Science.gov

Sample records for addressed include system

  1. Testing a discrete choice experiment including duration to value health states for large descriptive systems: addressing design and sampling issues.

    PubMed

    Bansback, Nick; Hole, Arne Risa; Mulhern, Brendan; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-08-01

    There is interest in the use of discrete choice experiments that include a duration attribute (DCETTO) to generate health utility values, but questions remain on its feasibility in large health state descriptive systems. This study examines the stability of DCETTO to estimate health utility values from the five-level EQ-5D, an instrument with depicts 3125 different health states. Between January and March 2011, we administered 120 DCETTO tasks based on the five-level EQ-5D to a total of 1799 respondents in the UK (each completed 15 DCETTO tasks on-line). We compared models across different sample sizes and different total numbers of observations. We found the DCETTO coefficients were generally consistent, with high agreement between individual ordinal preferences and aggregate cardinal values. Keeping the DCE design and the total number of observations fixed, subsamples consisting of 10 tasks per respondent with an intermediate sized sample, and 15 tasks with a smaller sample provide similar results in comparison to the whole sample model. In conclusion, we find that the DCETTO is a feasible method for developing values for larger descriptive systems such as EQ-5D-5L, and find evidence supporting important design features for future valuation studies that use the DCETTO.

  2. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  3. Addressing questions about including environmental effects in the DMSO HLA

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) is developing a High Level Architecture (HLA) to support the DOD Modeling and Simulation (M and S) community. Many, if not all, of the simulations involve the environment in some fashion. In some applications, the simulation takes place in an acknowledged environment without any environmental functionality being taken into account. The Joint Training Federation Prototype (JTFp) is one of several prototype efforts that have been created to provide a test of the DMSO HLA. In addition to addressing the applicability of the HLA to a training community, the JTFp is also one of two prototype efforts that is explicitly including environmental effects in their simulation effort. These two prototyping efforts are examining the issues associated with the inclusion of the environment in an HLA federation. In deciding whether or not to include an environmental federation in the JTFp effort, a number of questions have been raised about the environment and the HLA. These questions have raised the issue of incompatibility between the environment and the HLA and also shown that there is something unique about including the environment in simulations. The purpose of this White Paper, which was developed with inputs from the National Air and Space [Warfare] Model Program among others, is to address the various questions that have been posed about including environmental effects in an HLA simulation.

  4. Laser addressed holographic memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.; Wagle, E. M.; Steinmetz, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Holographic recall and storage system uses red-lipid microcrystalline wax as storage medium. When laser beam strikes wax, its energy heats point of incidence enough to pass wax through transition temperature. Holograph image can then be written or erased in softened wax.

  5. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  6. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  7. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  8. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (d) below, each vessel must be equipped with a public address system. (b) On... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  9. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (d) below, each vessel must be equipped with a public address system. (b) On... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  10. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (d) below, each vessel must be equipped with a public address system. (b) On... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  11. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (d) below, each vessel must be equipped with a public address system. (b) On... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  12. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (d) below, each vessel must be equipped with a public address system. (b) On... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  13. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  14. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  15. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  16. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  17. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  18. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... passengers unless it is equipped with a public address system which— (a) Is capable of operation independent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public address system. 121.318 Section 121...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS...

  19. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOEpatents

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-03-06

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  20. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-11-20

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  1. Payment Services for Global Online Systems Including Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seebeck, Bill; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A panel of four conference presenters address issues related to paying for services provided through online systems. Discussion includes the following topics: metering devices; electronic/digital cash; working within existing banking/credit card structures; provision of payment mechanisms in countries without extensive credit card usage; and…

  2. Fuel delivery system including heat exchanger means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel delivery system is presented wherein first and second heat exchanger means are each adapted to provide the transfer of heat between the fuel and a second fluid such as lubricating oil associated with the gas turbine engine. Valve means are included which are operative in a first mode to provide for flow of the second fluid through both first and second heat exchange means and further operative in a second mode for bypassing the second fluid around the second heat exchanger means.

  3. Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Lexi Bambas; Braveman, Paula; Dachs, J. Norberto W.; Delgado, Iris; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Moser, Kath; Rolfe, Liz; Vega, Jeanette; Zarowsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Special studies and isolated initiatives over the past several decades in low-, middle- and high-income countries have consistently shown inequalities in health among socioeconomic groups and by gender, race or ethnicity, geographical area and other measures associated with social advantage. Significant health inequalities linked to social (dis)advantage rather than to inherent biological differences are generally considered unfair or inequitable. Such health inequities are the main object of health development efforts, including global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals, which require monitoring to evaluate progress. However, most national health information systems (HIS) lack key information needed to assess and address health inequities, namely, reliable, longitudinal and representative data linking measures of health with measures of social status or advantage at the individual or small-area level. Without empirical documentation and monitoring of such inequities, as well as country-level capacity to use this information for effective planning and monitoring of progress in response to interventions, movement towards equity is unlikely to occur. This paper reviews core information requirements and potential databases and proposes short-term and longer term strategies for strengthening the capabilities of HIS for the analysis of health equity and discusses HIS-related entry points for supporting a culture of equity-oriented decision-making and policy development. PMID:16184279

  4. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  5. Selective Attention in Multi-Chip Address-Event Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    Selective attention is the strategy used by biological systems to cope with the inherent limits in their available computational resources, in order to efficiently process sensory information. The same strategy can be used in artificial systems that have to process vast amounts of sensory data with limited resources. In this paper we present a neuromorphic VLSI device, the “Selective Attention Chip” (SAC), which can be used to implement these models in multi-chip address-event systems. We also describe a real-time sensory-motor system, which integrates the SAC with a dynamic vision sensor and a robotic actuator. We present experimental results from each component in the system, and demonstrate how the complete system implements a real-time stimulus-driven selective attention model. PMID:22346689

  6. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  7. Electrochemical system including lamella settler crystallizer

    DOEpatents

    Maimoni, Arturo

    1988-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as will as in other elecrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  8. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.

    PubMed

    Finegood, Diane T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems.

  9. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  10. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-10-08

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  11. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  12. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  13. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  14. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  15. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  16. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Although potential sources of aggregate are widespread throughout the United States, many sources may not meet certain physical property requirements, such as soundness, hardness, strength, porosity, and specific gravity, or they may contain contaminants or deleterious materials that render them unusable. Encroachment by conflicting land uses, permitting considerations, environmental issues, and societal pressures can prevent or limit development of otherwise suitable aggregate. The use of sustainable aggregate resource management can help ensure an economically viable supply of aggregate. Sustainable aggregate resource management techniques that have successfully been used include (1) protecting potential resources from encroachment; (2) using marginal-quality local aggregate for applications that do not demand a high-quality resource; (3) using substitute materials such as clinker, scoria, and recycled asphalt and concrete; and (4) using rail and water to transport aggregates from remote sources.

  17. Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then

  18. Hybrid powertrain system including smooth shifting automated transmission

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Nellums, Richard A.

    2006-10-24

    A powertrain system is provided that includes a prime mover and a change-gear transmission having an input, at least two gear ratios, and an output. The powertrain system also includes a power shunt configured to route power applied to the transmission by one of the input and the output to the other one of the input and the output. A transmission system and a method for facilitating shifting of a transmission system are also provided.

