Science.gov

Sample records for addressed include design

  1. Inverse transonic airfoil design including viscous interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical technique was developed for the analysis of specified transonic airfoils or for the design of airfoils having a prescribed pressure distribution, including the effect of weak viscous interaction. The method uses the full potential equation, a stretched Cartesian coordinate system, and the Nash-MacDonald turbulent boundary layer method. Comparisons with experimental data for typical transonic airfoils show excellent agreement. An example shows the application of the method to design a thick aft-cambered airfoil, and the effects of viscous interaction on its performance are discussed.

  2. Including Language Access into Medicaid ACO Design.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Rachel; Morris, Lisa; Ferguson, Warren

    2016-09-01

    Quality health care relies upon communication in a patient's preferred language. Language access in health care occurs when individuals are: (1) Welcomed by providers regardless of language ability; and (2) Offered quality language services as part of their care. Federal law generally requires access to health care and quality language services for deaf and Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients in health care settings, but these patients still find it hard to access health care and quality language services.Meanwhile, several states are implementing Medicaid Accountable Care Organization (ACO) initiatives to reduce health care costs and improve health care quality. Alternative payment methods used in these initiatives can give Accountable Care Organizations more flexibility to design linguistically accessible care, but they can also put ACOs at increased financial risk for the cost of care. If these new payment methods do not account for differences in patient language needs, ACO initiatives could have the unintended consequence of rewarding ACOs who do not reach out to deaf and LEP communities or offer quality language services.We reviewed public documents related to Medicaid ACO initiatives in six states. Some of these documents address language access. More could be done, however, to pay for language access efforts. This article describes Medicaid ACO initiatives and explores how different payment tools could be leveraged to reward ACOs for increased access to care and quality language services. We find that a combination of payment tools might be helpful to encourage both access and quality.

  3. Optical design including characteristics of manufactured nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Christoph; Müller, Martin; Förster, Erik; Oliva, Maria; Michaelis, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Micro- and nanostructures enable specific optical functionalities, which rely on diffractive effects or effective medium features, depending on pattern dimension and wavelength. Performance predictions of optical systems which make use of nanostructured materials require having an accurate description of these materials ready to hand within the optical design. At the one hand, nanostructure characteristics which result from rigorous electromagnetic modeling can be used for the optical design. At the other hand, manufactured nanostructures may deviate from their idealized geometry, which will affect the performance of the optical system, wherein these artificial structures will be used. Thus, detailed optical characterization of the micro- or nanostructure functionality is prerequisite for accurate optical design and performance prediction. To this end, several characterization techniques can be applied depending on the scope of the optical design, finally. We report on a general route to include all accessible and required optical information about the nanostructured material within a corresponding model of the nanostructure as a specific optical component which can be used within a ray-trace engine, finally. This is illustrated by a meta-material with asymmetric transmission properties in some more detail.

  4. Designing "Interaction": How Do Interaction Design Students Address Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlgren, Klas; Ramberg, Robert; Artman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Interaction design is usually described as being concerned with interactions with and through artifacts but independent of a specific implementation. Design work has been characterized as a conversation between the designer and the situation and this conversation poses a particular challenge for interaction design as interactions can be elusive…

  5. Designing Interactive Multimedia Instruction to Address Soldiers’ Learning Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    learners’ experiences , background knowledge, and job-specific requirements. Here, we describe the process used and rationale for our approach to...According to Clark and Mayer (2008), these critical design features address three goals: (a) reducing extrinsic cognitive processing , (b) managing...intrinsic cognitive processing , and (c) facilitating generative processing . Table 5 summarizes the features of well-designed IMI identified by Mayer

  6. Design philosophy for reliable systems, including control

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    In the past, use of computers and software to manage physical plant has usually involved systems similar to the clockwork automata of the 17th century. The next generation of plant control will include intelligent systems - computer systems having knowledge of the plant and being capable of intelligent behavior, even though only some control functions will need such expertise. This report develops a framework for a universe of discourse usable by such non-human experts. It is based on the idea that a design has many features of a contract and may be described as a contract between humans and a machine, defining what each must do to attain a goal. Several points are discussed: the use of techniques in analytical redundancy and their place as analogues in administrative control for conventional techniques in physical control; the use of redundant computer systems to protect against hardware faults; the necessity to prove properties of software used in redundant hardware, because software faults are common modes across redundant hardware; and some issues in choosing a programming language for provable control software. Because proof of correctness is costly, it should be used only where necessary. This report concludes that the degree of reliability needed by the plant model used in analytic redundancy protection need not be nearly as reliable as the mechanism to detect discrepancy between plant and model.

  7. A Model To Address Design Constraints of Training Delivered via Satellite. Study Number Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montler, Joseph; Geroy, Gary D.

    This document: summarizes how some companies are addressing the design constraints involved in using satellite technology to deliver training, presents a model aimed at examining cost effectiveness of the satellite option, and includes a guide to designing instructional materials for delivery by satellite. A survey of 39 organizations, 12…

  8. 2011 AERA Presidential Address: Designing Resilient Ecologies--Social Design Experiments and a New Social Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez, Kris D.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about designing for educational possibilities--designs that in their inception, social organization, and implementation squarely address issues of cultural diversity, social inequality, and robust learning. I discuss an approach to design-based research, social design experiments, that privileges a social scientific inquiry…

  9. Designing Technology to Address Parent Uncertainty in Childhood Cancer.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Caroline F; Szulczewski, Lauren; Strahlendorf, Laura F; Lane, J Blake; Mullins, Larry L; Pai, Ahna L H

    2016-01-01

    The stress and uncertainty created by a child's cancer diagnosis and treatment can affect parent and child functioning. Health technology provides a potential avenue for intervention delivery. Interviews were conducted with parents of children diagnosed with cancer to discover their needs following diagnosis and design a relevant mobile application. Treatment experience was the overarching theme. Subthemes included the emotional response, use of information, and environmental factors. Technology was used primarily to seek out information and communicate with others. Health technologies are gaining popularity and have the potential to be beneficial for patients and families throughout the treatment experience.

  10. Addressing the demand for cultural relevance in intervention design.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen S; Coe, Kathryn; Moore, Nancy

    2014-09-01

    This article describes the development of a model to promote physical activity in Hispanic women that embeds a life course perspective and culture to enhance comparative effectiveness in intervention design. When working with diverse cultural groups, researchers often struggle with intervention designs and strategies to enhance cultural relevance; they do so based on the assumption that this will enhance efficacy and make interventions more sustainable. In this article, the authors discuss how the model was used in two interventions designed for younger and older Hispanic women. These interventions were guided by a life course perspective, incorporated social support, and included salient elements from the women's culture. Three considerations underpinned the development of the model: (a) infusing concepts and values of a culture and tradition into the interventions, (b) viewing participants through a life course perspective to assess how an intervention can build on developmental transitions, and (c) determining how social support operates within two groups that, although sharing history and thus some cultural practices, diverge widely in those practices. The authors propose that by incorporating elements of this model into their interventions, researchers can increase program efficacy and effectiveness.

  11. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones: regions included. 29... Protection § 29.1181 Designated fire zones: regions included. (a) Designated fire zones are— (1) The engine power section of reciprocating engines; (2) The engine accessory section of reciprocating engines;...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 25... Protection § 25.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included. (a) Designated fire zones are— (1) The engine power section; (2) The engine accessory section; (3) Except for reciprocating engines, any...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included. Designated fire zones are— (a) For reciprocating engines— (1) The power section; (2) The accessory section; (3)...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sections of turbine engine installations except sections that do not contain lines and components carrying... Protection § 29.1181 Designated fire zones: regions included. (a) Designated fire zones are— (1) The engine power section of reciprocating engines; (2) The engine accessory section of reciprocating engines;...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sections of turbine engine installations except sections that do not contain lines and components carrying... Protection § 29.1181 Designated fire zones: regions included. (a) Designated fire zones are— (1) The engine power section of reciprocating engines; (2) The engine accessory section of reciprocating engines;...

  16. Inverse wing design in transonic flow including viscous interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.; Ratcliff, Robert R.; Gally, Thomas A.; Campbell, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    Several inverse methods were compared and initial results indicate that differences in results are primarily due to coordinate systems and fuselage representations and not to design procedures. Further, results from a direct-inverse method that includes 3-D wing boundary layer effects, wake curvature, and wake displacement are represented. These results show that boundary layer displacements must be included in the design process for accurate results.

  17. Iterative optimal subcritical aerodynamic design code including profile drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A subcritical aerodynamic design computer code has been developed, which uses linearized aerodynamics along with sweep theory and airfoil data to obtain minimum total drag preliminary designs for multiple planform configurations. These optimum designs consist of incidence distributions yielding minimum total drag at design values of Mach number and lift and pitching moment coefficients. Linear lofting is used between airfoil stations. Solutions for isolated transport wings have shown that the solution is unique, and that including profile drag effects decreases tip loading and incidence relative to values obtained for minimum induced drag solutions. Further, including effects of variation of profile drag with Reynolds number can cause appreciable changes in the optimal design for tapered wings. Example solutions are also discussed for multiple planform configurations.

  18. Improving diaper design to address incontinence associated dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Incontinence associated dermatitis (IAD) is an inflammatory skin disease mainly triggered by prolonged skin contact with urine, feces but also liberal detergent use when cleansing the skin. To minimize the epidermal barrier challenge we optimized the design of adult incontinence briefs. In the fluid absorption area we interposed a special type of acidic, curled-type of cellulose between the top sheet in contact with the skin and the absorption core beneath containing the polyacrylate superabsorber. The intention was to minimize disturbance of the already weak acid mantle of aged skin. We also employed air-permeable side panels to minimize skin occlusion and swelling of the stratum corneum. Methods The surface pH of diapers was measured after repeated wetting with a urine substitute fluid at the level of the top sheet. Occlusive effects and hydration of the stratum corneum were measured after a 4 hour application of different side panel materials by corneometry on human volunteers. Finally, we evaluated skin symptoms in 12 patients with preexisting IAD for 21 days following the institutional switch to the optimized diaper design. Local skin care protocols remained in place unchanged. Results The improved design created a surface pH of 4.6 which was stable even after repeated wetting throughout a 5 hour period. The "standard design" briefs had values of 7.1, which is alkaline compared to the acidic surface of normal skin. Side panels made from non-woven material with an air-permeability of more than 1200 l/m2/s avoided excessive hydration of the stratum corneum when compared to the commonly employed air-impermeable plastic films. Resolution of pre-existing IAD skin lesions was noted in 8 out of 12 patients after the switch to the optimized brief design. Conclusions An improved design of adult-type briefs can create an acidic pH on the surface and breathable side panels avoid over-hydration of the stratum corneum and occlusion. This may support the

  19. Addressing metabolic activation as an integral component of drug design.

    PubMed

    Doss, George A; Baillie, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    Formation of reactive intermediates by metabolism of xenobiotics represents a potential liability in drug discovery and development. Although it is difficult, if not impossible, to predict toxicities of drug candidates accurately, it is prudent to try to minimize bioactivation liabilities as early as possible in the stage of drug discovery and lead optimization. Measurement of covalent binding to liver microsomal proteins in the presence and the absence of NADPH, as well as the use of trapping agents such as glutathione or cyanide ions to provide structural information on reactive intermediates, have been used routinely to screen drug candidates. These in vitro experiments are often supplemented with in vivo covalent binding data in rats. The resulting data are not only used to eliminate potentially risky compounds, but, more importantly, they provide invaluable information to direct the Medicinal Chemistry group efforts to design analogs with less propensity to undergo bioactivation. Select case histories are presented in which this approach was successfully applied at Merck.

  20. Benchmark Composite Wing Design Including Joint Analysis and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Robert G.

    A composite wing panel software package, named WING Joint OpTimization and Analysis (WINGJOTA) featuring bolted joint analysis, is created and presented in this research. Three areas of focus were the development of an analytic composite bolted joint analysis suitable for fast evaluation; a more realistic wing design than what has been considered in the open literature; and the application of two optimization algorithms for composite wing design. Optimization results from 14 wing load cases applied to a composite wing panel with joints are presented. The composite bolted joint analysis consists of an elasticity solution that provides the stress state at a characteristic distance away from the bolt holes. The stresses at the characteristic distance are compared to a failure criterion on a ply-by-ply basis that not only determines first ply failure but also the failure mode. The loads in the multi-fastener joints used in this study were determined by an iterative scheme that provides the bearing-bypass loads to the elasticity analysis. A preliminary design of a composite subsonic transport wing was developed, based around a mid-size, twin-aisle aircraft. The benchmark design includes the leading and trailing edge structures and the center box inside the fuselage. Wing masses were included as point loads, and fuel loads were incorporated as distributed loads. The side-of-body boundary condition was modeled using high stiffness springs, and the aerodynamic loads were applied using an approximate point load scheme. The entire wing structure was modeled using the finite element code ANSYS to provide the internal loads needed as boundary conditions for the wing panel analyzed by WINGJOTA. The software package WINGJOTA combines the composite bolted joint analysis, a composite plate finite element analysis, a wing aeroelastic cycle, and two optimization algorithms to form the basis of a computer code for analysis and optimization. Both the Improving Hit-and-Run (IHR) and

  1. Dye laser amplifier including a specifically designed diffuser assembly

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James; Johnston, James P.

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replened supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a relatively high flow rate and a specifically designed diffuser assembly for slowing down the flow of dye while, at the same time, assuring that as the dye stream flows through the diffuser assembly it does so in a stable manner.

  2. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-04-29

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre -defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  3. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2013-01-08

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  4. Including sampling and phenotyping costs into the optimization of two stage designs for genomewide association studies.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Helge; Pahl, Roman; Schäfer, Helmut

    2007-12-01

    We propose optimized two-stage designs for genome-wide case-control association studies, using a hypothesis testing paradigm. To save genotyping costs, the complete marker set is genotyped in a sub-sample only (stage I). On stage II, the most promising markers are then genotyped in the remaining sub-sample. In recent publications, two-stage designs were proposed which minimize the overall genotyping costs. To achieve full design optimization, we additionally include sampling costs into both the cost function and the design optimization. The resulting optimal designs differ markedly from those optimized for genotyping costs only (partially optimized designs), and achieve considerable further cost reductions. Compared with partially optimized designs, fully optimized two-stage designs have higher first-stage sample proportion. Furthermore, the increment of the sample size over the one-stage design, which is necessary in two-stage designs in order to compensate for the loss of power due to partial genotyping, is less pronounced for fully optimized two-stage designs. In addition, we address the scenario where the investigator is interested to gain as much information as possible, however is restricted in terms of a budget. In that we develop two-stage designs that maximize the power under a certain cost constraint.

  5. Reliability based design including future tests and multiagent approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Diane

    The initial stages of reliability-based design optimization involve the formulation of objective functions and constraints, and building a model to estimate the reliability of the design with quantified uncertainties. However, even experienced hands often overlook important objective functions and constraints that affect the design. In addition, uncertainty reduction measures, such as tests and redesign, are often not considered in reliability calculations during the initial stages. This research considers two areas that concern the design of engineering systems: 1) the trade-off of the effect of a test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost and 2) the search for multiple candidate designs as insurance against unforeseen faults in some designs. In this research, a methodology was developed to estimate the effect of a single future test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost. The methodology uses assumed distributions of computational and experimental errors with re-design rules to simulate alternative future test and redesign outcomes to form a probabilistic estimate of the reliability and cost for a given design. Further, it was explored how modeling a future test and redesign provides a company an opportunity to balance development costs versus performance by simultaneously designing the design and the post-test redesign rules during the initial design stage. The second area of this research considers the use of dynamic local surrogates, or surrogate-based agents, to locate multiple candidate designs. Surrogate-based global optimization algorithms often require search in multiple candidate regions of design space, expending most of the computation needed to define multiple alternate designs. Thus, focusing on solely locating the best design may be wasteful. We extended adaptive sampling surrogate techniques to locate multiple optima by building local surrogates in sub-regions of the design space to identify optima. The efficiency of this method

  6. Should Intelligent Design Be Included in Today's Public School Curriculums?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.; Killins, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The controversial concept of evolution makes up only a small part of the science curriculum stated in Arkansas. During the past few years, the curriculum topic of "Intelligent Design" has caught the attention of many science teachers in the public schools. The Intelligent Design Movement has been successful in attracting the attention of…

  7. Include Your Patrons in Web Design. Computers in Small Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Successful Web publishing requires not only technical skills but also a refined sense of taste, a good understanding of design, and strong writing abilities. When designing a library Web page, a person must possess all of these talents and be able to market to a broad spectrum of patrons. As a result, library sites vary widely in their style and…

  8. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  9. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  10. Including Multiple Voices in Collaboratively Designing a Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecki, Loretta R.; Sturdivant, Robika L.; King, Caryn M.; Melin, Jacquelyn A.; Lancaster, Paula E.

    2012-01-01

    This narrative case study describes the collaborative processes employed by a midwestern university as it designed and implemented a clinically based, postbaccalaureate teacher preparation program for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates committed to teaching in high need secondary schools. The program development…

  11. Multi-fidelity global design optimization including parallelization potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Steven Edward

    The DIRECT global optimization algorithm is a relatively new space partitioning algorithm designed to determine the globally optimal design within a designated design space. This dissertation examines the applicability of the DIRECT algorithm to two classes of design problems: unimodal functions where small amplitude, high frequency fluctuations in the objective function make optimization difficult; and multimodal functions where multiple local optima are formed by the underlying physics of the problem (as opposed to minor fluctuations in the analysis code). DIRECT is compared with two other multistart local optimization techniques on two polynomial test problems and one engineering conceptual design problem. Three modifications to the DIRECT algorithm are proposed to increase the effectiveness of the algorithm. The DIRECT-BP algorithm is presented which alters the way DIRECT searches the neighborhood of the current best point as optimization progresses. The algorithm reprioritizes which points to analyze at each iteration. This is to encourage analysis of points that surround the best point but that are farther away than the points selected by the DIRECT algorithm. This increases the robustness of the DIRECT search and provides more information on the characteristics of the neighborhood of the point selected as the global optimum. A multifidelity version of the DIRECT algorithm is proposed to reduce the cost of optimization using DIRECT. By augmenting expensive high-fidelity analysis with cheap low-fidelity analysis, the optimization can be performed with fewer high-fidelity analyses. Two correction schemes are examined using high- and low-fidelity results at one point to correct the low-fidelity result at a nearby point. This corrected value is then used in place of a high-fidelity analysis by the DIRECT algorithm. In this way the number of high-fidelity analyses required is reduced and the optimization became less expensive. Finally the DIRECT algorithm is

  12. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Although potential sources of aggregate are widespread throughout the United States, many sources may not meet certain physical property requirements, such as soundness, hardness, strength, porosity, and specific gravity, or they may contain contaminants or deleterious materials that render them unusable. Encroachment by conflicting land uses, permitting considerations, environmental issues, and societal pressures can prevent or limit development of otherwise suitable aggregate. The use of sustainable aggregate resource management can help ensure an economically viable supply of aggregate. Sustainable aggregate resource management techniques that have successfully been used include (1) protecting potential resources from encroachment; (2) using marginal-quality local aggregate for applications that do not demand a high-quality resource; (3) using substitute materials such as clinker, scoria, and recycled asphalt and concrete; and (4) using rail and water to transport aggregates from remote sources.

  13. 30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must my description of well drilling design criteria address? 250.413 Section 250.413 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN...

  14. Graph-Based Design Languages: A Lingua Franca for Product Design Including Abstract Geometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jens; Rudolph, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Product engineering involves designing and dimensioning a product, including geometric modeling and scientific simulation and analysis to fulfill predetermined requirements. Therefore, the engineering design effort requires a multidisciplinary analysis that is based on a multitude of different models, each of which require a different kind of representation of the same product geometry. The proposed approach uses a design language and a design compiler to translate an abstract source geometry in an abstract representation scheme into an arbitrary target format. With this approach, all models are generated automatically and are consistent with each other.

  15. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  16. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    PubMed

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind.

  17. A Comparison of Interactive Multimedia Instruction Designs Addressing Soldiers Learning Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    in selecting content to target their learning needs, similar to what more knowledgeable learners may already do. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Army...need it (TRADOC, 2011), with content and instructional design to address Soldiers’ learning needs. In addition, IMI provides a viable means to... content on breadth of information to help learners become familiar with a topic, and prepare them for additional learning . Core/refresher IMI

  18. Overcoming barriers to addressing education problems with research design: a panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Lalena M; Gruppen, Larry D; Hamstra, Stanley J; Anders Ericsson, K; Cook, David A

    2012-12-01

    A plenary panel session at the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Education Research in Emergency Medicine: Opportunities, Challenges, and Strategies for Success" discussed barriers educators face in imagining, designing, and implementing studies to address educational challenges. This proceedings article presents a general approach to getting started in education research. Four examples of studies from the medical education literature that illustrate a distinct way to approach specific research questions are discussed. The study designs used are applicable to a variety of education research problems in emergency medicine (EM). Potential applications of studies are discussed, as well as effects and lessons learned.

  19. Design of comprehensive Alzheimer's disease centers to address unmet national needs.

    PubMed

    Trojanowski, John Q; Arnold, Steven E; Karlawish, Jason H; Brunden, Kurt; Cary, Mark; Davatzikos, Christos; Detre, John; Gaulton, Glen; Grossman, Murray; Hurtig, Howard; Jedrziewski, Kathryn; McCluskey, Leo; Naylor, Mary; Polsky, Daniel; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Siderowf, Andrew; Shaw, Leslie M; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Wang, Li-San; Werner, Rachel; Xie, Sharon X; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2010-03-01

    The problem of Alzheimer's disease (AD) exemplifies the challenges of dealing with a broad range of aging-related chronic disorders that require long-term, labor-intensive, and expensive care. As the baby boom generation ages and brain diseases become more prevalent, the need to confront the pending health care crisis is more urgent than ever before. Indeed, there is now a critical need to expand significantly the national effort to solve the problem of AD, with special focus on prevention. The Campaign to Prevent Alzheimer's Disease by 2020 (PAD2020) aims to create a new paradigm for planning and supporting the organization of worldwide cooperative research networks to develop new technologies for early detection and treatments of aging-related memory and motor impairments. PAD 2020 is developing an implementation plan to justify (1) increasing the federal budget for research, (2) developing novel national resources to discover new interventions for memory and motor disorders, and (3) creating innovative and streamlined decision-making processes for selecting and supporting new ideas. Since 1978 the National Institute on Aging or National Institute of Health (NIH) established an extensive national network of AD research facilities at academic institutions including AD Centers (ADCs), Consortium to Establish a Registry for AD, AD Cooperative Study (ADCS), AD Drug Discovery Program, National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center, National Cell Repository for AD, and AD Neuroimaging Initiative. However, despite the success of these programs and their critical contributions, they are no longer adequate to meet the challenges presented by AD. PAD 2020 is designed to address these changes by improving the efficiency and effectiveness of these programs. For example, the ADCs (P30s and P50s) can be enhanced by converting some into Comprehensive Alzheimer's Disease Centers (CADCs) to support not only research, but also by being demonstration projects on care/treatment, clinical

  20. Design and Experimental Evaluation of a 3rd Generation Addressable CMOS Piezoresistive Stress Sensing Test Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, J.N.; Peterson, D.W.; Hsia, A.H.

    1999-04-13

    Piezoresistive stress sensing chips have been used extensively for measurement of assembly related die surface stresses. Although many experiments can be performed with resistive structures which are directly bonded, for extensive stress mapping it is necessary to have a large number of sensor cells which can be addressed using CMOS logic circuitry. Our previous test chip, the ATC04, has 100 cells, each approximately 0.012 in. on a side, on a chip with a side dimension of 0.45 in. When a cell resistor is addressed, it is connected to a four terminal measurement bus through CMOS transmission gates. In theory, the gate resistances do not affect the measurement. In practice, there may be subtle effects which appear when very high accuracy is required. At high temperatures, gate leakage can increase to a point at which the resistor measurement becomes inaccurate. For ATC04 this occurred at or above 50 C. Here, we report on the first measurements obtained with a new prototype test chip, the ATC06. This prototype was fabricated in a 0.5 micron feature size silicided CMOS process using the MOSIS prototyping facility. The cell size was approximately 0.004 in. on a side. In order to achieve piezoresistive behavior for the implanted resistors it was necessary to employ a non-standard silicide ''blocking'' process. The stress sensitivity of both implanted and polysilicon blocked resistors is discussed. Using a new design strategy for the CMOS logic, it was possible to achieve a design in which only 5 signals had to be routed to a cell for addressing vs. 9 for ATC04. With our new design, the resistor under test is more effectively electrically isolated from other resistors on the chip, thereby improving high temperature performance. We present data showing operation up to 140 C.

  1. Designing a Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Training Curriculum to Address Cancer Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Gwede, Clement K.; Ashley, Atalie A.; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F. Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B.; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. Approach and Strategies Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic–community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Discussion and Conclusions Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research. PMID:22982709

  2. Identifying and Addressing Stakeholder Interests in Design Science Research: An Analysis Using Critical Systems Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venable, John R.

    This paper utilises the Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) framework developed by Werner Ulrich to critically consider the stakeholders and design goals that should be considered as relevant by researchers conducing Design Science Research (DSR). CSH provides a philosophically and theoretically grounded framework and means for critical consideration of the choices of stakeholders considered to be relevant to any system under design consideration. The paper recommends that legitimately undertaken DSR should include witnesses to represent the interests of the future consumers of the outcomes of DSR, i.e., the future clients, decision makers, professionals, and other non-included stakeholders in the future use of the solution technologies to be invented in DSR. The paper further discusses options for how witnesses might be included, who should be witnessed for and obstacles to implementing the recommendations.

  3. Cultural factors influencing safety need to be addressed in design and operation of technology.

    PubMed

    Meshkati, N

    1996-10-01

    Cultural factors which influence aviation safety in aircraft design, air traffic control, and human factors training are examined. Analysis of the Avianca Flight 052 crash in New York in January, 1990, demonstrates the catastrosphic effects cultural factors can play. Cultural factors include attitude toward work and technology, organizational hierarchy, religion, and population stereotyping.

  4. A modular approach to addressing model design, scale, and parameter estimation issues in distributed hydrological modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Restrepo, P.J.; Viger, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A modular approach to model design and construction provides a flexible framework in which to focus the multidisciplinary research and operational efforts needed to facilitate the development, selection, and application of the most robust distributed modelling methods. A variety of modular approaches have been developed, but with little consideration for compatibility among systems and concepts. Several systems are proprietary, limiting any user interaction. The US Geological Survey modular modelling system (MMS) is a modular modelling framework that uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to address collaboratively the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. Implementation of a common modular concept is not a trivial task. However, it brings the resources of a larger community to bear on the problems of distributed modelling, provides a framework in which to compare alternative modelling approaches objectively, and provides a means of sharing the latest modelling advances. The concepts and components of the MMS are described and an example application of the MMS, in a decision-support system context, is presented to demonstrate current system capabilities. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  5. 30 CFR 285.701 - What must I include in my Facility Design Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my Facility Design Report? 285.701 Section 285.701 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Design, Fabrication, and Installation Reports § 285.701 What must I include in my Facility Design...

  6. Design of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) (including design addendum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, D.; Gismondi, T.; Hamilton, B.; Kendig, J.; Kiedrowski, J.; Vroman, A.; Wilson, G.

    1980-01-01

    The Annular Suspension and Pointing System is an experiment pointing mount designed for extremely precise 3 axis orientation of shuttle experiments. It utilizes actively controlled magnetic bearing to provide noncontacting vernier pointing and translational isolation of the experiment. The design of the system is presented and analyzed.

  7. Educated Guesses and Other Ways to Address the Pharmacological Uncertainty of Designer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Berning, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how experimentation with designer drugs is mediated by the Internet. We selected a popular drug forum that presents reports on self-experimentation with little or even completely unexplored designer drugs to examine: (1) how participants report their “trying out” of new compounds and (2) how participants reduce the pharmacological uncertainty associated with using these substances. Our methods included passive observation online, engaging more actively with the online community using an avatar, and off-line interviews with key interlocutors to validate our online findings. This article reflects on how forum participants experiment with designer drugs, their trust in suppliers and the testimonials of others, the use of ethno-scientific techniques that involve numerical weighing, “allergy dosing,” and the use of standardized trip reports. We suggest that these techniques contribute to a sense of control in the face of the possible toxicity of unknown or little-known designer drugs. The online reporting of effects allows users to experience not only the thrill of a new kind of high but also connection with others in the self-experimenting drug community. PMID:27721526

  8. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IVV portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IVV projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management.

  9. Examining How Web Designers' Activity Systems Address Accessibility: Activity Theory as a Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    While accessibility of information technologies is often acknowledged as important, it is frequently not well addressed in practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the work of web developers and content managers to explore why and how accessibility is or is not addressed as an objective as websites are planned, built and maintained.…

  10. 30 CFR 585.701 - What must I include in my Facility Design Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must I include in my Facility Design Report? 585.701 Section 585.701 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Facility Design, Fabrication, and Installation Reports § 585.701 What must I include in my Facility...

  11. 30 CFR 585.701 - What must I include in my Facility Design Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must I include in my Facility Design Report? 585.701 Section 585.701 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Facility Design, Fabrication, and Installation Reports § 585.701 What must I include in my Facility...

  12. 30 CFR 585.701 - What must I include in my Facility Design Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I include in my Facility Design Report? 585.701 Section 585.701 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Facility Design, Fabrication, and Installation Reports § 585.701 What must I include in my Facility...

