by using this tool, memory performance studies can be targeted to the full spectrum of performance regimes with many fewer data points than is otherwise required. Third, we present experimental results indicating that the performance of applications with large memory footprints remains largely constrained by memory. Fourth, we demonstrate that thread-level parallelism further degrades memory performance, even for the latest SMPs with hardware prefetching and switch-based memory interconnects.

  5. Human learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M K; Hasher, L

    1987-01-01

    There have been several notable recent trends in the area of learning and memory. Problems with the episodic/semantic distinction have become more apparent, and new efforts have been made (exemplar models, distributed-memory models) to represent general knowledge without assuming a separate semantic system. Less emphasis is being placed on stable, prestored prototypes and more emphasis on a flexible memory system that provides the basis for a multitude of categories or frames of reference, derived on the spot as tasks demand. There is increasing acceptance of the idea that mental models are constructed and stored in memory in addition to, rather than instead of, memorial representations that are more closely tied to perceptions. This gives rise to questions concerning the conditions that permit inferences to be drawn and mental models to be constructed, and to questions concerning the similarities and differences in the nature of the representations in memory of perceived and generated information and in their functions. There has also been a swing from interest in deliberate strategies to interest in automatic, unconscious (even mechanistic!) processes, reflecting an appreciation that certain situations (e.g. recognition, frequency judgements, savings in indirect tasks, aspects of skill acquisition, etc) seem not to depend much on the products of strategic, effortful or reflective processes. There is a lively interest in relations among memory measures and attempts to characterize memory representations and/or processes that could give rise to dissociations among measures. Whether the pattern of results reflects the operation of functional subsystems of memory and, if so, what the "modules" are is far from clear. This issue has been fueled by work with amnesics and has contributed to a revival of interaction between researchers studying learning and memory in humans and those studying learning and memory in animals. Thus, neuroscience rivals computer science as a

  6. Towards Distributed Memory Parallel Program Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T

    2008-06-17

    This paper presents a parallel attribute evaluation for distributed memory parallel computer architectures where previously only shared memory parallel support for this technique has been developed. Attribute evaluation is a part of how attribute grammars are used for program analysis within modern compilers. Within this work, we have extended ROSE, a open compiler infrastructure, with a distributed memory parallel attribute evaluation mechanism to support user defined global program analysis required for some forms of security analysis which can not be addressed by a file by file view of large scale applications. As a result, user defined security analyses may now run in parallel without the user having to specify the way data is communicated between processors. The automation of communication enables an extensible open-source parallel program analysis infrastructure.

  7. Conscious and Unconscious Memory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Squire, Larry R.; Dede, Adam J.O.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that memory is not a single mental faculty has a long and interesting history but became a topic of experimental and biologic inquiry only in the mid-20th century. It is now clear that there are different kinds of memory, which are supported by different brain systems. One major distinction can be drawn between working memory and long-term memory. Long-term memory can be separated into declarative (explicit) memory and a collection of nondeclarative (implicit) forms of memory that include habits, skills, priming, and simple forms of conditioning. These memory systems depend variously on the hippocampus and related structures in the parahippocampal gyrus, as well as on the amygdala, the striatum, cerebellum, and the neocortex. This work recounts the discovery of declarative and nondeclarative memory and then describes the nature of declarative memory, working memory, nondeclarative memory, and the relationship between memory systems. PMID:25731765

  8. A generalized memory test algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    A general algorithm for testing digital computer memory is presented. The test checks that (1) every bit can be cleared and set in each memory work, and (2) bits are not erroneously cleared and/or set elsewhere in memory at the same time. The algorithm can be applied to any size memory block and any size memory word. It is concise and efficient, requiring the very few cycles through memory. For example, a test of 16-bit-word-size memory requries only 384 cycles through memory. Approximately 15 seconds were required to test a 32K block of such memory, using a microcomputer having a cycle time of 133 nanoseconds.

  9. Regulatory T cell memory

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Michael D.; Way, Sing Sing; Abbas, Abul K.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime challenge models of infection. However, recent work has also identified persistently expanded populations of antigen-specific regulatory T cells that protect against aberrant immune responses. In this Review, we consider the parallels between memory effector T cells and memory regulatory T cells, along with the functional implications of regulatory memory in autoimmunity, antimicrobial host defence and maternal fetal tolerance. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence for regulatory T cell memory in humans and key unanswered questions in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26688349

  10. Shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  11. Memory Load and Dump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Alan

    2009-07-01

    This proposal is a test and verification of the STIS dump of memory capability.Areas of Control Section {CS} to dump include: EDAC RAM, EEPROM, and CS PROM {with the CS in Operate}. Areas of MIE memory to dump include: MIE RAM and MIE PROM {with the MIE in Operate}. Note that the MIE memory must first be copied to CS buffer RAM as images, which are then dumped.Supports Activity STIS-02

  12. Memory Golf Clubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

  13. Why Narrating Changes Memory: A Contribution to an Integrative Model of Memory and Narrative Processes.

    PubMed

    Smorti, Andrea; Fioretti, Chiara

    2016-06-01

    This paper aims to reflect on the relation between autobiographical memory (ME) and autobiographical narrative (NA), examining studies on the effects of narrating on the narrator and showing how studying these relations can make more comprehensible both memory's and narrating's way of working. Studies that address explicitly on ME and NA are scarce and touch this issue indirectly. Authors consider different trends of studies of ME and NA: congruency vs incongruency hypotheses on retrieving, the way of organizing memories according to gist or verbatim format and their role in organizing positive and negative emotional experiences, the social roots of ME and NA, the rules of conversation based on narrating. Analysis of investigations leads the Authors to point out three basic results of their research. Firstly, NA transforms ME because it narrativizes memories according to a narrative format. This means that memories, when are narrated, are transformed in stories (verbal language) and socialised. Secondly, the narrativization process is determined by the act of telling something within a communicative situation. Thus, relational situation of narrating act, by modifying the story, modifies also memories. The Authors propose the RE.NA.ME model (RElation, NArration, MEmory) to understand and study ME and NA. Finally, this study claims that ME and NA refer to two different types of processes having a wide area of overlapping. This is due to common social, developmental and cultural roots that make NA to include part of ME (narrative of memory) and ME to include part of NA (memory of personal events that have been narrated).

  14. Networks of Memories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    2000). The construction of  autobiographical   memories in the self­memory system. Psychological Review, 107(2), 261­288. Dennis, S., & Chapman, A. (2010...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0131 Networks of Memories Simon Dennis, Mikhail Belkin Ohio State University March 2013 Final...Back (Rev. 8/98) 1 Networks of  Memories FA9550­09­1­0614 Professor Jay Myung PI: Simon Dennis Ohio State University February 15, 2013 2 Introduction

  15. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    PubMed Central

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-01-01

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

  16. New gravitational memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasterski, Sabrina; Strominger, Andrew; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    The conventional gravitational memory effect is a relative displacement in the position of two detectors induced by radiative energy flux. We find a new type of gravitational `spin memory' in which beams on clockwise and counterclockwise orbits acquire a relative delay induced by radiative angular momentum flux. It has recently been shown that the displacement memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of Weinberg's soft graviton theorem. Here we see that the spin memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of the recently-discovered subleading soft graviton theorem.

  17. Sparse distributed memory overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raugh, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

  18. The future of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  19. Early remodeling of the neocortex upon episodic memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Bero, Adam W; Meng, Jia; Cho, Sukhee; Shen, Abra H; Canter, Rebecca G; Ericsson, Maria; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2014-08-12

    Understanding the mechanisms by which long-term memories are formed and stored in the brain represents a central aim of neuroscience. Prevailing theory suggests that long-term memory encoding involves early plasticity within hippocampal circuits, whereas reorganization of the neocortex is thought to occur weeks to months later to subserve remote memory storage. Here we report that long-term memory encoding can elicit early transcriptional, structural, and functional remodeling of the neocortex. Parallel studies using genome-wide RNA sequencing, ultrastructural imaging, and whole-cell recording in wild-type mice suggest that contextual fear conditioning initiates a transcriptional program in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that is accompanied by rapid expansion of the synaptic active zone and postsynaptic density, enhanced dendritic spine plasticity, and increased synaptic efficacy. To address the real-time contribution of the mPFC to long-term memory encoding, we performed temporally precise optogenetic inhibition of excitatory mPFC neurons during contextual fear conditioning. Using this approach, we found that real-time inhibition of the mPFC inhibited activation of the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit and impaired the formation of long-term associative memory. These findings suggest that encoding of long-term episodic memory is associated with early remodeling of neocortical circuits, identify the prefrontal cortex as a critical regulator of encoding-induced hippocampal activation and long-term memory formation, and have important implications for understanding memory processing in healthy and diseased brain states.

  20. `Unlearning' has a stabilizing effect in collective memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfield, J. J.; Feinstein, D. I.; Palmer, R. G.

    1983-07-01

    Crick and Mitchison1 have presented a hypothesis for the functional role of dream sleep involving an `unlearning' process. We have independently carried out mathematical and computer modelling of learning and `unlearning' in a collective neural network of 30-1,000 neurones. The model network has a content-addressable memory or `associative memory' which allows it to learn and store many memories. A particular memory can be evoked in its entirety when the network is stimulated by any adequate-sized subpart of the information of that memory2. But different memories of the same size are not equally easy to recall. Also, when memories are learned, spurious memories are also created and can also be evoked. Applying an `unlearning' process, similar to the learning processes but with a reversed sign and starting from a noise input, enhances the performance of the network in accessing real memories and in minimizing spurious ones. Although our model was not motivated by higher nervous function, our system displays behaviours which are strikingly parallel to those needed for the hypothesized role of `unlearning' in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.

  1. Hormones, stress, and cognition: The effects of glucocorticoids and oxytocin on memory

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Hormones have nuanced effects on learning and memory processes. The degree and direction of the effect (e.g., is memory impaired or enhanced?) depends on the dose, type and stage of memory, and type of material being learned, among other factors. This review will focus on two specific topics within the realm of effects of hormones on memory: (1) How glucocorticoids (the output hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) affect long-term memory consolidation, retrieval, and working memory, with a focus on neural mechanisms and effects of emotion; and (2) How oxytocin affects memory, with emphasis on a speculative hypothesis that oxytocin might exert its myriad effects on human social cognition and behavior via impacts on more general cognitive processes. Oxytocin-glucocorticoid interactions will be briefly addressed. These effects of hormones on memory will also be considered from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:25893159

  2. Memory Forensics: Review of Acquisition and Analysis Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Windows-based machines in practice, owing to the high popularity and market positioning of the operating system. This literature review is structured...section is largely based on content from Russinovich, Solomon and Ionescu’s “Windows Internals ” book [23]. A deeper understanding of Windows memory...mode processes have access to 2GB of virtual memory by default [23], with the other half of the total (4GB) address space reserved for system usage

  3. Attenuation of regional cerebral blood flow during memory processing after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Weise, Steven; Wack, David S; Vidal Melo, Marcos F

    2014-09-01

    Reports of memory impairment after cardiac surgery are controversial. To address this controversy, we used positron emission tomography to examine changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during memory processing before and after elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. In postoperative scans, we observed significantly reduced rCBF in 2 of the most important memory processing areas: the medial temporal lobe (P = 0.023) and the prefrontal cortex (P = 0.002). The results suggest postoperative attenuation of rCBF in brain areas involved in memory processing. These reductions could be used to evaluate severity of memory impairment after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in patients at risk.

  4. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    addresses for each of these categories. Figure 10 shows the state machine that we use to categorize and to process groups of pages once our interrupt...handler observes that memory usage exceeds the threshold. This state machine uses MergePendingPages to perform the merging, which uses mmap, mremap...exploit these techniques to detect when identical pages diverge. Waldspurger [23] incorporated searching for identical data in virtual machines (VMs

  5. Distributed representations in memory: insights from functional brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D

    2012-01-01

    Forging new memories for facts and events, holding critical details in mind on a moment-to-moment basis, and retrieving knowledge in the service of current goals all depend on a complex interplay between neural ensembles throughout the brain. Over the past decade, researchers have increasingly utilized powerful analytical tools (e.g., multivoxel pattern analysis) to decode the information represented within distributed functional magnetic resonance imaging activity patterns. In this review, we discuss how these methods can sensitively index neural representations of perceptual and semantic content and how leverage on the engagement of distributed representations provides unique insights into distinct aspects of memory-guided behavior. We emphasize that, in addition to characterizing the contents of memories, analyses of distributed patterns shed light on the processes that influence how information is encoded, maintained, or retrieved, and thus inform memory theory. We conclude by highlighting open questions about memory that can be addressed through distributed pattern analyses.