  19. CONTROL ROOM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROLS, INCLUDING MANUAL CONTROL BOXES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL ROOM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROLS, INCLUDING MANUAL CONTROL BOXES FOR THE VENTILATION SYSTEM AND A PLC SWITCH FOR AUTOMATIC CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) SYSTEM. THE AIR TESTING SYSTEM IS FREE STANDING AND THE FANS ARE COMPUTER-OPERATED. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  20. Developing Cohesive Leadership Means Addressing All Parts of the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Troyce

    2010-01-01

    In her role with the School Administrators of Iowa leading Iowa's leadership grant from The Wallace Foundation, the author works with a coalition of individuals and groups striving to implement a cohesive leadership system for school leaders. Efforts to create a cohesive leadership system in Iowa for the past nine years have resulted in many…

  1. The Future of Systems Aeronomy in Addressing New Science Frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Paxton, L. J.; Ridley, A.

    2005-12-01

    The future will see a new era in our ability to characterize the state of the sun-Earth system using the SEC Great Observatory, new electronic data handling and data mining technologies, high-performance sun-to-Earth models, new techniques for assimilation of sparse data, and the development of innovative worldwide research tools through integration of ground-based observing sites. The time has come to pull these developing capabilities together into an investigation that seeks to understand aeronomy at a higher level than has previously been possible. Systems Aeronomy is a study of this global system behavior but, more than that, it investigates the large-scale systems-level features that result from elemental processes, like ion-neutral coupling, plasma drifts or radiative cooling. Currently the TIMED mission is making important contributions in identifying and characterizing the "building block" processes that change, evolve and combine to form the system response. Systems Aeronomy must have observational, theoretical and computational components to succeed. One of the key requirements is the ability to capture global data sets and integrate them into a coherent picture of the ITM system and its relationship to geospace. Success requires enhanced coordination between operating satellites throughout the sun-Earth system, new techniques for creating global maps from networks of ground-based and satellite-based sensors, and a new level of international cooperation leveraging off IPY2007, IHY2007, eGY2007, CAWSES, ICESTAR, and other planned worldwide programs. Twenty years down the road, Systems Aeronomy will provide the foundation for understanding planetary atmospheres, significantly extend the range of useful space weather prediction, and provide an important approach for investigating the impacts of anthropogenic and climatological changes in the ITM and on the geospace system as a whole.

  2. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

  3. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  4. Law and Legal Systems: The Family Connection. 1981 Burgess Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Marvin B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the concept of law, presenting philosophical bases and historic antecedents. Reviews research studies which illustrate the connections of law to family structure as well as different family and legal issues, including inheritance, marriage contracts and common law, visitation rights, filial responsibility, and child support enforcement.…

  5. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  6. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of, and predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The IMBER community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  7. Workshop Builds Strategies to Address Global Positioning System Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Genene

    2011-01-01

    When we examine the impacts of space weather on society, do we really understand the risks? Can past experiences reliably predict what will happen in the future? As the complexity of technology increases, there is the potential for it to become more fragile, allowing for a single point of failure to bring down the entire system. Take the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an example. GPS positioning, navigation, and timing have become an integral part of daily life, supporting transportation and communications systems vital to the aviation, merchant marine, cargo, cellular phone, surveying, and oil exploration industries. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Understanding the risks of space weather to GPS and the many economic sectors reliant upon it, as well as how to build resilience, was the focus of a policy workshop organized by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and held on 13-14 October 2010 in Washington, D. C. The workshop brought together a select group of policy makers, space weather scientists, and GPS experts and users.

  8. Integrated wireless systems: The future has arrived (Keynote Address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoir, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    It is believed that we are just at the beginning with wireless, and that a new age is dawning for this breakthrough technology. Thanks to several years of industrial manufacturing in mass-market applications such as cellular phones, wireless technology has nowadays reached a level of maturity that, combined with other achievements arising from different fields, such as information technology, artificial intelligence, pervasive computing, science of new materials, and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), will enable the realization of a networked stream-flow of real-time information, that will accompany us in our daily life, in a total seamless, transparent fashion. As almost any application scenario will require the deployment of complex, miniaturized, almost "invisible" systems, operating with different wireless standards, hard technological challenges will have to be faced for designing and fabricating ultra-low-cost, reconfigurable, and multi-mode heterogeneous smart micro-devices. But ongoing, unending progresses on wireless technology keeps the promise of helping to solve important societal problems in the health-care, safety, security, industry, environment sectors, and in general opening the possibility for an improved quality of life at work, on travel, at home, practically "everywhere, anytime".

  9. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Plasmatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster. whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  10. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  11. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    These combined quarterly reports summarize the activities from November 1977 through September 1978, and over the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  12. DISC BRAKE SYSTEM (CENTER), INCLUDING BELT DRIVE TO SECONDARY GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISC BRAKE SYSTEM (CENTER), INCLUDING BELT DRIVE TO SECONDARY GENERAL MOTORS ENGINE (LEFT)AND FERREL REDUCTION GEAR CONNECTION TO ALLIS-CHALMERS DIESEL ENGINE (RIGHT), LOOKING NORTH. NOTE TORQUE CONVERTER (TOP) AND THROTTLE (BELOW) LINES CONNECTING TO PRIMARY ENGINE. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  13. Nuclear decontamination technology evaluation to address contamination of a municipal water system

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.; Langsted, J.; Young, M.; Porcon, J.; Day, E.

    2007-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are considering the impact and recovery from contamination of municipal water systems, including intentional contamination of those systems. Industrial chemicals, biological agents, drugs, pesticides, chemical warfare agents, and radionuclides all could be introduced into a municipal water system to create detrimental health effects and disrupt a community. Although unintentional, the 1993 cryptosporidium contamination of the Milwaukee WS water system resulted in 100 fatalities and disrupted the city for weeks. Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Inc, (Shaw), as a subcontractor on a DHS contract with Michael Baker Jr., Inc., was responsible for evaluation of the impact and recovery from radionuclide contamination in a municipal water system distribution system. Shaw was tasked to develop a matrix of nuclear industry decontamination technologies and evaluate applicability to municipal water systems. Shaw expanded the evaluation to include decontamination methods commonly used in the drinking water supply. The matrix compared all technologies for implementability, effectiveness, and cost. To address the very broad range of contaminants and contamination scenarios, Shaw bounded the problem by identification of specific contaminant release scenario(s) for specific water system architecture(s). A decontamination technology matrix was developed containing fifty-nine decontamination technologies potentially applicable to the water distribution system piping, pumps, tanks, associated equipment, and/or contaminated water. Qualitatively, the majority of the nuclear industry decontamination technologies were eliminated from consideration due to implementability concerns. However, inclusion of the municipal water system technologies supported recommendations that combined the most effective approaches in both industries. (authors)