  13. Safety Design Requirements for Active Hazard Mitigation Device (AHMD) Employed to Address Fast and Slow Cook-off Thermal Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-18

    Hazard Mitigation Device (AHMD) Employed to Address Fast and Slow Cook-off Thermal Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...environments. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Active Hazard Mitigation Device insensitive munitions fast cook-off slow...DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR ACTIVE HAZARD MITIGATION DEVICE (AHMD) EMPLOYED TO ADDRESS FAST AND SLOW COOK-OFF THERMAL THREATS DOD Fuze Engineering

  14. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

    2003-02-27

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy

  15. Addressing the problem of rural community engagement in healthcare service design.

    PubMed

    Nimegeer, Amy; Farmer, Jane; West, Christina; Currie, Margaret

    2011-07-01

    Policy suggests that health service providers should plan services with communities. In remote and rural areas this is sometimes ineffective, resulting in resistance to change. An action research project investigated best practise in rural community engagement. As a result a planning 'game' was developed that uses a number of types and levels of cards and allows community members, as part of a process of engagement, to express their priorities and designs in a form that is directly usable by health service managers. The game is a unique community engagement resource in that it combines the priorities of the community (including their experiences of using services) with existing service data. It allows community members and service managers to apply their priorities for services to a healthcare budget to identify appropriate and affordable ways of providing safe local services.

  16. Exploring Operational Safeguards, Safety, and Security by Design to Address Real Time Threats in Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schanfein, Mark J.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-07

    Over the last few years, significant attention has been paid to both encourage application and provide domestic and international guidance for designing in safeguards and security in new facilities.1,2,3 However, once a facility is operational, safeguards, security, and safety often operate as separate entities that support facility operations. This separation is potentially a serious weakness should insider or outsider threats become a reality.Situations may arise where safeguards detects a possible loss of material in a facility. Will they notify security so they can, for example, check perimeter doors for tampering? Not doing so might give the advantage to an insider who has already, or is about to, move nuclear material outside the facility building. If outsiders break into a facility, the availability of any information to coordinate the facility’s response through segregated alarm stations or a failure to include all available radiation sensors, such as safety’s criticality monitors can give the advantage to the adversary who might know to disable camera systems, but would most likely be unaware of other highly relevant sensors in a nuclear facility.This paper will briefly explore operational safeguards, safety, and security by design (3S) at a high level for domestic and State facilities, identify possible weaknesses, and propose future administrative and technical methods, to strengthen the facility system’s response to threats.

  17. Mi-STAR: Designing Integrated Science Curriculum to Address the Next Generation Science Standards and Their Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, E. E.; Huntoon, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Mi-STAR (Michigan Science Teaching and Assessment Reform, http://mi-star.mtu.edu/) was funded by the Herbert H. and Grace A. Dow Foundation to reform K-12 science education to present science as an integrated body of knowledge that is applied to address societal issues. To achieve this goal, Mi-STAR is developing an integrated science curriculum for the middle grades that will be aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Similar to the geosciences, the curriculum requires the integration of science, engineering and math content to explore 21st-century issues and demonstrates how these concepts can be used in service of society. The curriculum is based on the Mi-STAR Unit Specification Chart which pairs interdisciplinary themes with bundled NGSS Performance Expectations. Each unit is developed by a collaborative team of K-12 teachers, university STEM content experts and science education experts. Prior to developing a unit, each member on the team attends the on-line Mi-STAR Academy, completing 18+ hours of professional development (PD). This on-line PD program familiarizes teachers and experts with necessary pedagogical and content background knowledge, including NGSS and three-dimensional learning. With this background, teams use a staged, backwards design process to craft a multi-week unit based on a series of performance based tasks, or 'challenges' that engage students in actively doing science and engineering. Each unit includes Disciplinary Core Ideas from multiple disciplines, which focus on local and familiar examples that demonstrate the relevance of science in student's lives. Performance-based assessments are interwoven throughout the unit. Mi-STAR units will go through extensive pilot testing in several school districts across the state of Michigan. Additionally, the Mi-STAR program will develop teacher professional development programs to support implementation of the curriculum and design a pre-service teacher program in integrated

  18. 30 CFR 285.701 - What must I include in my Facility Design Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I include in my Facility Design Report? 285.701 Section 285.701 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Facility Design, Fabrication, and Installation Reports § 285.701 What must...

  19. Designing Research to Include Racial/Ethnic Diversity and Marginalized Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Environmental education research designs will either exclude or include voices outside the dominant culture. Examining the questions we ask and the data collection techniques we use may enable us to design research that is more sensitive to marginalized voices. This article puts forward several methodological considerations that either draw out…

  20. The Design and Analysis of Split Row-Column Addressing Array for 2-D Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Jia, Yanping; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2016-01-01

    For 3-D ultrasound imaging, the row-column addressing (RCA) with 2N connections for an N × N 2-D array makes the fabrication and interconnection simpler than the fully addressing with N2 connections. However, RCA degrades the image quality because of defocusing in signal channel direction in the transmit event. To solve this problem, a split row-column addressing scheme (SRCA) is proposed in this paper. Rather than connecting all the elements in the signal channel direction together, this scheme divides the elements in the signal channel direction into several disconnected blocks, thus enables focusing beam access in both signal channel and switch channel directions. Selecting an appropriate split scheme is the key for SRCA to maintaining a reasonable tradeoff between the image quality and the number of connections. Various split schemes for a 32 × 32 array are fully investigated with point spread function (PSF) analysis and imaging simulation. The result shows the split scheme with five blocks (4, 6, 12, 6, and 4 elements of each block) can provide similar image quality to fully addressing. The splitting schemes for different array sizes from 16 × 16 to 96 × 96 are also discussed. PMID:27690029

  1. 30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... address: (a) Pore pressures; (b) Formation fracture gradients, adjusted for water depth; (c) Potential...; drilling fluid densities to be used below various casing strings; fracture gradients of the exposed... string; (g) A single plot containing estimated pore pressures, formation fracture gradients,...

  2. 30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... address: (a) Pore pressures; (b) Formation fracture gradients, adjusted for water depth; (c) Potential...; drilling fluid densities to be used below various casing strings; fracture gradients of the exposed... string; (g) A single plot containing estimated pore pressures, formation fracture gradients,...

  3. 30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... address: (a) Pore pressures; (b) Formation fracture gradients, adjusted for water depth; (c) Potential...; drilling fluid densities to be used below various casing strings; fracture gradients of the exposed... string; (g) A single plot containing estimated pore pressures, formation fracture gradients,...

  4. The Design and Analysis of Split Row-Column Addressing Array for 2-D Transducer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Jia, Yanping; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2016-09-27

    For 3-D ultrasound imaging, the row-column addressing (RCA) with 2N connections for an N × N 2-D array makes the fabrication and interconnection simpler than the fully addressing with N² connections. However, RCA degrades the image quality because of defocusing in signal channel direction in the transmit event. To solve this problem, a split row-column addressing scheme (SRCA) is proposed in this paper. Rather than connecting all the elements in the signal channel direction together, this scheme divides the elements in the signal channel direction into several disconnected blocks, thus enables focusing beam access in both signal channel and switch channel directions. Selecting an appropriate split scheme is the key for SRCA to maintaining a reasonable tradeoff between the image quality and the number of connections. Various split schemes for a 32 × 32 array are fully investigated with point spread function (PSF) analysis and imaging simulation. The result shows the split scheme with five blocks (4, 6, 12, 6, and 4 elements of each block) can provide similar image quality to fully addressing. The splitting schemes for different array sizes from 16 × 16 to 96 × 96 are also discussed.

  5. Time for T? Immunoinformatics addresses vaccine design for neglected tropical and emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Frances E; Moise, Leonard; Martin, Rebecca F; Torres, Melissa; Pilotte, Nils; Williams, Steven A; De Groot, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines have been invaluable for global health, saving lives and reducing healthcare costs, while also raising the quality of human life. However, newly emerging infectious diseases (EID) and more well-established tropical disease pathogens present complex challenges to vaccine developers; in particular, neglected tropical diseases, which are most prevalent among the world’s poorest, include many pathogens with large sizes, multistage life cycles and a variety of nonhuman vectors. EID such as MERS-CoV and H7N9 are highly pathogenic for humans. For many of these pathogens, while their genomes are available, immune correlates of protection are currently unknown. These complexities make developing vaccines for EID and neglected tropical diseases all the more difficult. In this review, we describe the implementation of an immunoinformatics-driven approach to systematically search for key determinants of immunity in newly available genome sequence data and design vaccines. This approach holds promise for the development of 21st century vaccines, improving human health everywhere. PMID:25193104

  6. Navigating Cross-Cultures, Curriculum and Confrontation: Addressing Ethics and Stereotypes in Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck-Coleman, Audra

    2010-01-01

    Graphic design's messages can reach across streets and across the globe; they can bring together countries, communities and strangers for a common cause; they can also serve to divide otherwise amenable neighbors. Design students must fully understand this potential reach and thus the responsibility they have to create tolerant, informed messages.…

  7. Addressing Diversity in an Early Years Mathematics Unit: A Matter of Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article the manifold aims and theorised benefits of Learning by Design are explored and evaluated through the practices and experiences of an early years mathematics teacher. The article examines and elaborates the ways in which this teacher took up and embraced Learning by Design as both a professional meta-language and as a design…

  8. Addressing risk in the design of new healthcare services: a step-by-step methodology.

    PubMed

    Remus, Beth

    2008-01-01

    New service design can be done effectively through enterprise risk management (ERM) by identifying the clinical and administrative risks within the new service design. This article proposes a 10-step process describing the business team's tasks and integrating risk management, quality management and patient safety concepts.

  9. Designing Online Interaction to Address Disciplinary Competencies: A Cross-Country Comparison of Faculty Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barberà, Elena; Layne, Ludmila; Gunawardena, Charlotte N.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted at colleges in three countries (United States, Venezuela, and Spain) and across three academic disciplines (engineering, education, and business), to examine how experienced faculty define competencies for their discipline, and design instructional interaction for online courses. A qualitative research design employing…

  10. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC): A Safeguards Instrument Design to Address Future Fuel Measurement Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Browne, Michael C.

    2012-08-13

    Summary of this presentation: (1) EFC instrument design for {sup 235}U verification measurements issued to EURATOM to issue a call for commercial tender; (2) Achieved a fast (Cd mode) measurement with less than 2% relative uncertainty in the doubles neutron counting rate in 10 minutes using a standard source strength; (3) Assay time in fast mode consistent with the needs of an inspector; (4) Extended to realistic calibration range for modern fuel designs - Relatively insensitive to gadolinia content for fuel designs with up to 32 burnable poison rods and 15 wt % gadolinia concentration, which is a realistic maximum for modern PWR fuel; (5) Improved performance over the standard thermal neutron collar with greater than twice the efficiency of the original design; (6) Novel tube pattern to reduce the impact of accidental pile-up; and (7) Joint test of prototype unit - EURATOM-LANL.

  11. Analysis and Design of Fuselage Structures Including Residual Strength Prediction Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop and assess methodologies for the design and analysis of fuselage structures accounting for residual strength. Two primary objectives are included in this research activity: development of structural analysis methodology for predicting residual strength of fuselage shell-type structures; and the development of accurate, efficient analysis, design and optimization tool for fuselage shell structures. Assessment of these tools for robustness, efficient, and usage in a fuselage shell design environment will be integrated with these two primary research objectives.

  12. Addressing the Crisis in College Mathematics: Designing Courses for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Teresa; Peterman, Shahla; Brown, Monica

    2008-01-01

    College students' success in a course depends on many factors, including their ability and previous knowledge of the subject, the effectiveness of the instruction, and their motivation to work hard enough to succeed. Introductory courses, including many that satisfy general-education requirements, often pose a particular problem for students who…

  13. Increasing Accessibility: Using Universal Design Principles to Address Disability Impairments in the Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Candice N.; Heiselt, April K.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of students enrolling in distance education, there is a need to consider the accessibility of course materials in online learning environments. Four major groups of disabilities: mobility, auditory, visual, and cognitive are explored as they relate to their implementation into instructional design and their impact on…

  14. Addressing the Educational Needs of Incarcerated Youth: Universal Design for Learning as a Transformative Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karger, Joanne; Currie-Rubin, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The education provided to youth in detention and juvenile corrections facilities may be the last opportunity for these youth to reconnect with learning and graduate from high school. A large percentage of youth who exit these facilities do not return to school. Dropping out is associated with a number of negative outcomes, including higher rates…

  15. Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

  16. Computational chemistry modeling and design of photoswitchable alignment materials for optically addressable liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, K. L.; Sekera, E. R.; Xiao, K.

    2015-09-01

    Photoalignment technology based on optically switchable "command surfaces" has been receiving increasing interest for liquid crystal optics and photonics device applications. Azobenzene compounds in the form of low-molar-mass, watersoluble salts deposited either directly on the substrate surface or after dispersion in a polymer binder have been almost exclusively employed for these applications, and ongoing research in the area follows a largely empirical materials design and development approach. Recent computational chemistry advances now afford unprecedented opportunities to develop predictive capabilities that will lead to new photoswitchable alignment layer materials with low switching energies, enhanced bistability, write/erase fatigue resistance, and high laser-damage thresholds. In the work described here, computational methods based on the density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory were employed to study the impact of molecular structure on optical switching properties in photoswitchable methacrylate and acrylamide polymers functionalized with azobenzene and spiropyran pendants.

  17. Optimization for performance-based design under seismic demands, including social costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Oscar; Foschi, Ricardo O.; Ascheri, Juan P.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Grossman, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Performance-based design in earthquake engineering is a structural optimization problem that has, as the objective, the determination of design parameters for the minimization of total costs, while at the same time satisfying minimum reliability levels for the specified performance criteria. Total costs include those for construction and structural damage repairs, those associated with non-structural components and the social costs of economic losses, injuries and fatalities. This paper presents a general framework to approach this problem, using a numerical optimization strategy and incorporating the use of neural networks for the evaluation of dynamic responses and the reliability levels achieved for a given set of design parameters. The strategy is applied to an example of a three-story office building. The results show the importance of considering the social costs, and the optimum failure probabilities when minimum reliability constraints are not taken into account.

  18. Addressing the variables in LED product design to ensure product reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keebler, Philip F.; Sharp, Frank D.

    2011-10-01

    Continuing developments in LED lighting are leading to more lighting products for illumination in LED fixtures for the residential, commercial, and industrial facilities. Most of the research in the past ten years has been aimed at developing LEDs with higher brightness, higher efficacies, good color performance and longer life. Many efforts have been accomplished to develop LED driver circuits to drive LED arrays, even drivers that are dimmable. Manufacturers are increasing their level of concern with the performance and life of the whole LED product with a renewed emphasis on reliability. Reliability for LED products not only involves thermal management, fixture design, and driver loading but also how products respond to electrical disturbances that occur in the building electrical environments where the products must function. EPRI research has demonstrated that the immunity of LED lighting systems to common everyday electrical disturbances is critical to establishing the reliability needed to ensure expected performance and for their survival during product life. Test results showing the application of voltage surges, transients, and sags among other disturbances will be presented. This paper will discuss the application of the results of EPRI research in this area, the test protocol associated with EPRI system compatibility concept, examples of how applying the concept has identified reliability problems in LED products, and how the reliability of these LED systems can be easily improved.

  19. Overview of strategies for addressing BRIs in drug discovery: Impact on optimization and design.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, W Griffith

    2011-06-30

    The sensitive and specific detection of adducts derived from reactive intermediates during discovery metabolite profiling has been made feasible by advances in LC-MS/MS instrumentation. Many companies employ screens with nucleophilic trapping agents as a routine part of early screening efforts. Although certainly not as straightforward as initial adduct detection, the positives in the profiling experiment can be followed-up with determination of exact adduct structure. This information feeds naturally into drug design efforts as the structural motifs responsible for reactive metabolite formation can be altered to reduce the property. While the process of generation of reactive metabolite data has become more straightforward, the conversion of that data into an optimization paradigm remains challenging. Recent studies have shown a very loose correlation between extent of reactive metabolite formation and observed toxicity, so setting stringent criteria likely leads to discarding compounds that would not have problems. On the other hand, the central role of reactive metabolites in most accepted mechanisms of drug-induced toxicity points to the fact that there is value in minimizing the property. Decision making based on information on reactive metabolite formation remains a difficult process in all phases of drug discovery and development. Decisions on compounds in discovery can be made based on a fixed threshold value or relative to a reference point within a chemical series, but should be made with a firm understanding of the limitation of the data.

  20. Addressing the challenges of solar thermal fuels via atomic-scale computational design and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpak, Alexie; Kucharski, Timothy; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    By reversibly storing solar energy in the conformations of photo-isomers, solar thermal fuels (STFs) provide a mechanism for emissions-free, renewable energy storage and conversion in a single system. Development of STFs as a large-scale energy technology has been hampered by technical challenges that beset the photo-isomers of interest: low energy density, storage lifetime, and quantum yield; UV absorption; and irreversible degradation upon repeated cycling. In this talk, we discuss our efforts to design new STFs that overcome these hurdles. We present computational results on various STFs based on our recently proposed photo-isomer/template STF concept [Kolpak and Grossman, Nano Letters 11, 3156 (2011)], as well as new experimental results on azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotube STFs. Our approach yields significant improvements with respect to STFs studied in the past, with energy densities similar to Li-ion batteries, storage lifetimes > 1 year, and increased quantum yield and absorption efficiency. Our strategy also suggests mechanisms for inhibiting photo-isomer degradation. With a large phase space yet to be explored, there remain numerous possibilites for property enhancement, suggesting that STFs could become a competitive renewable energy technology.

  1. Design and analysis of biorefineries based on raw glycerol: addressing the glycerol problem.

    PubMed

    Posada, John A; Rincón, Luis E; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    Glycerol as a low-cost by-product of the biodiesel industry can be considered a renewable building block for biorefineries. In this work, the conversion of raw glycerol to nine added-value products obtained by chemical (syn-gas, acrolein, and 1,2-propanediol) or bio-chemical (ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, d-lactic acid, succinic acid, propionic acid, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) routes were considered. The technological schemes for these synthesis routes were designed, simulated, and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator, respectively. The techno-economic potential of a glycerol-based biorefinery system for the production of fuels, chemicals, and plastics was analyzed using the commercial Commercial Sale Price/Production Cost ratio criteria, under different production scenarios. More income can be earned from 1,3-propanediol and 1,2-propanediol production, while less income would be obtained from hydrogen and succinic acid. This analysis may be useful mainly for biodiesel producers since several profitable alternatives are presented and discussed.

  2. A design of three-stage addressing sweep frequency signal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhihui; Fan, Muwen; Zhou, Luchun

    2015-10-01

    In order to test the working state of adaptive optics system, it is necessary to design an online sweep-frequency circuit module to test the frequency response of the adaptive system. Sweep-frequency signal generator based on Direct Digital frequency Synthesis (DDS) is one of the core components. But the classic DDS technology also has some drawbacks: the truncation error of phase, the truncation error of magnitude (caused by memory FWL) and high occupancy of ROM. These are also the optimization directions in this paper. This paper presents a FPGA-based DDS sweep-frequency signal generator suitable in adaptive optics. It has a low occupancy rate with ROM. And in the case of low-ROM, the paper reduces the noise generated by the truncation error of phase and the truncation error of magnitude of DDS sweepfrequency signal generator by method of linear interpolation. The results show that, when the reference frequency is 100 MHz, the frequency resolution can be as low as 0.025 Hz. It only takes up 0.5 KB ROM with the ROM compression ratio of 64:1 in the optimized scheme in the paper and has higher precision due to the method of linear interpolation than the unoptimized scheme, which can meet the engineering needs. Compared with other schemes, the scheme in the paper improves signal accuracy in the case of reducing the truncation error of phase, the truncation error of magnitude and the occupancy rate with ROM, but only adds a multiplication and division circuit, which is a practical solution.

  3. “Fair Play”: A Videogame Designed to Address Implicit Race Bias Through Active Perspective Taking

    PubMed Central

    Kaatz, Anna; Chu, Sarah; Ramirez, Dennis; Samson-Samuel, Clem; Carnes, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Having diverse faculty in academic health centers will help diversify the healthcare workforce and reduce health disparities. Implicit race bias is one factor that contributes to the underrepresentation of Black faculty. We designed the videogame “Fair Play” in which players assume the role of a Black graduate student named Jamal Davis. As Jamal, players experience subtle race bias while completing “quests” to obtain a science degree. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to play the game would have greater empathy for Jamal and lower implicit race bias than participants randomized to read narrative text describing Jamal's experience. Materials and Methods: University of Wisconsin–Madison graduate students were recruited via e-mail and randomly assigned to play “Fair Play” or read narrative text through an online link. Upon completion, participants took an Implicit Association Test to measure implicit bias and answered survey questions assessing empathy toward Jamal and awareness of bias. Results: As hypothesized, gameplayers showed the least implicit bias but only when they also showed high empathy for Jamal (P=0.013). Gameplayers did not show greater empathy than text readers, and women in the text condition reported the greatest empathy for Jamal (P=0.008). However, high empathy only predicted lower levels of implicit bias among those who actively took Jamal's perspective through gameplay (P=0.014). Conclusions: A videogame in which players experience subtle race bias as a Black graduate student has the potential to reduce implicit bias, possibly because of a game's ability to foster empathy through active perspective taking. PMID:26192644

  4. Atomic Force Microscopy: A Powerful Tool to Address Scaffold Design in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Marrese, Marica; Guarino, Vincenzo; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Functional polymers currently represent a basic component of a large range of biological and biomedical applications including molecular release, tissue engineering, bio-sensing and medical imaging. Advancements in these fields are driven by the use of a wide set of biodegradable polymers with controlled physical and bio-interactive properties. In this context, microscopy techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are emerging as fundamental tools to deeply investigate morphology and structural properties at micro and sub-micrometric scale, in order to evaluate the in time relationship between physicochemical properties of biomaterials and biological response. In particular, AFM is not only a mere tool for screening surface topography, but may offer a significant contribution to understand surface and interface properties, thus concurring to the optimization of biomaterials performance, processes, physical and chemical properties at the micro and nanoscale. This is possible by capitalizing the recent discoveries in nanotechnologies applied to soft matter such as atomic force spectroscopy to measure surface forces through force curves. By tip-sample local interactions, several information can be collected such as elasticity, viscoelasticity, surface charge densities and wettability. This paper overviews recent developments in AFM technology and imaging techniques by remarking differences in operational modes, the implementation of advanced tools and their current application in biomaterials science, in terms of characterization of polymeric devices in different forms (i.e., fibres, films or particles). PMID:28208801

  5. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  6. Extension to PV OPTICS to include front electrode design in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guhabiswas, Debraj

    Proper optical designing of solar cells and modules is of paramount importance towards achieving high photovoltaic conversion efficiencies. Modeling softwares such as PV OPTICS, BIRANDY and SUNRAYS have been created to aid such optical designing of cells and modules; but none of these modeling packages take the front metal electrode architecture of a solar cell into account. A new model, has been developed to include the front metal electrode architecture to finished solar cells for optical calculations. This has been implemented in C++ in order to add a new module to PV OPTICS (NREL's photovoltaic modeling tool) to include front metallization patterns for optical design and simulation of solar cells. This new addition also calculates the contribution of light that diffuses out of the illuminated (non-metallized) regions to the solar cell current. It also determines the optical loss caused by the absorption in the front metal and separates metallic losses due to front and back contacts. This added capability also performs the following functions: • calculates the total current that can be generated in a solar cell due to optical absorption in each region, including the region beneath the front metal electrodes for the radiation spectrum of AM 1.5, • calculates various losses in the solar cell due to front electrode shading, metal absorption, and reflectance, • makes a plot of how light is absorbed in the metal as well as silicon under the shaded region in the solar cell. Although Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) is the numerical technique of choice to solve Maxwell's equations for a propagating electromagnetic wave, it is both time consuming and very demanding on the computer processors. Furthermore, for complicated geometric structures, FDTD poses various limitations. Hence, ray tracing has been chosen as the means of implementing this new model. This new software has been used to carry out a detailed investigation on the effect of various parameters of

  7. Microwave-emitting rotor, separator apparatus including same, methods of operation and design thereof

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.

    2006-12-19

    An apparatus for use in separating, at least in part, a mixture, including at least one chamber and at least one microwave generation device configured for communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber is disclosed. The rotor assembly may comprise an electric generator for generating electricity for operating the microwave generation device. At least one microwave generation device may be positioned within a tubular interior shaft extending within the rotor assembly. At least a portion of the tubular interior shaft may be substantially transparent to microwave energy. Microwave energy may be emitted in an outward radial direction or toward an anticipated boundary surface defined between a mixture and a separated constituent thereof. A method including flowing a mixture through at least one chamber and communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber while rotating same is disclosed. Methods of operating a centrifugal separator and design thereof are disclosed.

  8. Using Community-Based Participatory Research and Human-Centered Design to Address Violence-Related Health Disparities Among Latino/a Youth.

    PubMed

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Santacrose, Diana E; Liu, Sabrina R; Adams, Jessica

    High rates of exposure to violence and other adversities among Latino/a youth contribute to health disparities. The current article addresses the ways in which community-based participatory research (CBPR) and human-centered design (HCD) can help engage communities in dialogue and action. We present a project exemplifying how community forums, with researchers, practitioners, and key stakeholders, including youths and parents, integrated HCD strategies with a CBPR approach. Given the potential for power inequities among these groups, CBPR + HCD acted as a catalyst for reciprocal dialogue and generated potential opportunity areas for health promotion and change. Future directions are described.

  9. A structural design and analysis of a piping system including seismic load

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The structural design/analysis of a piping system at a nuclear fuel facility is used to investigate some aspects of current design procedures. Specifically the effect of using various stress measures including ASME Boiler Pressure Vessel (B PV) Code formulas is evaluated. It is found that large differences in local maximum stress values may be calculated depending on the stress criterion used. However, when the global stress maximum for the entire system are compared the differences are much smaller, being nevertheless, for some load combinations, of the order of 50 percent. The effect of using an Equivalent Static Method (ESM) analysis is also evaluated by comparing its results with those obtained from a Response Spectrum Method (RSM) analysis with the modal responses combined by using the absolute summation (ABS), by using the square root of the squares (SRSS), and by using the 10 percent method (10PC). It is shown that for a spectrum amplification factor (equivalent static coefficient greater than unity) of at least 1.32 must be used in the current application of the ESM analysis in order to obtain results which are conservative in all aspects relative to an RSM analysis based on ABS. However, it appears that an adequate design would be obtained from the ESM approach even without the use of a spectrum amplification factor. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Design and in vivo evaluation of emulgel formulations including green tea extract and rose oil.

    PubMed

    Yapar, Evren Algin; Ynal, Ozge; Erdal, M Sedef

    2013-12-01

    Prevention of skin aging and its treatment is an emerging field for development of new formulations in cosmetics. Accordingly, plant extracts with antioxidant properties are beneficial cosmetic ingredients for this purpose. This study was aimed at developing a stable and easily manufactured emulgel including green tea extract and rose oil that is effective on the barrier function and hydration of the skin. An emulgel formulation containing 20 % green tea extract and 5 % rose oil was designed as a result of pre-formulation studies. Physicochemical characterization, in vitro stability studies, in vivo water content of the stratum corneum and transepidermal water loss studies were carried out afterwards. In vivo studies on ten female subjects were evaluated by using non-invasive skin bioengineering techniques. Finally, a cosmetically acceptable, stable and effective emulgel formulation for skin barrier function with good hydrating properties was obtained for skin hydration, protection and anti-aging purposes.

  11. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

  12. Designing interventions that include delayed reinforcement: implications of recent laboratory research.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; McComas, J J; Rehfeldt, R A

    2000-01-01

    The search for robust and durable interventions in everyday situations typically involves the use of delayed reinforcers, sometimes delivered well after a target behavior occurs. Integrating the findings from laboratory research on delayed reinforcement can contribute to the design and analysis of those applied interventions. As illustrations, we examine articles from the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior that analyzed delayed reinforcement with respect to response allocation (A. M. Williams & Lattal, 1999), stimulus chaining (B. A. Williams, 1999), and self-control (Jackson & Hackenberg, 1996). These studies help to clarify the conditions under which delayed reinforcement (a) exercises control of behavior, (b) entails conditioned reinforcement, and (c) displaces the effects of immediate reinforcement. The research has applied implications, including the development of positive social behavior and teaching people to make adaptive choices. DESCRIPTORS: delayed reinforcement, response allocation, stimulus chains, self-control, integration of basic and applied research PMID:11051582

  13. A multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design including local and system buckling constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Ramanathan, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    A rational multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design of truss and wing structures including local and system buckling constraints is presented. Overall proportioning of the structure is achieved at the system level subject to strength, displacement and system buckling constraints, while the detailed component designs are carried out separately at the component level satisfying local buckling constraints. Total structural weight is taken to be the objective function at the system level while employing the change in the equivalent system stiffness of the component as the component level objective function. Finite element analysis is used to predict static response while system buckling behavior is handled by incorporating a geometric stiffness matrix capability. Buckling load factors and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the assembled elastic stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices for the structural system. At the component level various local buckling failure modes are guarded against using semi-empirical formulas. Mathematical programming techniques are employed at both the system and component level.