  6. Medial temporal lobe memory in childhood: Developmental transitions

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Elise L.; Richmond, Jenny L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Thomas, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) support declarative memory and mature structurally and functionally during the postnatal years in humans. Although recent work has addressed the development of declarative memory in early childhood, less is known about continued development beyond this period of time. The purpose of this investigation was to explore MTL-dependent memory across middle childhood. Children (6 – 10 years old) and adults completed two computerized tasks, place learning (PL) and transitive inference (TI), that each examined relational memory, as well as the flexible use of relational learning. Findings suggest that the development of relational memory precedes the development of the ability to use relational knowledge flexibly in novel situations. Implications for the development of underlying brain areas and ideas for future neuroimaging investigations are discussed. PMID:20712740

  7. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., James Madison Memorial Building, Room LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000..., SE., Washington, DC. This mail must be delivered to the Congressional Courier Acceptance Site (CCAS) located at Second and D Street, NE., Washington, DC. The CCAS will accept items from couriers with...

  8. Genetics at School Level: Addressing the Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yu-Chien; Reid, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Background: A wide range of studies has offered suggestions why genetics is difficult and some of their key findings are summarised. Underpinning all of this is the way the brain works when handling information. The limitations of working memory capacity offer an interpretation of these difficulties. Purpose: The aim is to confirm that working…

  9. [Memory disorders in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Danion, J M; Peretti, S; Gras-Vincendon, A; Singer, L

    1992-01-01

    The current interest in memory disorders in schizophrenia results from the way perceptions of schizophrenia--whose organic origin is becoming increasingly evident--and memory--according to which there exist not one, but several memories--have developed. Memory disorders in the schizophrenic cannot be considered in isolation from knowledge accumulated in other areas of the cognitive and neuro-sciences; a more detailed understanding of these disorders requires a comparison of the different cognitive approaches, both with each other and with the neurobiological and clinical approaches, so that they can be integrated. Despite numerous methodological and conceptual difficulties, it now appears to have been established that the schizophrenic's memory deficit should be seen in the context of a wider cognitive deficit, that the memory tasks are not all disturbed and that the memory deficit cannot be identified with one specific form of memory. Thus, iconic formation, short-term memory in the traditionally accepted sense and implicit memory are hardly, if at all, affected; in contrast, the early processing of information, working memory and explicit memory are disturbed, probably to the extent that they require the implementation of strategies to organise the information to be memorized. Finally, in certain tasks, such as those evaluating latent inhibition or negative priming, schizophrenics perform better than normal subjects, suggesting that schizophrenics' cognitive deficit is localised. This profile of memory disorders is compatible with a dysfunction predominating in the frontal and temporo-hippocampal regions. Neuroleptics and anticholinergics have opposite effects on cognitive and mnesic performance, which is improved by the former and aggravated by the latter. The influence of clinical symptoms, positive or negative, institutionalisation of patients and chronic tardive dyskinesia is unclear. Among the theoretical proposals put forward to account for the observed

  10. Memory effect in composites of liquid crystal and silica aerosil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relaix, Sabrina; Leheny, Robert L.; Reven, Linda; Sutton, Mark

    2011-12-01

    Aerosil silica nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid crystal (LC) possess the interesting property of keeping memory of an electric- or magnetic-field-induced orientation. Two types of memory have been identified: thermally erasable memory arising from the pinning of defect lines versus a “permanent” memory where the orientation persists even after thermal cycling the samples up to the isotropic phase. To address the source of the latter type of memory, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and conventional x-ray diffraction (XRD) were first combined to characterize the LC orientational order as a function of multiple in-field temperature cycles. Microbeam XRD was then performed on aligned gels of different concentrations to gain knowledge of the structural properties at the origin of the memory effect. No detectable anisotropy of the gel or significant breaking of silica strands with heating ruled out the formation of an anisotropic silica network as the source of the permanent memory as previously proposed. Instead, support for a role of the surface memory effect, well known for planar substrates, in stabilizing the permanent memory was deduced from “training” of the composites, that is, optimizing the orientational order through the thermal in-field cycling. The ability to train the composites is inversely proportional to the strength of the random-field disorder. The portion of thermally erasable memory also decreases as the silica density increases. We propose that the permanent memory originates from the surface memory effect operating at points of intersection in the silica network. These areas, where the LC is strongly confined with conflicted surface interactions, are trained to achieve an optimized orientation and subsequently act as sites from which the LC orientational order regrows after zero-field thermal cycling up to the isotropic phase.

  11. Memory effect in composites of liquid crystal and silica aerosil

    SciTech Connect

    Relaix, Sabrina; Leheny, Robert L.; Reven, Linda; Sutton, Mark

    2012-02-07

    Aerosil silica nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid crystal (LC) possess the interesting property of keeping memory of an electric- or magnetic-field-induced orientation. Two types of memory have been identified: thermally erasable memory arising from the pinning of defect lines versus a 'permanent' memory where the orientation persists even after thermal cycling the samples up to the isotropic phase. To address the source of the latter type of memory, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and conventional x-ray diffraction (XRD) were first combined to characterize the LC orientational order as a function of multiple in-field temperature cycles. Microbeam XRD was then performed on aligned gels of different concentrations to gain knowledge of the structural properties at the origin of the memory effect. No detectable anisotropy of the gel or significant breaking of silica strands with heating ruled out the formation of an anisotropic silica network as the source of the permanent memory as previously proposed. Instead, support for a role of the surface memory effect, well known for planar substrates, in stabilizing the permanent memory was deduced from 'training' of the composites, that is, optimizing the orientational order through the thermal in-field cycling. The ability to train the composites is inversely proportional to the strength of the random-field disorder. The portion of thermally erasable memory also decreases as the silica density increases. We propose that the permanent memory originates from the surface memory effect operating at points of intersection in the silica network. These areas, where the LC is strongly confined with conflicted surface interactions, are trained to achieve an optimized orientation and subsequently act as sites from which the LC orientational order regrows after zero-field thermal cycling up to the isotropic phase.

  12. Genetics at school level: addressing the difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yu-Chien; Reid, Norman

    2012-11-01

    Background : A wide range of studies has offered suggestions why genetics is difficult and some of their key findings are summarised. Underpinning all of this is the way the brain works when handling information. The limitations of working memory capacity offer an interpretation of these difficulties Purpose : The aim is to confirm that working memory capacity (and the related concept of field dependency) controls performance in understanding genetics and whether it is possible to improve performance by changing the teaching approach to mininise overload. Programme description : The curriculum in Taiwan in genetics is outlined briefly. A wide range of measurements were made. Using a diagnostic test of understanding of underpinning ideas, the key areas of weakness were detected before the pupils started the course. Sample : Stage 1: 141 students in Taiwan, aged 13, boys and girls, drawn from a cross-section of Taiwanese pupils at this age, following their first course in genetics. Stage 2: 361 students, drawn from a cross-section of Taiwanese pupils at the same age, and divided into two groups (experimental-control) which both encompass the same ability range. Design and methods : Stage 1: test of pre-knowledge using structural communication grids, applied before the course commenced; working memory capacity using the figural intersection test; extent of field dependency using the group embedded figure test; understanding of genetics was measured at end of course; school test data collated. Stage 2: following a completely revised approach, performance in genetics was measured using traditional school tests and a word association test. Student perspectives were measured. Results : The test of pre-knowledge revealed key areas of difficulty. In addition, it was found that working memory capacity and extent of field dependency both correlated extremely highly with all measures of performance. Given that it has been established that working memory capacity controls

  13. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  14. Recognition of simple visual images using a sparse distributed memory: Some implementations and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1990-01-01

    Previously, a method was described of representing a class of simple visual images so that they could be used with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). Herein, two possible implementations are described of a SDM, for which these images, suitably encoded, will serve both as addresses to the memory and as data to be stored in the memory. A key feature of both implementations is that a pattern that is represented as an unordered set with a variable number of members can be used as an address to the memory. In the 1st model, an image is encoded as a 9072 bit string to be used as a read or write address; the bit string may also be used as data to be stored in the memory. Another representation, in which an image is encoded as a 256 bit string, may be used with either model as data to be stored in the memory, but not as an address. In the 2nd model, an image is not represented as a vector of fixed length to be used as an address. Instead, a rule is given for determining which memory locations are to be activated in response to an encoded image. This activation rule treats the pieces of an image as an unordered set. With this model, the memory can be simulated, based on a method of computing the approximate result of a read operation.

  15. [Learning and memory].

    PubMed

    Lombroso, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Memory is broadly divided into declarative and nondeclarative forms of memory. The hippocampus is required for the formation of declarative memories, while a number of other brain regions including the striatum, amygdala and nucleus accumbens are involved in the formation of nondeclarative memories. The formation of all memories require morphological changes of synapses: new ones must be formed or old ones strengthened. These changes are thought to reflect the underlying cellular basis for persistent memories. Considerable advances have occurred over the last decade in our understanding of the molecular bases of how these memories are formed. A key regulator of synaptic plasticity is a signaling pathway that includes the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. As this pathway is required for normal memory and learning, it is not surprising that mutations in members of this pathway lead to disruptions in learning. Neurofibromatosis, Coffin-Lowry syndrome and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome are three examples of developmental disorders that have mutations in key components of the MAP kinase signaling pathway.

  16. Memory and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... or home environment and you’re not paying attention when your friend gives you directions to her new home, you will not be able to recall how to get there. Memory and Aging Memory Aids Keep “to do” lists Keep “to do” lists and ...

  17. Regret as Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in…

  18. Memories of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  19. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  20. Experimental Optoelectronic Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1992-01-01

    Optoelectronic associative memory responds to input image by displaying one of M remembered images. Which image to display determined by optoelectronic analog computation of resemblance between input image and each remembered image. Does not rely on precomputation and storage of outer-product synapse matrix. Size of memory needed to store and process images reduced.

  1. Memorial symptom assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Hwang, Shirley S; Thaler, Howard T; Kasimis, Basil S; Portenoy, Russell K

    2004-04-01

    Patients with advanced illnesses often have multiple symptoms. As interest in palliative care and interventions for symptom control increase, the ability to assess multiple symptoms has become more important. A number of instruments have been developed to meet this need in cancer patients. This article reviews the development and applications of a multidimensional instrument, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has 32 symptoms and three dimensions of frequency, severity, and distress. Shorter versions - The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (32 symptoms with one dimension) and the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (14 symptoms with one dimension), and a version for children aged 7-12 years, have also been developed. A distinctive feature is the summary subscales for physical distress, psychological distress, and The Global Distress Index. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has proven useful in description of symptom epidemiology, the role of symptoms in pain, fatigue, and spirituality; as a predictor of survival, and in proxy assessments of pain. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has been used in studies of cancer and AIDS patients, and patients with advanced medical illnesses. Possible future roles of instruments such as the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale include use in clinical trials, for pharmacoeconomic analyses, definition of symptom clusters and symptom burden, the development of symptom outcome measures, symptom monitoring, and improving care for patients. Continued research is needed for the versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and other symptom instruments in different populations and applications.

  2. Visual Memory at Birth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Alan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explored new-born babys' capacity for forming visual memories. Used an habituation procedure that accommodated individual differences by allowing each infant to control the time course of habituation trials. Found significant novelty preference, providing strong evidence that recognition memory can be reliably demonstrated from birth. (Author/JAC)

  3. Human Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  4. Human Memory: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  5. Memory Efficient Ranking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Alistair; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an approximate document ranking process that uses a compact array of in-memory, low-precision approximations for document length. Combined with another rule for reducing the memory required by partial similarity accumulators, the approximation heuristic allows the ranking of large document collections using less than one byte of memory…

  6. Memory technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

  7. An Exceptional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Ian M. L.

    1977-01-01

    An account is given of the exceptional memory of the late Professor A. C. Aitken who was also a distinguished mathematician and mental calculator. Compared with Shereshevskii, another man with exceptional memory, he shows the scholar's reliance on conceptual mapping rather than the mnemonist's reliance on perceptual chaining. (Editor)

  8. Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

  9. A Space for Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article I examine the possibilities of reparation in an era of privatisation and de-industrialisation. I examine the effect of a recent project Sunshine Memory Space, a space, designed to evoke memories of a de-industrialised urban Melbourne suburb Sunshine. This project offered the opportunity for the effects of industrial change to be…

  10. Animal models of source memory.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-01-01

    Source memory is the aspect of episodic memory that encodes the origin (i.e., source) of information acquired in the past. Episodic memory (i.e., our memories for unique personal past events) typically involves source memory because those memories focus on the origin of previous events. Source memory is at work when, for example, someone tells a favorite joke to a person while avoiding retelling the joke to the friend who originally shared the joke. Importantly, source memory permits differentiation of one episodic memory from another because source memory includes features that were present when the different memories were formed. This article reviews recent efforts to develop an animal model of source memory using rats. Experiments are reviewed which suggest that source memory is dissociated from other forms of memory. The review highlights strengths and weaknesses of a number of animal models of episodic memory. Animal models of source memory may be used to probe the biological bases of memory. Moreover, these models can be combined with genetic models of Alzheimer's disease to evaluate pharmacotherapies that ultimately have the potential to improve memory.