  14. Addressing Neuroplastic Changes in Distributed Areas of the Nervous System Associated With Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, René; Higgins, Johanne; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Present interventions utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation are guided, in large part, by a biomedical model where peripheral structural injury is believed to be the sole driver of the disorder. There are, however, neurophysiological changes across different areas of the peripheral and central nervous systems, including peripheral receptors, dorsal horn of the spinal cord, brain stem, sensorimotor cortical areas, and the mesolimbic and prefrontal areas associated with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and tendon injuries. These neurophysiological changes appear not only to be a consequence of peripheral structural injury but also to play a part in the pathophysiology of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Neurophysiological changes are consistent with a biopsychosocial formulation reflecting the underlying mechanisms associated with sensory and motor findings, psychological traits, and perceptual changes associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. These changes, therefore, have important implications in the clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, and treatment of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation professionals have at their disposal tools to address these neuroplastic changes, including top-down cognitive-based interventions (eg, education, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, motor imagery) and bottom-up physical interventions (eg, motor learning, peripheral sensory stimulation, manual therapy) that induce neuroplastic changes across distributed areas of the nervous system and affect outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Furthermore, novel approaches such as the use of transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be utilized to help renormalize neurological function. Comprehensive treatment addressing peripheral structural injury as well as neurophysiological changes occurring across

  15. Using Systems Approaches to Address Challenges for Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Karnes, Jason H; Van Driest, Sara; Bowton, Erica A; Weeke, Peter E; Mosley, Jonathan D; Peterson, Josh F; Denny, Joshua C

    2014-01-01

    Many genetic variants have been shown to affect drug response through changes in drug efficacy and likelihood of adverse effects. Much of pharmacogenomic science has focused on discovering and clinically implementing single gene variants with large effect sizes. Given the increasing complexities of drug responses and their variability, a systems approach may be enabling for discovery of new biology in this area. Further, systems approaches may be useful in addressing challenges in moving these data to clinical implementation, including creation of predictive models of drug response phenotypes, improved clinical decision-making through complex biological models, improving strategies for integrating genomics into clinical practice, and evaluating the impact of implementation programs on public health. PMID:24319008

  16. A Digitally Addressable Random-Access Image Selector and Random-Access Audio System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitzer, Donald L.; And Others

    The requirements of PLATO IV, a computer based education system at the University of Illinois, have led to the development of an improved, digitally addressable, random access image selector and a digitally addressable, random access audio device. Both devices utilize pneumatically controlled mechanical binary adders to position the mecahnical…

  17. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  18. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  19. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equipped with— (a) A public address system which— (1) Is capable of operation independent of the crewmember... of this chapter. (b) A crewmember interphone system which— (1) Is capable of operation independent of... systems. 135.150 Section 135.150 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  20. Addressing Two-Level Systems Variably Coupled to an Oscillating Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Nir; Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Almog, Ido; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-08-01

    We propose a simple method to spectrally resolve an array of identical two-level systems coupled to an inhomogeneous oscillating field. The addressing protocol uses a dressing field with a spatially dependent coupling to the atoms. We validate this scheme experimentally by realizing single-spin addressing of a linear chain of trapped ions that are separated by ˜3μm, dressed by a laser field that is resonant with the micromotion sideband of a narrow optical transition.

  1. Systems, Stakeholders, and Students: Including Students in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Shelley D.

    2009-01-01

    The education system in the United States is under pressure from a variety of sources to reform and improve the delivery of educational services to students. Change across a system as complex and dynamic as the educational system requires a systemic approach and requires the participation or buy-in of all participants and stakeholders. This…

  2. 78 FR 68861 - Certain Navigation Products, Including GPS Devices, Navigation and Display Systems, Radar Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ..., Navigational Aids, Mapping Systems and Related Software; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C... and display systems, radar systems, navigational aids, mapping systems and related software by reason... products, including GPS devices, navigation and display systems, radar systems, navigational aids,...

  3. A computational procedure for multibody systems including flexible beam dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, J. D.; Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure suitable for the solution of equations of motions for flexible multibody systems has been developed. The flexible beams are modeled using a fully nonlinear theory which accounts for both finite rotations and large deformations. The present formulation incorporates physical measures of conjugate Cauchy stress and covariant strain increments. As a consequence, the beam model can easily be interfaced with real-time strain measurements and feedback control systems. A distinct feature of the present work is the computational preservation of total energy for undamped systems; this is obtained via an objective strain increment/stress update procedure combined with an energy-conserving time integration algorithm which contains an accurate update of angular orientations. The procedure is demonstrated via several example problems.

  4. Top 10 Threats to Computer Systems Include Professors and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    User awareness is growing in importance when it comes to computer security. Not long ago, keeping college networks safe from cyberattackers mainly involved making sure computers around campus had the latest software patches. New computer worms or viruses would pop up, taking advantage of some digital hole in the Windows operating system or in…

  5. Systems approach to address incivility and disruptive behaviors in health-care organizations.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Elizabeth; Kusy, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing evidence that disruptive behaviors within health-care teams constitute a major threat to the quality of care, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO; Joint Commission Resources, 2008) has a new leadership standard that addresses disruptive and inappropriate behaviors effective January 1, 2009. For professionals who work in human resources and organization development, these standards represent a clarion call to design and implement evidence-based interventions to create health-care communities of respectful engagement that have zero tolerance for disruptive, uncivil, and intimidating behaviors by any professional. In this chapter, we will build an evidence-based argument that sustainable change must include organizational, team, and individual strategies across all professionals in the organization. We will then describe an intervention model--Toxic Organization Change System--that has emerged from our own research on toxic behaviors in the workplace (Kusy & Holloway, 2009) and provide examples of specific strategies that we have used to prevent and ameliorate toxic cultures.

  6. A computational procedure for multibody systems including flexible beam dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, J. D.; Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure suitable for the solution of equations of motions for flexible multibody systems has been developed. A fully nonlinear continuum approach capable of accounting for both finite rotations and large deformations has been used to model a flexible beam component. The beam kinematics are referred directly to an inertial reference frame such that the degrees of freedom embody both the rigid and flexible deformation motions. As such, the beam inertia expression is identical to that of rigid body dynamics. The nonlinear coupling between gross body motion and elastic deformation is contained in the internal force expression. Numerical solution procedures for the integration of spatial kinematic systems can be directily applied to the generalized coordinates of both the rigid and flexible components. An accurate computation of the internal force term which is invariant to rigid motions is incorporated into the general solution procedure.

  7. Two stage sorption type cryogenic refrigerator including heat regeneration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Wen, Liang-Chi (Inventor); Bard, Steven (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A lower stage chemisorption refrigeration system physically and functionally coupled to an upper stage physical adsorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Waste heat generated by the lower stage cycle is regenerated to fuel the upper stage cycle thereby greatly improving the energy efficiency of a two-stage sorption refrigerator. The two stages are joined by disposing a first pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a first refrigerant for the lower stage refrigeration cycle within a second pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a second refrigerant for the upper stage refrigeration cycle. The first pressurization chamber is separated from the second pressurization chamber by a gas-gap thermal switch which at times is filled with a thermoconductive fluid to allow conduction of heat from the first pressurization chamber to the second pressurization chamber.