  14. The perfect boring situation-Addressing the experience of monotony during crewed deep space missions through habitability design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peldszus, Regina; Dalke, Hilary; Pretlove, Stephen; Welch, Chris

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary orbital missions, workloads are so high and varied that crew may rarely experience stretches of monotony. However, in historical long duration missions, occurrences of monotony were, indeed, reported anecdotally by crew. Of the effective countermeasures that appear to be at hand, many rely on visual or logistical proximity to the Earth, and are not feasible in the remote context of an extended deep space mission scenario. There, particularly in- and outbound cruising stages would be characterised by longer, comparably uneventful periods of low workload, coupled with confinement and unchanging vehicle surroundings. While the challenge of monotony has been pointed out as an exploration-related research area, it has received less explicit attention from a habitation design perspective than other human behaviour and performance issues. The paper addresses this gap through a literature review of the theory and application of design-based mitigation strategies. It outlines models of emergence of monotony, situates the phenomenon in a remote mission context as a problem of sensory, social and spatio-temporal isolation, and discusses proposed countermeasures related to habitability. The scope of the literature is extended to primary sources in the form of a qualitative review of six onboard diaries from orbital and simulator missions, highlighting a range of habitat-related design themes. These are translated into the autonomous deep space setting with the overall rationale of integrating affordances into onboard habitation systems and placing emphasis on reinforcing positive situational characteristics.

  15. Description of the Design and Implementation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program Addressing Needs of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…

  16. 75 FR 38129 - Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Hardware/Software Design and Manufacturing A Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing A Including On-Site Leased Workers From TAC Worldwide, GDA Technologies, Inc., Manpower, Ion..., GDA Technologies, Inc., Manpower, Ion Design, Design Solutions, Inc., Veriseo, SilconElite and Micro... Technologies, Inc., Manpower, Ion Design, Design Solutions, Inc., Veriseo, SiliconElite and MicroLogic,...

  17. A direct-inverse transonic wing-design method in curvilinear coordinates including viscous-interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliff, Robert R.; Carlson, Leland A.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in the direct-inverse wing design method in curvilinear coordinates has been made. A spanwise oscillation problem and proposed remedies are discussed. Test cases are presented which reveal the approximate limits on the wing's aspect ratio and leading edge wing sweep angle for a successful design, and which show the significance of spanwise grid skewness, grid refinement, viscous interaction, the initial airfoil section and Mach number-pressure distribution compatibility on the final design. Furthermore, preliminary results are shown which indicate that it is feasible to successfully design a region of the wing which begins aft of the leading edge and terminates prior to the trailing edge.

  18. Experimental investigation of damage behavior of RC frame members including non-seismically designed columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Linzhi; Lu, Xilin; Jiang, Huanjun; Zheng, Jianbo

    2009-06-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures are one of the mostly common used structural systems, and their seismic performance is largely determined by the performance of columns and beams. This paper describes horizontal cyclic loading tests of ten column and three beam specimens, some of which were designed according to the current seismic design code and others were designed according to the early non-seismic Chinese design code, aiming at reporting the behavior of the damaged or collapsed RC frame strctures observed during the Wenchuan earthquake. The effects of axial load ratio, shear span ratio, and transverse and longitudinal reinforcement ratio on hysteresis behavior, ductility and damage progress were incorporated in the experimental study. Test results indicate that the non-seismically designed columns show premature shear failure, and yield larger maximum residual crack widths and more concrete spalling than the seismically designed columns. In addition, longitudinal steel reinforcement rebars were severely buckled. The axial load ratio and shear span ratio proved to be the most important factors affecting the ductility, crack opening width and closing ability, while the longitudinal reinforcement ratio had only a minor effect on column ductility, but exhibited more influence on beam ductility. Finally, the transverse reinforcement ratio did not influence the maximum residual crack width and closing ability of the seismically designed columns.

  19. Optimum design of high speed prop rotors including the coupling of performance, aeroelastic stability and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Mccarthy, Thomas R.; Madden, John F., III

    1992-01-01

    An optimization procedure is developed for the design of high speed prop-rotors to be used in civil tiltrotor applications. The goal is to couple aerodynamic performance, aeroelastic stability, and structural design requirements inside a closed-loop optimization procedure. The objective is to minimize the gross weight and maximize the propulsive efficiency in high speed cruise. Constraints are imposed on the rotor aeroelastic stability in both hover and cruise and rotor figure of merit in hover. Both structural and aerodynamic design variables are used.

  20. Designing a new Diels-Alderase: a combinatorial, semirational approach including dynamic optimization.

    PubMed

    Linder, Mats; Johansson, Adam Johannes; Olsson, Tjelvar S G; Liebeschuetz, John; Brinck, Tore

    2011-08-22

    A computationally inexpensive design strategy involving 'semirational' screening for enzymatic catalysis is presented. The protocol is based on well-established computational methods and represents a holistic approach to the catalytic process. The model reaction studied here is the Diels-Alder, for which a successful computational design has recently been published (Siegel, J. B. et al. Science 2010, 329, 309-313). While it is a leap forward in the field of computational design, the focus on designing only a small fraction of the active site gives little control over dynamics. Our approach explicitly incorporates mutagenesis and the analysis of binding events and transition states, and a promising enzyme-substrate candidate is generated with relatively little effort. We estimate catalytic rate accelerations of up to 10⁵.

  1. Panel Flutter Constraints: Analytic Sensitivities and Approximations Including Planform Shape Design Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livne, Eli; Mineau, David

    1997-01-01

    Analytical sensitivities of panel flutter constraints with respect to panel shape as well as thickness and material properties are derived and numerically tested. Cases of fixed in-plane loads and cases in which in-plane loads are variable (depending on panel and overall wing shape as well as material and sizing design variables) are considered. Accuracy of approximations and range of move limits required are studied in preparation for integration with nonlinear programming/approximation concept aeroelastic design synthesis methodology.

  2. Modified Design of Hydroturbine Wicket Gates to Include Liquid Control Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Bryan; Cimbala, John; Wouden, Alex

    2013-11-01

    With the ever-increasing penetration of alternative electricity generation, it is becoming more common to operate hydroturbines under off-design conditions in order to maintain stability in the electric power grid. Improving the off-design performance of these turbines is therefore of significant importance. As the runner blades of a Francis hydroturbine pass though the wakes created by the upstream guide vanes (wicket gates and stay vanes), they experience significant changes in the instantaneous values of absolute velocity, flow angle, and pressure. The concept of adding water jets to the trailing edge of the guide vanes is proposed as a method for reducing the dynamic load on the hydroturbine runner blades, as well as modifying the flow angle of the water entering the runner to improve turbine efficiency during off-design operation. In order to add water jets that are capable of turning the flow, a modified beveled trailing edge design is presented. Computational experiments show that a +/-5° change in swirl angle is achievable with the new design, as well as up to 4% improvement in turbine efficiency during off-design operation. This correlates to an overall improvement in machine efficiency of up to 2%, when the losses through the jet channels are taken into account. Funding for this work was provided by the DOD, through the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, and the DOE, through the Penn State Hydropower Research Grant.

  3. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Design Specifications Document Including Specifications for Product and Course Design System Management and Evaluation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    The design specifications for the United States Naval Academy leadership course developed by Westinghouse Learning Corporation are presented in this report, covering course system design, management, and evaluation. EM 010 418 through EM 010 447 and EM 010 451 through EM 010 512 are related documents, with the final report appearing under EM 010…

  4. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  5. Design of state-feedback controllers including sensitivity reduction, with applications to precision pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadass, Z.

    1974-01-01

    The design procedure of feedback controllers was described and the considerations for the selection of the design parameters were given. The frequency domain properties of single-input single-output systems using state feedback controllers are analyzed, and desirable phase and gain margin properties are demonstrated. Special consideration is given to the design of controllers for tracking systems, especially those designed to track polynomial commands. As an example, a controller was designed for a tracking telescope with a polynomial tracking requirement and some special features such as actuator saturation and multiple measurements, one of which is sampled. The resulting system has a tracking performance comparing favorably with a much more complicated digital aided tracker. The parameter sensitivity reduction was treated by considering the variable parameters as random variables. A performance index is defined as a weighted sum of the state and control convariances that sum from both the random system disturbances and the parameter uncertainties, and is minimized numerically by adjusting a set of free parameters.

  6. Integration of Design, Thermal, Structural, and Optical Analysis, Including Thermal Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.

    1993-01-01

    In many industries there has recently been a concerted movement toward 'quality management' and the issue of how to accomplish work more efficiently. Part of this effort is focused on concurrent engineering; the idea of integrating the design and analysis processes so that they are not separate, sequential processes (often involving design rework due to analytical findings) but instead form an integrated system with smooth transfers of information. Presented herein are several specific examples of concurrent engineering methods being carried out at Langley Research Center (LaRC): integration of thermal, structural and optical analyses to predict changes in optical performance based on thermal and structural effects; integration of the CAD design process with thermal and structural analyses; and integration of analysis and presentation by animating the thermal response of a system as an active color map -- a highly effective visual indication of heat flow.

  7. Building upon the Experimental Design in Media Violence Research: The Importance of Including Receiver Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James; Tomasello, Tami K.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that the inclusion of viewer interpretation variables in experimental design and analysis procedures can greatly increase the methodology's ability to explain variance. Focuses attention on the between-group differences, while an analysis of how individual participants interpret the cues in the stimulus material focused attention on the…

  8. Design and construction of a photobioreactor for hydrogen production, including status in the field.

    PubMed

    Skjånes, Kari; Andersen, Uno; Heidorn, Thorsten; Borgvang, Stig A

    Several species of microalgae and phototrophic bacteria are able to produce hydrogen under certain conditions. A range of different photobioreactor systems have been used by different research groups for lab-scale hydrogen production experiments, and some few attempts have been made to upscale the hydrogen production process. Even though a photobioreactor system for hydrogen production does require special construction properties (e.g., hydrogen tight, mixing by other means than bubbling with air), only very few attempts have been made to design photobioreactors specifically for the purpose of hydrogen production. We have constructed a flat panel photobioreactor system that can be used in two modes: either for the cultivation of phototrophic microorganisms (upright and bubbling) or for the production of hydrogen or other anaerobic products (mixing by "rocking motion"). Special emphasis has been taken to avoid any hydrogen leakages, both by means of constructional and material choices. The flat plate photobioreactor system is controlled by a custom-built control system that can log and control temperature, pH, and optical density and additionally log the amount of produced gas and dissolved oxygen concentration. This paper summarizes the status in the field of photobioreactors for hydrogen production and describes in detail the design and construction of a purpose-built flat panel photobioreactor system, optimized for hydrogen production in terms of structural functionality, durability, performance, and selection of materials. The motivations for the choices made during the design process and advantages/disadvantages of previous designs are discussed.

  9. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  10. Including the Human Element in Design of Command and Control Decision Support Systems: The KOALAS Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-26

    in Design of Command and Control Decision Support Systems: The KOALAS Concept CDR RODNEY A. COLTON, USIR-R Naval Research Science & Technology Program... Koalas Concept 62234N 6. AUTHOR(S) Rodney A. Colton and Robert H. Ganze 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) and ADORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...system can be made by improving the efficiency of information exchange between the DM and the suoport systermJ. The KOALAS arcnitecture has been shown

  11. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  12. Designing e-Health Interventions for Low-Health-Literate Culturally Diverse Parents: Addressing the Obesity Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Kahlor, LeeAnn; Tyler, Diane; Gustafson, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Child and adolescent obesity is a significant problem contributing to long-term trends in adult obesity. Educating parents about strategies for raising healthy children is complicated by the problem of low health literacy. E-health provides new opportunities to educate low-health-literate audiences, and this project was intended as formative research to guide design of interventions for low-health-literate parents. Focus groups were conducted with African American, Hispanic, and white parents (n = 43), 18 years of age or older, and at or below median income for the region. Each focus group included the following: a discussion of parents' general use of the Internet for health information, the demonstration of a Web site designed specifically for low-health-literate users, and asking participants about ideas under consideration for future interventions. Participants use search engines to look for health information and use heuristics, such as position in search results, to evaluate Web site quality. Some participants avoid information from .edu and .gov domains due to perceived complexity, and there was an almost-universal lack of trust in the government for health information. University researchers, by contrast, were trusted sources as information providers. Content and usability that meet the needs of extremely low-literate audiences may be perceived as slow and lacking depth by more literate and Internet-savvy users. E-health can be used to educate low-health-literate audiences, but interventions designed for these users must be layered in terms of content and usability to meet varying levels of functional and media literacy. PMID:19694596

  13. The Langley thermal protection system test facility: A description including design operating boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Langley thermal protection system test facility is presented. This facility was designed to provide realistic environments and times for testing thermal protection systems proposed for use on high speed vehicles such as the space shuttle. Products from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures, having a maximum total enthalpy of 10.3 MJ/kg, are used as a test medium. Test panels with maximum dimensions of 61 cm x 91.4 cm are mounted in the side wall of the test region. Static pressures in the test region can range from .005 to .1 atm and calculated equilibrium temperatures of test panels range from 700 K to 1700 K. Test times can be as long as 1800 sec. Some experimental data obtained while using combustion products of methane-air mixtures are compared with theory, and calibration of the facility is being continued to verify calculated values of parameters which are within the design operating boundaries.

  14. Trajectory design strategies applied to temporary comet capture including Poincaré maps and invariant manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapala, A. F.; Howell, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    Temporary satellite capture (TSC) of Jupiter-family comets has been a focus of investigation within the astronomy community for decades. More recently, TSC has been approached from the perspective of dynamical systems theory, within the context of the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP). Thus, this problem serves as a testbed for exploring techniques that support trajectory design in similar dynamical regimes. In particular, an association between the invariant manifolds of libration point orbits and the paths of comets that experience TSC has been explored. In this investigation, TSC is further examined from the perspective of transit, that is, transition through the gateways associated with the collinear libration points, in the three-body problem. Periapsis Poincaré maps, previously employed for trajectory design in several investigations, are used to deliver insight into the nature of transit trajectories for energy levels near those associated with several Jupiter-family comets. The evolution of transit trajectories with increasing energy is explored, and the existence of solutions with similar characteristics to the paths of comets P/1996 R2, 82P/Gehrels 3, and 147P/Kushida-Muramatsu is demonstrated within the context of the planar CR3BP using planar periapsis maps. During TSC, the path of comet 111P/Helin-Roman-Crockett is highly inclined with respect to Jupiter; the motion of this comet is examined relative to invariant manifolds in the spatial CR3BP. A method to display the information contained in higher-dimensional Poincaré maps is also demonstrated, and is employed to locate a trajectory possessing the same qualitative characteristics as the path of 111P/Helin-Roman-Crockett.

  15. A design assessment of multiwall, metallic stand-off, and RSI reusable thermal protection systems including space shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R.; Dixon, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The design and assessment of reusable surface insulation (RSI), metallic stand off and multiwall thermal protection systems (TPS) is discussed. Multiwall TPS is described in some detail, and analyses useful for design of multiwall are included. Results indicate that multiwall has the potential to satisfy the TPS design goals better than the other systems. The total mass of the stand-off TPS and of the metallic systems require less primary structure mass than the RSI system, since the nonbuckling skin criteria required for RSI may be removed. Continued development of multiwall TPS is required to verify its potential and to provide the necessary data base for design.

  16. Design, Operation and Economic Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid PV-Diesel Power Systems Including Battery Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Demetrios P.; Maltas, Eleftherios Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economic analysis of autonomous PV-Diesel energy system with battery storage. This hybrid type power system was developed and installed on the roof of the Electrical Engineering Laboratory building in the city of Xanthi, Greece, where a weather station is also installed providing necessary meteorological data since 2002. Such system can be generally used to supply electrical loads of isolated remote areas. The actual design of such a system is based on: a pre-defined load pattern to be supplied; the pertinent weather data; the relevant market prices; and the applicable recent economic rates (eg June 2009 for the Greek case). The system is operated on a predictive manner using a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) which controls the main system parameters for safe and continuous power supply to meet reliably the desired load demand. Three distinct systems of this type and of equal capacity, which combine energy sources and battery storage have been proposed and assessed technically and economically.

  17. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  18. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  19. Multiple tail models including inverse measures for structural design under uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramu, Palaniappan

    Sampling-based reliability estimation with expensive computer models may be computationally prohibitive due to a large number of required simulations. One way to alleviate the computational expense is to extrapolate reliability estimates from observed levels to unobserved levels. Classical tail modeling techniques provide a class of models to enable this extrapolation using asymptotic theory by approximating the tail region of the cumulative distribution function (CDF). This work proposes three alternate tail extrapolation techniques including inverse measures that can complement classical tail modeling. The proposed approach, multiple tail models, applies the two classical and three alternate extrapolation techniques simultaneously to estimate inverse measures at the extrapolation regions and use the median as the best estimate. It is observed that the range of the five estimates can be used as a good approximation of the error associated with the median estimate. Accuracy and computational efficiency are competing factors in selecting sample size. Yet, as our numerical studies reveal, the accuracy lost to the reduction of computational power is very small in the proposed method. The method is demonstrated on standard statistical distributions and complex engineering examples.

  20. Seismic hazard analyses for Taipei city including deaggregation, design spectra, and time history with excel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jui-Pin; Huang, Duruo; Cheng, Chin-Tung; Shao, Kuo-Shin; Wu, Yuan-Chieh; Chang, Chih-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Given the difficulty of earthquake forecast, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has been a method to best estimate site-specific ground motion or response spectra in earthquake engineering and engineering seismology. In this paper, the first in-depth PSHA study for Taipei, the economic center of Taiwan with a six-million population, was carried out. Unlike the very recent PSHA study for Taiwan, this study includes the follow-up hazard deaggregation, response spectra, and the earthquake motion recommendations. Hazard deaggregation results show that moderate-size and near-source earthquakes are the most probable scenario for this city. Moreover, similar to the findings in a few recent studies, the earthquake risk for Taipei should be relatively high and considering this city's importance, the high risk should not be overlooked and a potential revision of the local technical reference would be needed. In addition to the case study, some innovative Excel applications to PSHA are introduced in this paper. Such spreadsheet applications are applicable to geosciences research as those developed for data reduction or quantitative analysis with Excel's user-friendly nature and wide accessibility.

  1. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above.

  2. Addressing challenges of training a new generation of clinician-innovators through an interdisciplinary medical technology design program: Bench-to-Bedside.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Patrick D; Elder, Craig T; D'Ambrosio, Troy; Langell, John T

    2015-01-01

    Graduate medical education has traditionally focused on training future physicians to be outstanding clinicians with basic and clinical science research skills. This focus has resulted in substantial knowledge gains, but a modest return on investment based on direct improvements in clinical care. In today's shifting healthcare landscape, a number of important challenges must be overcome to not only improve the delivery of healthcare, but to prepare future physicians to think outside the box, focus on and create healthcare innovations, and navigate the complex legal, business and regulatory hurdles of bringing innovation to the bedside. We created an interdisciplinary and experiential medical technology design competition to address these challenges and train medical students interested in moving new and innovative clinical solutions to the forefront of medicine. Medical students were partnered with business, law, design and engineering students to form interdisciplinary teams focused on developing solutions to unmet clinical needs. Over the course of six months teams were provided access to clinical and industry mentors, $500 prototyping funds, development facilities, and non-mandatory didactic lectures in ideation, design, intellectual property, FDA regulatory requirements, prototyping, market analysis, business plan development and capital acquisition. After four years of implementation, the program has supported 396 participants, seen the development of 91 novel medical devices, and launched the formation of 24 new companies. From our perspective, medical education programs that develop innovation training programs and shift incentives from purely traditional basic and clinical science research to also include high-risk innovation will see increased student engagement in improving healthcare delivery and an increase in the quality and quantity of innovative solutions to medical problems being brought to market.

  3. Politics and technology in health information systems development: a discourse analysis of conflicts addressed in a systems design group.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2008-02-01

    Different types of disagreements must be managed during the development of health information systems. This study examines the antagonisms discussed during the design of an information system for 175,000 users in a public health context. Discourse analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis. Three hundred and twenty-six conflict events were identified from four design meetings and divided into 16 categories. There were no differences regarding the types of conflicts that the different participants brought into the design discussions. Instead, conflict occurrence was primarily affected by the agendas that set the stage for examinations and debates. The results indicate that the selection of design method and the structure used for the meetings are important factors for the manner in which conflicts are brought into consideration during health information system design. Further studies comparing participatory and non-participatory information system design practices in health service settings are warranted.

  4. 3-D imaging using row-column-addressed arrays with integrated apodization - part i: apodization design and line element beamforming.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of transducerintegrated apodization in row-column-addressed arrays and presents a beamforming approach specific for such arrays. Row-column addressing 2-D arrays greatly reduces the number of active channels needed to acquire a 3-D volume. A disadvantage of row-column-addressed arrays is an apparent ghost effect in the point spread function caused by edge waves. This paper investigates the origin of the edge waves and the effect of introducing an integrated apodization to reduce the ghost echoes. The performance of a λ/2-pitch 5-MHz 128 + 128 row-column-addressed array with different apodizations is simulated. A Hann apodization is shown to decrease imaging performance away from the center axis of the array because of a decrease in main lobe amplitude. Instead, a static roll-off apodization region located at the ends of the line elements is proposed. In simulations, the peak ghost echo intensity of a scatterer at (x,y, z) = (8, 3, 30) mm was decreased by 43 dB by integrating roll-off apodization into the array. The main lobe was unaffected by the apodization. Simulations of a 3-mm-diameter anechoic blood vessel at 30 mm depth showed that applying the transducer-integrated apodization increased the apparent diameter of the vessel from 2.0 mm to 2.4 mm, corresponding to an increase from 67% to 80% of the true vessel diameter. The line element beamforming approach is shown to be essential for achieving correct time-of-flight calculations, and hence avoid geometrical distortions. In Part II of this work, experimental results from a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer with integrated roll-off apodization are given to validate the effect of integrating apodization into the line elements.

  5. Safe Shores and Resilient Transit Corridors: Using Science, Design, and Stakeholder Partnerships to Address Connecticut's Coastal Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Felson, A. J.; Kirmmse, E.; Hagemann, K.

    2015-12-01

    Connecticut's densely developed coastline is highly vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal storms. 95% of the state's entire population lives within 50 miles of the shore. Connecticut has more than $542 billion in insured assets in harms way, only Florida has a greater exposure. As part of the state of Connecticut Phase 1 application for the HUD National Disaster Resilience Competition, the Connecticut Institute for Resilience and Climate Adaptation (CIRCA) at the University of Connecticut undertook an assessment of coastal vulnerabilities, including the impacts of sea level rise on the frequency of flooding, socioeconomic factors, critical infrastructure, and housing using data collected from federal, state, and municipal sources. Connecticut's unique geology, characterized by a glaciated coastline with highly erodible former deltas and elevated ridgelines extending out to rocky headlands, became the basis of the climate adaptation approach. Together with a nine state agency workgroup, municipal and regional government, and non-profit and industry representatives, CIRCA and the Yale UED lab developed a long-term urban redevelopment solution of resilient access and egress corridors layered over ridgelines and resilient zones of transit oriented economic development linked to shoreline communities. This concept can be applied in both Connecticut's coastal cities like New Haven and its smaller towns. The process demonstrated the effective partnership between the universities and state agencies in bringing the science of flood modeling and mapping together with innovative design to create solutions for climate adaptation. However, it also revealed significant gaps in data availability to analyze the economic and social drivers for adopting different adaptation strategies. Furthermore, the accuracy of current flood mapping tools needs to be improved to predict future flooding at the municipal project scale. As Connecticut and other states move forward with resilience

  6. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  7. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  8. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  9. Use of an Authentic, Industrially Situated Virtual Laboratory Project to Address Engineering Design and Scientific Inquiry in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbuena, Debra M.; Kirsch, F. Adam; Koretsky, Milo D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended for engineering educators, high school curriculum designers, and high school teachers interested in integrating authentic, project-based learning experiences into their classes. These types of projects may appear complex, but have many advantages. We characterize the successful implementation of one such project, the…

  10. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  11. Addressing Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

  12. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  13. Multi-target strategy to address Alzheimer's disease: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of new tacrine-based dimers.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Stefano; Bisi, Alessandra; Bartolini, Manuela; Mancini, Francesca; Belluti, Federica; Gobbi, Silvia; Andrisano, Vincenza; Rampa, Angela

    2011-09-01

    The multifactorial nature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) offers us a textbook example where parental compounds, mostly marketed, are modified with the aim of improving and/or conferring two or even more biological activities to contrast or less frequently revert the disease's symptoms. This is the case of tacrine and its dimeric derivative bis(7)-tacrine which, for instance, paved the way for the development of a broad collection of very interesting homo- and heterodimeric structures, conceived in light of the emerging multi-target approach for AD-related drug discovery. As a contribution to the topic, we report here the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 12 compounds referable to bis(7)-tacrine. In addition to the cholinesterase activity, some of the selected compounds (7-9 and 12) were capable of inhibiting the non-enzymatic function of AChE and/or showed a remarkable activity against BACE1. Thus, the present study outlines a series of newly synthesized molecules, structurally related to bis(7)-tacrine, endowed with extended biological profile in agreement with the emerging multi-target paradigm.

  14. Multitarget Strategy to Address Alzheimer's Disease: Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Computational Studies of Coumarin-Based Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Serena; Bartolini, Manuela; Neviani, Paolo; Belluti, Federica; Gobbi, Silvia; Pruccoli, Letizia; Tarozzi, Andrea; Falchi, Federico; Andrisano, Vincenza; Miszta, Przemysław; Cavalli, Andrea; Filipek, Sławomir; Bisi, Alessandra; Rampa, Angela

    2016-06-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major public health challenge that faces an aging global population. Current drug treatment has demonstrated only symptomatic efficacy, leaving an unmet medical need for a new generation of disease-modifying therapies. Following the multitarget-directed ligand approach, a small library of coumarin-based derivatives was designed and synthesized as a follow-up to our studies on AP2238, aimed at expanding its biological profile. The coumarin substitution pattern at the 6- or 7-position was modified by introducing alkyl chains of variable lengths and with different terminal amino functional groups. 3-(4-{[Benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-6-({5-[(7-methoxy-6H-indeno[2,1-b]quinolin-11-yl)amino]pentyl}oxy)-2H-chromen-2-one, bearing the bulkiest amine, emerged as a non-neurotoxic dual acetylcholinesterase (AChE)/butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitor, potentially suitable for the treatment of the middle stage of AD. Furthermore, the introduction of a diethylamino spacer, as in 3-(4-{[benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-6-{[5-(diethylamino)pentyl]oxy}-2H-chromen-2-one and 3-(4-{[benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-7-[4-(diethylamino)butoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one, led to nanomolar human AChE inhibitors endowed with significant inhibitory activity toward Aβ42 self-aggregation, whereas the reference compound was completely ineffective. Furthermore, 3-(4-{[benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-7-[4-(diethylamino)butoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one also showed promising neuroprotective behavior, which makes it a potential candidate for development into a disease-modifying agent.

  15. Where science meets policy: comparing longitudinal and cross-sectional designs to address diarrhoeal disease burden in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Amanda R; Goldstick, Jason E; Levy, Karen; Cevallos, William; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Trostle, James A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2012-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies are considered preferable to cross-sectional studies for informing public health policy. However, when resources are limited, the trade-off between an accurate cross-section of the population and an understanding of the temporal variation should be optimized. When risk factors vary more across space at a fixed moment in time than at a fixed location across time, cross-sectional studies will tend to give more precise estimates of risk factor effects and thus may be a better source of data for policy judgments. Methods We conducted a diarrhoeal disease surveillance of 5616 individuals within 19 Ecuadorian villages. This data set was used to mimic cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by restricting focus to a single week and a single village, respectively. We compared the variability in risk factor effect estimates produced from each type of study. Results For household risk factors, the effect estimates produced by the longitudinal studies were more variable than their cross-sectional counterparts, which can be explained by greater spatial than temporal variability in the risk factor distribution. For example, the effect estimate of improved sanitation was almost twice as variable in longitudinal studies. Conclusions In our study, cross-sectional designs yielded more consistent evaluations of diarrhoea disease risk factors when those factors varied more between villages than over time. Cross-sectional studies can provide information that is representative across large geographic regions and therefore can provide insight for local, regional and national policy decisions. The value of the cross-sectional study should be reconsidered in the public health community. PMID:22253314

  16. A novel design including cooling media for Lithium-ion batteries pack used in hybrid and electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel design including cooling media for packing the rechargeable Lithium (Li)-ion batteries used in hybrid and electric vehicles is proposed. The proposed battery pack satisfies all thermal and physical issues relating to the battery packs used in vehicles such as operating temperature range and volume, and furthermore it increases the battery life cycle and charge and discharge performances. The temperature and voltage distributions of the proposed battery pack are calculated using the characteristics of a sample Li-ion battery and heat transfer principles. The proposed battery pack uses several distributed thin ducts for cooling which is based on distributed natural convection. Ultra uniform voltage and temperature distributions, minimum temperature dispersion in each battery unit, minimum increase in the battery pack volume, natural convection (no extra energy consumption for cooling), the maximum observed temperature less than that in other proposed battery packs and high thermal performance for different ambient temperatures until 48 °C are some advantages of the proposed Li-ion battery pack including proposed distributed cooling media. Simulation results and a comparison between the parameters of the proposed cooling media and other related work are presented to validate the theoretical results and to prove the superiority of the proposed battery pack design.

  17. Generalized railway tank car safety design optimization for hazardous materials transport: addressing the trade-off between transportation efficiency and safety.