  11. Predicting reasoning from memory.

    PubMed

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K

    2011-02-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the presence of stimuli from other categories, there was a high correlation between reasoning and memory responses (average r = .87), and these manipulations showed similar effects on the 2 tasks. The results point to common mechanisms underlying inductive reasoning and recognition memory abilities. A mathematical model, GEN-EX (generalization from examples), derived from exemplar models of categorization, is presented, which predicts both reasoning and memory responses from pairwise similarities among the stimuli, allowing for additional influences of subtyping and deterministic responding.

  12. Computer memory management system

    DOEpatents

    Kirk, III, Whitson John

    2002-01-01

    A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

  13. Memory B cells.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Kometani, Kohei; Ise, Wataru

    2015-03-01

    The immune system can remember a previously experienced pathogen and can evoke an enhanced response to reinfection that depends on memory lymphocyte populations. Recent advances in tracking antigen-experienced memory B cells have revealed the existence of distinct classes of cells that have considerable functional differences. Some of these differences seem to be determined by the stimulation history during memory cell formation. To induce rapid recall antibody responses, the contributions of other types of cells, such as memory T follicular helper cells, have also now begun to be appreciated. In this Review, we discuss these and other recent advances in our understanding of memory B cells, focusing on the underlying mechanisms that are required for rapid and effective recall antibody responses.

  14. Serotonin transporter and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Ponce-Lopez, Teresa; Tellez, Ruth; Castillo, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) has been associated to diverse functions and diseases, though seldom to memory. Therefore, we made an attempt to summarize and discuss the available publications implicating the involvement of the SERT in memory, amnesia and anti-amnesic effects. Evidence indicates that Alzheimer's disease and drugs of abuse like d-methamphetamine (METH) and (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") have been associated to decrements in the SERT expression and memory deficits. Several reports have indicated that memory formation and amnesia affected the SERT expression. The SERT expression seems to be a reliable neural marker related to memory mechanisms, its alterations and potential treatment. The pharmacological, neural and molecular mechanisms associated to these changes are of great importance for investigation.

  15. Cosmological memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.

    2016-08-01

    The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of (1 +z ).

  16. Imaging autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) defines the memory systems that encode, consolidate, and retrieve personal events and facts, AM is strongly related to self-perception and self representation. We review here the neural correlates of AM retrieval. AM retrieval encompasses a large neural network including the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortex, and limbic structures. All these regions subserve the cognitive processes (episodic remembering, cognitive control, self-processing, and scene construction) at play during memory retrieval. We emphasize the specific role of medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus in self-processing during autobiographical memory retrieval. Overall, these data call for further studies in psychiatric patients, to investigate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and self-representation in mental disorders.

  17. Innate Memory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Stephen C.; Lee, You Jeong; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Memory T cells are usually considered to be a feature of a successful immune response against a foreign antigen, and such cells can mediate potent immunity. However, in mice, alternative pathways have been described, through which naïve T cells can acquire the characteristics and functions of memory T cells without encountering specific foreign antigen or the typical signals required for conventional T cell differentiation. Such cells reflect a response to the internal rather the external environment, and hence such cells are called innate memory T cells. In this review, we describe how innate memory subsets were identified, the signals that induce their generation and their functional properties and potential role in the normal immune response. The existence of innate memory T cells in mice raises questions about whether parallel populations exist in humans, and we discuss the evidence for such populations during human T cell development and differentiation. PMID:25727290

  18. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  19. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  20. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  1. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  2. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  3. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  4. 49 CFR 369.6 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.6 Address. The following address must be used by motor carriers when submitting a report, requesting an exemption from filing...

  5. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  6. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  7. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  8. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  9. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  10. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  11. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  12. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  13. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  14. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  15. Epigenetics of memory and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Woldemichael, Bisrat T; Bohacek, Johannes; Gapp, Katharina; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2014-01-01

    Although all neurons carry the same genetic information, they vary considerably in morphology and functions and respond differently to environmental conditions. Such variability results mostly from differences in gene expression. Among the processes that regulate gene activity, epigenetic mechanisms play a key role and provide an additional layer of complexity to the genome. They allow the dynamic modulation of gene expression in a locus- and cell-specific manner. These mechanisms primarily involve DNA methylation, posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histones and noncoding RNAs that together remodel chromatin and facilitate or suppress gene expression. Through these mechanisms, the brain gains high plasticity in response to experience and can integrate and store new information to shape future neuronal and behavioral responses. Dynamic epigenetic footprints underlying the plasticity of brain cells and circuits contribute to the persistent impact of life experiences on an individual's behavior and physiology ranging from the formation of long-term memory to the sequelae of traumatic events or of drug addiction. They also contribute to the way lifestyle, life events, or exposure to environmental toxins can predispose an individual to disease. This chapter describes the most prominent examples of epigenetic marks associated with long-lasting changes in the brain induced by experience. It discusses the role of epigenetic processes in behavioral plasticity triggered by environmental experiences. A particular focus is placed on learning and memory where the importance of epigenetic modifications in brain circuits is best understood. The relevance of epigenetics in memory disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease is also addressed, and promising perspectives for potential epigenetic drug treatment discussed.

  16. Automated measurement of printer effective addressability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Brian E.; Eid, Ahmed H.; Rippetoe, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating printer resolution, addressability is a key consideration. Addressability defines the maximum number of spots or samples within a given distance, independent of the size of the spots when printed. Effective addressability is the addressability demonstrated by the final, printed output. It is the minimum displacement possible between the centers of printed objects. In this paper, we present a measurement procedure for effective addressability that offers an automated way to experimentally determine the addressability of the printed output. It requires printing, scanning, and measuring a test target. The effective addressability test target contains two types of elements, repeated to fill the page: fiducial lines and line segments. The fiducial lines serve as a relative reference for the incremental displacements of the individual line segments, providing a way to tolerate larger-scale physical distortions in the printer. An ordinary reflection scanner captures the printed test target. By rotating the page on the scanner, it is possible to measure effective addressability well beyond the scanner's sampling resolution. The measurement algorithm computes the distribution of incremental displacements, forming either a unimodal or bimodal histogram. In the latter case, the mean of the second (non-zero) peak indicates the effective addressability. In the former case, the printer successfully rendered the target's resolution, requiring another iteration of the procedure after increasing the resolution of the test target. The algorithm automatically estimates whether the histogram is unimodal or bimodal and computes parameters describing the quality of the measured histogram. Several experiments have refined the test target and measurement procedure, including two round-robin evaluations by the ISO WG4 committee. Results include an analysis of approximately 150 printed samples. The effective addressability attribute and measurement procedure are included in

  17. Formal verification of a set of memory management units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, K.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the verification of a set of memory management units (MMU). The verification effort demonstrates the use of hierarchical decomposition and abstract theories. The MMUs can be organized into a complexity hierarchy. Each new level in the hierarchy adds a few significant features or modifications to the lower level MMU. The units described include: (1) a page check translation look-aside module (TLM); (2) a page check TLM with supervisor line; (3) a base bounds MMU; (4) a virtual address translation MMU; and (5) a virtual address translation MMU with memory resident segment table.

  18. Interprocessor communication with limited memory

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Hendrickson, Bruce

    2003-05-07

    Many parallel applications require periodic redistribution of workloads and associated data. In a distributed memory computer, this redistribution can be difficult if limited memory is available for receiving messages. We propose a model for optimizing the exchange of messages under such circumstances which we call the minimum phase remapping problem. We first show that the problem is NP-Complete, and then analyze several methodologies for addressing it. First, we show how the problem can be phrased as an instance of multi-commodity flow. Next, we study a continuous approximation to the problem. We show that this continuous approximation has a solution which requires at most two more phases than the optimal discrete solution, but the question of how to consistently obtain a good discrete solution from the continuous problem remains open. We also devise simple and practical approximation algorithm for the problem with a bound of 1.5 times the optimal number of phases. We also present an empirical study of variations of our algorithms which indicate that our approaches are quite practical.

  19. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  20. Single-Item Memory, Associative Memory, and the Human Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Larry R.; Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.

    2006-01-01

    We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in…

  1. Destination Memory and Cognitive Theory of Mind in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Raffard, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Destination memory, or the ability to remember the destination to whom a piece of information was addressed, is found to be compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our paper investigated the relationship between destination memory and theory of mind in AD since both destination memory and theory of mind are social abilities that require processing attributes of interlocutors. Mild AD participants and controls were administered tasks tapping destination memory, affective theory of mind, and 1st and 2nd order cognitive theory of mind. Relative to controls, AD participants showed compromise in destination memory and 2nd order cognitive theory of mind, but preserved performance on affective and 1st order cognitive theory of mind. Significant correlations were observed between destination memory, and 1st and 2nd order cognitive theory of mind in AD participants and controls. By demonstrating a relationship between compromises in 2nd order theory of mind and in destination memory, our work highlights links between social cognition and memory functioning in AD.

  2. Role of Drosophila Amyloid Precursor Protein in Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a membrane protein engaged in complex proteolytic pathways. APP and its derivatives have been shown to play a central role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory decline. Despite a huge effort from the research community, the primary cause of AD remains unclear, making it crucial to better understand the physiological role of the APP pathway in brain plasticity and memory. Drosophila melanogaster is a model system well-suited to address this issue. Although relatively simple, the fly brain is highly organized, sustains several forms of learning and memory, and drives numerous complex behaviors. Importantly, molecules and mechanisms underlying memory processes are conserved from flies to mammals. The fly encodes a single non-essential APP homolog named APP-Like (APPL). Using in vivo inducible RNA interference strategies, it was shown that APPL knockdown in the mushroom bodies (MB)—the central integrative brain structure for olfactory memory—results in loss of memory. Several APPL derivatives, such as secreted and full-length membrane APPL, may play different roles in distinct types of memory phases. Furthermore, overexpression of Drosophila amyloid peptide exacerbates the memory deficit caused by APPL knockdown, thus potentiating memory decline. Data obtained in the fly support the hypothesis that APP acts as a transmembrane receptor, and that disruption of its normal function may contribute to cognitive impairment during early AD. PMID:28008309

  3. Memory, language, and ageing.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D M; Mackay, D G

    1997-01-01

    This overview provides both theoretical and empirical reasons for emphasizing practice and familiar skills as a practical strategy for enhancing cognitive functioning in old age. Our review of empirical research on age-related changes in memory and language reveals a consistent pattern of spared and impaired abilities in normal old age. Relatively preserved in old age is memory performance involving highly practised skills and familiar information, including factual, semantic and autobiographical information. Relatively impaired in old age is memory performance that requires the formation of new connections, for example, recall of recent autobiographical experiences, new facts or the source of newly acquired facts. This pattern of impaired new learning versus preserved old learning cuts across distinctions between semantic memory, episodic memory, explicit memory and perhaps also implicit memory. However, familiar verbal information is not completely preserved when accessed on the output side rather than the input side: aspects of language production, namely word finding and spelling, exhibit significant age-related declines. This emerging pattern of preserved and impaired abilities presents a fundamental challenge for theories of cognitive ageing, which must explain why some aspects of language and memory are more vulnerable to the effects of ageing than others. Information-universal theories, involving mechanisms such as general slowing that are independent of the type or structure of the information being processed, require additional mechanisms to account for this pattern of cognitive aging. Information-specific theories, where the type or structure of the postulated memory units can influence the effects of cognitive ageing, are able to account for this emerging pattern, but in some cases require further development to account for comprehensive cognitive changes such as general slowing. PMID:9460069

  4. Sleep and memory.

    PubMed

    Roth, T; Roehrs, T; Zwyghuizen-Doorenbos, A; Stepanski, E; Wittig, R

    1988-01-01

    Generally sleep is considered a time of amnesia. It is not uncommon for an individual to experience 8 h of sleep and have no memory for events during that time. Similarly, a substantial proportion of the population has no memory for dreams that occurred during the night, despite the fact that the literature on awakening during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep clearly shows that individuals normally have four to six "dream experiences" a night. Research on this issue seems to indicate that the lack of memory cannot be explained by the organisms' inability to perceive stimuli. The data indicate that although perceptual thresholds are elevated, organisms can clearly perceive stimuli, and, in fact, can discriminate between them during sleep. The amnesia also cannot be explained by a defect in long-term memory, as studies have indicated that stimuli put into the memory during wakefulness are more efficiently retrieved after a sleep period than after a comparable period of wakefulness. The most likely explanation for the amnestic property of sleep seems to be the inability of organisms to transfer information from short-term memory to long-term memory during sleep. There are several sources of evidence to support this hypothesis. First, the probability of remembering a stimulus given during wakefulness is related to the proximity of sleep onset to the stimulus. Generally, information put into the system within 5 min of sleep onset is lost from memory. Secondly, disorders of excessive daytime somnolence which cause individuals to have frequent microsleeps are often associated with complains of memory problems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Studying the relationship between dreaming and sleep-dependent memory processes: methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The hypothesis that dreaming is involved in off-line memory processing is difficult to test because major methodological issues have to be addressed, such as dream recall and the effect of remembered dreams on memory. It would be fruitful--in addition to studying the ancient art of memory (AAOM) in a scanner--to study the dreams of persons who use AAOM regularly.