  8. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  9. Near-infrared compressive line sensing imaging system using individually addressable laser diode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Bing; Hou, Weilin; Caimi, Frank M.; Dalgleish, Fraser R.; Vuorenkoski, Anni K.; Gong, Sue; Britton, Walter

    2015-05-01

    The compressive line sensing (CLS) active imaging system was proposed and validated through a series of test-tank experiments. As an energy-efficient alternative to the traditional line-scan serial image, the CLS system will be highly beneficial for long-duration surveillance missions using unmanned, power-constrained platforms such as unmanned aerial or underwater vehicles. In this paper, the application of an active spatial light modulator (SLM), the individually addressable laser diode array, in a CLS imaging system is investigated. In the CLS context, active SLM technology can be advantageous over passive SLMs such as the digital micro-mirror device. Initial experimental results are discussed.

  10. 77 FR 9969 - Clow Water Systems Company Including On-Site Leased Workers From Carol Harris Stafffing Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... on December 29, 2011(76 FR 81988). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Harris Stafffing Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through McWane... Clow Water Systems Company had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI)...

  11. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast (SEUS; AL, AR, GA, FL, KY, LA, NC, SC, TN, E. TX) faces the greatest impacts as a result of climate change of any region in the U.S. which presents considerable and costly adaptation challenges. Paradoxically, people in the SEUS hold attitudes and perceptions that are more dismissive of climate change than those of any other region. An additional mismatch exists between the manner in which climate science is generally communicated and the underlying core values and beliefs held by a large segment of people in the SEUS. As a result, people frequently misinterpret and/or distrust information sources, inhibiting efforts to productively discuss and consider climate change and related impacts on human and environmental systems, and possible solutions and outcomes. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project includes an extensive network of partners throughout the SEUS from faith, agriculture, culturally diverse, leisure, and K-20 educator communities that aim to address this educational need through a shared vision. CLiPSE has conducted a Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in and beyond the CLiPSE network. The descriptive results of the CSS indicate that religion, predominantly Protestantism, plays a minor role in climate knowledge and perceptions. Likewise, political affiliation plays a minimal role in climate knowledge and perceptions between religions. However, when Protestants were broken out by political affiliation, statistically significant differences (t(30)=2.44, p=0.02) in knowledge related to the causes of climate change exist. Those Protestants affiliated with the Democratic Party (n=206) tended to maintain a statistically significant stronger knowledge of the causes of global climate change than their Republican counterparts. When SEUS educator (n=277) group was only considered, similar trends were evidenced, indicating that strongly held beliefs potentially

  12. Continental-Scale Stable Isotope Measurements at NEON to Address Ecological Processes Across Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Goodman, K. J.; Hinckley, E. S.; West, J. B.; Williams, D. G.; Bowen, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform. The overarching goal of NEON is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology (such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, ecohydrology, etc.). NEON focuses explicitly on questions that relate to grand challenges in environmental science, are relevant to large regions, and would otherwise be very difficult to address with traditional ecological approaches. The use of stable isotope approaches in ecological research has grown steadily during the last two decades. Stable isotopes at natural abundances in the environment trace and integrate the interaction between abiotic and biotic components across temporal and spatial scales. In this poster, we will present the NEON data products that incorporate stable isotope measurements in atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems in North America. We further outline current questions in the natural sciences community and how these data products can be used to address continental-scale ecological questions, such as the ecological impacts of climate change, terrestrial-aquatic system linkages, land-atmosphere exchange, landscape ecohydrological processes, and linking biogeochemical cycles across systems. Specifically, we focus on the use of stable isotopes to evaluate water availability and residence times in terrestrial systems, as well as nutrient sources to terrestrial systems, and cycling across ecosystem boundaries.

  13. Rural system addresses social, economic needs. Cooperation, education, and advocacy revitalize a region's healthcare delivery.

    PubMed

    Rheinecker, P

    1992-01-01

    In recent years leaders at Presentation Health System (PHS), Sioux Falls, SD, have expanded their mission to help strengthen local communities economically and socially. PHS now offers support to rural leaders in business, politics, and healthcare through its Center for Rural Health and Economic Development. In addition, educational outreach coordinators have created programs that address the needs of the entire rural community. To establish an effective network of services in the region, two of the system's tertiary care hospitals are collaborating to provide emergency helicopter service. These larger facilities also extend outreach services to rural hospitals and clinics. PHS assists rural hospitals in grant writing and in adapting to changing government reimbursement rules. In addition, the healthcare system coordinates a group purchasing program and a debt collection agency. An important voice for its region's healthcare needs, PHS has worked with the state of South Dakota to address problems and concerns about emergency medical services. The system also publishes Report, a quarterly newsletter that keeps rural residents abreast of healthcare issues affecting them. Two years ago, PHS's Center for Rural Health and Economic Development sponsored its first Invitational Rural Health Leadership Conference. These annual conferences bring together leaders to examine ways to improve rural healthcare delivery by strengthening the social and economic fabric of rural communities. PMID:10119539

  14. Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

  15. Practices Changes in the Child Protection System to Address the Needs of Parents With Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra T.; Maggi, Mirella C.; Proctor, Stephon Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    Parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD) are over-represented in the child protection system. However, the current state of the child protection system is not well prepared for working with them. Biases that exist against their parenting, the need for accommodations in assessment and intervention practices, and specific training in staff and cross systems barriers need to be addressed. This paper argues for changes that will ensure such parents are more effectively served and that child protection staff and contract providers are better equipped to work with them. Specific changes are discussed in assessment and intervention practices. These changes will require human capacity building and organizational restructuring. Although empirically based behavioral approaches with PCD will be emphasized, recent empirical work suggests that social information processing and neurocognitive problems occur in PCD. Approaches to working with such problems are emerging and must also be considered and integrated into a blueprint for change. PMID:27610050

  16. Practices Changes in the Child Protection System to Address the Needs of Parents With Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra T.; Maggi, Mirella C.; Proctor, Stephon Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    Parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD) are over-represented in the child protection system. However, the current state of the child protection system is not well prepared for working with them. Biases that exist against their parenting, the need for accommodations in assessment and intervention practices, and specific training in staff and cross systems barriers need to be addressed. This paper argues for changes that will ensure such parents are more effectively served and that child protection staff and contract providers are better equipped to work with them. Specific changes are discussed in assessment and intervention practices. These changes will require human capacity building and organizational restructuring. Although empirically based behavioral approaches with PCD will be emphasized, recent empirical work suggests that social information processing and neurocognitive problems occur in PCD. Approaches to working with such problems are emerging and must also be considered and integrated into a blueprint for change.

  17. Identification of manganese as a toxicant in a groundwater treatment system: Addressing naturally occurring toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfellow, W. Jr.; Sohn, V.; Richey, M.; Yost, J.

    1995-12-31

    Effluent from a groundwater remediation system at a bulk oil storage and distribution terminal has been chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The remediation system was designed in response to a hydrocarbon plume in the area of the terminal. The remediation system consists of a series of groundwater recovery wells and groundwater intercept trench systems with groundwater treatment and phased-separated hydrocarbon recovery systems. The groundwater treatment and petroleum recovery systems consist of oil/water separators, product recovery tanks, air strippers, filters, and carbon adsorption units. The characteristics of this effluent are low total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and hardness concentrations as well as meeting stringent NPDES permit requirements for lead, copper, zinc, mercury, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX. Additional priority pollutant evaluations revealed no compounds of concern. Performance of a Toxicity identification Evaluation (TIE) indicated that manganese was the principle toxicant in the effluent. Manganese is a naturally occurring constituent in this groundwater source and is not added to the treatment system. This paper will present the results of the TIE with a discussion of treatability/control options for manganese control at this facility. Recommendations for addressing naturally occurring toxicants that are not a result of the facility`s operations will also be presented.