    PubMed

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2011-05-15

    North America railways offer safe and generally the most economical means of long distance transport of hazardous materials. Nevertheless, in the event of a train accident releases of these materials can pose substantial risk to human health, property or the environment. The majority of railway shipments of hazardous materials are in tank cars. Improving the safety design of these cars to make them more robust in accidents generally increases their weight thereby reducing their capacity and consequent transportation efficiency. This paper presents a generalized tank car safety design optimization model that addresses this tradeoff. The optimization model enables evaluation of each element of tank car safety design, independently and in combination with one another. We present the optimization model by identifying a set of Pareto-optimal solutions for a baseline tank car design in a bicriteria decision problem. This model provides a quantitative framework for a rational decision-making process involving tank car safety design enhancements to reduce the risk of transporting hazardous materials.

  18. Multiaxial Creep-Fatigue and Creep-Ratcheting Failures of Grade 91 and Haynes 230 Alloys Toward Addressing Design Issues of Gen IV Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Tasnim; Lissenden, Cliff; Carroll, Laura

    2015-04-01

    The proposed research will develop systematic sets of uniaxial and multiaxial experimental data at a very high temperature (850-950°C) for Alloy 617. The loading histories to be prescribed in the experiments will induce creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting failure mechanisms. These experimental responses will be scrutinized in order to quantify the influences of temperature and creep on fatigue and ratcheting failures. A unified constitutive model (UCM) will be developed and validated against these experimental responses. The improved UCM will be incorporated into the widely used finite element commercial software packages ANSYS. The modified ANSYS will be validated so that it can be used for evaluating the very high temperature ASME-NH design-by-analysis methodology for Alloy 617 and thereby addressing the ASME-NH design code issues.

  19. Adaptive fuzzy neural network control design via a T-S fuzzy model for a robot manipulator including actuator dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wai, Rong-Jong; Yang, Zhi-Wei

    2008-10-01

    This paper focuses on the development of adaptive fuzzy neural network control (AFNNC), including indirect and direct frameworks for an n-link robot manipulator, to achieve high-precision position tracking. In general, it is difficult to adopt a model-based design to achieve this control objective due to the uncertainties in practical applications, such as friction forces, external disturbances, and parameter variations. In order to cope with this problem, an indirect AFNNC (IAFNNC) scheme and a direct AFNNC (DAFNNC) strategy are investigated without the requirement of prior system information. In these model-free control topologies, a continuous-time Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) dynamic fuzzy model with online learning ability is constructed to represent the system dynamics of an n-link robot manipulator. In the IAFNNC, an FNN estimator is designed to tune the nonlinear dynamic function vector in fuzzy local models, and then, the estimative vector is used to indirectly develop a stable IAFNNC law. In the DAFNNC, an FNN controller is directly designed to imitate a predetermined model-based stabilizing control law, and then, the stable control performance can be achieved by only using joint position information. All the IAFNNC and DAFNNC laws and the corresponding adaptive tuning algorithms for FNN weights are established in the sense of Lyapunov stability analyses to ensure the stable control performance. Numerical simulations and experimental results of a two-link robot manipulator actuated by dc servomotors are given to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed methodologies. In addition, the superiority of the proposed control schemes is indicated in comparison with proportional-differential control, fuzzy-model-based control, T-S-type FNN control, and robust neural fuzzy network control systems.

  20. Design of specially adapted reactive coordinates to economically compute potential and kinetic energy operators including geometry relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thallmair, Sebastian; Roos, Matthias K.; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2016-06-01

    Quantum dynamics simulations require prior knowledge of the potential energy surface as well as the kinetic energy operator. Typically, they are evaluated in a low-dimensional subspace of the full configuration space of the molecule as its dimensionality increases proportional to the number of atoms. This entails the challenge to find the most suitable subspace. We present an approach to design specially adapted reactive coordinates spanning this subspace. In addition to the essential geometric changes, these coordinates take into account the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates without the necessity of performing geometry optimizations at each grid point. The method is demonstrated for an ultrafast photoinduced bond cleavage in a commonly used organic precursor for the generation of electrophiles. The potential energy surfaces for the reaction as well as the Wilson G-matrix as part of the kinetic energy operator are shown for a complex chemical reaction, both including the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates on equal footing. A microscopic interpretation of the shape of the G-matrix elements allows to analyze the impact of the non-reactive coordinates on the kinetic energy operator. Additionally, we compare quantum dynamics simulations with and without the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates included in the kinetic energy operator to demonstrate its influence.

  1. Design of specially adapted reactive coordinates to economically compute potential and kinetic energy operators including geometry relaxation.

    PubMed

    Thallmair, Sebastian; Roos, Matthias K; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2016-06-21

    Quantum dynamics simulations require prior knowledge of the potential energy surface as well as the kinetic energy operator. Typically, they are evaluated in a low-dimensional subspace of the full configuration space of the molecule as its dimensionality increases proportional to the number of atoms. This entails the challenge to find the most suitable subspace. We present an approach to design specially adapted reactive coordinates spanning this subspace. In addition to the essential geometric changes, these coordinates take into account the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates without the necessity of performing geometry optimizations at each grid point. The method is demonstrated for an ultrafast photoinduced bond cleavage in a commonly used organic precursor for the generation of electrophiles. The potential energy surfaces for the reaction as well as the Wilson G-matrix as part of the kinetic energy operator are shown for a complex chemical reaction, both including the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates on equal footing. A microscopic interpretation of the shape of the G-matrix elements allows to analyze the impact of the non-reactive coordinates on the kinetic energy operator. Additionally, we compare quantum dynamics simulations with and without the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates included in the kinetic energy operator to demonstrate its influence.

  2. Site Selection for the European ELT: working package included in the European FP6 ``ELT design study'' contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Sarazin, M.; Vernin, J.

    2007-10-01

    The site selection for the future European Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a key issue within the European proposal funded by the European Union (EU), within the ``ELT design study'' proposal. The organization, working scheme and baseline frameworks are reviewed. For the definition of the working package WP12000 ``Site Characterization'', important use has been done of previous work in the definition of techniques and tools for the study of the atmosphere above observing sites. We have also taken advantage of the number of data already available which have naturally defined a ranking among the known places which have also been taken as a base line for pre-selecting the candidate sites. The work will last 4 years, it started in 2005 and is organized in subtasks, working packages WP, whose main objectives are the following: WP12100: to characterize two top astronomical sites (ORM and North-Paranal) and to explore three other alternatives (Macon in Argentina, Izaña in Spain and Aklim in Morocco) suitable to install an ELT under the best conditions (Dome C is been currently under investigation, and no particular effort will be put in this site, but rather its atmospheric properties will be compared to the above mentioned sites). WP12200 is dedicated to design, build and operate a set of standard equipment in all the sites and to perform long term campaign. WP12300 will investigate wavefront properties over large baselines (50-100 m) corresponding to the size of the future ELT, as well as the fine characterization of the optical turbulence within the boundary layer. A similar plan is being carried out by the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) site selection team. For the sake of saving resources (budget and people), the TMT preselected sites (all in the American Continent) are not included in our European study.

  3. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  4. A Single Case Design Evaluation of a Software and Tutor Intervention Addressing Emotion Recognition and Social Interaction in Four Boys with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacava, Paul G.; Rankin, Ana; Mahlios, Emily; Cook, Katie; Simpson, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Many students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have delays learning to recognize emotions. Social behavior is also challenging, including initiating interactions, responding to others, developing peer relationships, and so forth. In this single case design study we investigated the relationship between use of computer software ("Mind Reading:…

  5. Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program including the adjunct programs of design reconstitution and material condition and aging management. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This standard presents program criteria and implementation guidance for an operational configuration management program for DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. This Part 2 includes chapters on implementation guidance for operational configuration management, implementation guidance for design reconstitution, and implementation guidance for material condition and aging management. Appendices are included on design control, examples of design information, conduct of walkdowns, and content of design information summaries.

  6. 77 FR 67399 - Hewlett-Packard Company, Design Delivery Organization (DDO), Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, Synova Inc., and Pinnacle Technical Resources, Corvallis, OR; Hewlett-Packard Company, Ink Jet & Web Services, World Wide Design Group, Vancouver, WA; Amended..., Ink Jet & Web Services, World Wide Design Group, Vancouver, Washington ] operated in conjunction...

  7. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  8. Revision of Electro-Mechanical Drafting Program to Include CAD/D (Computer-Aided Drafting/Design). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Nancy V.

    North Seattle Community College decided to integrate computer-aided design/drafting (CAD/D) into its Electro-Mechanical Drafting Program. This choice necessitated a redefinition of the program through new curriculum and course development. To initiate the project, a new industrial advisory council was formed. Major electronic and recruiting firms…

  9. Designing a Curriculum Model to Include Sexuality and a Procedure for its Administration. Human Sexuality-Nursing 50383.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elise; And Others

    In order to design and implement a plan to integrate human sexuality into the curriculum for associate degree nursing students at Alvin Community College (Texas), levels of knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary in promoting sexual health were defined. Of the four levels in the Mims and Swenson Sexual Health Model (life experiences, basic,…

  10. Analyses of extreme precipitation and runoff events including uncertainties and reliability in design and management of urban water infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailegeorgis, Teklu T.; Alfredsen, Knut

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for assessment of uncertainties and hence effects on reliability of design and management of stormwater pipes due to the prevalence of urban floods trigged by modification of land cover and high precipitation intensities respectively due to increasing urbanization and changing climate. Observed annual maximum series (AMS) of extreme precipitation intensities of 17 durations (1-min to 1440-min) and runoff records of 27 years from a 21.255 ha (23% impervious, 35% built-up and 41% open areas) Risvollan catchment in Trondheim City were used. Using a balanced bootstrap resampling (BBRS) with frequency analysis, we quantified considerable uncertainty in precipitation and runoff quantiles due to the sampling variability of systematic observations (e.g., -43% to +49% relative differences from the quantile estimates for the original sample). These differences are higher than suggested increase in design rainfall and floods by many countries for climate change adjustment. The uncertainties in IDF curves and derived design storm hyetographs are found to have large effects on the reliability of sizing of stormwater pipes. The study also indicated low validity of the assumptions on extreme precipitation and runoff relationships in the return period-based method for the partially paved urban catchment: (i) maximum of only 46% of the AMS of extreme precipitation and runoff events occurred concurrently and (ii) T-year return period extreme precipitation events do not necessarily result in T-year flood events. These indicate that there are effects of snowmelt seasonality, and probably catchment moisture states and interactions between the flows in subsurface media and pipes. The results substantiate the need for better understanding of relationships between precipitation and runoff extremes and urban runoff generation process, and importance of uncertainty assessment and application of reliability-based methods for design and management of water infrastructure.

  11. Conceptual design studies of a V/STOL civil lift fan transport including effect of size and fan pressure ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of V/STOL Lift Fan Commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The remote lift fan configurations with a variation in fan pressure ratio from 1.2 to 1.5 were investigated. Also studied were variation in stage length from 200 nautical miles to 800 nautical miles and cruise Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.85. These results indicate a four engine configuration was feasible. The 95 PNdb noise footprint would be approximately 45 acres and the DOC's would be about 60% greater than conventional transports.

  12. Optimization of transistor design including large signal device/circuit interactions at extremely high frequencies (20-100+GHz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Ralph; Grubin, H. L.

    1991-01-01

    Transistor design for extremely high frequency applications requires consideration of the interaction between the device and the circuit to which it is connected. Traditional analytical transistor models are to approximate at some of these frequencies and may not account for variations of dopants and semiconductor materials (especially some of the newer materials) within the device. Physically based models of device performance are required. These are based on coupled systems of partial differential equations and typically require 20 minutes of Cray computer time for a single AC operating point. A technique is presented to extract parameters from a few partial differential equation solutions for the device to create a nonlinear equivalent circuit model which runs in approximately 1 second of personal computer time. This nonlinear equivalent circuit model accurately replicates the contact current properties of the device as computed by the partial differential solver on which it is based. Using the nonlinear equivalent circuit model of the device, optimization of systems design can be performed based on device/circuit interactions.

  13. Addressing risk factors for child abuse among high risk pregnant women: design of a randomised controlled trial of the nurse family partnership in Dutch preventive health care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s). Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117 PMID:22017924

  14. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  15. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  16. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  17. Compilation, design tests: Energetic particles Satellite S-3 including design tests for S-3A, S-3B and S-3C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledoux, F. N.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of engineering design tests which were conducted in support of the Energetic Particle Satellite S-3, S-3A, and S-3b programs. The purpose for conducting the tests was to determine the adequacy and reliability of the Energetic Particles Series of satellites designs. The various tests consisted of: (1) moments of inertia, (2) functional reliability, (3) component and structural integrity, (4) initiators and explosives tests, and (5) acceptance tests.

  18. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each.

  19. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  20. A Design Study of the Inflated Sphere Landing Vehicle, Including the Landing Performance and the Effects of Deviations from Design Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, E. Dale

    1961-01-01

    The impact motion of the inflated sphere landing vehicle with a payload centrally supported from the spherical skin by numerous cords has been determined on the assumption of uniform isentropic gas compression during impact. The landing capabilities are determined for a system containing suspension cords of constant cross section. The effects of deviations in impact velocity and initial gas temperature from the design conditions are studied. Also discussed are the effects of errors in the time at which the skin is ruptured. These studies indicate how the design parameters should be chosen to insure reliability of the landing system. Calculations have been made and results are presented for a sphere inflated with hydrogen, landing on the moon in the absence of an atmosphere. The results are presented for one value of the skin-strength parameter.

  1. The Design and Evaluation of a Teaching-Learning Sequence Addressing the Solubility Concept with Turkish Secondary School Students. Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabapinar, Filiz; Leach, John; Scott, Phil

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports upon a study addressing teaching and learning about solubility to Turkish first-year secondary school students (age 14-15). The principal aim of the research was to investigate the impact on students' understanding of solubility, of introducing a simple particle model of matter. A teaching intervention to fit within the existing…

  2. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized.

  3. Technical Design and Optimization of a HLW-Repository in the Gorleben Salt Dome including Detailed Design of the Sealing System - 13305

    SciTech Connect

    Bollingerfehr, W.; Filbert, W.; Herold, P.; Lerch, C.; Mueller-Hoeppe, N.; Charlier, F.; Kilger, R.

    2013-07-01

    The preliminary safety analysis for a HLW repository at Gorleben, the potential repository site in Germany, takes into account an updated set of data on the amounts and types of expected heat generating waste, the documented results of the exploration of the Gorleben salt dome, and the 'Safety Requirements Governing the Final Disposal of Heat-Generating Radioactive Waste' as at 30 September 2010. A repository design was developed for two emplacement concepts (drift disposal and borehole disposal) mainly influenced by the thermal impact of the heat-generating waste on the host rock and taking into account mining constrains. According to the objective to create the conditions for a safe containment of the waste containers in the host rock, a closure concept consisting of backfilling and sealing measures was developed. The repository was designed in such a way that retrievability requirements can be met for all waste containers within the operating phase of the repository. In addition, it could be shown that sufficient measures for ensuring subcriticality are provided both during the operational and the post-closure phases of the repository. (authors)

  4. Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188

  5. Design and evaluation of a silicon based multi-nozzle for addressable jetting using a controlled flow rate in electrohydrodynamic jet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Sung; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Young-Jae; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Yong; Hwang, Jungho; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2008-12-01

    This letter reports on the development and evaluation of a electrohydrodynamic jet printing that uses an addressable multinozzle. To reduce the interference and distortion in the electric field, a multinozzle was fabricated from a silicon wafer. The experimental conditions were optimized to prevent the jet from bending at the end of the multinozzle and to allow for independent control of each nozzle. To better evaluate this technique, simulations were performed and compared with the experimental results. We observed a strong correlation between the simulated and experimental results. In addition, each nozzle in this multinozzle could be individually controlled.

  6. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  7. ANL/RBC: A computer code for the analysis of Rankine bottoming cycles, including system cost evaluation and off-design performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclennan, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes, and is a User's Manual for, a computer code (ANL/RBC) which calculates cycle performance for Rankine bottoming cycles extracting heat from a specified source gas stream. The code calculates cycle power and efficiency and the sizes for the heat exchangers, using tabular input of the properties of the cycle working fluid. An option is provided to calculate the costs of system components from user defined input cost functions. These cost functions may be defined in equation form or by numerical tabular data. A variety of functional forms have been included for these functions and they may be combined to create very general cost functions. An optional calculation mode can be used to determine the off-design performance of a system when operated away from the design-point, using the heat exchanger areas calculated for the design-point.

  8. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  9. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  10. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  11. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  12. Designing monitoring for conservation impact assessment in water funds in Latin America: an approach to address water-data scarcity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. L.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Ziv, G.; Wolny, S.; Vogl, A. L.; Tallis, H.; Bremer, L.

    2013-12-01

    The risk of water scarcity is a rising threat in a rapidly changing world. Communities and investors are using the new institution of water funds to enact conservation practices in watersheds to bolster a clean, predictable water supply for multiple stakeholders. Water funds finance conservation activities to support water-related ecosystem services, and here we relate our work to develop innovative approaches to experimental design of monitoring programs to track the effectiveness of water funds throughout Latin America. We highlight two examples: the Fund for the Protection of Water (FONAG), in Quito, Ecuador, and Water for Life, Agua por la Vida, in Cali, Colombia. Our approach is meant to test whether a) water funds' restoration and protection actions result in changes in water quality and/or quantity at the site scale and the subwatershed scale, and b) the suite of investments for the whole water fund reach established goals for improving water quality and/or quantity at the basin scale or point of use. Our goal is to create monitoring standards for ecosystem-service assessment and clearly demonstrate translating those standards to field implementation in a statistically robust and cost-effective way. In the gap between data-intensive methods requiring historic, long-term water sampling and more subjective, ad hoc assessments, we have created a quantitative, land-cover-based approach to pairing conservation activity with appropriate controls in order to determine the impact of water-fund actions. To do so, we use a statistical approach in combination with open-source tools developed by the Natural Capital Project to optimize water funds' investments in nature and assess ecosystem-service provision (Resource Investment Optimization System, RIOS, and InVEST). We report on the process of identifying micro-, subwatershed or watershed matches to serve as controls for conservation 'impact' sites, based on globally-available land cover, precipitation, and soil data

  13. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  14. Assessing To Address Barriers to Learning. An Introductory Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health Schools.

    Schools committed to the success of all children must have an array of activities designed to address barriers to learning. This introductory packet contains some aids to help school staff find new ways of thinking about how schools should assess barriers to learning. The following items are included in the packet: (1) a chart of "Barriers to…

  15. Addressing the expected survival benefit for clinical trial design in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: Sensitivity analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Ciccarese, Chiara; Pilotto, Sara; Maines, Francesca; Bracarda, Sergio; Sperduti, Isabella; Giannarelli, Diana; Carlini, Paolo; Santini, Daniele; Tortora, Giampaolo; Porta, Camillo; Bria, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    We performed a sensitivity analysis, cumulating all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) received systemic therapy, to evaluate if the comparison of RCTs may drive to biased survival estimations. An overall survival (OS) significant difference according to therapeutic strategy was more likely be determined in RCTs evaluating hormonal drugs versus those studies testing immunotherapy, chemotherapy or other strategies. With regard to control arm, an OS significant effect was found for placebo-controlled trials versus studies comparing experimental treatment with active therapies. Finally, regarding to docetaxel (DOC) timing, the OS benefit was more likely to be proved in Post-DOC setting in comparison with DOC and Pre-DOC. These data suggest that clinical trial design should take into account new benchmarks such as the type of treatment strategy, the choice of the comparator and the phase of the disease in relation to the administration of standard chemotherapy.

  16. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  17. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  18. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  19. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  20. Commentary: How can family-based quasi-experimental designs and national registers be used to address confounding in risk factor studies of psychopathology? A reflection on Obel et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    Larsson, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Standard observational studies have reported a robust correlation between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of ADHD in offspring. In the accompanying article, Obel et al. used sibling-comparisons to explore the extent to which unmeasured familial confounding explains this association. This commentary highlights three important implications of the study. At a general level, Obel et al. illustrates how (1) family-based quasi-experimental designs and (2) national registers can be used to address confounding in risk factor studies of psychopathology. At a more specific level, the study suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy is probably not a causal risk factor for ADHD.

  1. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  2. Addressing hypertext design and conversion issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glusko, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Hypertext is a network of information units connected by relational links. A hypertext system is a configuration of hardware and software that presents a hypertext to users and allows them to manage and access the information that it contains. Hypertext is also a user interface concept that closely supports the ways that people use printed information. Hypertext concepts encourage modularity and the elimination of redundancy in data bases because information can be stored only once but viewed in any appropriate context. Hypertext is such a hot idea because it is an enabling technology in that workstations and personal computers finally provide enough local processing power for hypertext user interfaces.

  3. Evaluation design of a reactivation care program to prevent functional loss in hospitalised elderly: A cohort study including a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Elderly persons admitted to the hospital are at risk for hospital related functional loss. This evaluation aims to compare the effects of different levels of (integrated) health intervention care programs on preventing hospital related functional loss among elderly patients by comparing a new intervention program to two usual care programs. Methods/Design This study will include an effect, process and cost evaluation using a mixed methods design of quantitative and qualitative methods. Three hospitals in the Netherlands with different levels of integrated geriatric health care will be evaluated using a quasi-experimental study design. Data collection on outcomes will take place through a prospective cohort study, which will incorporate a nested randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of a stay at the centre for prevention and reactivation for patients with complex problems. The study population will consist of elderly persons (65 years or older) at risk for functional loss who are admitted to one of the three hospitals. Data is prospectively collected at time of hospital admission (T0), three months (T1), and twelve months (T2) after hospital admission. Patient and informal caregiver outcomes (e.g. health related quality of life, activities of daily living, burden of care, (re-) admission in hospital or nursing homes, mortality) as well as process measures (e.g. the cooperation and collaboration of multidisciplinary teams, patient and informal caregiver satisfaction with care) will be measured. A qualitative analysis will determine the fidelity of intervention implementation as well as provide further context and explanation for quantitative outcomes. Finally, costs will be determined from a societal viewpoint to allow for cost effectiveness calculations. Discussion It is anticipated that higher levels of integrated hospital health care for at risk elderly will result in prevention of loss of functioning and loss of quality of life after

  4. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  5. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  6. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  7. Addressing Point of Need in Interactive Multimedia Instruction: A Conceptual Review and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    conventions and standards, and instructional strategies required by the school , proponent, or supported instructional agency. The IMDP may also include a...research we focused on determining how to apply instructional design techniques and tailored training strategies to address different learners’ needs in...the relevance of various instructional designs and tailored training strategies to address point of need. Starting with a sample of N = 427 IMI

  8. Integrating theory, synthesis, spectroscopy and device efficiency to design and characterize donor materials for organic photovoltaics: a case study including 12 donors

    DOE PAGES

    Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; ...

    2015-04-07

    There have been remarkable improvements in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processable Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) have largely been driven by the development of novel narrow bandgap copolymer donors comprising an electron-donating (D) and an electron-withdrawing (A) group within the repeat unit. The large pool of potential D and A units and the laborious processes of chemical synthesis and device optimization, has made progress on new high efficiency materials slow with a few new efficient copolymers reported every year despite the large number of groups pursuing these materials. In our paper we present an integrated approach toward new narrow bandgap copolymersmore » that uses theory to guide the selection of materials to be synthesized based on their predicted energy levels, and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to select the best-performing copolymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction to be incorporated into complete OPV devices. We validate our methodology by using a diverse group of 12 copolymers, including new and literature materials, to demonstrate good correlation between (a) theoretically determined energy levels of polymers and experimentally determined ionization energies and electron affinities and (b) photoconductance, measured by TRMC, and OPV device performance. The materials used here also allow us to explore whether further copolymer design rules need to be incorporated into our methodology for materials selection. For example, we explore the effect of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during exciton dissociation on the efficiency of free charge carrier generation and device efficiency and find that ΔH of -0.4 eV is sufficient for efficient charge generation.« less

  9. Integrating theory, synthesis, spectroscopy and device efficiency to design and characterize donor materials for organic photovoltaics: a case study including 12 donors

    SciTech Connect

    Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; Braunecker, W. A.; Larsen, R. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Olson, D. C.

    2015-04-07

    There have been remarkable improvements in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processable Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) have largely been driven by the development of novel narrow bandgap copolymer donors comprising an electron-donating (D) and an electron-withdrawing (A) group within the repeat unit. The large pool of potential D and A units and the laborious processes of chemical synthesis and device optimization, has made progress on new high efficiency materials slow with a few new efficient copolymers reported every year despite the large number of groups pursuing these materials. In our paper we present an integrated approach toward new narrow bandgap copolymers that uses theory to guide the selection of materials to be synthesized based on their predicted energy levels, and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to select the best-performing copolymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction to be incorporated into complete OPV devices. We validate our methodology by using a diverse group of 12 copolymers, including new and literature materials, to demonstrate good correlation between (a) theoretically determined energy levels of polymers and experimentally determined ionization energies and electron affinities and (b) photoconductance, measured by TRMC, and OPV device performance. The materials used here also allow us to explore whether further copolymer design rules need to be incorporated into our methodology for materials selection. For example, we explore the effect of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during exciton dissociation on the efficiency of free charge carrier generation and device efficiency and find that ΔH of -0.4 eV is sufficient for efficient charge generation.

  10. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, C.R.; Spector, H.L.; Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.

    2007-07-01

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the pre-remedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in pre-design data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in pre-design characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland 1, Ashland 2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate pre-design contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District. (authors)

  11. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  12. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  13. TRIZ Innovative Technology of Design Used in the Development of a Technology Roadmap for Space Soil Penetrator Probes Including a Mini Air Bag Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blusiu, Julian O.

    1997-01-01

    Many Future NASA missions will be designed to robotically explore planets, moons and asteroids by collecting soil samples and conducting in-situ analyses to establish ground composition and look for the presence of specific components.

  14. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    SciTech Connect

    DURHAM, L.A.; JOHNSON, R.L.; RIEMAN, C.R.; SPECTOR, H.L.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO DISTRICT

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  15. Investigation of three-dimensional flow field in a turbine including rotor/stator interaction. I - Design development and performance of the research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Camci, C.; Halliwell, I.; Zaccaria, M.

    1992-01-01

    A description of the Axial Flow Turbine Research Facility (AFTRF) installed at the Turbomachinery Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University is presented in this paper. The facility diameter is 91.66 cm (3 feet) and the hub-to-tip ratio of the blading is 0.73. The flow path consists of turbulence generating grid, 23 nozzle vane and 29 rotor blades followed by outlet guide vanes. The blading design, carried out by General Electric Company personnel, embody modern HP turbine design philosophy, loading and flow coefficient, reaction, aspect ratio, and blade turning angles; all within the current aircraft engine design turbine practice. State-of-the-art quasi-3D blade design techniques were used to design the vane and the blade shapes. The vanes and blades are heavily instrumented with fast response pressure, shear stress, and velocity probes and have provision for flow visualization and laser Doppler anemometer measurement. Furthermore, provision has been made for detailed nozzle wake, rotor wake and boundary layer surveys. A 150 channel slip ring unit is used for transmitting the rotor data to a stationary instrumentation system. All the design objectives have been met.

  16. Specification of CuCrZr Alloy Properties after Various Thermo-Mechanical Treatments and Design Allowables including Neutron Irradiation Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Vladimir; Kalinin, G. M.; Fabritsiev, Sergei A.; Zinkle, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy is a promising heat sink and functional material for various applica- tions in ITER, for example the first wall, blanket electrical attachment, divertor, and heating systems. Three types of thermo-mechanical treatment were identified as most promising for the various applica- tions in ITER: solution annealing, cold working and ageing; solution annealing and ageing; solution annealing and ageing at non-optimal condition due to specific manufacturing processes for engineer- ing-scale components. The available data for these three types of treatments were assessed and mini- mum tensile properties were determined based on recommendation of Structural Design Criteria for the ITER In-vessel Components. The available data for these heat treatments were analyzed for assess- ment of neutron irradiation effect. Using the definitions of the ITER Structural Design Criteria the design allowable stress intensity values are proposed for CuCrZr alloy after various heat treatments.

  17. Addressing hidden financial risk.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Jan; Kruger, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Managing low-dollar, high-volume claim denials associated with outpatient procedures is a challenge for many hospitals because of the expense involved in manually reviewing such denials. These denials often are the source of "hidden loss" for hospitals. For some hospitals, the most practical, cost-effective approach for managing low-dollar, high-volume claim denials will include the use of automated systems to monitor and highlight denials and expose trends.

  18. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  19. The Application of the FDTD Method to Millimeter-Wave Filter Circuits Including the Design and Analysis of a Compact Coplanar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, J. E.; Siegel, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is applied to the analysis of microwave, millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave filter circuits. In each case, the validity of this method is confirmed by comparison with measured data. In addition, the FDTD calculations are used to design a new ultra-thin coplanar-strip filter for feeding a THz planar-antenna mixer.