  6. The Temporal Signature of Memories: Identification of a General Mechanism for Dynamic Memory Replay in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Michelmann, Sebastian; Bowman, Howard; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Reinstatement of dynamic memories requires the replay of neural patterns that unfold over time in a similar manner as during perception. However, little is known about the mechanisms that guide such a temporally structured replay in humans, because previous studies used either unsuitable methods or paradigms to address this question. Here, we overcome these limitations by developing a new analysis method to detect the replay of temporal patterns in a paradigm that requires participants to mentally replay short sound or video clips. We show that memory reinstatement is accompanied by a decrease of low-frequency (8 Hz) power, which carries a temporal phase signature of the replayed stimulus. These replay effects were evident in the visual as well as in the auditory domain and were localized to sensory-specific regions. These results suggest low-frequency phase to be a domain-general mechanism that orchestrates dynamic memory replay in humans. PMID:27494601

  7. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  8. Memory Retrieval as Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon D. A.; Vousden, Janet I.; McCormack, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Temporal distinctiveness models of memory retrieval claim that memories are organised partly in terms of their positions along a temporal dimension, and suggest that memory retrieval involves temporal discrimination. According to such models the retrievability of memories should be related to the discriminability of their temporal distances at the…

  9. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  10. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  11. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  12. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  13. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  14. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  15. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  16. 76 FR 27020 - Representative and Address Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Representative and Address Provisions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of...

  17. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. PMID:25101562

  18. A Latent Variables Examination of Processing Speed, Response Inhibition, and Working Memory during Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Tara; White, Desiree A.

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed three related aims: (a) to replicate and extend previous work regarding the nonunitary nature of processing speed, response inhibition, and working memory during development; (b) to quantify the rate at which processing speed, response inhibition, and working memory develop and the extent to which the development of these…

  19. AMPA Receptor Endocytosis in Rat Perirhinal Cortex Underlies Retrieval of Object Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazakoff, Brittany N.; Howland, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms consistent with long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) play a fundamental role in object recognition memory; however, whether AMPA receptor endocytosis is involved in distinct phases of recognition memory is not known. To address this question, we used local PRh infusions of the cell membrane-permeable Tat-GluA2[subscript…

  20. Manipulating Memories: The Ethics of Yesterday's Science Fiction and Today's Reality.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Julie M; Illes, Judy

    2016-12-01

    The paper addresses recent advances in memory manipulation from the perspective of the four key pillars of neuroethics: the self, social policy, neurotechnology, and education and outreach. We provide examples for each pillar, assess their neuroethical implications, and conclude with a call for an ethics framework that is specifically tailored for the ethical challenges of memory manipulation.

  1. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to False Memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jason M.; Bunting, Michael F.; Poole, Bradley J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors addressed whether individual differences in the working memory capacity (WMC) of young adults influence susceptibility to false memories for nonpresented critical words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott associative list paradigm. The results of 2 experiments indicated that individuals with greater WMC recalled fewer critical words than…

  2. Effects of Learning Experience on Forgetting Rates of Item and Associative Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Zhan, Lexia; Wang, Yingying; Du, Xiaoya; Zhou, Wenxi; Ning, Xueling; Sun, Qing; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Are associative memories forgotten more quickly than item memories, and does the level of original learning differentially influence forgetting rates? In this study, we addressed these questions by having participants learn single words and word pairs once (Experiment 1), three times (Experiment 2), and six times (Experiment 3) in a massed…

  3. Are Errors Differentiable from Deceptive Responses when Feigning Memory Impairment? An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Au, Ricky K. C.; Liu, Ho-Ling; Ting, K. H.; Huang, Chih-Mao; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the neural activity associated with truthful recall, with false memory, and with feigned memory impairment are different from one another. Here, we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that addressed an important but yet unanswered question: Is the neural activity associated…

  4. Cache directory look-up re-use as conflict check mechanism for speculative memory requests

    DOEpatents

    Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-09-10

    In a cache memory, energy and other efficiencies can be realized by saving a result of a cache directory lookup for sequential accesses to a same memory address. Where the cache is a point of coherence for speculative execution in a multiprocessor system, with directory lookups serving as the point of conflict detection, such saving becomes particularly advantageous.

  5. An Investigation of Memory Latency Reduction Using an Address Prediction Buffer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    8217 successive over-relaxation algorithm that uses sparse matrices. TREE is Joel Bartletts’ program which builds a tree data structure and searches for the...Computers, VOL 41 NO. 4, April 1992. [THERRI92] Therrien , C.W., Discrete Random Signals and Statistical Signal Processing, Prentice-Hall, Englewood

  6. Content-Addressable Memory Storage by Neural Networks: A General Model and Global Liapunov Method,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    control. Boston: Reidel Press, 1982. Grossberg. S.. Cortical dynamics of three-dimensional form . color , and brightness perception: : Monocular theory...Perception and Psychophysics. 1987. 41, 87-116 (a). Grossberg. S., Cortical dynamics of three-dimensional form . color , and brightness perception. II

  7. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Reducing vulnerability to soft errors in sub-100 nm content addressable memory circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Sun; Jiaxing, Zhang; Minxuan, Zhang; Yue, Hao

    2010-02-01

    We first study the impacts of soft errors on various types of CAM for different feature sizes. After presenting a soft error immune CAM cell, SSB-RCAM, we propose two kinds of reliable CAM, DCF-RCAM and DCK-RCAM. In addition, we present an ignore mechanism to protect dual cell redundancy CAMs against soft errors. Experimental results indicate that the 11T-NOR CAM cell has an advantage in soft error immunity. Based on 11T-NOR, the proposed reliable CAMs reduce the SER by about 81% on average with acceptable overheads. The SER of dual cell redundancy CAMs can also be decreased using the ignore mechanism in specific applications.

  8. Positive consequences of false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Patel, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research is replete with examples of the negative consequences of false memories. In the current research, we provide a different perspective on false memories and their development and demonstrate that false memories can have positive consequences. Specifically, we examined the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks. Children and adults studied and recalled neutral or survival-relevant lists of associated words. They then solved age-normed compound remote associates, some of whose solutions had been primed by false memories created when studying the previous lists. The results showed that regardless of age: (a) survival-related words were not only better recollected but were also more susceptible than neutral words to false memory illusions; and (b) survival-related false memories were better than neutral false memories as primes for problem-solving. These findings are discussed in the context of recent speculation concerning the positive consequences of false memories, and the adaptive nature of reconstructive memory.

  9. Contextual analysis of machine-printed addresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Peter B.; Ho, Tin K.; Hull, Jonathan J.; Prussak, Michal; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1992-08-01

    The assignment of a nine digit ZIP Code (ZIP + 4 Code) to the digital image of a machine printed address block is a problem of central importance in automated mail sorting. This problem is especially difficult since most addresses do not contain ZIP + 4 Codes and often the information that must be read to match an address to one of the 28 million entries in the ZIP + 4 file is either erroneous, incomplete, or missing altogether. This paper discusses a system for interpreting a machine printed address and assigning a ZIP + 4 Code that uses a constraint satisfaction approach. Words in an address block are first segmented and parsed to assign probable semantic categories. Word images are then recognized by a combination of digit, character, and word recognition algorithms. The control structure uses a constraint satisfaction problem solving approach to match the recognition results to an entry in the ZIP + 4 file. It is shown how this technique can both determine correct responses as well as compensate for incomplete or erroneous information. Experimental results demonstrate the success of this system. In a recent test on over 1000 machine printed address blocks, the ZIP + 4 encode rate was over 73 percent. This compares to the success rate of current postal OCRs which is about 45 percent. Additionally, the word recognition algorithm recognizes over 92 percent of the input images (over 98 percent in the top 10 choices.

  10. Module partitioning and interlaced data placement schemes to reduce conflicts in interleaved memories

    SciTech Connect

    Kurian, L.; Choi, B.; Hulina, P.T.; Coraor, L.D.

    1994-12-31

    In interleaved memories, interference between concurrently active vector streams results in memory bank conflicts and reduced bandwidth. In this paper, we present two schemes for reducing inter-vector interference. First, we propose a memory module partitioning technique in which disjoint access sets are created for each of the concurrent vectors. Various properties of the involved address mapping are presented. Then we present an interlaced data placement scheme, where the simultaneously accessed vectors are interlaced and stored to the memory. Performance of the two schemes are evaluated by trace driven simulation. It is observed that the schemes have significant merit in reducing the interference in interleaved memories and increasingly the effective memory bandwidth. The schemes are applicable to memory systems for superscalar processors, vector supercomputers and parallel processors.

  11. Medications for Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning) of Alzheimer's disease. There is also a medication ... the latest Alzheimer's medications available today, and the clinical trials that may bring us closer to new ...

  12. Memory Circuit Fault Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

  13. Working Memory and Neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    YuLeung To, Eric; Abbott, Kathy; Foster, Dale S; Helmer, D'Arcy

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in working memory are typically associated with impairments in other cognitive faculties such as attentional processes and short-term memory. This paper briefly introduces neurofeedback as a treatment modality in general, and, more specifically, we review several of the current modalities successfully used in neurofeedback (NF) for the treatment of working memory deficits. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how neurofeedback is applied in treatment. The development of Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) and its application in neurofeedback now makes it possible to specifically target deep cortical/subcortical brain structures. Developments in neuroscience concerning neural networks, combined with highly specific yet practical NF technologies, makes neurofeedback of particular interest to neuropsychological practice, including the emergence of specific methodologies for treating very difficult working memory (WM) problems.

  14. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.

  15. Serriform Strip Crosstie Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    edge effect of the margin serrations upon magnetization, a form of shape anisotropy, inherently defines memory cell boundaries in the domain walls, thereby giving the crossties and Bloch lines preferred locations and allowing the use of a simplified propagation

  16. Multiresonator quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, S. A.; Gubaidullin, F. F.; Kirillov, R. S.; Latypov, R. R.; Perminov, N. S.; Petrovnin, K. V.; Sherstyukov, O. N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present universal broadband multiresonator quantum memory based on the spatial-frequency combs of the microresonators coupled with a common waveguide. We find a Bragg-type impedance matching condition for the coupling of the microresonators with a waveguide field that provides an efficient broadband quantum storage. The analytical solution obtained for the microresonator fields enables sustainable parametric control of all the memory characteristics. We also construct an experimental prototype of the studied quantum memory in the microwave spectral range that demonstrates basic properties of the microwave microresonators, their coupling with a common waveguide, and independent control of the microresonator frequencies. Experimentally observed narrow lines of the microresonators confirm the possibility of multiresonator quantum memory implementation.

  17. Memory, Memoir, Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nancy J.; Giorgis, Cyndi

    2000-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 41 good books for children offering a treasury of memory, memoir, and stories. Presents books in the following categories: storytellers, folktales, voices, family, artifacts, and preservation. (SR)

  18. Coping with Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... either using computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – can help to identify strokes and tumors, which can sometimes cause memory loss. “The goal is to rule out factors ...

  19. Perception and Memory of Pictures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-20

    altogether. His explanation for the efftct is similar to that proposed by Raijmakers and Shiffrin (1981) in the SAM model of memory : Items from...implicit memory , explicit memory , recognition memory , perce ’ptual fluency, priming, RSVP, fragmented pictures, connectionist models , PDP models 19...of implicit and explicit memory . A connectionist model of picture recognition which was developed and tested in collaboration with Elliot Hirshman

  20. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  1. Epigenetic memory in plants.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Mayumi; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2014-09-17

    Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in patterns of gene expression that occur without alterations in DNA sequence. The epigenetic mechanisms involve covalent modifications of DNA and histones, which affect transcriptional activity of chromatin. Since chromatin states can be propagated through mitotic and meiotic divisions, epigenetic mechanisms are thought to provide heritable 'cellular memory'. Here, we review selected examples of epigenetic memory in plants and briefly discuss underlying mechanisms.