  18. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  19. An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health system stewards should have a good understanding of how health systems operate in order to govern them appropriately. While a number of frameworks for assessing governance in the health sector have been proposed, their application is often hindered by unrealistic indicators or they are overly complex resulting in limited empirical work on governance in health systems. This paper reviews contemporary health sector frameworks which have focused on defining and developing indicators to assess governance in the health sector. Based on these, we propose a simplified approach to look at governance within a common health system framework which encourages stewards to take a systematic perspective when assessing governance. Although systems thinking is not unique to health, examples of its application within health systems has been limited. We also provide an example of how this approach could be applied to illuminate areas of governance weaknesses which are potentially addressable by targeted interventions and policies. This approach is built largely on prior literature, but is original in that it is problem-driven and promotes an outward application taking into consideration the major health system building blocks at various levels in order to ensure a more complete assessment of a governance issue rather than a simple input-output approach. Based on an assessment of contemporary literature we propose a practical approach which we believe will facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of governance in health systems leading to the development of governance interventions to strengthen system performance and improve health as a basic human right. PMID:22136318

  20. Permit compliance system (PCS) facility address and permit information file national listing of major facilities (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Permit Compliance System (PCS) is an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) national computerized management information system that records water-discharge permit data on more than 64,000 wastewater treatment facilities nationwide. This system automates entry, updating, and retrieval of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) data and tracks permit issuance, permit limits, monitoring data, and other data pertaining to facilities regulated under NPDES. The Permit Compliance System (PCS) Facility Address and Permit Information File contains primary mailing address information as well as permit number, facility type, and cognizant official for all active NPDES permitted facilities, general facility and permit events (e.g., issuance and expiration dates, types of ownership code, SIC code, and location including longitude and latitude) for all active NPDES permitted facilities for the most recent year. There are approximately 49,000 industrial facilities and 15,000 municipal facilities regulated by NPDES. This data is updated twice a year. The diskette contains only major facilities which are facilities having a design or actual flow of one million gallons per day or greater, a service population of 10,000 or greater, or a significant impact on water quality, i.e., with a potential for toxic discharge, located close to a drinking water intake, discharging into stressed receiving waters, or requiring advanced treatment. Approximately 7100 permits are issued to major facilities. Municipal and non-municipal facilities not meeting the above requirements are categorized as minor.

  1. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  2. Addressing Impacts of Geomagnetic Disturbances on the North American Bulk Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollison, Eric; Moura, John; Lauby, Mark

    2011-08-01

    In a joint report issued in June 2010, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified geomagnetic disturbances as a high-impact, low-frequency (HILF) event risk to bulk power system reliability. The potential impact of geomagnetic disturbance events has gained renewed attention as recent studies have suggested that solar storms may be more severe and reach lower geographic latitudes than formerly expected and can affect bulk power system reliability. The most well known power system experience with geomagnetic disturbances in North America was the 13-14 March 1989 storm, which led to the collapse of the Hydro-Québec system in the early morning hours of 13 March 1989, lasting approximately 9 hours. NERC is actively addressing a range of HILF event risks to bulk power system reliability through the efforts of four of its task forces: Geomagnetic Disturbance, Spare Equipment Database, Cyber and Physical Attack, and Severe Impact Resilience. These task forces operate under the direction of three NERC committees: Planning, Operating, and Critical Infrastructure Protection. The NERC Geomagnetic Disturbance Task Force (GMDTF), which was established in September 2010, is charged with investigating the implications of geomagnetic disturbances to the reliability of bulk power systems and developing solutions to help mitigate these risks. The objective of these efforts is to develop models to better understand the nature and effects of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the vulnerabilities of equipment, bulk power system design considerations, our ability to reduce the operational and real-time impacts of geomagnetic disturbances on the bulk power system, and restoration methods, as well as to inventory long-lead-time equipment. For more information on the current activities of the GMDTF, please visit: www.nerc.com/filez/gmdtf.html

  3. Effective target binarization method for linear timed address-event vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiangtao; Zou, Jiawei; Yan, Shi; Gao, Zhiyuan

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an effective target binarization method for a linear timed address-event (TAE) vision system. In the preprocessing phase, TAE data are processed by denoising, thinning, and edge connection methods sequentially to obtain the denoised- and clear-event contours. Then, the object region will be confirmed by an event-pair matching method. Finally, the image open and close operations of morphology methods are introduced to remove the artifacts generated by event-pair mismatching. Several degraded images were processed by our method and some traditional binarization methods, and the experimental results are provided. As compared with other methods, the proposed method performs efficiently on extracting the target region and gets satisfactory binarization results from object images with low-contrast and nonuniform illumination.

  4. Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

  5. Identifying and Addressing Stakeholder Interests in Design Science Research: An Analysis Using Critical Systems Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venable, John R.

    This paper utilises the Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) framework developed by Werner Ulrich to critically consider the stakeholders and design goals that should be considered as relevant by researchers conducing Design Science Research (DSR). CSH provides a philosophically and theoretically grounded framework and means for critical consideration of the choices of stakeholders considered to be relevant to any system under design consideration. The paper recommends that legitimately undertaken DSR should include witnesses to represent the interests of the future consumers of the outcomes of DSR, i.e., the future clients, decision makers, professionals, and other non-included stakeholders in the future use of the solution technologies to be invented in DSR. The paper further discusses options for how witnesses might be included, who should be witnessed for and obstacles to implementing the recommendations.

  6. Mounting Systems for Structural Members, Fastening Assemblies Thereof, and Vibration Isolation Systems Including the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Mounting systems for structural members, fastening assemblies thereof, and vibration isolation systems including the same are provided. Mounting systems comprise a pair of mounting brackets, each clamped against a fastening assembly forming a mounting assembly. Fastening assemblies comprise a spherical rod end comprising a spherical member having a through opening and an integrally threaded shaft, first and second seating members on opposite sides of the spherical member and each having a through opening that is substantially coaxial with the spherical member through opening, and a partially threaded fastener that threadably engages each mounting bracket forming the mounting assembly. Structural members have axial end portions, each releasably coupled to a mounting bracket by the integrally threaded shaft. Axial end portions are threaded in opposite directions for permitting structural member rotation to adjust a length thereof to a substantially zero strain position. Structural members may be vibration isolator struts in vibration isolation systems.