  20. Automated measurement of printer effective addressability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Brian E.; Eid, Ahmed H.; Rippetoe, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating printer resolution, addressability is a key consideration. Addressability defines the maximum number of spots or samples within a given distance, independent of the size of the spots when printed. Effective addressability is the addressability demonstrated by the final, printed output. It is the minimum displacement possible between the centers of printed objects. In this paper, we present a measurement procedure for effective addressability that offers an automated way to experimentally determine the addressability of the printed output. It requires printing, scanning, and measuring a test target. The effective addressability test target contains two types of elements, repeated to fill the page: fiducial lines and line segments. The fiducial lines serve as a relative reference for the incremental displacements of the individual line segments, providing a way to tolerate larger-scale physical distortions in the printer. An ordinary reflection scanner captures the printed test target. By rotating the page on the scanner, it is possible to measure effective addressability well beyond the scanner's sampling resolution. The measurement algorithm computes the distribution of incremental displacements, forming either a unimodal or bimodal histogram. In the latter case, the mean of the second (non-zero) peak indicates the effective addressability. In the former case, the printer successfully rendered the target's resolution, requiring another iteration of the procedure after increasing the resolution of the test target. The algorithm automatically estimates whether the histogram is unimodal or bimodal and computes parameters describing the quality of the measured histogram. Several experiments have refined the test target and measurement procedure, including two round-robin evaluations by the ISO WG4 committee. Results include an analysis of approximately 150 printed samples. The effective addressability attribute and measurement procedure are included in

  1. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  2. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  3. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  4. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  5. Rationale and design of three observational, prospective cohort studies including biobanking to evaluate and improve diagnostics, management strategies and risk stratification in venous thromboembolism: the VTEval Project

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Bernd; Ariza, Liana; Lamparter, Heidrun; Grossmann, Vera; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Ullmann, Alexander; Kindler, Florentina; Weisser, Gerhard; Walter, Ulrich; Lackner, Karl J; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with its two manifestations deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major public health problem. The VTEval Project aims to investigate numerous research questions on diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and prognosis of VTE, which have remained uncertain to date. Methods and analysis The VTEval Project consists of three observational, prospective cohort studies on VTE comprising cohorts of individuals with a clinical suspicion of acute PE (with or without DVT), with a clinical suspicion of acute DVT (without symptomatic PE) and with an incidental diagnosis of VTE (PE or DVT). The VTEval Project expects to enrol a total of approximately 2000 individuals with subsequent active and passive follow-up investigations over a time period of 5 years per participant. Time points for active follow-up investigations are at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 after diagnosis (depending on the disease cohort); passive follow-up investigations via registry offices and the cancer registry are performed 48 and 60 months after diagnosis for all participants. Primary short-term outcome is defined by overall mortality (PE-related death and all other causes of death), primary long-term outcome by symptomatic VTE (PE-related death, recurrence of non-fatal PE or DVT). The VTEval Project includes three ‘all-comer’ studies and involves the standardised acquisition of high-quality data, covering the systematic assessment of VTE including symptoms, risk profile, psychosocial, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as clinical and subclinical disease, and it builds up a large state-of-the-art biorepository containing various materials from serial blood samplings. Ethics and dissemination The VTEval Project has been approved by the local data safety commissioner and the responsible ethics committee (reference no. 837.320.12 (8421-F)). Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and

  6. Structure and immunogenicity of a peptide vaccine, including the complete HIV-1 gp41 2F5 epitope: implications for antibody recognition mechanism and immunogen design.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Soraya; Araujo, Aitziber; Apellániz, Beatriz; Bryson, Steve; Carravilla, Pablo; de la Arada, Igor; Huarte, Nerea; Rujas, Edurne; Pai, Emil F; Arrondo, José L R; Domene, Carmen; Jiménez, María Angeles; Nieva, José L

    2014-03-07

    The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 harbors the epitope recognized by the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV 2F5 antibody, a research focus in HIV-1 vaccine development. In this work, we analyze the structure and immunogenic properties of MPERp, a peptide vaccine that includes the following: (i) the complete sequence protected from proteolysis by the 2F5 paratope; (ii) downstream residues postulated to establish weak contacts with the CDR-H3 loop of the antibody, which are believed to be crucial for neutralization; and (iii) an aromatic rich anchor to the membrane interface. MPERp structures solved in dodecylphosphocholine micelles and 25% 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (v/v) confirmed folding of the complete 2F5 epitope within continuous kinked helices. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) measurements demonstrated the retention of main helical conformations in immunogenic formulations based on alum, Freund's adjuvant, or two different types of liposomes. Binding to membrane-inserted MPERp, IR, molecular dynamics simulations, and characterization of the immune responses further suggested that packed helical bundles partially inserted into the lipid bilayer, rather than monomeric helices adsorbed to the membrane interface, could encompass effective MPER peptide vaccines. Together, our data constitute a proof-of-concept to support MPER-based peptides in combination with liposomes as stand-alone immunogens and suggest new approaches for structure-aided MPER vaccine development.

  7. Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of resources on this month's theme "Design" for K-8 language arts, art and architecture, music and dance, science, math, social studies, health, and physical education. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audiotapes, magazines, professional resources and classroom activities.…

  8. Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  9. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  10. Addressing Underrepresentation: Physics Teaching for All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifkin, Moses

    2016-02-01

    Every physics teacher wants to give his or her students the opportunity to learn physics well. Despite these intentions, certain groups of students—including women and underrepresented minorities (URMs)—are not taking and not remaining in physics. In many cases, these disturbing trends are more significant in physics than in any other science. This is a missed opportunity for our discipline because demographic diversity strengthens science. The question is what we can do about these trends in our classrooms, as very few physics teachers have been explicitly prepared to address them. In this article, I will share some steps that I've taken in my classroom that have moved my class in the right direction. In the words of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Carl Wieman and psychologists Lauren Aguilar and Gregory Walton: "By investing a small amount of class time in carefully designed and implemented interventions, physics teachers can promote greater success among students from diverse backgrounds. Ultimately, we hope such efforts will indeed improve the diversity and health of the physics profession."

  11. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  12. Addressing Deaf Culture in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliaro, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    The importance of recognizing the culture of deaf people is often overlooked when addressing issues of student diversity in the schools. Including the culture of deaf students can add vitality and energy to the educational environment, providing an alternative and unique perspective. This paper describes deafness, explains deaf culture, and…

  13. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  14. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  15. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    SciTech Connect

    Welcome, Michael L.; Bell, Christian S.

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address space languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.

  16. Optical addressing technique for a CMOS RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, W. H.; Bergman, L. A.; Allen, R. A.; Johnston, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Progress on optically addressing a CMOS RAM for a feasibility demonstration of free space optical interconnection is reported in this paper. The optical RAM chip has been fabricated and functional testing is in progress. Initial results seem promising. New design and SPICE simulation of optical gate cell (OGC) circuits have been carried out to correct the slow fall time of the 'weak pull down' OGC, which has been characterized experimentally. Methods of reducing the response times of the photodiodes and the associated circuits are discussed. Even with the current photodiode, it appears that an OGC can be designed with a performance that is compatible with a CMOS circuit such as the RAM.

  17. Individually addressable cathodes with integrated focusing stack or detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Baylor, Larry R.; Voelkl, Edgar; Simpson, Michael L.; Paulus, Michael J.; Lowndes, Douglas; Whealton, John; Whitson, John C.; Wilgen, John B.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and method are described for addressable field emission array (AFEA) chips. A plurality of individually addressable cathodes are integrated with an electrostatic focusing stack and/or a plurality of detectors on the addressable field emission array. The systems and methods provide advantages including the avoidance of space-charge blow-up.

  18. Naturally derived biomaterials for addressing inflammation in tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Brendan AC

    2016-01-01

    Tissue regeneration strategies have traditionally relied on designing biomaterials that closely mimic features of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) as a means to potentially promote site-specific cellular behaviors. However, inflammation, while a necessary component of wound healing, can alter processes associated with successful tissue regeneration following an initial injury. These processes can be further magnified by the implantation of a biomaterial within the wound site. In addition to designing biomaterials to satisfy biocompatibility concerns as well as to replicate elements of the composition, structure, and mechanics of native tissue, we propose that ECM analogs should also include features that modulate the inflammatory response. Indeed, strategies that enhance, reduce, or even change the temporal phenotype of inflammatory processes have unique potential as future pro-regenerative analogs. Here, we review derivatives of three natural materials with intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties and discuss their potential to address the challenges of inflammation in tissue engineering and chronic wounds. PMID:27190254

  19. Project FIT: Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a school- and community-based intervention to address physical activity and healthy eating among low-income elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper describes Project FIT, a collaboration between the public school system, local health systems, physicians, neighborhood associations, businesses, faith-based leaders, community agencies and university researchers to develop a multi-faceted approach to promote physical activity and healthy eating toward the general goal of preventing and reducing childhood obesity among children in Grand Rapids, MI, USA. Methods/design There are four overall components to Project FIT: school, community, social marketing, and school staff wellness - all that focus on: 1) increasing access to safe and affordable physical activity and nutrition education opportunities in the schools and surrounding neighborhoods; 2) improving the affordability and availability of nutritious food in the neighborhoods surrounding the schools; 3) improving the knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors regarding nutrition and physical activity among school staff, parents and students; 4) impacting the 'culture' of the schools and neighborhoods to incorporate healthful values; and 5) encouraging dialogue among all community partners to leverage existing programs and introduce new ones. Discussion At baseline, there was generally low physical activity (70% do not meet recommendation of 60 minutes per day), excessive screen time (75% do not meet recommendation of < 2 hours per day), and low intake of vegetables and whole grains and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries and chips and desserts as well as a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (48.5% including 6% with severe obesity) among low income, primarily Hispanic and African American 3rd-5th grade children (n = 403). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01385046 PMID:21801411

  20. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  1. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  2. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  3. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  4. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  5. Designing Productive Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Frederick G.

    Based on the premise that school facility design should actively encourage efficient and effective learning, this book explores key design decisions that have a crucial impact on the kind of student-teacher-media interactions which take place in all school rooms and open spaces. Topics addressed include learning space specifications; the…

  6. A flexible analog memory address list manager for PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Musrock, M.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Walker, J.W.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.; Allen, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    A programmable analog memory address list manager has been developed for use with all analog memory-based detector subsystems of PHENIX. The unit provides simultaneous read/write control, cell write-over protection for both a Level-1 trigger decision delay and digitization latency, and re-ordering of AMU addresses following conversion, at a beam crossing rate of 105 ns. Addresses are handled such that up to 5 Level-1 (LVL-1) events can be maintained in the AMU without write-over. Data tagging is implemented for handling overlapping and shared beam-event data packets. Full usage in all PHENIX analog memory-based detector subsystems is accomplished by the use of detector-specific programmable parameters--the number of data samples per valid LVL-1 trigger and the sample spacing. Architectural candidates for the system are discussed with emphasis on implementation implications. Details of the design are presented including application specifics, timing information, and test results from a full implementation using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).

  7. A Hidden Crisis: Including the LGBT Community When Addressing Sexual Violence on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez, Zenen Jaimes; Hussey, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Recently, sexual assault on college campuses has received increased national attention. In its first report, the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault highlighted steps colleges and universities can take to curb the number of sexual assaults on campuses. For the first time, the U.S. Department of Education has released the…

  8. 41 CFR 109-26.203 - Activity address codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity address codes...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.2-Federal Requisitioning System § 109-26.203 Activity address codes. (a) DOE field organizations designated by OCMA are responsible for processing routine activity...

  9. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.

  10. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  11. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  12. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  13. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  14. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  15. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  16. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  17. The Resource Directory: Designing Your Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses computer software and system design in the information industry and provides an annotated bibliography of 31 resources that address the issue of design. Highlights include competition, color use, hardware and presentation design, content and packaging, screen design, graphics, and interactive multimedia. A sidebar reviews and rates seven…

  18. Systems Engineering Design and Technical Analyses for Strategic Avionics Crew Station Design Evaluation Facility (SACDEF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    differs from other older systems in khe lab, it is compatible with current industry standards . The effectiveness of continued maintainability as well as...CFHI branch within the Human Engineering Division is responsible for research addressing crewstation design and areas currently include aircrew...Human Engineering Division, is responsible for research addressing crew station design and aircrew workload for current and future strategic aircraft

  19. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  20. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  1. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  2. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. HPTN 071 (PopART): Rationale and design of a cluster-randomised trial of the population impact of an HIV combination prevention intervention including universal testing and treatment – a study protocol for a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective interventions to reduce HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa are urgently needed. Mathematical modelling and the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial results suggest that universal HIV testing combined with immediate antiretroviral treatment (ART) should substantially reduce incidence and may eliminate HIV as a public health problem. We describe the rationale and design of a trial to evaluate this hypothesis. Methods/Design A rigorously-designed trial of universal testing and treatment (UTT) interventions is needed because: i) it is unknown whether these interventions can be delivered to scale with adequate uptake; ii) there are many uncertainties in the models such that the population-level impact of these interventions is unknown; and ii) there are potential adverse effects including sexual risk disinhibition, HIV-related stigma, over-burdening of health systems, poor adherence, toxicity, and drug resistance. In the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial, 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa (total population 1.2 m) will be randomly allocated to three arms. Arm A will receive the full PopART combination HIV prevention package including annual home-based HIV testing, promotion of medical male circumcision for HIV-negative men, and offer of immediate ART for those testing HIV-positive; Arm B will receive the full package except that ART initiation will follow current national guidelines; Arm C will receive standard of care. A Population Cohort of 2,500 adults will be randomly selected in each community and followed for 3 years to measure the primary outcome of HIV incidence. Based on model projections, the trial will be well-powered to detect predicted effects on HIV incidence and secondary outcomes. Discussion Trial results, combined with modelling and cost data, will provide short-term and long-term estimates of cost-effectiveness of UTT interventions. Importantly, the three-arm design will enable assessment of how much could be achieved by

  4. Addressing the social determinants of children's health: a cliff analogy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Camara Phyllis; Jones, Clara Yvonne; Perry, Geraldine S; Barclay, Gillian; Jones, Camille Arnel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a "Cliff Analogy" illustrating three dimensions of health intervention to help people who are falling off of the cliff of good health: providing health services, addressing the social determinants of health, and addressing the social determinants of equity. In the terms of the analogy, health services include an ambulance at the bottom of the cliff, a net or trampoline halfway down, and a fence at the top of the cliff. Addressing the social determinants of health involves the deliberate movement of the population away from the edge of the cliff. Addressing the social determinants of equity acknowledges that the cliff is three-dimensional and involves interventions on the structures, policies, practices, norms, and values that differentially distribute resources and risks along the cliff face. The authors affirm that we need to address both the social determinants of health, including poverty, and the social determinants of equity, including racism, if we are to improve health outcomes and eliminate health disparities.

  5. New technology recipes include horseradish, vinegar, mushrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1995-08-01

    Technology development for more effective environmental management continues to abound. This article contains some recent innovations in the following areas: wastewater treatment; site remediation; and air pollution control. In addition several emerging technologies address solid and hazardous waste management with techniques designed to reduce waste volume, recycle valuable materials and create new energy sources.

  6. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 11, Number 2. Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter of the Center for Mental Health in Schools includes the following features and regular segments: (1) Concerns = Opportunities: Addressing Student Disengagement, Acting Out, and Dropouts by Moving in New Directions; (2) Info Sheet: Costs of Not Addressing Barriers to Learning; and (3) Current Status of Mental…

  7. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-making outcomes, and 2. the extent to which existing PtDAs a) account for health literacy, and b) are tested in lower health literacy populations. Methods We reviewed literature for evidence relevant to these two aims. When high-quality systematic reviews existed, we summarized their evidence. When reviews were unavailable, we conducted our own systematic reviews. Results Aim 1: In an existing systematic review of PtDA trials, lower health literacy was associated with lower patient health knowledge (14 of 16 eligible studies). Fourteen studies reported practical design strategies to improve knowledge for lower health literacy patients. In our own systematic review, no studies reported on values clarity per se, but in 2 lower health literacy was related to higher decisional uncertainty and regret. Lower health literacy was associated with less desire for involvement in 3 studies, less question-asking in 2, and less patient-centered communication in 4 studies; its effects on other measures of patient involvement were mixed. Only one study assessed the effects of a health literacy intervention on outcomes; it showed that using video to improve the salience of health states reduced decisional uncertainty. Aim 2: In our review of 97 trials, only 3 PtDAs overtly addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. In 90% of trials, user health literacy and readability of the PtDA were not reported. However, increases in knowledge and informed choice were reported in those studies

  8. Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

    2003-09-01

    By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

  9. Addressing the water budget with SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; AlBitar, A.; Tomer, S. K.; Merlin, O.; Pellarin, T.

    2012-12-01

    SMOS, a L Band radiometer using aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution, was successfully launched on November 2, 2009. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent enabling to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS as been now acquiring data for almost 2 years. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and of China. However, many different international teams are now addressing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. In parallel different teams are now starting addressing data use in various fields including hydrology. It requires coupling with other models and or disaggregation to address soil moisture distribution over watersheds. Significant new results were obtained for floods and drought events, together with new potential applications in terms of precipitation monitoring This paper thus gives an overview of the science goals of the SMOS mission, a description of its main elements, and a taste of the first results including

  10. Cogeneration handbook for the textile industry. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide the textile plant manager or company energy coordinator with a framework for making a preliminary assessment of the feasibility and viability of cogeneration at a particular plant. The handbook is intended to provide an understanding of the potential of several standardized cogeneration systems, as well as their limitations. However, because the deicision to cogenerate is very site specific, the handbook cannot provide all of the answers. It does attempt, however, to bring to light the major issues that should be addressed in the decision-making process. The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. Experience has shown that a well-defined work statement can be the key to a rapid and cost-effective design effort. Discussion is presented under the headings: Data Base Development; Matching Cogeneration System Designs; Economic Analysis; Financial Strategies; Environmental Issues; Legal and Contractual Issues; and Three-Phase Work Statements. 18 references, 36 figures, 30 tables.

  11. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  12. Addressing EO-1 Spacecraft Pulsed Plasma Thruster EMI Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzwski, C. M.; Davis, Mitch; Sarmiento, Charles; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) spacecraft has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. Results from PPT unit level radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests led to concerns about potential interference problems with other spacecraft subsystems. Initial plans to address these concerns included firing the PPT at the spacecraft level both in atmosphere, with special ground support equipment. and in vacuum. During the spacecraft level tests, additional concerns where raised about potential harm to the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). The inadequacy of standard radiated emission test protocol to address pulsed electromagnetic discharges and the lack of resources required to perform compatibility tests between the PPT and an ALI test unit led to changes in the spacecraft level validation plan. An EMI shield box for the PPT was constructed and validated for spacecraft level ambient testing. Spacecraft level vacuum tests of the PPT were deleted. Implementation of the shield box allowed for successful spacecraft level testing of the PPT while eliminating any risk to the ALI. The ALI demonstration will precede the PPT demonstration to eliminate any possible risk of damage of ALI from PPT operation.

  13. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  14. Keynote Address and Background Papers. National Assembly on Foreign Language and International Studies (Racine, Wisconsin, October 30-November 1, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The conference papers presented here discuss the need for and means of implementing changes in educational design and emphasis that will recognize the need for Americans to incorporate foreign language and international studies into their education. In addition to the opening address by Richard Berendzen, the following papers are included: (1)…

  15. A Professional Development Program for the Mother Tongue-Based Teacher: Addressing Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes about MTBMLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson Stone, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates teacher attitudes about language and education. The purpose of the study is to help program designers develop professional development efforts that successfully address some of the major identified challenges teachers face when transitioning into Mother Tongue Based Multi-Lingual Education (MTBMLE), including negative…

  16. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  17. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)benzamide derivatives as Potent Pan Bcr-Abl inhibitors including the threonine(315)→isoleucine(315) mutant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yupeng; Shen, Mengjie; Zhang, Zhang; Luo, Jinfeng; Pan, Xiaofen; Lu, Xiaoyun; Long, Huoyou; Wen, Donghai; Zhang, Fengxiang; Leng, Fang; Li, Yingjun; Tu, Zhengchao; Ren, Xiaomei; Ding, Ke

    2012-11-26

    A series of 3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)benzamide derivatives were designed and synthesized as new Bcr-Abl inhibitors by using combinational strategies of bioisosteric replacement, scaffold hopping, and conformational constraint. The compounds displayed significant inhibition against a broad spectrum of Bcr-Abl mutants including the gatekeeper T315I and p-loop mutations, which are associated with disease progression in CML. The most potent compounds 6q and 6qo strongly inhibited the kinase activities of Bcr-Abl(WT) and Bcr-Abl(T315I) with IC(50) values of 0.60, 0.36 and 1.12, 0.98 nM, respectively. They also potently suppressed the proliferation of K562, KU812 human CML cells, and a panel of murine Ba/F3 cells ectopically expressing either Bcr-Abl(WT) or any of a panel of other Bcr-Abl mutants that have been shown to contribute to clinical acquired resistance, including Bcr-Abl(T315I), with IC(50) values in low nanomolar ranges. These compounds may serve as lead compounds for further development of new Bcr-Abl inhibitors capable of overcoming clinical acquired resistance against imatinib.

  18. Multi-port, optically addressed RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor); Esener, Sadik (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A random access memory addressing system utilizing optical links between memory and the read/write logic circuits comprises addressing circuits including a plurality of light signal sources, a plurality of optical gates including optical detectors associated with the memory cells, and a holographic optical element adapted to reflect and direct the light signals to the desired memory cell locations. More particularly, it is a multi-port, binary computer memory for interfacing with a plurality of computers. There are a plurality of storage cells for containing bits of binary information, the storage cells being disposed at the intersections of a plurality of row conductors and a plurality of column conductors. There is interfacing logic for receiving information from the computers directing access to ones of the storage cells. There are first light sources associated with the interfacing logic for transmitting a first light beam with the access information modulated thereon. First light detectors are associated with the storage cells for receiving the first light beam, for generating an electrical signal containing the access information, and for conducting the electrical signal to the one of the storage cells to which it is directed. There are holographic optical elements for reflecting the first light beam from the first light sources to the first light detectors.

  19. Addressing Asthma Health Disparities: A Multilevel Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Rand, Cynthia S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial research has documented pervasive disparities in the prevalence, severity, and morbidity of asthma among minority populations compared to non-Latino whites. The underlying causes of these disparities are not well understood, and as a result, the leverage points to address them remain unclear. A multilevel framework for integrating research in asthma health disparities is proposed in order to advance both future research and clinical practice. The components of the proposed model include health care policies and regulations, operation of the health care system, provider/clinician-level factors, social/environmental factors, and individual/family attitudes and behaviors. The body of research suggests that asthma disparities have multiple, complex and inter-related sources. Disparities occur when individual, environmental, health system, and provider factors interact with one another over time. Given that the causes of asthma disparities are complex and multilevel, clinical strategies to address these disparities must therefore be comparably multilevel and target many aspects of asthma care. Clinical Implications: Several strategies that could be applied in clinical settings to reduce asthma disparities are described including the need for routine assessment of the patient’s beliefs, financial barriers to disease management, and health literacy, and the provision of cultural competence training and communication skills to health care provider groups. PMID:19447484

  20. Medical-Legal Partnerships: Addressing Competency Needs Through Lawyers

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Edward; Fullerton, Danya Fortess; Cohen, Ellen; Lawton, Ellen; Ryan, Anne; Sandel, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Background Many low- and moderate-income individuals and families have at least one unmet legal need (for example, unsafe housing conditions, lack of access to food and/or income support, lack of access to health care), which, if left unaddressed, can have harmful consequences on health. Eighty unique medical-legal partnership programs, serving over 180 clinics and hospitals nationwide, seek to combine the strengths of medical and legal professionals to address patients' legal needs before they become crises. Each partnership is adapted to serve the specific needs of its own patient base. Intervention This article describes innovative, residency-based medical-legal partnership educational experiences in pediatrics, internal medicine, and family medicine at 3 different sites (Boston, Massachusetts; Newark, New Jersey; and Tucson, Arizona). This article addresses how these 3 programs have been designed to meet the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 6 competencies, along with suggested methods for evaluating the effectiveness of these programs. Training is a core component of medical-legal partnership, and most medical-legal partnerships have developed curricula for resident education in a variety of formats, including noon conferences, grand rounds, poverty simulations and day-long special sessions. Discussion Medical-legal partnerships combine the skill sets of medical professionals and lawyers to teach social determinants of health by training residents and attending physicians to identify and help address unmet legal needs. Medical-legal partnership doctors and lawyers treat health disparities and improve patient health and well-being by ensuring that public programs, regulations, and laws created to benefit health and improve access to health care are implemented and enforced. PMID:21975996

  1. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  2. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Marian

    2016-01-01

    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  3. Using Theater to Address Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Jo

    2005-01-01

    The acting out of personal experiences with bullying promotes compassion and allows all students, including bullies, victims and witnesses, to stand up for justice. Playback theaters interpret personal experiences in a creative, nonconfrontational and nonjudgmental way, demonstrating to students that the playback stage is a safe place where they…

  4. Welfare Entitlements: Addressing New Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Jon R.; Fandetti, Donald V.

    1995-01-01

    Because welfare entitlements are increasingly unpopular, social work advocates need to place greater emphasis on job growth and alternate mechanisms for wealth redistribution, including refundable tax credits for working poor people. The Internal Revenue Code can be an effective weapon in combating poverty if antipoverty approaches in the code are…

  5. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  6. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the field of environmental engineering, modeling tools are playing an ever larger role in addressing air quality issues, including source pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and human exposure risks. More detailed modeling of environmental flows requires tools for c...

  7. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Recommendations for conducting controlled clinical studies of dental restorative materials. Science Committee Project 2/98--FDI World Dental Federation study design (Part I) and criteria for evaluation (Part II) of direct and indirect restorations including onlays and partial crowns.

    PubMed

    Hickel, Reinhard; Roulet, Jean-François; Bayne, Stephen; Heintze, Siegward D; Mjör, Ivar A; Peters, Mathilde; Rousson, Valentin; Randall, Ros; Schmalz, Gottfried; Tyas, Martin; Vanherle, Guido

    2007-01-01

    clinical trial designs, guidelines for design, randomization, number of subjects, characteristics of participants, clinical assessment, standards and calibration, categories for assessment, criteria for evaluation, and supplemental documentation. Part 2 of the review considers categories of assessment for esthetic evaluation, functional assessment, biological responses to restorative materials, and statistical analysis of results. The overall review represents a considerable effort to include a range of clinical research interests over the past years. As part of the recognition of the importance of these suggestions, the review is being published simultaneously in identical form in both the Journal of Adhesive Dentistry and Clinical Oral Investigations. Additionally, an extended abstract will be published in the International Dental Journal, giving a link to the web full version. This should help to introduce these considerations more quickly to the scientific community.

  9. Texas Sustainable School Design Guideline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklas, Michael; Bailey, Gary; Padia, Harshad D.; Malin, Nadav

    This guide offers a detailed listing of the key practices and technologies that can help create a sustainable school. The document includes hundreds of cost-effective recommendations that can improve the energy performance and environmental quality of school designs. Each design and construction phase is addressed, from site selection through…

  10. Designing Communication and Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayeski, Diane M., Ed.

    Designing and remodeling educational facilities are becoming more complex with options that include computer-based collaboration, classrooms with multimedia podiums, conference centers, and workplaces with desktop communication systems. This book provides a collection of articles that address educational facility design categorized in the…

  11. Instructional Design for Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the design of situated learning and the ecological psychology of situated cognition. Topics addressed include the teacher's role; teacher training; anchored instruction; transfer skills; the meaning of learning; apprenticeships; and the Jasper Series, a macrocontext designed to investigate the issues of situated learning. (46 references)…

  12. Santa Ana River Design Memorandum Number 1. Phase 2 GDM on the Santa Ana River Mainstem, Including Santiago Creek. Volume 3. Lower Santa Ana River. (Prado Dam to Pacific Ocean)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Division AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS 300 N Los Angeles Street Los Angeles, CA 90012 ,,. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Project Management... Controlling Ollice) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) Same as Controlling Office IUnclassified 15a. DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 16... Control Facilities and Tidal Features ...... II-1 The Flood Problem ......................................... 11-13 Phase I Authorized Plan

  13. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings.

  14. Assessing what to address in science communication

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  15. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions.

  16. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  17. Using Corrosion Design Models to Accelerate the Transition of Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion Design Models • All moving to incorporate light metals, composites and other aviation materials • Maturation includes effect of...Using Corrosion Design Models to Accelerate the Transition of Alternatives Craig Matzdorf Materials Engineering Division Naval Air...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Air Warfare Center, Materials Engineering Division,22347

  18. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  19. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  20. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  1. Narrative Problems of Graphic Design History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Victor

    1994-01-01

    Discusses three major accounts (by Philip Meggs, Enric Satue and Richard Hollis) of graphic design history. Notes that these texts address the history of graphic design, but each raises questions about what material to include, as well as how graphic design is both related to and distinct from other visual practices such as typography, art…

  2. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  3. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  4. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  5. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  6. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  7. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  8. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  9. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  10. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  11. Design and Implementation of High Performance Content-Addressable Memories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Logic store matches in Match Store 4 (GONT 1) store matches into Temporary Match Store (LDTEMP = 1) any match ? (RESULT =1 ?) yes no . .-.- MMR produces...matches in Match Store (CONT = 1) yes more search ?.1yes S . no store matches into Temporary Match Store (LDTEMP = 1) any match ? (RESULT =1 ?) I yes no MMR... ENGINEERING UNLRSIIE WHSHINN DEC 85 AFIT/GE/ENG/85D-39 F/G 915 N ?,e Ll" L 11L61 02.01 %iiii 1 L A 2 IIII 5 II MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART OF 1

  12. Designing Freshman Interest Groups That Address Millennial Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    2011-01-01

    Residential Freshman Interest Groups (FIGS) have recently become a popular instructional and social model for academic and student affairs colleagues who are concerned that millennial students learn to reflect on life experiences and daily events as part of the learning process. An introductory FIG program recognizes that millennial students are…

  13. Addressing Mathematics Literacy through Technology, Innovation, Design, and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litowitz, Len S.