  2. Emergence of Collective Memories

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungmin; Ramenzoni, Verónica C.; Holme, Petter

    2010-01-01

    Background We understand the dynamics of the world around us as by associating pairs of events, where one event has some influence on the other. These pairs of events can be aggregated into a web of memories representing our understanding of an episode of history. The events and the associations between them need not be directly experienced—they can also be acquired by communication. In this paper we take a network approach to study the dynamics of memories of history. Methodology/Principal Findings First we investigate the network structure of a data set consisting of reported events by several individuals and how associations connect them. We focus our measurement on degree distributions, degree correlations, cycles (which represent inconsistencies as they would break the time ordering) and community structure. We proceed to model effects of communication using an agent-based model. We investigate the conditions for the memory webs of different individuals to converge to collective memories, how groups where the individuals have similar memories (but different from other groups) can form. Conclusions/Significance Our work outlines how the cognitive representation of memories and social structure can co-evolve as a contagious process. We generate some testable hypotheses including that the number of groups is limited as a function of the total population size. PMID:20824141

  3. Mechanisms of Memory Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing quest for memory enhancement is one that grows necessary as the global population increasingly ages. The extraordinary progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how long-term memories are formed has provided insight into how memories might also be enhanced. Capitalizing on this knowledge, it has been postulated that targeting many of the same mechanisms, including CREB activation, AMPA/NMDA receptor trafficking, neuromodulation (e.g. via dopamine, adrenaline, cortisol or acetylcholine) and metabolic processes (e.g. via glucose and insulin) may all lead to the enhancement of memory. These and other mechanisms and/or approaches have been tested via genetic or pharmacological methods in animal models, and several have been investigated in humans as well. In addition, a number of behavioral methods, including exercise and reconsolidation, may also serve to strengthen and enhance memories. By capitalizing on this knowledge and continuing to investigate these promising avenues, memory enhancement may indeed be achieved in the future. PMID:23151999

  4. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.

  5. Destination memory and cognitive theory of mind in normal ageing.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Raffard, Stéphane; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Destination memory is the ability to remember the destination to which a piece of information has been addressed (e.g., "Did I tell you about the promotion?"). This ability is found to be impaired in normal ageing. Our work aimed to link this deterioration to the decline in theory of mind. Forty younger adults (M age = 23.13 years, SD = 4.00) and 36 older adults (M age = 69.53 years, SD = 8.93) performed a destination memory task. They also performed the False-belief test addressing cognitive theory of mind and the Reading the mind in the eyes test addressing affective theory of mind. Results showed significant deterioration in destination memory, cognitive theory of mind and affective theory of mind in the older adults. The older adults' performance on destination memory was significantly correlated with and predicted by their performance on cognitive theory of mind. Difficulties in the ability to interpret and predict others' mental states are related to destination memory decline in older adults.

  6. Effects of aging and working memory demands on prospective memory.

    PubMed

    West, Robert; Bowry, Ritvij

    2005-11-01

    The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of aging, increasing the working memory demands of the ongoing activity, and a prospective memory load on the neural correlates of prospective remembering and target recognition. The behavioral data revealed that the success of prospective memory was sensitive to working memory load in younger, but not older, adults and that a prospective memory load had a greater effect on the performance of older adults than that of younger adults. The ERP data revealed age-related differences in the neural correlates of the detection of prospective cues, post-retrieval processes that support prospective memory, and target recognition. Our results support the hypothesis that there are age-related differences in the ability to recruit preparatory attentional processes that underlie prospective memory, and demonstrate that younger and older adults may recruit somewhat different neural generators to support prospective memory and working memory.

  7. Hippocampal Contributions to the Large-Scale Episodic Memory Network Predict Vivid Visual Memories.

    PubMed

    Geib, Benjamin R; Stanley, Matthew L; Wing, Erik A; Laurienti, Paul J; Cabeza, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A common approach in memory research is to isolate the function(s) of individual brain regions, such as the hippocampus, without addressing how those regions interact with the larger network. To investigate the properties of the hippocampus embedded within large-scale networks, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory to characterize complex hippocampal interactions during the active retrieval of vivid versus dim visual memories. The study yielded 4 main findings. First, the right hippocampus displayed greater communication efficiency with the network (shorter path length) and became a more convergent structure for information integration (higher centrality measures) for vivid than dim memories. Second, vivid minus dim differences in our graph theory measures of interest were greater in magnitude for the right hippocampus than for any other region in the 90-region network. Moreover, the right hippocampus significantly reorganized its set of direct connections from dim to vivid memory retrieval. Finally, beyond the hippocampus, communication throughout the whole-brain network was more efficient (shorter global path length) for vivid than dim memories. In sum, our findings illustrate how multivariate network analyses can be used to investigate the roles of specific regions within the large-scale network, while also accounting for global network changes.

  8. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  9. What people believe about memory.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Svein; Andersson, Jan; Cornoldi, Cesare; De Beni, Rossana; Endestad, Tor; Goodman, Gail S; Helstrup, Tore; Koriat, Asher; Larsson, Maria; Melinder, Annika; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Rönnberg, Jerker; Zimmer, Hubert

    2006-07-01

    Two representative samples of adult Norwegians (n=2000) were asked a set of general and specific questions regarding their beliefs and opinions about human memory. The results indicate that on many questions, such as time of the earliest memories, inhibiting effects of collaboration, and memory for dramatic versus ordinary events, the views of the general public concurred with current research findings, and people in general had realistic views about their own memory performance. On other questions, such as the reliability of olfactory as compared with visual and auditory memory, the memory of small children in comparison with that of adults, the likelihood of repression of adult traumatic memories, and on more general questions such as the possibility of training memory and the capacity limitations of long-term memory, a large proportion of the participants expressed views that are less supported by scientific evidence. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  10. Switchable Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) Thermal Materials Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Williams, Martha; Fesmire, James

    2014-01-01

    Develop 2-way switchable thermal systems for use in systems that function in cold to hot temperature ranges using different alloy designs for SMA system concepts. In this project, KSC will specifically address designs of two proof of concept SMA systems with transition temperatures in the 65-95 C range and investigate cycle fatigue and "memory loss" due to thermal cycling.

  11. Asymptotic Learning of Alphanumeric Coding in Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Maryanne; Jones, Gregory V.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of autobiographical memory have shown that observed levels of incidental learning are often relatively low. Do low levels of retention result simply from a low learning rate, or is learning also asymptotic? To address this question, it is necessary to trace performance over a large number of learning opportunities, and this was carried out…

  12. Sex Influences on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreano, Joseph M.; Cahill, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In essentially every domain of neuroscience, the generally implicit assumption that few, if any, meaningful differences exist between male and female brain function is being challenged. Here we address how this development is influencing studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory. While it has been commonly held that males show an…

  13. The Role of Semantic Clustering in Optimal Memory Foraging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montez, Priscilla; Thompson, Graham; Kello, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of semantic memory have investigated two theories of optimal search adopted from the animal foraging literature: Lévy flights and marginal value theorem. Each theory makes different simplifying assumptions and addresses different findings in search behaviors. In this study, an experiment is conducted to test whether clustering in…

  14. Flashbulb Memory Revisited: Children Recall the Space Shuttle Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leubecker, Amye Warren; Springfield, Michael R.

    Addressing theoretical and methodological issues, the present study assessed the content, accuracy, and consistency of school-aged children's memories of a potentially emotional, historic event: the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986. A total of 345 children in kindergarten through eighth grade were tested. To examine…

  15. Encoding, Memory, and Transcoding Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Strand, Edythe A.; Jakielski, Kathy J.

    2012-01-01

    A central question in Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) is whether the core phenotype is limited to transcoding (planning/programming) deficits or if speakers with CAS also have deficits in auditory-perceptual "encoding" (representational) and/or "memory" (storage and retrieval of representations) processes. We addressed this and other questions…

  16. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  17. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  18. Functions of autobiographical memory in Taiwanese and American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsiao-Wen; Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole; Cheng, Ching-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses cultural and person-level factors contributing to emerging adult's use of memory to serve adaptive functions. The focus is on three functions: self-continuity, social-bonding and directing-behaviour. Taiwanese (N = 85, 52 women) and American (N = 95, 51 women) emerging adults completed the Thinking about Life Experiences scale, and measures of trait personality, self-concept clarity and future time perspective. Findings show that individuals from both cultures use memory to serve these three functions, but Taiwanese individuals use memory more frequently than Americans to maintain self-continuity. Culture also interacted with person-level factors: in Taiwan, but not America, memory is more frequently used to create self-continuity in individuals high in conscientiousness. Across cultures, having lower self-concept clarity was related to greater use of memory to create self-continuity. Findings are discussed in terms of how memory serves functions in context and specific aspects of the Taiwanese and American cultural context that may predict the functional use of memory in emerging adulthood.

  19. Neurocognitive architecture of working memory

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Johan; Vogel, Edward K.; Lansner, Anders; Bergström, Fredrik; Nyberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The crucial role of working memory for temporary information processing and guidance of complex behavior has been recognized for many decades. There is emerging consensus that working memory maintenance results from the interactions among long-term memory representations and basic processes, including attention, that are instantiated as reentrant loops between frontal and posterior cortical areas, as well as subcortical structures. The nature of such interactions can account for capacity limitations, lifespan changes, and restricted transfer after working-memory training. Recent data and models indicate that working memory may also be based on synaptic plasticity, and that working memory can operate on non-consciously perceived information. PMID:26447571

  20. Memory function and supportive technology

    PubMed Central

    Charness, Neil; Best, Ryan; Souders, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Episodic and working memory processes show pronounced age-related decline, with other memory processes such as semantic, procedural, and metamemory less affected. Older adults tend to complain the most about prospective and retrospective memory failures. We introduce a framework for deciding how to mitigate memory decline using augmentation and substitution and discuss techniques that change the user, through mnemonics training, and change the tool or environment, by providing environmental support. We provide examples of low-tech and high-tech memory supports and discuss constraints on the utility of high-tech systems including effectiveness of devices, attitudes toward memory aids, and reliability of systems. PMID:24379752

  1. Nanoporous silicon oxide memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gunuk; Yang, Yang; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Abramova, Vera; Fei, Huilong; Ruan, Gedeng; Thomas, Edwin L; Tour, James M

    2014-08-13

    Oxide-based two-terminal resistive random access memory (RRAM) is considered one of the most promising candidates for next-generation nonvolatile memory. We introduce here a new RRAM memory structure employing a nanoporous (NP) silicon oxide (SiOx) material which enables unipolar switching through its internal vertical nanogap. Through the control of the stochastic filament formation at low voltage, the NP SiOx memory exhibited an extremely low electroforming voltage (∼ 1.6 V) and outstanding performance metrics. These include multibit storage ability (up to 9-bits), a high ON-OFF ratio (up to 10(7) A), a long high-temperature lifetime (≥ 10(4) s at 100 °C), excellent cycling endurance (≥ 10(5)), sub-50 ns switching speeds, and low power consumption (∼ 6 × 10(-5) W/bit). Also provided is the room temperature processability for versatile fabrication without any compliance current being needed during electroforming or switching operations. Taken together, these metrics in NP SiOx RRAM provide a route toward easily accessed nonvolatile memory applications.

  2. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  3. High speed, very large (8 megabyte) first in/first out buffer memory (FIFO)

    DOEpatents

    Baumbaugh, Alan E.; Knickerbocker, Kelly L.

    1989-01-01

    A fast FIFO (First In First Out) memory buffer capable of storing data at rates of 100 megabytes per second. The invention includes a data packer which concatenates small bit data words into large bit data words, a memory array having individual data storage addresses adapted to store the large bit data words, a data unpacker into which large bit data words from the array can be read and reconstructed into small bit data words, and a controller to control and keep track of the individual data storage addresses in the memory array into which data from the packer is being written and data to the unpacker is being read.

  4. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Shared.Memory Parallel Processing System (SMPPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-26

    AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) THE DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AFIT/CIA, BLDG 125 2950 P STREET WPAFB OH 45433 10 . SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY...Existing Machines 4 1.2.1 Message-Passing 4 1.2.2 Shared-Memory 6 2 IMPLEMENTING A SHARED-MEMORY PARALLEL PROCESSING SYSTEM (SMPPS) 10 2.1...Objectives 10 2.2 A Dual-Processor Shared-Memory Parallel Processing System 10 2.2.1 Meeting Design Objectives 10 2.2.2 The Design 11 2.2.3 Timer

  5. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  6. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to showcase…

  7. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  8. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  9. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  10. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  11. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  12. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  13. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  14. 50 CFR 18.78 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 18.78 Section 18.78 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.78 Mailing...

  15. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  16. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  17. Addressing Psychosocial Factors with Library Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Bridget; Alabi, Jaena; Whaley, Pambanisha; Jenda, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    The majority of articles on mentoring in the library and information science field address career development by emphasizing the orientation process for new librarians and building the requisite skills for a specific job. Few articles deal with the psychological and social challenges that many early-career and minority librarians face, which can…

  18. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  19. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  20. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  1. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  2. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  3. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  4. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  5. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  6. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  7. 78 FR 35149 - Addresses of Regional Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Addresses of Regional Offices AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We... offices in our regulations at title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations. We are also making...

  8. EPA Addresses Environmental Justice in Houston

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 8, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced Texas Environmental Justice Advocacy Services (t.e.j.a.s.) was selected as a grant recipient to address environmental justice (EJ) issues in the Manchester area

  9. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  10. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (b) If hand delivered... Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. (c) If hand delivered by a commercial...., Washington, DC, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., and be addressed as follows:...