  7. Equations of motion of slung-load systems, including multilift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, Luigi S.; Kanning, Gerd

    1992-01-01

    General simulation equations are derived for the rigid body motion of slung-load systems. This work is motivated by an interest in trajectory control for slung loads carried by two or more helicopters. An approximation of these systems consists of several rigid bodies connected by straight-line cables or links. The suspension can be assumed elastic or inelastic. Equations for the general system are obtained from the Newton-Euler rigid-body equations with the introduction of generalized velocity coordinates. Three forms are obtained: two generalize previous case-specific results for single-helicopter systems with elastic and inelastic suspensions, respectively; and the third is a new formulation for inelastic suspensions. The latter is derived from the elastic suspension equations by choosing the generalized coordinates so that motion induced by cable stretching is separated from motion with invariant cable lengths, and by then nulling the stretching coordinates to get a relation for the suspension forces. The result is computationally more efficient than the conventional formulation, is readily integrated with the elastic suspension formulation, and is easily applied to the complex dual-lift and multilift systems. Results are given for two-helicopter systems; three configurations are included and these can be integrated in a single simulation. Equations are also given for some single-helicopter systems, for comparison with the previous literature, and for a multilift system. Equations for degenerate-body approximations (point masses, rigid rods) are also formulated and results are given for dual-lift and multilift systems. Finally, linearlized equations of motion are given for general slung-load systems are presented along with results for the two-helicopter system with a spreader bar.

  8. Combinatorial evaluation of systems including decomposition of a system representation into fundamental cycles

    DOEpatents

    Oliveira, Joseph S.; Jones-Oliveira, Janet B.; Bailey, Colin G.; Gull, Dean W.

    2008-07-01

    One embodiment of the present invention includes a computer operable to represent a physical system with a graphical data structure corresponding to a matroid. The graphical data structure corresponds to a number of vertices and a number of edges that each correspond to two of the vertices. The computer is further operable to define a closed pathway arrangement with the graphical data structure and identify each different one of a number of fundamental cycles by evaluating a different respective one of the edges with a spanning tree representation. The fundamental cycles each include three or more of the vertices.

  9. Addressing fundamental architectural challenges of an activity-based intelligence and advanced analytics (ABIAA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Kevin; Albert, Thomas; Brower, Bernard V.; Pellechia, Matthew F.

    2015-06-01

    The domain of Geospatial Intelligence Analysis is rapidly shifting toward a new paradigm of Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) and information-based Tipping and Cueing. General requirements for an advanced ABIAA system present significant challenges in architectural design, computing resources, data volumes, workflow efficiency, data mining and analysis algorithms, and database structures. These sophisticated ABI software systems must include advanced algorithms that automatically flag activities of interest in less time and within larger data volumes than can be processed by human analysts. In doing this, they must also maintain the geospatial accuracy necessary for cross-correlation of multi-intelligence data sources. Historically, serial architectural workflows have been employed in ABIAA system design for tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination. These simpler architectures may produce implementations that solve short term requirements; however, they have serious limitations that preclude them from being used effectively in an automated ABIAA system with multiple data sources. This paper discusses modern ABIAA architectural considerations providing an overview of an advanced ABIAA system and comparisons to legacy systems. It concludes with a recommended strategy and incremental approach to the research, development, and construction of a fully automated ABIAA system.

  10. Examining How Web Designers' Activity Systems Address Accessibility: Activity Theory as a Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    While accessibility of information technologies is often acknowledged as important, it is frequently not well addressed in practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the work of web developers and content managers to explore why and how accessibility is or is not addressed as an objective as websites are planned, built and maintained.…

  11. A content addressable memory for use in CEBAF's CLAS detector level 2 triggering system

    SciTech Connect

    R.F. Hodson; D.C. Doughty, Jr.; D.C. Allgood; S.A. Campbell; W.C. Wilson; M.H. Bickley

    1996-06-01

    A collaboration of researchers from CEBAF, CNU and NASA is designing a 256-32 specialized Content Addressable Memory (CAM) for the level 2 triggering system in CEBAF's CLAS detector. These integrated circuits will find tracks and the momentum and angle of each track within 2 microseconds of an event. The custom CAM can operate as conventional memory, performing read and write operations, and can additionally perform independent byte compare operations across all words simultaneously. It is this compare feature which makes these CAMs attractive for identifying tracks passing through drift chambers by linking together segment number triplets within the CAM. Simulations have indicated that less than 16 k triplets need to be stored for each sector of the detector. This implies the level 2 triggering can be performed with 64 CAM chips per sector, or 384 total. Each data channel into a sector CAM array is buffered in a FIFO and is designed to handle aggregate data rates up to 750 Mbs for three channels (one channel/superlayer). The architecture of the level 2 trigger and details of the CAM chip design are discussed along with a performance report on our prototype CAMs

  12. Addressing security, collaboration, and usability with tactical edge mobile devices and strategic cloud-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Christopher J.

    2012-05-01

    Success in the future battle space is increasingly dependent on rapid access to the right information. Faced with a shrinking budget, the Government has a mandate to improve intelligence productivity, quality, and reliability. To achieve increased ISR effectiveness, leverage of tactical edge mobile devices via integration with strategic cloud-based infrastructure is the single, most likely candidate area for dramatic near-term impact. This paper discusses security, collaboration, and usability components of this evolving space. These three paramount tenets outlined below, embody how mission information is exchanged securely, efficiently, with social media cooperativeness. Tenet 1: Complete security, privacy, and data integrity, must be ensured within the net-centric battle space. This paper discusses data security on a mobile device, data at rest on a cloud-based system, authorization and access control, and securing data transport between entities. Tenet 2: Lack of collaborative information sharing and content reliability jeopardizes mission objectives and limits the end user capability. This paper discusses cooperative pairing of mobile devices and cloud systems, enabling social media style interaction via tagging, meta-data refinement, and sharing of pertinent data. Tenet 3: Fielded mobile solutions must address usability and complexity. Simplicity is a powerful paradigm on mobile platforms, where complex applications are not utilized, and simple, yet powerful, applications flourish. This paper discusses strategies for ensuring mobile applications are streamlined and usable at the tactical edge through focused features sets, leveraging the power of the back-end cloud, minimization of differing HMI concepts, and directed end-user feedback.teInput=

  13. Series-connected shaded modules to address partial shading conditions in SPV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, Smita; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    With the progress of technology and reduced cost of PV cells, the PV systems are being installed in many countries, including India. Even though this method of power generation has sufficient potential but its effective utilization is still lacking. This is because the output power of PV cells depends on many factors like insolation, temperature, climate conditions prevailing nearby, aging, using modules from different technologies/manufacturers or partial shading conditions. Among these factors, partial shading causes major reduction in output power despite the size of PV systems. As a result, the produced power is lower than the expected value. The connection of modules to each other has great impact on output power if they are prone to partial shading conditions. In this paper, PV arrays are investigated under partial shading conditions. The results show that partial shading losses can be minimized by connecting shaded modules in series rather than in parallel.