    2009-01-01

    In an era when so much emphasis is being placed on the high-stakes standardized testing of fundamental subjects such as reading, writing, and math, it makes sense to demonstrate the role technology educators play in developing such fundamental knowledge and skills in youth. While the author believes that technology education contributes to the…

  14. IP address management : augmenting Sandia's capabilities through open source tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Nayar, R. Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Internet Protocol (IP) address management is an increasingly growing concern at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the networking community as a whole. The current state of the available IP addresses indicates that they are nearly exhausted. Currently SNL doesn't have the justification to obtain more IP address space from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There must exist a local entity to manage and allocate IP assignments efficiently. Ongoing efforts at Sandia have been in the form of a multifunctional database application notably known as Network Information System (NWIS). NWIS is a database responsible for a multitude of network administrative services including IP address management. This study will explore the feasibility of augmenting NWIS's IP management capabilities utilizing open source tools. Modifications of existing capabilities to better allocate available IP address space are studied.

  15. Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Brian M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Fleisher, Linda; Green, Bernard Lee

    2014-03-01

    During a panel presentation at the American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Health Disparities Conference titled 'Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities', the latest scientific advances in the application and utilization of mobile technology and/or mobile-health (mHealth) interventions to address cancer health disparities were discussed. The session included: an examination of overall population trends in the uptake of technology and the potential of addressing health disparities through such media; an exploration of the conceptual issues and challenges in the construction of mHealth interventions to address disparate and underserved populations; and a presentation of pilot study findings on the acceptability and feasibility of using mHealth interventions to address prostate cancer disparities among African-American men.

  16. RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Hagberg, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. Methods and analysis This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery. The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A–C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. Trial registration number NCT02492191; Pre

  17. Emerging Developments in Pharmacists' Scope of Practice to Address Unmet Health Care Needs.

    PubMed

    Burns, Anne L

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacists' comprehensive training is being leveraged in emerging patient care service opportunities that include prescriptive authority under collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) with prescribers or through state-based protocols. CPAs and state-based protocols expand pharmacists' scope of practice to allow the pharmacist to perform designated functions under the terms of the agreement or protocol. For patient-specific CPAs, this often includes initiating, modifying, or discontinuing therapy and ordering laboratory tests. For population-based CPAs and state-based protocols, pharmacists are often authorized to initiate medications to address a public health need. CPAs and state-based protocols are mechanisms to optimally use pharmacists' education and training.

  18. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  19. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter

    2001-08-27

    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  20. Computer-Based Instruction on Skills for Addressing Envelopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humes, Ann

    The approach to computer-based instruction for third and fourth grade elementary students which is sketched teaches component placement, capitalization, and punctuation skills of addressing envelopes within the context of a simulated envelope. Part of a larger design for a complete program of composition instruction, this program comprises a set…

  1. The Value of Addressing Patient Preferences.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jeff D; Stewart, Mark D; Roberts, Samantha A; Sigal, Ellen V

    2017-02-01

    Recent scientific progress is, in some cases, leading to transformative new medicines for diseases that previously had marginal or even no treatment options. This offers great promise for people affected by these diseases, but it has also placed stress on the health care system in terms of the growing cost associated with some new interventions. Effort has been taken to create tools to help patients and health care providers assess the value of new medical innovations. These tools may also provide the basis for assessing the price associated with new medical products. Given the growing expenditures in health care, value frameworks present an opportunity to evaluate new therapeutic options in the context of other treatments and potentially lead to a more economically sustainable health care system. In summary, the contribution to meaningful improvements in health outcomes is the primary focus of any assessment of the value of a new intervention. A component of such evaluations, however, should factor in timely access to new products that address an unmet medical need, as well as the magnitude of that beneficial impact. To achieve these goals, value assessment tools should allow for flexibility in clinical end points and trial designs, incorporate patient preferences, and continually evolve as new evidence, practice patterns, and medical progress advance.

  2. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    PubMed

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake.

  3. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus.1 Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  4. Beyond pills and tests: addressing the social determinants of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Tom; Tovar, Marco A; Huff, Doug; Boccia, Delia; Saunders, Matthew J; Datta, Sumona; Montoya, Rosario; Ramos, Eric; Lewis, James J; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton

    2016-12-01

    Poverty drives tuberculosis (TB) rates but the approach to TB control has been disproportionately biomedical. In 2015, the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy explicitly identified the need to address the social determinants of TB through socio-economic interventions. However, evidence concerning poverty reduction and cost mitigation strategies is limited. The research described in this article, based on the 2016 Royal College of Physicians Linacre Lecture, aimed to address this knowledge gap. The research was divided into two phases: the first phase was an analysis of a cohort study identifying TB-related costs of TB-affected households and creating a clinically relevant threshold above which those costs became catastrophic; the second was the design, implementation and evaluation of a household randomised controlled evaluation of socio-economic support to improve access to preventive therapy, increase TB cure, and mitigate the effects of catastrophic costs. The first phase showed TB remains a disease of people living in poverty - 'free' TB care was unaffordable for impoverished TB-affected households and incurring catastrophic costs was associated with as many adverse TB treatment outcomes (including death, failure of treatment, lost to follow-up and TB recurrence) as multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. The second phase showed that, in TB-affected households receiving socio-economic support, household contacts were more likely to start and adhere to TB preventive therapy, TB patients were more likely to be cured and households were less likely to incur catastrophic costs. In impoverished Peruvian shantytowns, poverty remains inextricably linked with TB and incurring catastrophic costs predicted adverse TB treatment outcome. A novel socio-economic support intervention increased TB preventive therapy uptake, improved TB treatment success and reduced catastrophic costs. The impact of the intervention on TB control is currently being evaluated by the Community

  5. Addressing Health Disparities through Multi-institutional, Multidisciplinary Collaboratories

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Erik S.; Perkins, James; Easa, David; Conde, José G.; Baker, Richard S.; Southerland, William M.; Dottin, Robert; Benabe, Julio E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Bond, Vincent C.; McClure, Shelia A.; Sayre, Michael H.; Beanan, Maureen J.; Norris, Keith C.

    2009-01-01

    The national research leadership has recently become aware of the tremendous potential of translational research as an approach to address health disparities. The Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) is a research network that supports multi-institutional, multidisciplinary collaboration with a focus on key diseases and conditions for which disproportionately adverse racial and ethnic health disparities exist. The RTRN is designed to facilitate the movement of scientific advances across the translational research spectrum by providing researchers at different institutions with the infrastructure and tools necessary to collaborate on interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research projects relating to specific health outcomes for which major racial/ethnic disparities exist. In the past, the difficulty of overcoming the restrictions imposed by time and space have made it difficult to carry out this type of large-scale, multilevel collaboration efficiently. To address this formidable challenge, the RTRN will deploy a translational research cluster system that uses “cyber workspaces” to bring researchers with similar interests together by using online collaboratory technology. These virtual meeting environments will provide a number of tools, including videoconferences (seminars, works in progress, meetings); project management tools (WebCT, Microsoft Share Point); and posting areas for projects, concepts, and other research and educational activities. This technology will help enhance access to resources across institutions with a common mission, minimize many of the logistical hurdles that impede intellectual exchange, streamline the planning and implementation of innovative interdisciplinary research, and assess the use of protocols and practices to assist researchers in interacting across and within cyber workspaces. PMID:18646341

  6. Evaluation of green infrastructure designs using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In arid and semi-arid regions, green infrastructure (GI) designs can address several issues facing urban environments, including augmenting water supply, mitigating flooding, decreasing pollutant loads, and promoting greenness in the built environment. An optimum design captures stormwater, addressi...

  7. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  8. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, Yanbing

    2009-09-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  9. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, YanBing

    2010-11-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  10. LDAR observations of a developing thunderstorm correlated with field mill, ground strike location, and weather radar data including the first report of the design and capabilities of a new, time-of-arrival Ground-strike Location System (GSLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment designed to observe and measure a thunderstorm prior to, during, and after its development over the Kennedy Space Center was successful. Correlated measurements of airborne field strength, ground-based field strength, LDAR lightning discharge location in the clouds, weather radar percipitation echoes, plus ground strike location with the new KSC Ground Strike Location System (GSLS) were gathered, and reported. This test marks the first operational use of the GSLS System, and this report contains the first report of its design and capabilities.

  11. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  12. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  13. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  14. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  15. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  16. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  17. 49 CFR 369.6 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.6 Address. The following address must be used by motor carriers when submitting a report, requesting an exemption from filing...

  18. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  19. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  20. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  1. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  2. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  3. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  4. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  5. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  6. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  7. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  8. Addressing Free Radical Oxidation in Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Criscito, Maressa C.; Schlesinger, Todd E.; Verdicchio, Robert; Szoke, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparatively little attention has been paid to the role of free radical oxidation in acne vulgaris. Here, using the traditional abnormalities cited for acne, the authors address the role of free radical oxidation throughout the pathogenesis by detailing the chemistry that may contribute to clinical changes. To probe the effects of free radical oxidation and test an antioxidant, they conducted a preliminary study of topically applied vitamin E. Methods: Seventeen patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated over an eight-week period in two private dermatology practices in this open-label study. All patients enrolled were on the same baseline regimen of salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide. This regimen was then supplemented with topical vitamin E in sunflower seed oil. Results: At the end of the eight-week period, all patients demonstrated clinical improvement, as indicated by a reduction in the number of lesions and global mean difference. A statistically significant reduction was noted as early as Week 2. Enrolled patients also expressed a positive experience due to good tolerability and easy application. Conclusion: Although the exact pathogenesis of acne vulgaris remains unknown, the presence of excessive reactive oxygen species can be implicated in each of the major abnormalities involved. This presence, along with the positive results of the authors’ preliminary study, demonstrates the need for more exploration on the use of topical antioxidants in limiting free radical oxidation in the acne model. This paper is designed to stimulate academic discussion regarding a new way of thinking about the disease state of acne. PMID:26962389

  9. Implementing the obesity care model at a community health center in Hawaii to address childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Okihiro, May; Pillen, Michelle; Ancog, Cristeta; Inda, Christy; Sehgal, Vija

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, the most common chronic disease of childhood, is prevalent among economically disadvantaged children. The Chronic Care and Obesity Care Models are comprehensive health care strategies to improve outcomes by linking primary care best practices and community-based programs. Pediatric providers and community health centers are well positioned to design and implement coordinated and synergistic programs to address childhood health disparities. This article describes a comprehensive project based on the Obesity Care Model initiated at a rural community health center in Hawaii to address childhood obesity including: (1) the health care delivery changes constituting the quality improvement project; (2) capacity and team-building activities; (3) use of the project community level data to strengthen community engagement and investment; and (4) the academic-community partnership providing the project framework. We anticipate that these efforts will contribute to the long-term goal of reducing the prevalence of obesity and obesity associated morbidity in the community.

  10. Detection of Spoofed MAC Addresses in 802.11 Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Kai; Li, Jing; Sampalli, Srinivas

    Medium Access Control (MAC) address spoofing is considered as an important first step in a hacker's attempt to launch a variety of attacks on 802.11 wireless networks. Unfortunately, MAC address spoofing is hard to detect. Most current spoofing detection systems mainly use the sequence number (SN) tracking technique, which has drawbacks. Firstly, it may lead to an increase in the number of false positives. Secondly, such techniques cannot be used in systems with wireless cards that do not follow standard 802.11 sequence number patterns. Thirdly, attackers can forge sequence numbers, thereby causing the attacks to go undetected. We present a new architecture called WISE GUARD (Wireless Security Guard) for detection of MAC address spoofing on 802.11 wireless LANs. It integrates three detection techniques - SN tracking, Operating System (OS) fingerprinting & tracking and Received Signal Strength (RSS) fingerprinting & tracking. It also includes the fingerprinting of Access Point (AP) parameters as an extension to the OS fingerprinting for detection of AP address spoofing. We have implemented WISE GUARD on a test bed using off-the-shelf wireless devices and open source drivers. Experimental results show that the new design enhances the detection effectiveness and reduces the number of false positives in comparison with current approaches.

  11. 49 CFR 238.109 - Training, qualification, and designation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Adopt a training curriculum that includes classroom and “hands-on” lessons designed to impart the skills... section. The training curriculum shall specifically address the Federal regulatory requirements...

  12. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  13. A flexible analog memory address list manager/controller for PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Walker, J.W.; Britton, C.L.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable analog memory address list manager/controller has been developed for use with all analog memory-based detector subsystems of PHENIX. The unit provides simultaneous read/write control, cell write-over protection for both a Level-1 trigger decision delay and digitization latency, and re-ordering of AMU addresses following conversion, at a beam crossing rate of 112 ns. Addresses are handled such that up to 5 Level-1 events can be maintained in the AMU without write-over. Data tagging is implemented for handling overlapping and shared beam event data packets. Full usage in all PHENIX analog memory-based detector sub-systems is accomplished by the use of detector-specific programmable parameters -- the number of data samples per Level-1 trigger valid and the swnple spacing. Architectural candidates for the system are discussed with emphasis on implementation implications. Details of the design are presented including design simulations, timing information, and test results from a full implementation using programmable logic devices.

  14. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  15. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  16. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  17. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  18. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  19. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  20. 76 FR 27020 - Representative and Address Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Representative and Address Provisions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of...

  1. Gendered Address Terms in Reproach Sequences in Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tainio, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a conversation analytic framework to explore reproaches in classroom interaction. The data used is naturally occurring Finnish classroom interaction (students aged 13-15). The analysis focuses on reproaches that are used in order to silence students and in which gendered address terms are included. In the data occurrences, the…

  2. Are Teacher and Principal Candidates Prepared to Address Student Cyberbullying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Bonner, Jessica L.; Styron, Jennifer L.; Bridgeforth, James; Martin, Cecelia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the preparation of teacher and principal candidates to address problems created in K-12 settings as a result of cyberbullying. Participants included teacher and principal preparation students. Findings indicated that respondents were familiar with the most common forms of cyberbullying and its impact on…

  3. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  4. National Conference on Outdoor Leadership. 2008 Keynote Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louv, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In this keynote address, Richard Louv laments that today's children lack direct connection to nature. Over the past 15 years, he interviewed families across the country about the changes in their lives, including their relationship with nature. With few exceptions, even in rural areas, parents say the same thing: Most children aren't playing…

  5. Community Forays: Addressing Students' Functional Skills in Inclusive Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burcroff, Teri L.; Radogna, Daniel M.; Wright, Erika H.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how one inclusive middle school addressed needs of students with significant disabilities for functional community-referenced skills including clothing purchases, buying groceries, eating out, crossing the street, doing laundry, and using a microwave. Program development, program organization, and involvement of peers…

  6. APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT [ASTP] CREWS ADDRESS PERSONNEL IN LCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Soviet and American crews for the July Apollo Soyuz Test Project [standing, center] addressed personnel assembled in a firing room at KSC on February 10. The crews for the joint manned space mission toured the Center during their three-day visit which also included inspection of ASTP equipment and facilities and a trip to Disney World.

  7. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  8. An addressable cell array for a platform of biosensor chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungkyoung; Choi, Soo-hee; Jung, Moon Youn; Song, Kibong; Park, Jeong Won

    2013-05-01

    In order to detect interested matters in fields, various lab-on-a-chips where chemical, physical, or biological sensors are loaded have been developed. eNOSE can be a representative example among them. Because animals can sense 300~1000 different chemicals by olfactory system - smell -, the olfactory system has been spotlighted as new materials in the field of sensing. Those investigations, however, are usually focused on how to detect signals from the olfactory neurons or receptors loaded on chips and enhance sensing efficacy of chips. Therefore, almost of those chips are designed for only one material sensing. Multi-sensing using multi-channels will be needed when the olfactory systems are adopted well on chips. For multiple sensing, we developed an addressable cell array. The chip has 38 cell-chambers arranged in a circle shape and different cell types of thirty eight can be allocated with specific addresses on the chip without any complex valve system. In order to confirm the cell addressing, we loaded EGFP-transfected and empty vector-transfected HEK293a cells into inlets of the cell array in a planned address and those cells were positioned into each chamber by brief aspiration. The arrayed cells were confirmed as a specific pattern through EGFP and nuclei staining. This cell array which can generate address of sensor materials like cells with their own specification is expected to be applied to a platform for a biosensor chip at various sensing fields.

  9. New generation of content addressable memories for associative processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. G., Jr.; Giambalov, Paul

    2000-05-01

    Content addressable memories (CAMS) store both key and association data. A key is presented to the CAN when it is searched and all of the addresses are scanned in parallel to find the address referenced by the key. When a match occurs, the corresponding association is returned. With the explosion of telecommunications packet switching protocols, large data base servers, routers and search engines a new generation of dense sub-micron high throughput CAMS has been developed. The introduction of this paper presents a brief history and tutorial on CAMS, their many uses and advantages, and describes the architecture and functionality of several of MUSIC Semiconductors CAM devices. In subsequent sections of the paper we address using Associative Processing to accommodate the continued increase in sensor resolution, number of spectral bands, required coverage, the desire to implement real-time target cueing, and the data flow and image processing required for optimum performance of reconnaissance and surveillance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). To be competitive the system designer must provide the most computational power, per watt, per dollar, per cubic inch, within the boundaries of cost effective UAV environmental control systems. To address these problems we demonstrate leveraging DARPA and DoD funded Commercial Off-the-Shelf technology to integrate CAM based Associative Processing into a real-time heterogenous multiprocessing system for UAVs and other platforms with limited weight, volume and power budgets.

  10. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  11. Address burnout with a caring, nurturing environment.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    With their hectic schedules and demanding work responsibilities, emergency physicians are particularly vulnerable to symptoms of burnout. One study showed that more than half of emergency providers reported at least one symptom of burnout when they were asked to fill out a survey tool used to measure burnout--more than any other type of provider. It's a concern because physicians experiencing burnout may be less attentive to their patients, and some ultimately choose to leave medicine because they are no longer satisfied with their work. However, there are steps health systems and administrators can take to help physicians who are struggling, and prevent isolated problems from escalating into larger issues. When a national sample of more than 7,200 physicians agreed to take the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a survey tool used to measure burnout, nearly half (45.8%) reported at least one symptom of burnout, and 65% of the emergency providers reported symptoms of burnout. Burnout is not just fatigue. It involves disappointment in a relationship or relationships, and lack of satisfaction or fulfillment with work, according to experts. Symptoms may include moodiness, irritability, sarcasm, and may result in performance issues as well. Further, there may be physical changes such as weight loss or changes in appetite. To prevent or address burnout, experts advise health systems to nurture a caring, collaborative environment, and to make sure that providers have mentors or resources to reach out to if they are experiencing any work-related problems. They also advise administrators to make sure that burnout is a safe topic of conversation.

  12. Addressing Hate Crimes: Six Initiatives That Are Enhancing the Efforts of Criminal Justice Practitioners. Hate Crimes Series. Bureau of Justice Assistance Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessler, Stephen

    This publication focuses on initiatives that are designed to address hate crimes by enhancing efforts of the criminal justice system. After discussing the pivotal role of law enforcement in this effort, the paper describes six Bureau of Justice Assistance-funded initiatives, which include: the International Association of Chiefs of Police Summit:…

  13. Contextual analysis of machine-printed addresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Peter B.; Ho, Tin K.; Hull, Jonathan J.; Prussak, Michal; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1992-08-01

    The assignment of a nine digit ZIP Code (ZIP + 4 Code) to the digital image of a machine printed address block is a problem of central importance in automated mail sorting. This problem is especially difficult since most addresses do not contain ZIP + 4 Codes and often the information that must be read to match an address to one of the 28 million entries in the ZIP + 4 file is either erroneous, incomplete, or missing altogether. This paper discusses a system for interpreting a machine printed address and assigning a ZIP + 4 Code that uses a constraint satisfaction approach. Words in an address block are first segmented and parsed to assign probable semantic categories. Word images are then recognized by a combination of digit, character, and word recognition algorithms. The control structure uses a constraint satisfaction problem solving approach to match the recognition results to an entry in the ZIP + 4 file. It is shown how this technique can both determine correct responses as well as compensate for incomplete or erroneous information. Experimental results demonstrate the success of this system. In a recent test on over 1000 machine printed address blocks, the ZIP + 4 encode rate was over 73 percent. This compares to the success rate of current postal OCRs which is about 45 percent. Additionally, the word recognition algorithm recognizes over 92 percent of the input images (over 98 percent in the top 10 choices.

  14. Self-Assembly of Structures with Addressable Complexity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, William M; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-03-02

    The self-assembly of structures with "addressable complexity", where every component is distinct and is programmed to occupy a specific location within a target structure, is a promising route to engineering materials with precisely defined morphologies. Because systems with many components are inherently complicated, one might assume that the chances of successful self-assembly are extraordinarily small. Yet recent advances suggest otherwise: addressable structures with hundreds of distinct building blocks have been designed and assembled with nanometer precision. Despite this remarkable success, it is often challenging to optimize a self-assembly reaction to ensure that the intended structure is kinetically accessible. In this Perspective, we focus on the prediction of kinetic pathways for self-assembly and implications for the design of robust experimental protocols. The development of general principles to predict these pathways will enable the engineering of complex materials using a much wider range of building blocks than is currently possible.

  15. Designing and Creating Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMeen, George R.

    Designed to encourage the use of a defined methodology and careful planning in creating computer-assisted instructional programs, this paper describes the instructional design process, compares computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and programmed instruction (PI), and discusses pragmatic concerns in computer programming. Topics addressed include:…

  16. A WiFi Public Address System for Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A.; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas. PMID:17238466

  17. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  18. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  19. Midwestern efforts to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Stenberg

    2008-12-15

    Six Midwestern governors and a Canadian premier signed the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord in November 2007. The governors agreed to begin the process of developing a market-based cap-and-trade program that would reduce GHG emissions (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro-fluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride) to meet reduction targets. Member jurisdictions include Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Manitoba, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Observer jurisdictions - those who are participating in the program design, but will decide later whether to be full members-include Indiana, Ohio, Ontario, and South Dakota. To date, the advisory group has proposed target ranges for GHG emissions reductions of 15-25% below 2005 levels by 2020 and 60-80% by 2050. The following sectors are currently being considered for the cap-and-trade program: electricity generation and imports (power plants); industrial combustion sources (factories and other industrial facilities); and industrial process sources (to the extent credible measurement and monitoring protocols exist or can be developed prior to inclusion).

  20. Imulation of polymer forming processes - addressing industrial needs

    SciTech Connect

    Thibault, F.; DiRaddo, R.

    2011-05-04

    The objective of this paper is to present the development of simulation and design optimization capabilities, for polymer forming processes, in the context of addressing industrial needs. Accomplishments generated from close to twenty years of research in this field, at the National Research Council (NRC), are presented. Polymer forming processes such as extrusion blow moulding, stretch blow moulding and thermoforming have been the focus of the work, yet the research is extendable to similar polymer forming operations such as micro-blow moulding, sheet blow moulding and composites stamping. The research considers material models, process sequence integration and design optimization, derivative processes and 3D finite elements with multi-body contact.

  1. Simulation of Polymer Forming PROCESSES—ADDRESSING Industrial Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, F.; DiRaddo, R.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the development of simulation and design optimization capabilities, for polymer forming processes, in the context of addressing industrial needs. Accomplishments generated from close to twenty years of research in this field, at the National Research Council (NRC), are presented. Polymer forming processes such as extrusion blow moulding, stretch blow moulding and thermoforming have been the focus of the work, yet the research is extendable to similar polymer forming operations such as micro-blow moulding, sheet blow moulding and composites stamping. The research considers material models, process sequence integration and design optimization, derivative processes and 3D finite elements with multi-body contact.

  2. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1988-01-01

    The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

  3. 30 CFR 75.335 - Seal strengths, design applications, and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal strengths, design applications, and... Seal strengths, design applications, and installation. (a) Seal strengths. Seals constructed on or... address the potential hazards. The plan shall include seal strengths sufficient to address such...

  4. Communication skills training to address disruptive physician behavior.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Disruptive behavior among health care providers has been linked to negative patient outcomes. High-stress areas, including the perioperative setting, are especially prone to this behavior. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an educational communication skills intervention aimed at increasing the perceived self-efficacy of perioperative nurses to address disruptive physician behavior. Seventeen perioperative nurses participated in a two-day communication skills program presented by a certified Crucial Conversations trainer. By using paired t test analysis, I found that there was a statistically significant increase in total mean self-efficacy scores immediately after the intervention and four weeks after the intervention. In addition, four weeks after the intervention, participants reported the ability to address disruptive physician behavior 71% of the time. The results of this study suggest that one intervention strategy to address the serious threat of disruptive physician behavior to patient safety is to educate nurses in communication skills.

  5. Computational Enzyme Design: Advances, hurdles and possible ways forward

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Mats

    2012-01-01

    This mini review addresses recent developments in computational enzyme design. Successful protocols as well as known issues and limitations are discussed from an energetic perspective. It will be argued that improved results can be obtained by including a dynamic treatment in the design protocol. Finally, a molecular dynamics-based approach for evaluating and refining computational designs is presented. PMID:24688650

  6. Design for Safety: The Audiovisual Cart Hazard Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Annette C.; Strojny, Allan

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the design of carts for moving audiovisual equipment in schools emphasizes safety factors. Topics addressed include poor design of top-heavy carts that has led to deaths and injuries; cart navigation; new manufacturing standards; and an alternative, safer cart design. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

  7. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  8. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  9. When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

  10. Developing a Web Page: Ethics, Prerequisites, Design and Layout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarcella, Joseph A.; Lane, Kenneth E.

    For educators interested in developing Web sites, four major issues should be addressed--ethics, prerequisites, design, and layout. By giving attention to these four areas, teachers will develop Web sites that improve their teaching and increase the opportunities for student learning. Each of these areas is addressed in detail, including:…

  11. The Development of the CONDUIT Advanced Control System Design and Evaluation Interface with a Case Study Application to an Advanced Fly by Wire Helicopter Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbourne, Jason

    1999-01-01

    This report details the development and use of CONDUIT (Control Designer's Unified Interface). CONDUIT is a design tool created at Ames Research Center for the purpose of evaluating and optimizing aircraft control systems against handling qualities. Three detailed design problems addressing the RASCAL UH-60A Black Hawk are included in this report to show the application of CONDUIT to helicopter control system design.

  12. Addressing electronic clinical information in the construction of quality measures.

    PubMed

    Bailey, L Charles; Mistry, Kamila B; Tinoco, Aldo; Earls, Marian; Rallins, Marjorie C; Hanley, Kendra; Christensen, Keri; Jones, Meredith; Woods, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) and registries play a central role in health care and provide access to detailed clinical information at the individual, institutional, and population level. Use of these data for clinical quality/performance improvement and cost management has been a focus of policy initiatives over the past decade. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA)-mandated Pediatric Quality Measurement Program supports development and testing of quality measures for children on the basis of electronic clinical information, including de novo measures and respecification of existing measures designed for other data sources. Drawing on the experience of Centers of Excellence, we review both structural and pragmatic considerations in e-measurement. The presence of primary observations in EHR-derived data make it possible to measure outcomes in ways that are difficult with administrative data alone. However, relevant information may be located in narrative text, making it difficult to interpret. EHR systems are collecting more discrete data, but the structure, semantics, and adoption of data elements vary across vendors and sites. EHR systems also differ in ability to incorporate pediatric concepts such as variable dosing and growth percentiles. This variability complicates quality measurement, as do limitations in established measure formats, such as the Quality Data Model, to e-measurement. Addressing these challenges will require investment by vendors, researchers, and clinicians alike in developing better pediatric content for standard terminologies and data models, encouraging wider adoption of technical standards that support reliable quality measurement, better harmonizing data collection with clinical work flow in EHRs, and better understanding the behavior and potential of e-measures.

  13. Engineering nanomaterials to address cell-mediated inflammation in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Sean; Liu, Yu-Gang; Scott, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder with a pathophysiology driven by both innate and adaptive immunity and a primary cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. Vascular inflammation and accumulation of foam cells and their products induce maturation of atheromas, or plaques, which can rupture by metalloprotease action, leading to ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction. Diverse immune cell populations participate in all stages of plaque maturation, many of which directly influence plaque stability and rupture via inflammatory mechanisms. Current clinical treatments for atherosclerosis focus on lowering serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) using therapeutics such as statins, administration of antithrombotic drugs, and surgical intervention. Strategies that address cell-mediated inflammation are lacking, and consequently have recently become an area of considerable research focus. Nanomaterials have emerged as highly advantageous tools for these studies, as they can be engineered to target specific inflammatory cell populations, deliver therapeutics of wide-ranging solubilities and enhance analytical methods that include imaging and proteomics. Furthermore, the highly phagocytic nature of antigen presenting cells (APCs), a diverse cell population central to the initiation of immune responses and inflammation, make them particularly amenable to targeting and modulation by nanoscale particulates. Nanomaterials have therefore become essential components of vaccine formulations and treatments for inflammation-driven pathologies like autoimmunity, and present novel opportunities for immunotherapeutic treatments of CVD. Here, we review recent progress in the design and use of nanomaterials for therapeutic assessment and treatment of atherosclerosis. We will focus on promising new approaches that utilize nanomaterials for cell-specific imaging, gene therapy and immunomodulation. PMID:27135051

  14. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  15. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to showcase…

  16. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  17. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  18. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  19. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  20. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  1. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  2. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  3. 50 CFR 18.78 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 18.78 Section 18.78 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.78 Mailing...