  11. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (b) If hand delivered... Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. (c) If hand delivered by a commercial...., Washington, DC, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., and be addressed as follows:...

  12. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  13. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  14. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  15. Addressing Deaf Culture in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliaro, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    The importance of recognizing the culture of deaf people is often overlooked when addressing issues of student diversity in the schools. Including the culture of deaf students can add vitality and energy to the educational environment, providing an alternative and unique perspective. This paper describes deafness, explains deaf culture, and…

  16. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  17. Long-term Memories: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.

    PubMed

    Alberini, Cristina M

    2010-09-01

    Traumatic memories haunt the lives of people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, and other illnesses. Fortunately, recent research into the changeability of long-term memories may someday develop into treatments for such individuals. But before this can happen, writes Cristina Alberini, Ph.D., of Mount Sinai School of Medicine, researchers must determine just how effectively the fear associated with older memories-especially those involved in PTSD-can be reduced and for how long. Researchers must also address the ethical issues that go hand in hand with modifying memory.

  18. Multiple Concurrent Thoughts: The Meaning and Developmental Neuropsychology of Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Working memory can be described as the small amount of information held in a readily accessible state, available to help in the completion of cognitive tasks. There has been considerable confusion among researchers regarding the definition of working memory, which can be attributed to the difficulty of reconciling descriptions from working memory researchers with very different theoretical orientations. Here I review theories of working memory and some of the main issues in the field, discuss current behavioral and neuropsychological research that can address these issues, and consider the implications for cognitive development. PMID:20721769

  19. Memory Loss: 7 Tips to Improve Your Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... re not alone. Everyone forgets things occasionally. Still, memory loss is nothing to take lightly. Although there are no guarantees when it comes to preventing memory loss or dementia, certain activities might help. Consider ...

  20. MEMORIAL WALK WITH MEMORIALS, TOWARD ENTRANCE GATE. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEMORIAL WALK WITH MEMORIALS, TOWARD ENTRANCE GATE. VIEW TO WEST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. Serotonin is critical for rewarded olfactory short-term memory in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sitaraman, Divya; LaFerriere, Holly; Birman, Serge; Zars, Troy

    2012-06-01

    The biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin are critical in establishing normal memories. A common view for the amines in insect memory performance has emerged in which dopamine and octopamine are largely responsible for aversive and appetitive memories. Examination of the function of serotonin begins to challenge the notion of one amine type per memory because altering serotonin function also reduces aversive olfactory memory and place memory levels. Could the function of serotonin be restricted to the aversive domain, suggesting a more specific dopamine/serotonin system interaction? The function of the serotonergic system in appetitive olfactory memory was examined. By targeting the tetanus toxin light chain (TNT) and the human inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.1) to the serotonin neurons with two different GAL4 driver combinations, the serotonergic system was inhibited. Additional use of the GAL80(ts1) system to control expression of transgenes to the adult stage of the life cycle addressed a potential developmental role of serotonin in appetitive memory. Reduction in appetitive olfactory memory performance in flies with these transgenic manipulations, without altering control behaviors, showed that the serotonergic system is also required for normal appetitive memory. Thus, serotonin appears to have a more general role in Drosophila memory, and implies an interaction with both the dopaminergic and octopaminergic systems.

  2. The short- and long-term fates of memory items retained outside the focus of attention

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, Adam S.; Starrett, Michael J.; Rose, Nathan S.; Emrich, Stephen M.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2015-01-01

    When a test of working memory (WM) requires the retention of multiple items, a subset of them can be prioritized. Recent studies have shown that, although prioritized (i.e., attended) items are associated with active neural representations, unprioritized (i.e., unattended) memory items can be retained in WM despite the absence of such active representations, and with no decrement in their recognition if they are cued later in the trial. These findings raise two intriguing questions about the nature of the short-term retention of information outside the focus of attention. First, when the focus of attention shifts from items in WM, is there a loss of fidelity for those unattended memory items? Second, could the retention of unattended memory items be accomplished by long-term memory mechanisms? We addressed the first question by comparing the precision of recall of attended versus unattended memory items, and found a significant decrease in precision for unattended memory items, reflecting a degradation in the quality of those representations. We addressed the second question by asking subjects to perform a WM task, followed by a surprise memory test for the items that they had seen in the WM task. Long-term memory for unattended memory items from the WM task was not better than memory for items that had remained selected by the focus of attention in the WM task. These results show that unattended WM representations are degraded in quality and are not preferentially represented in long-term memory, as compared to attended memory items. PMID:25472902

  3. The short- and long-term fates of memory items retained outside the focus of attention.

    PubMed

    LaRocque, Joshua J; Eichenbaum, Adam S; Starrett, Michael J; Rose, Nathan S; Emrich, Stephen M; Postle, Bradley R

    2015-04-01

    When a test of working memory (WM) requires the retention of multiple items, a subset of them can be prioritized. Recent studies have shown that, although prioritized (i.e., attended) items are associated with active neural representations, unprioritized (i.e., unattended) memory items can be retained in WM despite the absence of such active representations, and with no decrement in their recognition if they are cued later in the trial. These findings raise two intriguing questions about the nature of the short-term retention of information outside the focus of attention. First, when the focus of attention shifts from items in WM, is there a loss of fidelity for those unattended memory items? Second, could the retention of unattended memory items be accomplished by long-term memory mechanisms? We addressed the first question by comparing the precision of recall of attended versus unattended memory items, and found a significant decrease in precision for unattended memory items, reflecting a degradation in the quality of those representations. We addressed the second question by asking subjects to perform a WM task, followed by a surprise memory test for the items that they had seen in the WM task. Long-term memory for unattended memory items from the WM task was not better than memory for items that had remained selected by the focus of attention in the WM task. These results show that unattended WM representations are degraded in quality and are not preferentially represented in long-term memory, as compared to attended memory items.

  4. Bergson's "Matter and Memory" and modern selectionist theories of memory.

    PubMed

    McNamara, P

    1996-03-01

    Bergson's reflections (in Matter and Memory, 1896) on memory anticipated development of modern selectionist theories of memory. Selectionist models offer new and potentially useful approaches to a theory of remembering. On the model of natural selection, these selectionist theories require at least two processing components: a device which generates a range of memory representations and a selection process which preserves a subset of those representations. Bergson shows how the subjective experience of remembering might be understood within a selectionist framework.

  5. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  6. Echoic memory in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, Christina; Kalenscher, Tobias; Güntürkün, Onur; Kaernbach, Christian

    2008-10-01

    It is unknown whether birds are able to retain the memory of purely sensory auditory information such as white noise over an extended period of time. In a Pavlovian heart rate conditioning paradigm, four pigeons were trained to associate a mild electric shock with periodic random waveforms, and no shock with aperiodic noise. Periodic waveform detection requires echoic memory, i.e., the online retention of a waveform pattern over a limited time. Starting with 40ms, the waveform period was increased after successful learning until no significant stimulus discrimination could be found. Significant discrimination was achieved at periods of up to 2560ms. This is the first demonstration that echoic memory performance in birds is clearly superior to cats and gerbils, and comparable to naive human performance.

  7. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  8. A dynamic neural field model of visual working memory and change detection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey S; Spencer, John P; Luck, Steven J; Schöner, Gregor

    2009-05-01

    Efficient visually guided behavior depends on the ability to form, retain, and compare visual representations for objects that may be separated in space and time. This ability relies on a short-term form of memory known as visual working memory. Although a considerable body of research has begun to shed light on the neurocognitive systems subserving this form of memory, few theories have addressed these processes in an integrated, neurally plausible framework. We describe a layered neural architecture that implements encoding and maintenance, and links these processes to a plausible comparison process. In addition, the model makes the novel prediction that change detection will be enhanced when metrically similar features are remembered. Results from experiments probing memory for color and for orientation were consistent with this novel prediction. These findings place strong constraints on models addressing the nature of visual working memory and its underlying mechanisms.

  9. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  10. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  11. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  12. An overview of advanced nonvolatile memory technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    This report is an overview of advanced nonvolatile memory technologies. The memory technologies discussed are: floating gate nonvolatile memory technologies; SNOS nonvolatile technology; ferroelectric technology; and thin film magnetic memories.

  13. Dreams, conscience, and memory.

    PubMed

    Stein, M H

    1991-04-01

    The interpretation of certain dreams, as opposed to the direct examination of behavior, makes it possible to explore the conscience of the dreamer, detect hidden sources of guilt, and interpret them with less likelihood of arousing intractable resistance. Through the recovery of memories and the establishment of an intimate familiarity with one's personal history, it becomes possible to resolve problems of "neurotic" guilt, based ultimately on distortions of repressed childhood memories. The resolution of these conflicts allows a greater role for the operation of "appropriate" guilt, based on genuine transgressions, and the establishment of a more mature ethical structure.

  14. Natural Killer Cell Memory.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Sun, Joseph C; Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-10-20

    Natural killer (NK) cells have historically been considered short-lived cytolytic cells that can rapidly respond against pathogens and tumors in an antigen-independent manner and then undergo cell death. Recently, however, NK cells have been shown to possess traits of adaptive immunity and can acquire immunological memory in a manner similar to that of T and B cells. In this review, we discuss evidence of NK cell memory and the mechanisms involved in the generation and survival of these innate lymphocytes.

  15. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  16. Memory and Forgetfulness: NIH Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Memory & Forgetfulness NIH Research Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... agency for research on Alzheimer's disease and related memory research. An analysis funded by the NIA finds ...

  17. Long-term visual object recognition memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Platano, Daniela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Balietti, Marta; Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo; Aicardi, Giorgio

    2008-04-01

    Aging is associated with memory impairments, but the neural bases of this process need to be clarified. To this end, behavioral protocols for memory testing may be applied to aged animals to compare memory performances with functional and structural characteristics of specific brain regions. Visual object recognition memory can be investigated in the rat using a behavioral task based on its spontaneous preference for exploring novel rather than familiar objects. We found that a behavioral task able to elicit long-term visual object recognition memory in adult Long-Evans rats failed in aged (25-27 months old) Wistar rats. Since no tasks effective in aged rats are reported in the literature, we changed the experimental conditions to improve consolidation processes to assess whether this form of memory can still be maintained for long term at this age: the learning trials were performed in a smaller box, identical to the home cage, and the inter-trial delays were shortened. We observed a reduction in anxiety in this box (as indicated by the lower number of fecal boli produced during habituation), and we developed a learning protocol able to elicit a visual object recognition memory that was maintained after 24 h in these aged rats. When we applied the same protocol to adult rats, we obtained similar results. This experimental approach can be useful to study functional and structural changes associated with age-related memory impairments, and may help to identify new behavioral strategies and molecular targets that can be addressed to ameliorate memory performances during aging.

  18. Essays in petroleum futures market, convenience yield, and long memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Ataollah

    This thesis is a collection of three essays which address some empirical applications of long memory processes with specific interest in financial economics of energy futures market. The first essay 'Evidence of Long Memory in the Petroleum Market' studies evidence of long memory in the energy market using daily and weekly futures data. This essay concentrates on the question of interdependence between crude oil futures and the corresponding products. The empirical results provide strong support for long memory in the energy futures market. The cointegrating relations between crude oil and heating oil futures as well as crude oil and unleaded gasoline futures exhibit long memory, whereas the individual series are unit-root. The second essay 'Convenience Yield, Mean Reversion and Long Memory in the Petroleum Market' analyzes convenience yields in the petroleum market. The focus of this essay is the behavior of the spot and futures prices over the long run. The implied convenience yield for petroleum and petroleum products is found to be driven by a nonstationary and mean reverting long memory process. The theoretical implication of this finding is established. It is discussed that this might be attributed to the fact that the market is expecting mean reversion in the spot prices. Furthermore, the volatility process and its relation with the mean process and the corresponding direction of causality have been studied in detail. The third essay 'Long Memory and Conditional Heteroskedasticity, A Monte Carlo Investigation', unlike the first two, looks at the econometrics of the estimators of the long memory process. It evaluates performance of three methods of estimating the parameter of fractionally integrated noise: the exact maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), the quasi maximum likelihood estimator (QMLE), and the GPH under different realizations for variance.

  19. Address block localization based on graph theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaceb, Djamel; Eglin, Véronique; Lebourgeois, Frank; Emptoz, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    An efficient mail sorting system is mainly based on an accurate optical recognition of the addresses on the envelopes. However, the localizing of the address block (ABL) should be done before the OCR recognition process. The location step is very crucial as it has a great impact on the global performance of the system. Currently, a good localizing step leads to a better recognition rate. The limit of current methods is mainly caused by modular linear architectures used for ABL: their performances greatly depend on each independent module performance. We are presenting in this paper a new approach for ABL based on a pyramidal data organization and on a hierarchical graph coloring for classification process. This new approach presents the advantage to guarantee a good coherence between different modules and reduces both the computation time and the rejection rate. The proposed method gives a very satisfying rate of 98% of good locations on a set of 750 envelope images.