  14. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Melin, Alexander M; Czejdo, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  15. Addressing Special Education Inequity through Systemic Change: Contributions of Ecologically Based Organizational Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; Hernandez-Saca, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of special education, scholars and practitioners have been concerned about the disproportionate representation of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds among students identified with disabilities. Professional efforts to address this disproportionality have encompassed a range of targets, but scholars…

  16. Whole Neuraxis Irradiation to Address Central Nervous System Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Croog, Victoria J.; Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Souweidane, Mark M.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2010-11-01

    Background: As systemic control of high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) has improved, relapse in the central nervous system (CNS) is an increasingly recognized entity that carries a grim prognosis. This study describes the use of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for CNS relapse and compares outcomes to patients who received focal radiotherapy (RT). Methods: A retrospective query identified 29 children with NB treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center since 1987 who received RT for CNS relapse. At CNS relapse, 16 patients received CSI (median dose, 2160cGy), and 13 received focal RT. Of those who underwent CSI, 14 (88%) received intra-Ommaya (IO) radioimmunotherapy (RIT); one patient in the non-CSI cohort received IO-RIT. Results: Patient characteristics were similar between the groups. Time to CNS relapse was 20 and 17 months for the CSI and non-CSI cohorts, respectively. At a median follow-up of 28 months, 12 patients (75%) in the CSI group are alive without CNS disease, including two patients with isolated skeletal relapse. Another patient is alive without disease after a brain relapse was retreated with RT. Three patients died-one with no NB at autopsy, one of CNS disease, and one of systemic disease. The two patients who died of NB did not receive IO-RIT. All 13 patients in the non-CSI cohort died at a median of 8.8 months. Conclusions: Low-dose CSI together with IO-RIT provides durable CNS remissions and improved survival compared with focal RT and conventional therapies. Further evaluation of long-term NB survivors after CSI is warranted to determine the treatment consequences for this cohort.

  17. Results of thin-route satellite communication system analyses including estimated service costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of cost and performance tradeoffs are addressed and the preliminary design of a communications satellite system capable of meeting isolated rural users' needs is presented. Small inexpensive rural earth stations are linked via the satellite to a nation wide network of large earth stations which are, in turn, interconnected to the switching exchanges of the conventional telephone network. Optimum earth station EIRP and G/T and satellite transponder power are defined as a function of a wide variety of system options.

  18. Socio-Ecohydrologic Agents And Services: Integrating Human And Natural Components To Address Coupled System Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavao-zuckerman, M.; Pope, A.; Chan, D.; Curl, K.; Gimblett, H. R.; Hough, M.; House-Peters, L.; Lee, R.; Scott, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian corridors in arid regions are highly valued for their relative scarcity, and because healthy riparian systems support high levels of biodiversity, can meet human demand for water and water-related resources and functions. Our team is taking a transdiciplinary social-ecological systems approach to assessing riparian corridor resilience in two watersheds (the San Pedro River in USA and Mexico, and the Rio San Miguel in Mexico) through a project funded by the NSF CNH program ("Strengthening Resilience of Arid Region Riparian Corridors"). Multiple perspectives are integrated in the project, including hydrology, ecology, institutional dynamics, and decision making (at the level of both policy and individual choice), as well as the perspectives of various stakeholder groups and individuals in the watersheds. Here we discuss initial findings that center around linking changes in ecohydrology and livelihoods related to decisions in response to climatic, ecological, and social change. The research team is implementing two approaches to integrate the disparate disciplines participating in the research (and the varied perspectives among the stakeholders in this binational riparian context): (1) ecosystem service assessment, and (2) agent based model simulation. We are developing an ecosystem service perspective that provides a bridge between ecological dynamics in the landscape and varied stakeholder perspectives on the implications of ecohydrology for well-being (economic, cultural, ecological). Services are linked on one hand to the spatial patterns of traits of individuals within species (allowing a more predictive application of ecosystem services as they vary with community change in time), and to stakeholder perspectives (facilitating integration of ecosystem services into our understanding of decision making processes) in a case study in the San Pedro River National Conservation Area. The agent- based model (ABM) approach incorporates the influence of human

  19. Is variation management included in regional healthcare governance systems? Some proposals from Italy.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Sabina; Seghieri, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The Italian National Health System, which follows a Beveridge model, provides universal healthcare coverage through general taxation. Universal coverage provides uniform healthcare access to citizens and is the characteristic usually considered the added value of a welfare system financed by tax revenues. Nonetheless, wide differences in practice patterns, health outcomes and regional usages of resources that cannot be justified by differences in patient needs have been demonstrated to exist. Beginning with the experience of the health care system of the Tuscany region (Italy), this study describes the first steps of a long-term approach to proactively address the issue of geographic variation in healthcare. In particular, the study highlights how the unwarranted variation management has been addressed in a region with a high degree of managerial control over the delivery of health care and a consolidated performance evaluation system, by first, considering it a high priority objective and then by actively integrating it into the regional planning and control mechanism. The implications of this study can be useful to policy makers, professionals and managers, and will contribute to the understanding of how the management of variation can be implemented with performance measurements and financial incentives. PMID:24050981

  20. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  1. Media Literacy Education from Kindergarten to College: A Comparison of How Media Literacy Is Addressed across the Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans C.

    2013-01-01

    This study of media literacy education at all levels of the educational system considered faculty perceptions of student media literacy competencies, the extent to which media literacy is addressed in class, and the extent to which faculty members consider media literacy education to be important. Data suggest that despite the research and policy…

  2. Assessing the Use of School Public Address Systems to Deliver Nutrition Messages to Children: Shape Up Somerville--Audio Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folta, Sara C.; Goldberg, Jeanne P.; Economos, Christina; Bell, Rick; Landers, Stewart; Hyatt, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Given the current childhood obesity epidemic, it is especially important to find effective ways to promote healthful foods to children. School public address (PA) systems represent an inexpensive and a replicable way of reaching children with health messages. To test the effectiveness of this channel, messages were created to promote 2 dried bean…

  3. Moonrise: Sampling the South Pole-Aitken Basin to Address Problems of Solar System Significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Shearer, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    A mission to land in the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin on the Moon's southern farside and return a sample to Earth for analysis is a high priority for Solar System Science. Such a sample would be used to determine the age of the SPA impact; the chronology of the basin, including the ages of basins and large impacts within SPA, with implications for early Solar System dynamics and the magmatic history of the Moon; the age and composition of volcanic rocks within SPA; the origin of the thorium signature of SPA with implications for the origin of exposed materials and thermal evolution of the Moon; and possibly the magnetization that forms a strong anomaly especially evident in the northern parts of the SPA basin. It is well known from studies of the Apollo regolith that rock fragments found in the regolith form a representative collection of many different rock types delivered to the site by the impact process (Fig. 1). Such samples are well documented to contain a broad suite of materials that reflect both the local major rock formations, as well as some exotic materials from far distant sources. Within the SPA basin, modeling of the impact ejection process indicates that regolith would be dominated by SPA substrate, formed at the time of the SPA basin-forming impact and for the most part moved around by subsequent impacts. Consistent with GRAIL data, the SPA impact likely formed a vast melt body tens of km thick that took perhaps several million years to cool, but that nonetheless represents barely an instant in geologic time that should be readily apparent through integrated geochronologic studies involving multiple chronometers. It is anticipated that a statistically significant number of age determinations would yield not only the age of SPA but also the age of several prominent nearby basins and large craters within SPA. This chronology would provide a contrast to the Imbrium-dominated chronology of the nearside Apollo samples and an independent test of

  4. The Johns Hopkins Address Registration System (JHARS): Anatomy of an Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyzyk, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Describes the registration system at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland, which allows centralized administration and self-signup for access to the Hopkins network. Reception of the system has been overwhelmingly positive. (SLD)

  5. Including natural systems into the system engineering process: benefits to spaceflight and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studor, George

    2014-03-01

    How did we get to the point where we don't have time to be inspired by the wonders of Nature? Our office walls, homes and city streets are so plain that even when we do escape to a retreat with nature all around us, we may be blind to its magnificence. Yet there are many who have applied what can be known of natural systems (NS) to create practical solutions, but often definite applications for them are lacking. Mimicry of natural systems is not only more possible than ever before, but the education and research programs in many major universities are churning out graduates with a real appreciation for Nature's complex integrated systems. What if these skills and perspectives were employed in the teams of systems engineers and the technology developers that support them to help the teams think "outside-the-box" of manmade inventions? If systems engineers (SE) and technology developers regularly asked the question, "what can we learn from Nature that will help us?" as a part of their processes, they would discover another set of potential solutions. Biomimicry and knowledge of natural systems is exploding. What does this mean for systems engineering and technology? Some disciplines such as robotics and medical devices must consider nature constantly. Perhaps it's time for all technology developers and systems engineers to perceive natural systems experts as potential providers of the technologies they need.