  4. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  5. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  6. Addressing Psychosocial Factors with Library Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Bridget; Alabi, Jaena; Whaley, Pambanisha; Jenda, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    The majority of articles on mentoring in the library and information science field address career development by emphasizing the orientation process for new librarians and building the requisite skills for a specific job. Few articles deal with the psychological and social challenges that many early-career and minority librarians face, which can…

  7. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  8. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  9. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  10. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  11. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  12. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  13. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  14. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  15. 78 FR 35149 - Addresses of Regional Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Addresses of Regional Offices AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We... offices in our regulations at title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations. We are also making...

  16. EPA Addresses Environmental Justice in Houston

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 8, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced Texas Environmental Justice Advocacy Services (t.e.j.a.s.) was selected as a grant recipient to address environmental justice (EJ) issues in the Manchester area

  17. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (b) If hand delivered... Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. (c) If hand delivered by a commercial...., Washington, DC, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., and be addressed as follows:...

  18. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (b) If hand delivered... Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. (c) If hand delivered by a commercial...., Washington, DC, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., and be addressed as follows:...

  19. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  20. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  1. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  2. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  3. Including Alternate Assessment Results in Accountability Decisions. NCEO Policy Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Thurlow, Martha

    Alternate assessments provide a mechanism for students with complex disabilities to be included in assessment systems. An integral part of maximizing the benefits of assessing students is to include the results of alternate assessments in school accountability systems. This report addresses policy options for including the results of alternate…

  4. Addressing anniversary reactions of trauma through group process: the Hurricane Katrina anniversary wellness workshops.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Darlyne G; Kuriansky, Judy; Reeder, Kenneth P; Lewis, Amity; Marceaux, Kristin; Whittington, Taighlor; Olivier, Traci W; May, Natasha E; Safier, Jessica A

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina, which devastated the Gulf Coast of the United States in the summer of 2005, have highlighted the need to develop effective post-trauma psychotherapeutic intervention strategies, not only to deal with the immediate psychological aftermath of trauma, but also the long-term effects of anniversary reactions. Governmental responses to Hurricane Katrina relief were greatly criticized for disorganization and delay. Both immediately afterwards and in ensuing months, people's life needs often were not addressed. People-to-people individual and group grassroots efforts, including those provided by mental health professionals, however, did reach local communities to service immediate needs and long-term emotional reactions. The present paper describes one such effort designed to help survivors cope on the occasion of the first anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. Specifically, anniversary reaction group workshops were held to address unresolved emotional issues and to promote healing by encouraging belonging, comfort, security, and resilience. The ultimate goal of these wellness workshops was to assist participants in understanding and resolving their anniversary reactions. Preliminary quantitative and qualitative findings suggested that this workshop format helped participants face their anniversary reactions, address their related psychological sequelae, and deal with their physical displacement. Participants were then able to find the emotional strength to reattach, form new communities, and begin problem solving. These methods, with appropriate cultural modifications, were subsequently used in China, to assist Chinese mental health professionals prepare for the first anniversary of the Sichuan earthquake.

  5. Reservoir technology research at LBL addressing geysers issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the Department of Energy is redirecting a significant part of its Reservoir Technology funding to study problems now being experienced at The Geysers. These include excessive pressure drawdown and associated decline in well flow rates, corrosion due to high chloride concentration in the produced steam and high concentration of noncondensible gases in some parts of the field. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is addressing some of these problems through field, laboratory and theoretical studies. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Speckle imaging with the PAPA detector. [Precision Analog Photon Address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papaliolios, C.; Nisenson, P.; Ebstein, S.

    1985-01-01

    A new 2-D photon-counting camera, the PAPA (precision analog photon address) detector has been built, tested, and used successfully for the acquisition of speckle imaging data. The camera has 512 x 512 pixels and operates at count rates of at least 200,000/sec. In this paper, technical details on the camera are presented and some of the laboratory and astronomical results are included which demonstrate the detector's capabilities.

  7. Address block localization based on graph theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaceb, Djamel; Eglin, Véronique; Lebourgeois, Frank; Emptoz, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    An efficient mail sorting system is mainly based on an accurate optical recognition of the addresses on the envelopes. However, the localizing of the address block (ABL) should be done before the OCR recognition process. The location step is very crucial as it has a great impact on the global performance of the system. Currently, a good localizing step leads to a better recognition rate. The limit of current methods is mainly caused by modular linear architectures used for ABL: their performances greatly depend on each independent module performance. We are presenting in this paper a new approach for ABL based on a pyramidal data organization and on a hierarchical graph coloring for classification process. This new approach presents the advantage to guarantee a good coherence between different modules and reduces both the computation time and the rejection rate. The proposed method gives a very satisfying rate of 98% of good locations on a set of 750 envelope images.

  8. Optically addressed asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, A.; Maserjian, J.

    1991-01-01

    A low power, high contrast optically addressed modulator, operating with normal incidence, has been fabricated. Optically controlled reflection modulation is achieved through optically induced absorption modulation in a periodically delta-doped InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structure inserted in an integrated asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonator. A contrast ratio over 60:1 was measured using a spectrally matched low power InGaAs/GaAs quantum well laser to generate the write (control) signal. The insertion loss for the normally off modulator is 4.6 dB at the highest write signal power (30 mW) used. The device lends itself to the fabrication of arrays for optically addressed spatial light modulation.

  9. Addressing Medical Errors in Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Adkinson, Joshua M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Influential think-tank such as the Institute of Medicine has raised awareness about the implications of medical errors. In response, organizations, medical societies, and institutions have initiated programs to decrease the incidence and effects of these errors. Surgeons deal with the direct implications of adverse events involving patients. In addition to managing the physical consequences, they are confronted with ethical and social issues when caring for a harmed patient. Although there is considerable effort to implement system-wide changes, there is little guidance for hand surgeons on how to address medical errors. Admitting an error is difficult, but a transparent environment where patients are notified of errors and offered consolation and compensation is essential to maintain trust. Further, equipping hand surgeons with a guide for addressing medical errors will promote compassionate patient interaction, help identify system failures, provide learning points for safety improvement, and demonstrate a commitment to ethically responsible medical care. PMID:25154576

  10. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  11. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    effectively with the American debt and deficit, by first describing the background of our current government approach to the economy , then examining the...to address the problem of deficit financing and the associated debt in a positive manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States...current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining what

  12. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  13. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  14. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  15. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  16. STaRRS in Yellowstone: Addressing Challenges Facing Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseal, A.; Gallagher, R.; Fuhrmann, B.; Sanford, R.

    2010-12-01

    The literature outlines many challenges faced by Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships (STSPs) including cultural differences between the scientific research and education communities. For example, shared vocabulary terms with dissimilar definitions can create communication problems. Other issues include accuracy in data collection, meeting the needs of a very diverse group of partners, connecting students with research science in a meaningful way, and maintaining the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain these partnerships. Additionally, evidence, other than anecdotal, of the success of these partnerships is limited, especially as school year and research cycles are often on different schedules or have very different goals. Students, Teachers, and Rangers & Research Scientists: Investigating Systems at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park (STaRRS) was an STSP developed to address some of these challenges, model some solutions within an STSP, and identify some possible outcomes for participating teachers and their students. Three strategies used to address some of these challenges that will be discussed briefly in this presentation include: (a) embedding the STSP in an already existing National Park Service environmental education program; (b) development of three types of research activities connecting teachers, students, and scientists to the research, and (c) a professional development (PD) model that included all partners in an on-going year-long process. Results from an accompanying research study will also be presented. Using a pretest-intervention-posttest design, this study revealed significant changes in attitude regarding science and scientists of participating STaRRS teachers. Student data gathered using a quasi-experimental pretest-intervention-posttest treatment and comparison group design also demonstrated significant changes in their attitudes and gains in earth science content knowledge.

  17. Systems safety including DOD standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, Donald M.

    The stated purpose of MIL STD 882B (1984), which is currently the basis of all U.S. DOD criteria in the field of systems safety design and analysis, is 'To provide uniform requirements for developing and implementing a system safety program of sufficient comprehensiveness to identify the hazards of a system, and to impose design requirements and management controls to prevent mishaps by eliminating hazards or reducing the associated risk to a level acceptable to the managing activity.' Attention is presently given to safety-related issues in material acquisition activities, as well as over the course of a system's life cycle, together with accounts of current hazard-analysis techniques, risk management and system-safety control methods, human factors, and the role of interfaces.

  18. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1181 Section 25.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire... accessory section; (4) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; (5) Any fuel-burning heater and...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....1181 Section 25.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire... accessory section; (4) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; (5) Any fuel-burning heater and...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1181 Section 25.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire... accessory section; (4) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; (5) Any fuel-burning heater and...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1181 Section 29.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire...; (5) Any fuel-burning heater and other combustion equipment installation described in § 29.859;...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1181 Section 25.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire... accessory section; (4) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; (5) Any fuel-burning heater and...

  3. Including Teachers in the Design of Collaborative Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Improving instruction has been shown to be among the best means of improving student achievement, and professional development has, in turn, been shown to be integral to improving instruction. Moreover, to be effective, professional development programs should be based on adult learning principles and incorporate teacher input. The problem serving…

  4. Designing for Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doban, Geoffrey; Samton, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Explores school design's influence on enhancing school security inside and out and addresses whether schools should be designed as public spaces for the community at large. Design tips for planners are highlighted. (GR)

  5. BART's Criteria, Approaches and Concerns in Addressing Seismic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, E. N.

    2005-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) is one of the San Francisco Bay Area's most vital transportation links, carrying an average of 310,000 passenger trips every weekday. The system consists of 104 miles of revenue track and 43 stations. The system includes the Transbay Tube (a 3.6 mile underground/underwater tube that links Oakland to San Francisco); aerial structures; tunnels; at-grade, aerial and underground stations; buildings and parking structures; equipment and systems. The BART system is in a high seismic area with much of the system within a few kilometers of active faults. There are several locations where the alignment currently crosses active faults, and several more crossings planned in the near future. BART has many projects where seismic hazards need to be addressed and quantified for use in analysis and design. The 1.3 billion Earthquake Safety Program is currently assessing and retrofitting the existing system, and there are several new projects in the design stage for extensions and additions to the system. Consultants are retained for each specific project to develop response spectra, time histories, peak ground velocities, fault rupture displacements, seismically induced earth pressures and other seismic hazard information for use in design and analysis. Inconsistent methods have been used in quantifying seismic hazards resulting in differences that can significantly impact design values, and the cost and scope of new construction and retrofits. There are two main causes for the differences: 1. Lack of specifics and consistency in past BART criteria documents; 2. Lack of consensus and consistency in approaches by seismologists/geotechnical engineers. The BART Facility Standard (BFS) Criteria has been recently developed. Use of the BFS in lieu of development of criteria for each specific project will lead to more consistency between projects. The BFS has become more prescriptive to eliminate some problem areas and

  6. Addressing the Academic and Social Needs of Young Male Students through School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Curtis E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the problem within the U.S. public school system to sustainably meet the academic and social needs of its African American male students. The administrative team of the elementary school in this study desired an evaluation of a school-based male mentoring program that was designed to address these needs. The program, Gentlemen…

  7. Teaching Elementary School Teachers Cognitive-Behavioral Techniques To Address ADDH Behaviors in the Classroom Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogelmann-Peper, Marcella

    This practicum was designed to address attention deficit and hyperactive behaviors (ADDH) in the elementary classroom setting. The primary goal was to provide teachers with an effective intervention technique which requires little time and addresses the ADDH syndrome. A second aim was to increase teachers' understanding of the ADDH syndrome and…

  8. 77 FR 1777 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-261, Electronic Choice of Address and Agent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ...). Form Number: DS-261. Respondents: Immigrant beneficiaries requesting change of address or designation... an approved and current immigrant visa petition to provide the Department with his current...

  9. Content-addressable memory based enforcement of configurable policies

    DOEpatents

    Berg, Michael J

    2014-05-06

    A monitoring device for monitoring transactions on a bus includes content-addressable memory ("CAM") and a response policy unit. The CAM includes an input coupled to receive a bus transaction tag based on bus traffic on the bus. The CAM stores data tags associated with rules of a security policy to compare the bus transaction tag to the data tags. The CAM generates an output signal indicating whether one or more matches occurred. The response policy unit is coupled to the CAM to receive the output signal from the CAM and to execute a policy action in response to the output signal.

  10. Addressing gaps in the contraceptive method mix: methods in development.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kavita; Callahan, Rebecca; Dorflinger, Laneta

    2015-11-01

    Despite the availability of a variety of contraceptive methods, millions of women still have an unmet need for contraceptive choices. Short-acting methods are plagued by issues with adherence, leading to imperfect or inconsistent use and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraceptive methods such as intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants, while providing highly effective and safe contraception, do not meet the needs of all women, often due to cost, access or acceptability issues. Several new methods are in various stages of development and are designed to address the shortcomings of current methods. Providers should be aware of these future options and how they might better meet women's needs.

  11. Building technology services that address student needs.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform.

  12. Addressing tomorrow's DMO technical challenges today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, James R.

    2009-05-01

    Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) is essentially a type of networked training that pulls in participants from all the armed services and, increasingly, allies to permit them to "game" and rehearse highly complex campaigns, using a mix of local, distant, and virtual players. The United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is pursuing Science and Technology (S&T) solutions to address technical challenges associated with distributed communications and information management as DMO continues to progressively scale up the number, diversity, and geographic dispersal of participants in training and rehearsal exercises.

  13. Addressing the underperformance of faculty and staff.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Carole; Pressler, Jana L

    2006-01-01

    Many new nursing leaders assuming work as deans, assistant deans, or interim deans have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them for the job. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, the authors of this department, both deans, offer survival tips based on their personal experiences and insights. They address common issues, challenges, and opportunities that face academic executive teams, such as negotiating an executive contract, obtaining faculty lines, building effective work teams, managing difficult employees, and creating nimble organizational structure to respond to changing consumer, healthcare delivery, and community needs. The authors welcome counterpoint discussions with readers.

  14. NEW APPROACH TO ADDRESSING GAS GENERATION IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Leduc, D; Askew, N

    2009-06-25

    Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP) document why the transportation of radioactive material is safe in Type A(F) and Type B shipping containers. The content evaluation of certain actinide materials require that the gas generation characteristics be addressed. Most packages used to transport actinides impose extremely restrictive limits on moisture content and oxide stabilization to control or prevent flammable gas generation. These requirements prevent some users from using a shipping container even though the material to be shipped is fully compliant with the remaining content envelope including isotopic distribution. To avoid these restrictions, gas generation issues have to be addressed on a case by case basis rather than a one size fits all approach. In addition, SARP applicants and review groups may not have the knowledge and experience with actinide chemistry and other factors affecting gas generation, which facility experts in actinide material processing have obtained in the last sixty years. This paper will address a proposal to create a Gas Generation Evaluation Committee to evaluate gas generation issues associated with Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging material contents. The committee charter could include reviews of both SARP approved contents and new contents not previously evaluated in a SARP.

  15. Scientific reasons for including persons with disabilities in clinical and translational diabetes research.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shirley M

    2012-03-01

    Despite disparities in health problems and outcomes, people with disabilities are underrepresented in diabetes research. This results in a lack of evidence-based knowledge regarding best approaches in caring for this population. This article addresses the need for research that includes people with disabilities and describes the common reasons persons with disabilities are not included in research, including scientists' concerns regarding threats to a study's internal validity and cost. Arguments are provided as to how involving people with disabilities in research will improve our science and reduce disparities in this population. In addition to the ethical reasons for including persons with disabilities in research, the ability to generalize study findings to this population and thus speed our development and translation of this knowledge for use by clinicians is discussed. The bias in study conclusions that arise from study samples that do not include persons with disabilities and its possible effect on care delivery are presented. Two strategies that researchers can use to increase the inclusion of persons with disabilities in research are described: (1) Universal Design of Research and (2) intervention optimization study designs. Universal Design of Research includes research design processes such as the use of multisensory formats for recruiting participants, approaches to designing and presenting research instruments and interventions, and methods of data collection to promote the inclusion of participants with a wide range of abilities in research studies. Intervention optimization study designs offer an efficient way for scientists to rapidly build the most potent interventions for a wide range of people, including those with disabilities participating in mainstream research.

  16. Use of feedback control to address flight safety issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Subhabrata

    This thesis addresses three control problems related to flight safety. The first problem relates to the scope of improvement in performance of conventional flight control laws. In particular, aircraft longitudinal axis control based on the Total Energy Control System (TECS) is studied. The research draws attention to a potentially sluggish and undesirable aircraft response when the engine dynamics is slow (typically the case). The proposed design method uses a theoretically well-developed modern design method based on Hinfinity optimization to improve the aircraft dynamic behavior in spite of slow engine characteristics. At the same time, the proposed design method achieves other desirable performance goals such as insensitivity to sensor noise and wind gust rejection: all addressed in one unified framework. The second problem is based on a system level analysis of control structure hierarchy for aircraft flight control. The objective of the analysis problem is to translate outer-loop stability and performance specifications into a comprehensive inner-loop metric. The prime motivation is to make the flight control design process more systematic and the system-integration reliable and independent of design methodology. The analysis problem is posed within the robust control analysis framework. Structured singular value techniques and free controller parameterization ideas are used to impose a hierarchical structure for flight control architecture. The third problem involves development and demonstration of a new reconfiguration strategy in the flight control architecture that has the potential of improving flight safety while keeping cost and complexity low. This research proposes a fault tolerant feature based on active robust reconfiguration. The fault tolerant control problem is formulated in the Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) design framework. A prime advantage of this approach is that the synthesis results in a single nonlinear controller (as opposed to a bank

  17. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. Addressing health disparities: Brown University School of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Wetle, Terrie Fox; Scanlan, Karen

    2014-09-02

    Health disparities are a public health concern in Rhode Island and around the world. Faculty members and students in the Brown University School of Public Health are working to understand, address, and ultimately eliminate disparities in health and health care affecting diverse populations. Our educational offerings and research efforts are directed toward understanding and addressing the social, cultural, and environmental factors that contribute to these health disparities. Research methods to carry out this work include implementing interdisciplinary, community-based, quantitative and qualitative research with the goal of preventing, reducing, and eliminating health disparities. This article focuses on some of the School's work with vulnerable communities confronting issues around the following: HIV/AIDS, obesity, nutrition, physical activity and delivery of health services.

  19. Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Willard

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines were last updated in 2006. To update the “Clinical Guide to Prevention Services” section of the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines, we reviewed the recent science with reference to interventions designed to prevent acquisition of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Major interval developments include (1) licensure and uptake of immunization against genital human papillomavirus, (2) validation of male circumcision as a potent prevention tool against acquisition of HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), (3) failure of a promising HIV vaccine candidate to afford protection against HIV acquisition, (4) encouragement about the use of antiretroviral agents as preexposure prophylaxis to reduce risk of HIV and herpes simplex virus acquisition, (5) enhanced emphasis on expedited partner management and rescreening for persons infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (6) recognition that behavioral interventions will be needed to address a new trend of sexually transmitted hepatitis C among men who have sex with men, and (7) the availability of a modified female condom. A range of preventive interventions is needed to reduce the risks of acquiring STI, including HIV infection, among sexually active people, and a flexible approach targeted to specific populations should integrate combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. These would ideally involve an array of prevention contexts, including (1) communications and practices among sexual partners, (2) transactions between individual clients and their healthcare providers, and (3) comprehensive population-level strategies for prioritizing prevention research, ensuring accurate outcome assessment, and formulating health policy. PMID:22080271

  20. Addressing the value of art in cartographic communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, William E.

    Contemporary methods for depicting the earth and its cultural and natural attributes use graphic and non-graphic formats, maps and map-related artefacts, for visualizing geography and building virtual landscapes and environments. The discipline area of cartography, traditionally, has applied art (design), science and technology to map making to design and realise these products. Prior to the mid-1950s, cartographic artefacts were built under the theoretical and practical 'umbrella' of this partnership of art, science and technology. However, since then, the theory and methodology associated with visualizing geography has focused on Science and Technology, and away from Art. This 'move' away from art was accelerated by: (1) computing, computers and complete automated systems; and (2) the 'quest' to gain 'scientific legitimacy' by using scientific visualization as a lodestone for gauging the 'quality' of theories and applications. Science and Technology has been embraced by cartography as a means to ensure that what is presented is scientifically 'correct' — products are considered to 'work' if they are scientifically 'elegant', 'technologically' 'buildable' and 'deliverable' using contemporary communication systems. But, it is argued, science or technology, need not always take on primary roles, and there now is a need to address the role that design should take to facilitate the further development of contemporary cartography, especially in the areas where new media has been applied to facilitate the building of geographical visualization tools. This paper will address how, by incorporating art elements into the design criteria of geographical visualization artefacts, 'different' visualization tools might be provided using all three elements of cartography: art, science and technology.

  1. Addressing the needs of traumatic brain injury with clinical proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurotrauma or injuries to the central nervous system (CNS) are a serious public health problem worldwide. Approximately 75% of all traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are concussions or other mild TBI (mTBI) forms. Evaluation of concussion injury today is limited to an assessment of behavioral symptoms, often with delay and subject to motivation. Hence, there is an urgent need for an accurate chemical measure in biofluids to serve as a diagnostic tool for invisible brain wounds, to monitor severe patient trajectories, and to predict survival chances. Although a number of neurotrauma marker candidates have been reported, the broad spectrum of TBI limits the significance of small cohort studies. Specificity and sensitivity issues compound the development of a conclusive diagnostic assay, especially for concussion patients. Thus, the neurotrauma field currently has no diagnostic biofluid test in clinical use. Content We discuss the challenges of discovering new and validating identified neurotrauma marker candidates using proteomics-based strategies, including targeting, selection strategies and the application of mass spectrometry (MS) technologies and their potential impact to the neurotrauma field. Summary Many studies use TBI marker candidates based on literature reports, yet progress in genomics and proteomics have started to provide neurotrauma protein profiles. Choosing meaningful marker candidates from such ‘long lists’ is still pending, as only few can be taken through the process of preclinical verification and large scale translational validation. Quantitative mass spectrometry targeting specific molecules rather than random sampling of the whole proteome, e.g., multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), offers an efficient and effective means to multiplex the measurement of several candidates in patient samples, thereby omitting the need for antibodies prior to clinical assay design. Sample preparation challenges specific to TBI are addressed. A

  2. Addressing Fission Product Validation in MCNP Burnup Credit Criticality Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Don; Bowen, Douglas G; Marshall, William BJ J

    2015-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation issued Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) 8, Revision 3 in September 2012. This ISG provides guidance for NRC staff members’ review of burnup credit (BUC) analyses supporting transport and dry storage of pressurized water reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in casks. The ISG includes guidance for addressing validation of criticality (keff) calculations crediting the presence of a limited set of fission products and minor actinides (FP&MAs). Based on previous work documented in NRC Regulatory Guide (NUREG) Contractor Report (CR)-7109, the ISG recommends that NRC staff members accept the use of either 1.5 or 3% of the FP&MA worth—in addition to bias and bias uncertainty resulting from validation of keff calculations for the major actinides in SNF—to conservatively account for the bias and bias uncertainty associated with the specified unvalidated FP&MAs. The ISG recommends (1) use of 1.5% of the FP&MA worth if a modern version of SCALE and its nuclear data are used and (2) 3% of the FP&MA worth for well qualified, industry standard code systems other than SCALE with the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files, Part B (ENDF/B),-V, ENDF/B-VI, or ENDF/B-VII cross sections libraries. The work presented in this paper provides a basis for extending the use of the 1.5% of the FP&MA worth bias to BUC criticality calculations performed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The extended use of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias is shown to be acceptable by comparison of FP&MA worths calculated using SCALE and MCNP with ENDF/B-V, -VI, and -VII–based nuclear data. The comparison supports use of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias when the MCNP code is used for criticality calculations, provided that the cask design is similar to the hypothetical generic BUC-32 cask model and that the credited FP&MA worth is no more than 0.1 Δkeff (ISG-8, Rev. 3, Recommendation 4).

  3. Evaluation of Green Infrastructure Designs Using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    In arid and semi-arid regions, green infrastructure (GI) can address several issues facing urban environments, including augmenting water supply, mitigating flooding, decreasing pollutant loads, and promoting greenness in the built environment. An optimum design captures stormwat...

  4. Green Infrastructure Design Evaluation Using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    In arid and semi-arid regions, green infrastructure (GI) can address several issues facing urban environments, including augmenting water supply, mitigating flooding, decreasing pollutant loads, and promoting greenness in the built environment. An optimum design captures stormwat...

  5. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  6. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  7. Professional Culture and Climate: Addressing Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2016-10-01

    Unconscious bias reflects expectations or stereotypes that influence our judgments of others (regardless of our own group). Everyone has unconscious biases. The end result of unconscious bias can be an accumulation of advantage or disadvantage that impacts the long term career success of individuals, depending on which biases they are subject to. In order to foster a professional culture and climate, being aware of these unconscious biases and mitigating against them is a first step. This is particularly important when judgements are needed, such as in cases for recruitment, choice of speakers for conferences, and even reviewing papers submitted for publication. This presentation will cover how unconscious bias manifests itself, what evidence exists to demonstrate it exists, and ways it can be addressed.

  8. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  9. Presidential address, 2001. Advice to young surgeons.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, John K

    2002-04-01

    In his 2001 presidential address to the Canadian Association of General Surgeons, the author offers advice to young surgeons, based on his lifetime experience as a surgical educator, researcher and practitioner. He offers the following samples of wisdom for young surgeons: they should be prepared for a lifetime of learning and be willing and able to adapt to new advances; they should listen to their patients as they describe their presenting complaints and not be tempted to interrupt; they should take time in an emergency situation and remember that split-second decisions can affect the patient for a lifetime; they should be willing to take advice from fellow professionals; they should take time to maintain a quality family life and take adequate time away from the workplace; they should be active be a role model in their community; and, finally, they should get involved and adopt an advocacy role in their profession.

  10. Presidential address, 2001. Advice to young surgeons

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, John K.

    2002-01-01

    In his 2001 presidential address to the Canadian Association of General Surgeons, the author offers advice to young surgeons, based on his lifetime experience as a surgical educator, researcher and practitioner. He offers the following samples of wisdom for young surgeons: they should be prepared for a lifetime of learning and be willing and able to adapt to new advances; they should listen to their patients as they describe their presenting complaints and not be tempted to interrupt; they should take time in an emergency situation and remember that split-second decisions can affect the patient for a lifetime; they should be willing to take advice from fellow professionals; they should take time to maintain a quality family life and take adequate time away from the workplace; they should be active be a role model in their community; and, finally, they should get involved and adopt an advocacy role in their profession. PMID:11939654

  11. Include heuristics in protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kobyakov, A.I. )

    1993-02-01

    Automatic systems based on interlock principles are the most popular method of protecting plants from hazards. Nevertheless, such systems have specific shortcomings. The major one comes from the fact that protection controls are activated at the stage of break down mode development, and not at the moments of pre-fault status origin. It is possible to design protection controls that account for information relating to pre-fault status, causes, locations, and potential danger severity. A method of recreating automatic protection systems (APS) with functioning and structural organization is based on the accepted strategy of potentially hazardous plant protection. APS features these basic functions: pre-fault status classification and diagnostic providing protection controls that depend on pre-fault status type and cause, and suppression process analysis and protection controls correction. The system functions as a parallel/series process. Pre-fault status location data with related classification and diagnostics are based on current startup information. A protection control vector is formed that guarantees pre-fault status suppression. This paper describes these features.

  12. SkBQ - prooxidant addressed to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Vyssokikh, M Y; Chernyak, B V; Domnina, L V; Esipov, D S; Ivanova, O Y; Korshunova, G A; Symonyan, R A; Skulachev, M V; Zinevich, T V; Skulachev, V P

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the key links in the chain of development of pathologies associated with the violation of cellular energy metabolism. Development of mitochondria-addressed compounds highly specific for chemical processes is one of the most promising ways to develop approaches to the treatment of inherited and age-related diseases with mitochondrial etiology. Correlation of structure and chemical activity of the test compounds from a class of lipophilic cations revealed the key role of substituents in the aromatic ring of 1,4-benzoquinones in the manifestation of high antioxidant properties. In this work, it is shown that a synthesized benzoquinone derivative conjugated in position 6 with membrane-penetrating cation of decyltriphenylphosphonium and with substituents at position 2, 3, and 5 (SkBQ) has much lower antioxidant and significantly higher prooxidant activity in comparison with similar derivatives of plasto- and toluquinone SkQ1 and SkQT1 in experiments on isolated mitochondria. At the same time, SkBQ, like SkQ1 and SkQT1, can be reduced by the respiratory chain in the center i of complex III and decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. In cell cultures of human fibroblasts, it was revealed that SkBQ does not protect cells from apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide. Under the same conditions, SkQ1 and SkQT1 exhibit a powerful protective effect. Thus, SkBQ can be seen as a mitochondria-addressed prooxidant. The possibility of using SkBQ as an anticancer drug for the treatment of cancers such as prostate cancer whose cells are sensitive to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is discussed.