  20. Optically addressed asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, A.; Maserjian, J.

    1991-01-01

    A low power, high contrast optically addressed modulator, operating with normal incidence, has been fabricated. Optically controlled reflection modulation is achieved through optically induced absorption modulation in a periodically delta-doped InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structure inserted in an integrated asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonator. A contrast ratio over 60:1 was measured using a spectrally matched low power InGaAs/GaAs quantum well laser to generate the write (control) signal. The insertion loss for the normally off modulator is 4.6 dB at the highest write signal power (30 mW) used. The device lends itself to the fabrication of arrays for optically addressed spatial light modulation.

  1. Addressing Medical Errors in Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Adkinson, Joshua M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Influential think-tank such as the Institute of Medicine has raised awareness about the implications of medical errors. In response, organizations, medical societies, and institutions have initiated programs to decrease the incidence and effects of these errors. Surgeons deal with the direct implications of adverse events involving patients. In addition to managing the physical consequences, they are confronted with ethical and social issues when caring for a harmed patient. Although there is considerable effort to implement system-wide changes, there is little guidance for hand surgeons on how to address medical errors. Admitting an error is difficult, but a transparent environment where patients are notified of errors and offered consolation and compensation is essential to maintain trust. Further, equipping hand surgeons with a guide for addressing medical errors will promote compassionate patient interaction, help identify system failures, provide learning points for safety improvement, and demonstrate a commitment to ethically responsible medical care. PMID:25154576

  2. Shape memory polymer medical device

    DOEpatents

    Maitland, Duncan; Benett, William J.; Bearinger, Jane P.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Ortega, Jason M.; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M.

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  3. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    effectively with the American debt and deficit, by first describing the background of our current government approach to the economy , then examining the...to address the problem of deficit financing and the associated debt in a positive manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States...current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining what

  4. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each.

  5. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  6. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  7. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  8. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  9. Play Memories and Place Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study examined play memories from childhood to adulthood of 478 university students between ages 20 and 62 as exhibited in drawings of play memories and questionnaire responses. The study focused on the role of the physical environment and place identity in play memories and individual identity development. Findings showed that…

  10. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  11. First Words and First Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

  12. Dual redundant core memory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    Electronic memory system consisting of series redundant drive switch circuits, triple redundant majority voted memory timing functions, and two data registers to provide functional dual redundancy is described. Signal flow through the circuits is illustrated and equence of events which occur within the memory system is explained.

  13. Windows Memory Forensic Data Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION THESIS J. Brendan Baum, Civilian, USAF AFIT...WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENG-T-14-J-1 WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION J. Brendan Baum, B.S

  14. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  15. Memory Storage and Neural Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

  16. Stress disrupts response memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2013-08-01

    Stress effects on memory are well-known. Most studies, however, focused on the impact of stress on hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory processes. Less is known about whether stress influences also striatum-based memory processes, such as stimulus-response (S-R) memory. First evidence from rodent experiments shows that glucocorticoid stress hormones may enhance the consolidation of S-R memories. Whether stress affects also S-R memory retrieval remains largely elusive. Therefore, we tested in the present experiment in humans the effect of stress on the retrieval of S-R memories. Healthy men and women were trained to locate three objects in an S-R version of a virtual eight-arm radial maze. One week later, participants underwent a stressor or a control condition before their memory of the S-R task was tested. Our results showed that participants (n=43) who were exposed to the stressor before retention testing made significantly more errors in this test trial, suggesting that stress impaired S-R memory retrieval. Moreover, high cortisol concentrations were associated with reduced S-R memory. These findings indicate that stress may affect memory retrieval processes in humans beyond hippocampal 'declarative' memory.

  17. Memory Processes in Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kathy

    1985-01-01

    Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)

  18. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  19. The contribution of epigenetic memory to immunologic memory.

    PubMed

    Zediak, Valerie P; Wherry, E John; Berger, Shelley L

    2011-04-01

    Memory T lymphocytes are distinct from antigen-inexperienced naïve T cells in that memory T cells can respond more rapidly when they re-encounter a pathogen. Work over the past decade has begun to define the epigenetic underpinnings of the transcriptional component of the memory T cell response. An emerging theme is the persistence of an active chromatin signature at relevant gene loci in resting memory T cells, even when those genes are transcriptionally inactive. This gives strength to the concept of gene poising, and has shown that memory T lymphocytes are an ideal model in which to further define various mechanisms of epigenetic poising.

  20. Software Coherence in Multiprocessor Memory Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolosky, William Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Processors are becoming faster and multiprocessor memory interconnection systems are not keeping up. Therefore, it is necessary to have threads and the memory they access as near one another as possible. Typically, this involves putting memory or caches with the processors, which gives rise to the problem of coherence: if one processor writes an address, any other processor reading that address must see the new value. This coherence can be maintained by the hardware or with software intervention. Systems of both types have been built in the past; the hardware-based systems tended to outperform the software ones. However, the ratio of processor to interconnect speed is now so high that the extra overhead of the software systems may no longer be significant. This issue is explored both by implementing a software maintained system and by introducing and using the technique of offline optimal analysis of memory reference traces. It finds that in properly built systems, software maintained coherence can perform comparably to or even better than hardware maintained coherence. The architectural features necessary for efficient software coherence to be profitable include a small page size, a fast trap mechanism, and the ability to execute instructions while remote memory references are outstanding.

  1. Hierarchical Chunking of Sequential Memory on Neuromorphic Architecture with Reduced Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Fei; Zhang, Ziyang; Li, Huanglong; Song, Sen; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Chunking refers to a phenomenon whereby individuals group items together when performing a memory task to improve the performance of sequential memory. In this work, we build a bio-plausible hierarchical chunking of sequential memory (HCSM) model to explain why such improvement happens. We address this issue by linking hierarchical chunking with synaptic plasticity and neuromorphic engineering. We uncover that a chunking mechanism reduces the requirements of synaptic plasticity since it allows applying synapses with narrow dynamic range and low precision to perform a memory task. We validate a hardware version of the model through simulation, based on measured memristor behavior with narrow dynamic range in neuromorphic circuits, which reveals how chunking works and what role it plays in encoding sequential memory. Our work deepens the understanding of sequential memory and enables incorporating it for the investigation of the brain-inspired computing on neuromorphic architecture.

  2. Adding memory processing behaviors to the fuzzy behaviorist-based navigation of mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Bender, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Most fuzzy logic-based reasoning schemes developed for robot control are fully reactive, i.e., the reasoning modules consist of fuzzy rule bases that represent direct mappings from the stimuli provided by the perception systems to the responses implemented by the motion controllers. Due to their totally reactive nature, such reasoning systems can encounter problems such as infinite loops and limit cycles. In this paper, we proposed an approach to remedy these problems by adding a memory and memory-related behaviors to basic reactive systems. Three major types of memory behaviors are addressed: memory creation, memory management, and memory utilization. These are first presented, and examples of their implementation for the recognition of limit cycles during the navigation of an autonomous robot in a priori unknown environments are then discussed.

  3. Hierarchical Chunking of Sequential Memory on Neuromorphic Architecture with Reduced Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Fei; Zhang, Ziyang; Li, Huanglong; Song, Sen; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Chunking refers to a phenomenon whereby individuals group items together when performing a memory task to improve the performance of sequential memory. In this work, we build a bio-plausible hierarchical chunking of sequential memory (HCSM) model to explain why such improvement happens. We address this issue by linking hierarchical chunking with synaptic plasticity and neuromorphic engineering. We uncover that a chunking mechanism reduces the requirements of synaptic plasticity since it allows applying synapses with narrow dynamic range and low precision to perform a memory task. We validate a hardware version of the model through simulation, based on measured memristor behavior with narrow dynamic range in neuromorphic circuits, which reveals how chunking works and what role it plays in encoding sequential memory. Our work deepens the understanding of sequential memory and enables incorporating it for the investigation of the brain-inspired computing on neuromorphic architecture. PMID:28066223

  4. Immunological memory: lessons from the past and a look to the future.

    PubMed

    Farber, Donna L; Netea, Mihai G; Radbruch, Andreas; Rajewsky, Klaus; Zinkernagel, Rolf M

    2016-02-01

    Immunological memory is considered to be one of the cardinal features of the adaptive immune system. Despite being a recognized phenomenon since the time of the ancient Greeks, immunologists are yet to fully appreciate the mechanisms that control memory responses in the immune system. Furthermore, our definition of immunological memory itself continues to evolve, with recent suggestions that innate immune cells also show memory-like behaviour. In this Viewpoint article, Nature Reviews Immunology invites five leading immunologists to share their thoughts on our current understanding of the nature of immunological memory. Our experts highlight some of the seminal studies that have shaped the immune memory field and offer contrasting views on the key questions that remain to be addressed.

  5. Judgments of Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and…

  6. When Autobiographical Memory Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Courage, Mary L.; Edison, Shannon C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors review competing theories concerning the emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. It is argued that the differences between these accounts, although important, may be more apparent than real. The crux of these disagreements lies not in "what" processes are important, but rather, the role these different processes…

  7. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  8. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  9. Dreams Memories & Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  10. Antenatal memories and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Neighbour, Roger

    1981-01-01

    A case is described of suicidal impulses apparently stemming from the patient's experience before and during his birth. By using a technique of `rebirthing', antenatal memories were relived and their traumatic effects resolved. Theoretical and practical accounts of rebirthing are given, and its significance for general practitioners is discussed. PMID:7338871

  11. Memorials: Art for Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art to Zoo: Teaching With the Power of Objects, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Throughout history, in all parts of the world, people have struggled with the problem of loss. Moving words have been written and beautiful objects created to preserve the memory of people and their achievements. This theme issue explores the different ways that people have been praised and remembered in works of art. An introduction suggests a…

  12. Memory Mechanisms in Grasping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Constanze; Franz, Volker H.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of visual information influences the execution of goal-directed movements. This is very prominent in memory conditions, where a delay is introduced between stimulus presentation and execution of the movement. The corresponding effects could be due to a decay of the visual information or to different processing mechanisms used for…

  13. The Grammar of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This essay focuses on two sites of memory in my professional life. One is from my very early years of teaching, the second from about 10 years later. Each is centred on a moment of controversy in English curriculum in New South Wales, Australia, and each is to do with the teaching of writing and the supposed neglect of language study, including…

  14. A Balanced Memory Network

    PubMed Central

    Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory—the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds—is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons. PMID:17845070

  15. Memory Loss and Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Underlying the generally oblivious attitude of teachers and learners towards the past is insufficient respect for the role of memory in giving meaning to experience and access to knowledge. We shape our identity by making sense of our past and its relationship to present and future selves, a process that should be intensively cultivated when we…

  16. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders.

  17. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    PubMed Central

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

  18. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals.

    PubMed

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-12-24

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes.

  19. Kokkos: Enabling manycore performance portability through polymorphic memory access patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Carter Edwards, H.; Trott, Christian R.; Sunderland, Daniel

    2014-07-22

    The manycore revolution can be characterized by increasing thread counts, decreasing memory per thread, and diversity of continually evolving manycore architectures. High performance computing (HPC) applications and libraries must exploit increasingly finer levels of parallelism within their codes to sustain scalability on these devices. We found that a major obstacle to performance portability is the diverse and conflicting set of constraints on memory access patterns across devices. Contemporary portable programming models address manycore parallelism (e.g., OpenMP, OpenACC, OpenCL) but fail to address memory access patterns. The Kokkos C++ library enables applications and domain libraries to achieve performance portability on diverse manycore architectures by unifying abstractions for both fine-grain data parallelism and memory access patterns. In this paper we describe Kokkos’ abstractions, summarize its application programmer interface (API), present performance results for unit-test kernels and mini-applications, and outline an incremental strategy for migrating legacy C++ codes to Kokkos. Furthermore, the Kokkos library is under active research and development to incorporate capabilities from new generations of manycore architectures, and to address a growing list of applications and domain libraries.