  13. Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Karan K.; Bruzewicz, Colin D.; McConnell, Robert; Ram, Rajeev J.; Sage, Jeremy M.; Chiaverini, John

    2016-12-01

    The long coherence times and strong Coulomb interactions afforded by trapped ion qubits have enabled realizations of the necessary primitives for quantum information processing and the highest-fidelity quantum operations in any qubit to date. Although light delivery to each individual ion in a system is essential for general quantum manipulations and readout, experiments so far have employed optical systems that are cumbersome to scale to even a few tens of qubits. Here we demonstrate lithographically defined nanophotonic waveguide devices for light routing and ion addressing that are fully integrated within a surface-electrode ion trap chip. Ion qubits are addressed at multiple locations via focusing grating couplers emitting through openings in the trap electrodes to ions trapped 50 μm above the chip; using this light, we perform quantum coherent operations on the optical qubit transition in individual 88Sr+ ions. The grating focuses the beam to a diffraction-limited spot near the ion position with 2 μm 1/e2 radius along the trap axis, and we measure crosstalk errors between 10-2 and 4 × 10-4 at distances 7.5-15 μm from the beam centre. Owing to the scalability of the planar fabrication technique employed, together with the tight focusing and stable alignment afforded by the integration of the optics within the trap chip, this approach presents a path to creating the optical systems required for large-scale trapped-ion quantum information processing.

  14. Compact Radar Transceiver with Included Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matthew; Rincon, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is an eight-channel phased array radar system that employs solid-state radar transceivers, a microstrip patch antenna, and a reconfigurable waveform generator and processor unit. The original DBSAR transceiver design utilizes connectorized electronic components that tend to be physically large and heavy. To achieve increased functionality in a smaller volume, PCB (printed circuit board) transceivers were designed to replace the large connectorized transceivers. One of the most challenging problems designing the transceivers in a PCB format was achieving proper performance in the calibration path. For a radar loop-back calibration path, a portion of the transmit signal is coupled out of the antenna feed and fed back into the receiver. This is achieved using passive components for stability and repeatability. Some signal also leaks through the receive path. As these two signal paths are correlated via an unpredictable phase, the leakage through the receive path during transmit must be 30 dB below the calibration path. For DBSAR s design, this requirement called for a 100-dB isolation in the receiver path during transmit. A total of 16 solid-state L-band transceivers on a PCB format were designed. The transceivers include frequency conversion stages, T/R switching, and a calibration path capable of measuring the transmit power-receiver gain product during transmit for pulse-by-pulse calibration or matched filtering. In particular, this calibration path achieves 100-dB isolation between the transmitted signal and the low-noise amplifier through the use of a switching network and a section of physical walls achieving attenuation of radiated leakage. The transceivers were designed in microstrip PCBs with lumped elements and individually packaged components for compactness. Each transceiver was designed on a single PCB with a custom enclosure providing interior walls and compartments to isolate transceiver

  15. Addressing the Needs of Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews studies on the plight and needs of homeless students. Includes reports on family mobility and school attendance, dysfunctional families, and school intervention strategies. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  16. Technical Assistance To Tribal Communities Addressing Brownfields

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice announces the availability of funds and solicits proposals from eligible entities (including eligible nonprofit organizations) to provide technical assistance to tribal communities on brownfield related issues.

  17. Addressing biological uncertainties in engineering gene circuits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Carolyn; Tsoi, Ryan; You, Lingchong

    2016-04-18

    Synthetic biology has grown tremendously over the past fifteen years. It represents a new strategy to develop biological understanding and holds great promise for diverse practical applications. Engineering of a gene circuit typically involves computational design of the circuit, selection of circuit components, and test and optimization of circuit functions. A fundamental challenge in this process is the predictable control of circuit function due to multiple layers of biological uncertainties. These uncertainties can arise from different sources. We categorize these uncertainties into incomplete quantification of parts, interactions between heterologous components and the host, or stochastic dynamics of chemical reactions and outline potential design strategies to minimize or exploit them.

  18. Initiatives to Develop Web Sites Including Information about Brownfields Properties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site was created to assist in planning, designing, and operating web sites that include information about individual brownfields properties. The report is of value to parties designing or managing such sites.

  19. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  20. A Role-Functional Model of Design Problem Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    material that was in the design, (3) removing some material from the design, ( 4 ) including new information in the design space, and (5) commenting on...ITechnical Feb 1, 1988 - July 31, 1991 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 6NIV8 MRERSos A Role-Functional Model of Design Problem Solving- PE 6115N PR RR04206...94305-3096 GK- 4 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESSES) 10. SPONSORING/ MONITORING Cognitive Science Program AGENCY REPORT NUMBIR

  1. Addressing Instructional Avoidance with Tier II Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Turtura, Jessica; Parry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a 3-tiered, prevention-oriented framework, Tier II (secondary, targeted) interventions are designed for students whose problem behaviors have not responded to Tier I but are not severe enough to warrant an individualized Tier III intervention. Tier II interventions are implemented similarly across students receiving the intervention and can be…

  2. Addressing Respect in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Principals, teachers, and school support staff perceive an increase in disrespect for the educational system and its representatives (Lickona, 1991). Using a qualitative research design through focus groups this study sought to answer the following question: "What are the similarities and differences between students' and teachers'…

  3. Addressing the Extreme Assumptions of Presumed Linkings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorans, Neil J.; Middleton, Kyndra

    2012-01-01

    The interpretability of score comparisons depends on the design and execution of a sound data collection plan and the establishment of linkings between these scores. When comparisons are made between scores from two or more assessments that are built to different specifications and are administered to different populations under different…

  4. Instructional Designers at Work: A Study of How Designers Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Dennis; Ives, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Instructional design (ID) in its short life has been dominated by behaviourist approaches despite critique focusing on issues of practice as well as theory. Nonetheless, little research has addressed two fundamental questions: "What constitutes good instructional design?" and "How do instructional designers create good design?"…

  5. Dual-Use Partnership Addresses Performance Problems with "Y" Pattern Control Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Dual-Use Cooperative Agreement between the Propulsion Test Directorate (PTD) at Stennis Space Center (SSC) and Oceaneering Reflange, Inc. of Houston, TX has produced an improved 'Y' pattern split-body control valve for use in the propulsion test facilities at Stennis Space Center. The split-body, or clamped bonnet technology, provides for a 'cleaner' valve design featuring enhanced performance and increased flow capacity with extended life expectancy. Other points addressed by the partnership include size, weight and costs. Overall size and weight of each valve will be reduced by 50% compared to valves currently in use at SSC. An initial procurement of two 10 inch valves will result in an overall cost reduction of 15% or approximately $50,000 per valve.

  6. Participatory action research in practice: a case study in addressing domestic violence in nine cultural communities.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Marianne; Bhuyan, Rupaleem; Senturia, Kirsten; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne; Ciske, Sandy

    2005-08-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly recognized as a viable approach to developing relationships with communities and working closely with them to address complex public health problems. In the case of domestic violence research, where ensuring the safety of women participants who are battered is paramount, participatory approaches to research that include advocates and women who are battered in research design, implementation, analysis, and dissemination are critical to successful and mutually beneficial projects. This article presents a case study of a PAR project that conducted formative qualitative research on domestic violence in nine ethnic and sexual minority communities. The article describes the specific ways in which a PAR approach was operationalized and discusses in detail how community participation shaped various stages of the research. Furthermore, specific actions that resulted from the research project are reported.

  7. Student Perceptions of Using Games to Address Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Cara M.

    The purpose of this qualitative evaluative case study was to gain insight into how students perceived the efficacy of using games to address their science literacy concerns. Scientists in the United States are concerned with the lack of science literacy. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires proficiency in reading, mathematics, language arts, and science by the completion of the 2013--2014 school year. The high school participating in this study received substandard test scores on both the 2009 state graduation test and the science portion of the ACT test. The research question included understanding how students perceive the use of games in addressing their science literacy needs. The data from the student journals, field notes, and transcribed class discussions were analyzed using a 6 step method that included coding the data into main themes. The triangulated data were used to both gain insight into student perspective and inform game development. Constructivist theories formed the conceptual framework of the study. The findings of the study suggested that games may prove a valuable tool in science literacy attainment. The study indicated that games were perceived by the students to be effective tools in meeting their learning needs. Implications for positive social change included providing students, educators, and administrators with game resources that can be used to meet the science learning needs of struggling students, thereby improving science scores on high stakes tests.

  8. Monte Carlo modeling of cometary atmospheres including polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Muñoz, O.; Molina, A.

    We present a Monte Carlo model for the transfer of radiation by dust in spherical-shell cometary atmospheres. Our model, which includes the effects of polarization, constitutes an improved version of that by Salo cite{bib31}. The code has been designed to compute both the input radiation on the nucleus surface and the output radiation. This has specific applications regarding the interpretation of near-nucleus photometry, polarimetry, and imaging such as planned for the near future space probes. After showing the appropriate validations of the code with other modeling results, we address here the effect of including the full 4 times 4 scattering matrix into the calculations of the radiative flux impinging on cometary nuclei. As input of the code we use realistic single scattering phase matrices derived by fitting the observed behavior of the linear polarization versus phase angle in cometary atmospheres. The observed single scattering linear polarization phase curves of comets are found to be fairly well represented by a mixture of Mg-rich olivine particles and small carbonaceous particles. The input matrix of the code is thus given by the phase matrix for olivine as obtained in the laboratory cite{bib27} plus a variable scattering fraction phase matrix for absorbing carbonaceous particles. Particularly, these fractions are found to be 3.5% for comet Halley and 6% for comet Hale-Bopp, for which the greatest percentage of all the observed comets was found. The total input fluxes computed by ignoring the polarization effects are found to show differences as large as 10% with respect to the fluxes obtained when the full scattering matrix is included in the calculations.

  9. STS-85 Cmdr Brown addresses media during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-85 Commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr., addresses the news media at a briefing at Launch Pad 39A during a break in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities for that mission. The primary payload aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery is the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-2 (CRISTA-SPAS-2). Other payloads on the 11-day mission include the Manipulator Flight Demonstration (MFD), and Technology Applications and Science-1 (TAS-1) and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker-2 (IEH-2) experiments.

  10. Addressing Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Mining Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Mining companies deal with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) issues on their sites in two ways, avoidance and management. Avoidance simply means that to the extent practical, new mines are located in areas where NOA is unlikely to occur. Where mines are located in areas where NOA may be present, mines implement management procedures to identify and control potential sources of NOA. Management practices may include procedures set forth in regulations such as California's Air Toxicity Control Measure that deals with surface mining, voluntary procedures, or a combination of both. The mining industry generally recognizes that addressing NOA issues is a cost of doing business.;

  11. Including lifestyle medicine in undergraduate medical curricula

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Edward; Pojednic, Rachele; Polak, Rani; Bush, Jennifer; Trilk, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Currently, there is no model to integrate the discipline of lifestyle medicine (LM) into undergraduate medical education. Furthermore, there are no guidelines, validated assessment tools, or evaluation or implementation plans in place. Background The World Health Organization predicts that by 2020, two-thirds of disease worldwide will be the result of poor lifestyle choices. Fewer than 50% of US primary care physicians routinely provide specific guidance on nutrition, physical activity, or weight control. Methods We are establishing a plan to integrate LM into medical school education in collaboration with the investing stakeholders, including medical school deans and students, medical curriculum developers and researchers, medical societies, governing bodies, and policy institutes. Three planning and strategy meetings are being held to address key areas of focus – with a particular interest in nutrition, physical activity, student self-care, and behavior change – to develop specific implementation guidelines and landmarks. Results After the first two meetings, the proposed areas of focus were determined to be: 1) supporting of deans and key personnel, 2) creation of federal and state policy commitments, 3) use of assessment as a driver of LM, 4) provision of high-quality evidence-based curricular material on an easily navigated site, and 5) engaging student interest. Implementation strategies for each focus area will be addressed in an upcoming planning meeting in early 2015. Conclusion This initiative is expected to have important public health implications by efficiently promoting the prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic disease with a scalable and sustainable model to educate physicians in training and practice. PMID:25652118

  12. Online Course Designs: Are Special Needs Being Met?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Christy G.; Horney, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the intersections between online education and special education in terms of instructional design. The relevant elements of online instructional design, which require particular attention when teaching students with special needs, are examined. The overall finding is that contemporary courses generally include design…

  13. Starting Over: Current Issues in Online Catalog User Interface Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of online catalogs focuses on issues in interface design. Issues addressed include understanding the user base; common user access (CUA) with personal computers; common command language (CCL); hyperlinks; screen design issues; differences from card catalogs; indexes; graphic user interfaces (GUIs); color; online help; and remote users.…

  14. Instructional Design Issues for Current and Future Interactive Video Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, James A.; Bentley, Joanne; Christiansen, Todd P.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses some of the issues that instructional designers will face in the near future and ways to deal with new instructional affordances and constraint, including: Menu and Audio, Video, Subpicture Interleaved, Streamlining Digital Media (MAVSI-SDM); three-dimensional flowcharting; designing multi-faceted storyboards and scripts; managing video,…

  15. Utilizing Project Management Techniques in the Design of Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of instructional design in large organizations highlights a project management approach. Topics addressed include the role of the instructional designer; project team selection; role of the team members; role of the project manager; focusing on what employees need to know; types of project teams; and monitoring time and responsibility.…

  16. Designing a Computerized Instructional Training Room for the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Donna M; Vander Meer, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    Addresses issues in designing or enhancing a computerized training room for teaching end-users how to search online databases. These include environmental aesthetics and practical considerations such as lighting, sound, wiring, furniture, and equipment and software selection. How to design the room to suit multiple purposes and to accommodate…

  17. Federal Collaborations Addressing Climate Change and Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA works with other Federal Agencies to act on Climate Change. Together, these agencies can command action and coordinate efforts to help our nation adapt to climate change impacts. Collaborative works include executive initiatives and other partnerships.

  18. HVDC control developments - addressing system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Patel, H.S.; Piwko, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This article describes typical high voltage direct current (HVDC) control systems and some of the new developments in the control area. HVDC control systems are showing their flexible characteristics as demonstrated, for example, by the new modulation, torsional damping, and alternating current voltage and reactive power controllers. Extensive studies are conducted to design and integrate such controllers into HVDC systems and to assure against any detrimental interactions within the total control system. 8 figures.

  19. Addressing Security Challenges in Pervasive Computing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-10

    the Dengue Decision Support System that has been developed at Colorado State University. Further, to accommodate the dynamic nature of pervasive...Expressiveness of Events using Parameter Con- texts", Proceedings of the 12th East European Conferences on Advances in Databases and Information Systems...Anura Jayasumana and Indrajit Ray, " Key Pre-distribution Based Secure Backbone Design for Wireless Sensor Networks", Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE

  20. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-10-06

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis.

  1. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis. PMID:25121647

  2. Presidential address. Fatti Maschii Parole Femine.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G P

    1984-03-15

    The current role of the Society of Surgical Oncology has demonstrated leadership in the field of surgical oncology in both word and deed, as exemplified by the motto of the State of Maryland, adopted from the 1632 family seal of Lord Baltimore, "Fatti Maschii Parole Femine." The current emphasis on the need for clinical research on human cancers, and the education of surgeons in all aspects of various cancers is well founded in the writings and the addresses of Dr. James Ewing, the Society's founder. Our goals as a society for the next decade have been precisely defined and, as in all important national programs, made current and interfaced with corresponding priorities of the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute. The Society, in three project areas, is: (1) assessing current progress in surgical oncology, as well as future manpower needs; (2) studying on a comprehensive basis the surgical practices in cancer patient management; and (3) surveying academic centers concerning the nature of current education and training of academic surgeons in clinical research. The Training Committee currently reviews and recognizes 2-year postresidency multidisciplinary training at several institutions, and the James Ewing Foundation has expanded its fiscal support of educational activities. This annual meeting marks an historic first signified by the conjoint sessions being held with other international surgical oncology societies.

  3. Re-Designing Business Card Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways to turn information from a business card into an advertisement to be placed in a student publication. Addresses visual interest, typography, and other design issues. Includes several sample advertisements and a classroom activity involving redesigning a business card into an advertisement. (RS)

  4. Educational Design Research: Signs of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" includes an introductory article by the guest editors and six papers that illustrate the potential of educational design research (EDR) to address important problems in higher education. In this final paper, reflections on the papers are made. Then the rationale…

  5. State of the Union Address, 1997. Remarks by the President in State of the Union Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the text of President Clinton's State of the Union Address, delivered on February 4, 1997. The President issues a call to action to work together to prepare America for the twenty-first century. The United States must attend to the unfinished business of balancing the budget, enacting bipartisan campaign-finance reform, and…

  6. Partnerships to address obesity disparities in Hawai'i: the PILI 'Ohana Project.

    PubMed

    Nacapoy, Andrea H; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; West, Margaret R; Dillard, Adrienne Y; Leake, Anne; Kekauoha, B Puni; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Siu, Andrea; Mosier, Sean W; Marjorie, K Mau

    2008-09-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach to scientific research that is gaining broader application to address persistent problems in health care disparities and other hypothesis-driven research. However, information on how to form CBPR community-academic partnerships and how to best involve community partners in scientific research is not well-defined. The purpose of this paper is to share the experience of the Partnership for Improving Lifestyle Interventions (PILl) 'Ohana Project in forming a co-equal CBPR community-academic partnership that involved 5 different community partners in a scientific research study to address obesity disparities in Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Peoples (i.e., Samoans, Chuukese, and Filipinos). Specifically, the paper discusses (1) the formation of our community-academic partnership including identification of the research topic; (2) the development of the CBPR infrastructure to foster a sustainable co-equal research environment; and (3) the collaboration in designing a community-based and community-led intervention. The paper concludes with a brief summary of the authors' thoughts about CBPR partnerships from both the academic and community perspectives.

  7. A Nominal Balloon Instrument Payload to Address Questions from the Planetary Decadal Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot; Kremic, Tibor; Dankanich, John

    The Planetary Science Decadal Survey (entitled "Visions and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013 - 2022", available online at https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/2013decadal/) serves as a roadmap for activities to be pursued by the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This document outlines roughly 200 key research areas and questions in chapters covering different parts of the solar system (e.g., Mars, Small Bodies, etc.). We have reviewed the Decadal Survey to assess whether any of the key questions can be addressed by high altitude balloon-borne payloads. Although some questions can only be answered by in situ experiments, we found that approximately one quarter of the key questions were well suited to balloon payloads. In many of those cases, balloons were competitive or superior to other existing facilities, including HST, SOFIA or Keck telescopes. We will present specific telescope and instrument bench designs that are capable of addressing key questions in the Decadal Survey. The instrument bench takes advantage of two of the main benefits of high-altitude observations: diffraction-limited imaging in visible and UV wavelengths and unobstructed spectroscopy in near-IR (1 - 5 microns) wavelengths. Our optical prescription produces diffraction-limited PSFs in both visible and IR beams. We will discuss pointing and thermal stability, two of the main challenges facing a balloon-borne telescope.

  8. Improved selectivity from a wavelength addressable device for wireless stimulation of neural tissue

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Elif Ç.; Freedman, David S.; Gökkavas, Mutlu; Özbay, Ekmel; Sahin, Mesut; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2014-01-01

    Electrical neural stimulation with micro electrodes is a promising technique for restoring lost functions in the central nervous system as a result of injury or disease. One of the problems related to current neural stimulators is the tissue response due to the connecting wires and the presence of a rigid electrode inside soft neural tissue. We have developed a novel, optically activated, microscale photovoltaic neurostimulator based on a custom layered compound semiconductor heterostructure that is both wireless and has a comparatively small volume (<0.01 mm3). Optical activation provides a wireless means of energy transfer to the neurostimulator, eliminating wires and the associated complications. This neurostimulator was shown to evoke action potentials and a functional motor response in the rat spinal cord. In this work, we extend our design to include wavelength selectivity and thus allowing independent activation of devices. As a proof of concept, we fabricated two different microscale devices with different spectral responsivities in the near-infrared region. We assessed the improved addressability of individual devices via wavelength selectivity as compared to spatial selectivity alone through on-bench optical measurements of the devices in combination with an in vivo light intensity profile in the rat cortex obtained in a previous study. We show that wavelength selectivity improves the individual addressability of the floating stimulators, thus increasing the number of devices that can be implanted in close proximity to each other. PMID:24600390

  9. Scientifically defensible fish conservation and recovery plans: Addressing diffuse threats and developing rigorous adaptive management plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maas-Hebner, Kathleen G.; Schreck, Carl B.; Hughes, Robert M.; Yeakley, Alan; Molina, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the importance of addressing diffuse threats to long-term species and habitat viability in fish conservation and recovery planning. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmonid management plans have typically focused on degraded freshwater habitat, dams, fish passage, harvest rates, and hatchery releases. However, such plans inadequately address threats related to human population and economic growth, intra- and interspecific competition, and changes in climate, ocean, and estuarine conditions. Based on reviews conducted on eight conservation and/or recovery plans, we found that though threats resulting from such changes are difficult to model and/or predict, they are especially important for wide-ranging diadromous species. Adaptive management is also a critical but often inadequately constructed component of those plans. Adaptive management should be designed to respond to evolving knowledge about the fish and their supporting ecosystems; if done properly, it should help improve conservation efforts by decreasing uncertainty regarding known and diffuse threats. We conclude with a general call for environmental managers and planners to reinvigorate the adaptive management process in future management plans, including more explicitly identifying critical uncertainties, implementing monitoring programs to reduce those uncertainties, and explicitly stating what management actions will occur when pre-identified trigger points are reached.

  10. Sensory imbalance as mechanism of orientation disruption in the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella: Elucidation by multivariate geometric designs and response surface models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimental designs developed to address mixtures are ideally suited for many areas of experimental biology including pheromone blend studies because they address the confounding of proportionality and concentration intrinsic to factorial and one-factor-at-a-time designs. Geometric multivariate des...

  11. Addressing Unconscious Bias: Steps toward an Inclusive Scientific Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    In this talk I will outline the nature of unconscious bias, as it operates to exclude or marginalize some participants in the scientific community. I will show how bias results from non-conscious expectations about certain groups of people, including scientists and astronomers. I will outline scientific research in psychology, sociology and economics that has identified the impact these expectations have on interpersonal judgments that are at the heart of assessment of individuals' qualifications. This research helps us understand not only how bias operates within a single instance of evaluation, but how evaluation bias can accumulate over a career if not checked, creating an appearance of confirmation of biased expectations. Some research has focused on how best to interrupt and mitigate unconscious bias, and many institutions--including the University of Michigan--have identified strategic interventions at key points of institutional decision-making (particularly hiring, annual review, and promotion) that can make a difference. The NSF ADVANCE Institutional Transformation program encouraged institutions to draw on the social science literature to create experimental approaches to addressing unconscious bias. I will outline four approaches to intervention that have arisen through the ADVANCE program: (1) systematic education that increases awareness among decisionmakers of how evaluation bias operates; (2) development of practices that mitigate the operation of bias even when it is out of conscious awareness; (3) creation of institutional policies that routinize and sanction these practices; and (4) holding leaders accountable for these implementation of these new practices and policies. Although I will focus on ways to address unconscious bias within scientific institutions (colleges and universities, laboratories and research centers, etc.), I will close by considering how scientific organizations can address unconscious bias and contribute to creating an

  12. USGS Science: Addressing Our Nation's Challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Tania M.

    2009-01-01

    With 6.6 billion people already living on Earth, and that number increasing every day, human influence on our planet is ever more apparent. Changes to the natural world combined with increasing human demands threaten our health and safety, our national security, our economy, and our quality of life. As a planet and a Nation, we face unprecedented challenges: loss of critical and unique ecosystems, the effects of climate change, increasing demand for limited energy and mineral resources, increasing vulnerability to natural hazards, the effects of emerging diseases on wildlife and human health, and growing needs for clean water. The time to respond to these challenges is now, but policymakers and decisionmakers face difficult choices. With competing priorities to balance, and potentially serious - perhaps irreversible - consequences at stake, our leaders need reliable scientific information to guide their decisions. As the Nation's earth and natural science agency, the USGS monitors and conducts scientific research on natural hazards and resources and how these elements and human activities influence our environment. Because the challenges we face are complex, the science needed to better understand and deal with these challenges must reflect the complex interplay among natural and human systems. With world-class expertise in biology, geology, geography, hydrology, geospatial information, and remote sensing, the USGS is uniquely capable of conducting the comprehensive scientific research needed to better understand the interdependent interactions of Earth's systems. Every day, the USGS helps decisionmakers to minimize loss of life and property, manage our natural resources, and protect and enhance our quality of life. This brochure provides examples of the challenges we face and how USGS science helps decisionmakers to address these challenges.

  13. Addressing the Public About Science and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshkin, Murray

    2010-03-01

    Attacks on the integrity of science teaching in our public schools have recently become increasingly threatening. Geology and Darwinian evolution are the primary targets and cosmology is at risk. Up to now, the Supreme Court has excluded teachings based on religion from public schools for constitutional, not scientific, reasons. But now the incumbent Supreme Court seem less committed to strict separation of church and state than were their predecessors, and federal courts are beginning to judge the science itself. In this situation, we need to create a climate of public opinion favorable to the protection of good science by explaining the issues both to students and to others. I have been trying to do that by addressing audiences such as church groups, other community groups, and high school and college classes. I do not seek to convert committed anti-evolutionists. I am trying to inform the reasonable majority who do not really know what science is and does, or what a theory is and how we know when it's right, or why we tell them that all knowledge is provisional but still insist that we are teaching the right science. Many have been advised by their religious teachers that there is no conflict between science and their religious beliefs but do not see how that can be. I try to explain how they are disjoint discussions. I also discuss the likely consequences for our country if we degrade the teaching of science in the public schools. My audiences have generally been receptive. Here I will relate some lessons I have learned from my experience with such talks. Without doubt, the most important lesson is that most Americans have religious beliefs that are important to them and are willing to consider what I say only because they know I respect their beliefs. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. Addressing the Tension Between Strong Perimeter Control an Usability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas H.; Kolano, Paul Z.; Keller, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a strong perimeter control system for a general purpose processing system, with the perimeter control system taking significant steps to address usability issues, thus mitigating the tension between strong perimeter protection and usability. A secure front end enforces two-factor authentication for all interactive access to an enclave that contains a large supercomputer and various associated systems, with each requiring their own authentication. Usability is addressed through a design in which the user has to perform two-factor authentication at the secure front end in order to gain access to the enclave, while an agent transparently performs public key authentication as needed to authenticate to specific systems within the enclave. The paper then describes a proxy system that allows users to transfer files into the enclave under script control, when the user is not present to perform two-factor authentication. This uses a pre-authorization approach based on public key technology, which is still strongly tied to both two-factor authentication and strict control over where files can be transferred on the target system. Finally the paper describes an approach to support network applications and systems such as grids or parallel file transfer protocols that require the use of many ports through the perimeter. The paper describes a least privilege approach that dynamically opens ports on a host-specific, if-authorized, as-needed, just-in-time basis.

  15. Compensated individually addressable array technology for human breast imaging

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, D. Kent

    2003-01-01

    A method of forming broad bandwidth acoustic or microwave beams which encompass array design, array excitation, source signal preprocessing, and received signal postprocessing. This technique uses several different methods to achieve improvement over conventional array systems. These methods are: 1) individually addressable array elements; 2) digital-to-analog converters for the source signals; 3) inverse filtering from source precompensation; and 4) spectral extrapolation to expand the bandwidth of the received signals. The components of the system will be used as follows: 1) The individually addressable array allows scanning around and over an object, such as a human breast, without any moving parts. The elements of the array are broad bandwidth elements and efficient radiators, as well as detectors. 2) Digital-to-analog converters as the source signal generators allow virtually any radiated field to be created in the half-space in front of the array. 3) Preprocessing allows for corrections in the system, most notably in the response of the individual elements and in the ability to increase contrast and resolution of signal propagating through the medium under investigation. 4) Postprocessing allows the received broad bandwidth signals to be expanded in a process similar to analytic continuation. Used together, the system allows for compensation to create beams of any desired shape, control the wave fields generated to correct for medium differences, and improve contract and resolution in and through the medium.

  16. Addressing Underrepresentation: Physics Teaching for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkin, Moses

    2016-01-01

    Every physics teacher wants to give his or her students the opportunity to learn physics well. Despite these intentions, certain groups of students--including women and underrepresented minorities (URMs)--are not taking and not remaining in physics. In many cases, these disturbing trends are more significant in physics than in any other science.…

  17. Diversity Statements: How Faculty Applicants Address Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Karen B.; Trevino, Amira Y.; Lind, Justin R.; Blume, Arthur W.; Baker, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine application materials for assistant professor positions in 3 academic disciplines. Applicants were asked to write a diversity statement describing how they would advance diversity through their research, teaching, and service. The sample included application materials submitted by 191 candidates for…

  18. Digital Citizenship: Addressing Appropriate Technology Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribble, Mike S.; Bailey, Gerald D.; Ross, Tweed W.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the popular press has pointed to increasing evidence of misuse and abuse of emerging technologies in U.S. schools. Some examples include using Web sites to intimidate or threaten students, downloading music illegally from the Internet, plagiarizing information using the Internet, using cellular phones during class time, and playing games…

  19. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  20. Identification and Addressing Reduction-Related Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, Judith; Trakhtenbrot, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Reduction is one of the key techniques used for problem-solving in computer science. In particular, in the theory of computation and complexity (TCC), mapping and polynomial reductions are used for analysis of decidability and computational complexity of problems, including the core concept of NP-completeness. Reduction is a highly abstract…