  20. Kokkos: Enabling manycore performance portability through polymorphic memory access patterns

    DOE PAGES

    Carter Edwards, H.; Trott, Christian R.; Sunderland, Daniel

    2014-07-22

    The manycore revolution can be characterized by increasing thread counts, decreasing memory per thread, and diversity of continually evolving manycore architectures. High performance computing (HPC) applications and libraries must exploit increasingly finer levels of parallelism within their codes to sustain scalability on these devices. We found that a major obstacle to performance portability is the diverse and conflicting set of constraints on memory access patterns across devices. Contemporary portable programming models address manycore parallelism (e.g., OpenMP, OpenACC, OpenCL) but fail to address memory access patterns. The Kokkos C++ library enables applications and domain libraries to achieve performance portability on diversemore » manycore architectures by unifying abstractions for both fine-grain data parallelism and memory access patterns. In this paper we describe Kokkos’ abstractions, summarize its application programmer interface (API), present performance results for unit-test kernels and mini-applications, and outline an incremental strategy for migrating legacy C++ codes to Kokkos. Furthermore, the Kokkos library is under active research and development to incorporate capabilities from new generations of manycore architectures, and to address a growing list of applications and domain libraries.« less

  1. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  2. Generating local addresses and communication sets for data-parallel programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Long, Fred J. E.; Schreiber, Robert; Teng, Shang-Hua

    1993-01-01

    Generating local addresses and communication sets is an important issue in distributed-memory implementations of data-parallel languages such as High Performance Fortran. We show that for an array A affinely aligned to a template that is distributed across p processors with a cyclic(k) distribution, and a computation involving the regular section A, the local memory access sequence for any processor is characterized by a finite state machine of at most k states. We present fast algorithms for computing the essential information about these state machines, and extend the framework to handle multidimensional arrays. We also show how to generate communication sets using the state machine approach. Performance results show that this solution requires very little runtime overhead and acceptable preprocessing time.

  3. The Relationships of Working Memory, Secondary Memory, and General Fluid Intelligence: Working Memory Is Special

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Jill Talley; Elliott, Emily M.; Matthews, Russell A.; Hill, B. D.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2010-01-01

    Recent efforts have been made to elucidate the commonly observed link between working memory and reasoning ability. The results have been inconsistent, with some work suggesting that the emphasis placed on retrieval from secondary memory by working memory tests is the driving force behind this association (Mogle, Lovett, Stawski, & Sliwinski,…

  4. Increased CD8+ T cell memory to concurrent infection at the expense of increased erosion of pre-existing memory: the paradoxical role of IL-15.

    PubMed

    Chapdelaine, Yvan; Smith, Dean K; Pedras-Vasconcelos, Joao A; Krishnan, Lakshmi; Sad, Subash

    2003-11-15

    The use of cytokines during vaccination, particularly IL-15, is being considered due to the unique ability of IL-15 to enhance the proliferation of memory CD8(+) T cells. However, as homeostatic mechanisms limit excessive lymphocyte expansion, we addressed the consequences of this enhancement of T cell memory by IL-15. Infection of mice with either recombinant Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) expressing IL-15 (BCG-IL-15) or BCG and purified IL-15 resulted in an increased CD44, IL-2Rbeta expression and increased frequency of IFN-gamma-secreting CD8(+) T cells. Surprisingly, the enhancement of memory to concurrent infection by IL-15 exacerbated the attrition of pre-existing memory. Infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes expressing OVA resulted in potent OVA(257-264)-specific CD8(+) T cell memory, and a challenge of these mice with either BCG-IL-15 or BCG and purified IL-15 resulted in an increased erosion of OVA(257-264)-specific CD8(+) T cell memory, relative to BCG. Enhancement in the erosion of OVA-specific CD8(+) T cell memory by BCG-IL-15 resulted in a consequently greater impairment in protection against a challenge with OVA-expressing tumor cells. We thus raise important questions regarding vaccinations that are aimed at maximizing T cell memory without considering the impact on pre-existing T cell memory.

  5. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  6. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and interference in short-term memory in a task that rules out the use of rehearsal processes. In this article the authors present a series of studies using a novel paradigm to address this problem directly, by interrogating the operation of decay and interference in short-term memory without rehearsal confounds. The results of these studies indicate that short-term memories are subject to very small decay effects with the mere passage of time but that interference plays a much larger role in their degradation. The authors discuss the implications of these results for existing models of memory decay and interference. PMID:19271849

  7. Experimental evolution of olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mery, Frederic; Pont, Juliette; Preat, Thomas; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2007-01-01

    In order to address the nature of genetic variation in learning performance, we investigated the response to classical olfactory conditioning in "high-learning" Drosophila melanogaster lines previously subject to selection for the ability to learn an association between the flavor of an oviposition medium and bitter taste. In a T-maze choice test, the seven high-learning lines were better at avoiding an odor previously associated with aversive mechanical shock than were five unselected "low-learning" lines originating from the same natural population. Thus, the evolved improvement in learning ability of high-learning lines generalized to another aversion learning task involving a different aversive stimulus (shock instead of bitter taste) and a different behavioral context than that used to impose selection. In this olfactory shock task, the high-learning lines showed improvements in the learning rate as well as in two forms of consolidated memory: anesthesia-resistant memory and long-term memory. Thus, genetic variation underlying the experimental evolution of learning performance in the high-learning lines affected several phases of memory formation in the course of olfactory aversive learning. However, the two forms of consolidated memory were negatively correlated among replicate high-learning lines, which is consistent with a recent hypothesis that these two forms of consolidated memory are antagonistic.

  8. Working Memory Load Modulates Distractor Competition in Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    When stimuli compete for sensory processing and response selection, coherent goal-guided behavior requires cognitive control so that task-relevant “targets” rather than irrelevant distractors are selected. It has been shown that reduced cognitive control under high working memory load increases distractor competition for selection. It remains unknown, though, whether cognitive control by working memory has an effect on the earliest levels of sensory processing in primary visual cortex. The present study addressed this question by having subjects perform a selective attention task involving classification of meaningful target objects while also ignoring congruent and incongruent distractor images. The level of cognitive control over distractor competition was varied through a concurrent working memory task of either low (1 digit) or high (6 digits) load. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed greater distractor competition effects not only on behavior but also on the sensory correlates in primary visual cortex (areas V1–V2) in conditions of high (vs. low) working memory load. In addition, high working memory load resulted in increased congruency-related functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex and V1. These results are the first to establish the neural correlates of distractor competition effects in primary visual cortex and the critical role of working memory in their cognitive control. PMID:20699229

  9. Representational gain in cortical area underlies increase of memory strength.

    PubMed

    Bieszczad, Kasia M; Weinberger, Norman M

    2010-02-23

    Neuronal plasticity that develops in the cortex during learning is assumed to represent memory content, but the functions of such plasticity are actually unknown. The shift in spectral tuning in primary auditory cortex (A1) to the frequency of a tone signal is a compelling candidate for a substrate of memory because it has all of the cardinal attributes of associative memory: associativity, specificity, rapid induction, consolidation, and long-term retention. Tuning shifts increase the representational area of the signal in A1, as an increasing function of performance level, suggesting that area encodes the magnitude of acquired stimulus significance. The present study addresses the question of the specific function of learning-induced associative representational plasticity. We tested the hypothesis that specific increases in A1 representational area for an auditory signal serve the mnemonic function of enhancing memory strength for that signal. Rats were trained to bar-press for reward contingent on the presence of a signal tone (5.0 kHz), and assessed for memory strength during extinction. The amount of representational area gain for the signal frequency band was significantly positively correlated with resistance to extinction to the signal frequency in two studies that spanned the range of task difficulty. These findings indicate that specific gain in cortical representational area underlies the strength of the behaviorally-relevant contents of memory. Thus, mnemonic functions of cortical plasticity are determinable.

  10. False Memories and Free Speech: Is Scientific Debate Being Suppressed?

    PubMed

    Andrews, Bernice; Brewin, Chris R

    2017-01-01

    Commentators have raised important points, including the relative contribution of false beliefs versus false memories and the issue of how findings in the laboratory can be generalized to the real world, which we have addressed here. However, some of the commentaries misrepresent what we said, make criticisms that are unfounded, or imply that our article should not have been published in Applied Cognitive Psychology. We relate these responses to a more general literature on the suppression of unwanted scientific findings and suggest that the study of false memory would be better served by more openness to alternative perspectives.

  11. Building technology services that address student needs.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform.

  12. Optical addressing technique for a CMOS RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, W. H.; Bergman, L. A.; Allen, R. A.; Johnston, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Progress on optically addressing a CMOS RAM for a feasibility demonstration of free space optical interconnection is reported in this paper. The optical RAM chip has been fabricated and functional testing is in progress. Initial results seem promising. New design and SPICE simulation of optical gate cell (OGC) circuits have been carried out to correct the slow fall time of the 'weak pull down' OGC, which has been characterized experimentally. Methods of reducing the response times of the photodiodes and the associated circuits are discussed. Even with the current photodiode, it appears that an OGC can be designed with a performance that is compatible with a CMOS circuit such as the RAM.

  13. Addressing tomorrow's DMO technical challenges today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, James R.

    2009-05-01

    Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) is essentially a type of networked training that pulls in participants from all the armed services and, increasingly, allies to permit them to "game" and rehearse highly complex campaigns, using a mix of local, distant, and virtual players. The United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is pursuing Science and Technology (S&T) solutions to address technical challenges associated with distributed communications and information management as DMO continues to progressively scale up the number, diversity, and geographic dispersal of participants in training and rehearsal exercises.

  14. Addressing the water budget with SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; AlBitar, A.; Tomer, S. K.; Merlin, O.; Pellarin, T.

    2012-12-01

    SMOS, a L Band radiometer using aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution, was successfully launched on November 2, 2009. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent enabling to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS as been now acquiring data for almost 2 years. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and of China. However, many different international teams are now addressing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. In parallel different teams are now starting addressing data use in various fields including hydrology. It requires coupling with other models and or disaggregation to address soil moisture distribution over watersheds. Significant new results were obtained for floods and drought events, together with new potential applications in terms of precipitation monitoring This paper thus gives an overview of the science goals of the SMOS mission, a description of its main elements, and a taste of the first results including

  15. Addressing the underperformance of faculty and staff.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Carole; Pressler, Jana L

    2006-01-01

    Many new nursing leaders assuming work as deans, assistant deans, or interim deans have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them for the job. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, the authors of this department, both deans, offer survival tips based on their personal experiences and insights. They address common issues, challenges, and opportunities that face academic executive teams, such as negotiating an executive contract, obtaining faculty lines, building effective work teams, managing difficult employees, and creating nimble organizational structure to respond to changing consumer, healthcare delivery, and community needs. The authors welcome counterpoint discussions with readers.

  16. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.

  17. A Byzantine resilient processor with an encoded fault-tolerant shared memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Bryan; Harper, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The memory requirements for ultra-reliable computers are expected to increase due to future increases in mission functionality and operating-system requirements. This increase will have a negative effect on the reliability and cost of the system. Increased memory size will also reduce the ability to reintegrate a channel after a transient fault, since the time required to reintegrate a channel in a conventional fault-tolerant processor is dominated by memory realignment time. A Byzantine Resilient Fault-Tolerant Processor with Fault-Tolerant Shared Memory (FTP/FTSM) is presented as a solution to these problems. The FTSM uses an encoded memory system, which reduces the memory requirement by one-half compared to a conventional quad-FTP design. This increases the reliability and decreases the cost of the system. The realignment problem is also addressed by the FTSM. Because any single error is corrected upon a read from the FTSM, a faulty channel's corrupted memory does not need realignment before reintegration of the faulty channel. A combination of correct-on-access and background scrubbing is proposed to prevent the accumulation of transient errors in the memory. With a hardware-implemented scrubber, the scrubbing cycle time, and therefore the memory fault latency, can be upper-bounded at a small value. This technique increases the reliability of the memory system and facilitates validation of its reliability model.

  18. A class Hierarchical, object-oriented approach to virtual memory management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Vincent F.; Campbell, Roy H.; Johnston, Gary M.

    1989-01-01

    The Choices family of operating systems exploits class hierarchies and object-oriented programming to facilitate the construction of customized operating systems for shared memory and networked multiprocessors. The software is being used in the Tapestry laboratory to study the performance of algorithms, mechanisms, and policies for parallel systems. Described here are the architectural design and class hierarchy of the Choices virtual memory management system. The software and hardware mechanisms and policies of a virtual memory system implement a memory hierarchy that exploits the trade-off between response times and storage capacities. In Choices, the notion of a memory hierarchy is captured by abstract classes. Concrete subclasses of those abstractions implement a virtual address space, segmentation, paging, physical memory management, secondary storage, and remote (that is, networked) storage. Captured in the notion of a memory hierarchy are classes that represent memory objects. These classes provide a storage mechanism that contains encapsulated data and have methods to read or write the memory object. Each of these classes provides specializations to represent the memory hierarchy.

  19. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  20. Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Holger

    2013-12-01

    Loss of memory is among the first symptoms reported by patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and by their caretakers. Working memory and long-term declarative memory are affected early during the course of the disease. The individual pattern of impaired memory functions correlates with parameters of structural or functional brain integrity. AD pathology interferes with the formation of memories from the molecular level to the framework of neural networks. The investigation of AD memory loss helps to identify the involved neural structures, such as the default mode network, the influence of epigenetic and genetic factors, such as ApoE4 status, and evolutionary aspects of human cognition. Clinically, the analysis of memory assists the definition of AD subtypes, disease grading, and prognostic predictions. Despite new AD criteria that allow the earlier diagnosis of the disease by inclusion of biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid or hippocampal volume analysis, neuropsychological testing remains at the core of AD diagnosis.