  6. Future prospects for prophylactic immune stimulation in crustacean aquaculture - the need for improved metadata to address immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Hauton, Chris; Hudspith, Meggie; Gunton, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Future expansion of the crustacean aquaculture industry will be required to ensure global food security. However, this expansion must ensure: (a) that natural resources (including habitat use and fish meal) are sustainably exploited, (b) that the socio-economic development of producing nations is safeguarded, and (c) that the challenge presented by crustacean diseases is adequately met. Conventionally, the problem of disease in crustacean aquaculture has been addressed through prophylactic administration of stimulants, additives or probiotics. However, these approaches have been questioned both experimentally and philosophically. In this review, we argue that real progress in the field of crustacean immune stimulants has now slowed, with only incremental advances now being made. We further contend that an overt focus on the immune effector response has been misguided. In light of the wealth of new data reporting immune system complexity, a more refined approach is necessary - one that must consider the important role played by pattern recognition proteins. In support of this more refined approach, there is now a much greater requirement for the reporting of essential metadata. We propose a broad series of recommendations regarding the 'Minimum Information required to support a Stimulant Assessment experiment' (MISA guidelines) to foster new progression within the field.

  7. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  8. Characterization of normality of chaotic systems including prediction and detection of anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engler, Joseph John

    Accurate prediction and control pervades domains such as engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology. Often, it is discovered that the systems under consideration cannot be well represented by linear, periodic nor random data. It has been shown that these systems exhibit deterministic chaos behavior. Deterministic chaos describes systems which are governed by deterministic rules but whose data appear to be random or quasi-periodic distributions. Deterministically chaotic systems characteristically exhibit sensitive dependence upon initial conditions manifested through rapid divergence of states initially close to one another. Due to this characterization, it has been deemed impossible to accurately predict future states of these systems for longer time scales. Fortunately, the deterministic nature of these systems allows for accurate short term predictions, given the dynamics of the system are well understood. This fact has been exploited in the research community and has resulted in various algorithms for short term predictions. Detection of normality in deterministically chaotic systems is critical in understanding the system sufficiently to able to predict future states. Due to the sensitivity to initial conditions, the detection of normal operational states for a deterministically chaotic system can be challenging. The addition of small perturbations to the system, which may result in bifurcation of the normal states, further complicates the problem. The detection of anomalies and prediction of future states of the chaotic system allows for greater understanding of these systems. The goal of this research is to produce methodologies for determining states of normality for deterministically chaotic systems, detection of anomalous behavior, and the more accurate prediction of future states of the system. Additionally, the ability to detect subtle system state changes is discussed. The dissertation addresses these goals by proposing new representational

  9. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  10. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Axial Thruster and ACS Thruster Combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  11. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  12. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  13. A Multimedia Adaptive Tutoring System for Mathematics That Addresses Cognition, Metacognition and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly Park; Burelson, Winslow; Muldner, Kasia; Rai, Dovan; Tai, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    This article describes research results based on multiple years of experimentation and real-world experience with an adaptive tutoring system named Wayang Outpost. The system represents a novel adaptive learning technology that has shown successful outcomes with thousands of students, and provided teachers with valuable information about…

  14. 15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles and sounding rockets) and Unmanned Air...: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.3 Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic...

  15. 15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles and sounding rockets) and Unmanned Air...: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.3 Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic...

  16. 15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles and sounding rockets) and Unmanned Air...: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.3 Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic...

  17. 15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles and sounding rockets) and Unmanned Air...: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.3 Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic...

  18. 15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles and sounding rockets) and Unmanned Air...: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.3 Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic...

  19. 42 CFR 413.217 - Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Items and services included in the ESRD prospective... NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.217 Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system. The following items...

  20. 42 CFR 413.217 - Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Items and services included in the ESRD prospective... NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.217 Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system. The following items...

  1. 42 CFR 413.217 - Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Items and services included in the ESRD prospective... NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.217 Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system. The following items...

  2. Developmental trauma disorder: pros and cons of including formal criteria in the psychiatric diagnostic systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article reviews the current debate on developmental trauma disorder (DTD) with respect to formalizing its diagnostic criteria. Victims of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment in childhood often develop a wide range of age-dependent psychopathologies with various mental comorbidities. The supporters of a formal DTD diagnosis argue that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) does not cover all consequences of severe and complex traumatization in childhood. Discussion Traumatized individuals are difficult to treat, but clinical experience has shown that they tend to benefit from specific trauma therapy. A main argument against inclusion of formal DTD criteria into existing diagnostic systems is that emphasis on the etiology of the disorder might force current diagnostic systems to deviate from their purely descriptive nature. Furthermore, comorbidities and biological aspects of the disorder may be underdiagnosed using the DTD criteria. Summary Here, we discuss arguments for and against the proposal of DTD criteria and address implications and consequences for the clinical practice. PMID:23286319

  3. 32 CFR 37.710 - What standards do I include for purchasing systems of nonprofit organizations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... governmental organization. (2) 32 CFR 32.40 through 32.49 if the participant is a nonprofit organization other... systems of nonprofit organizations? 37.710 Section 37.710 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF... standards do I include for purchasing systems of nonprofit organizations? (a) So as not to force...

  4. 32 CFR 37.710 - What standards do I include for purchasing systems of nonprofit organizations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governmental organization. (2) 32 CFR 32.40 through 32.49 if the participant is a nonprofit organization other... systems of nonprofit organizations? 37.710 Section 37.710 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF... standards do I include for purchasing systems of nonprofit organizations? (a) So as not to force...

  5. 75 FR 76487 - Haldex Brake Corporation, Commercial Vehicle Systems, Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ..., applicable to workers of Haldex Brake Corporation, Commercial Vehicle Systems, Iola, Kansas. The Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on September 3, 2010 (75 FR 54186). At the... Employment and Training Administration Haldex Brake Corporation, Commercial Vehicle Systems, Including...

  6. Addressing the crush of sampling. [technology programs for space information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olstad, W. B.; Holcomb, L. B.; Rubin, B.

    1980-01-01

    An overall space information system involves sensing, processing, analyzing, and distributing space-acquired information. These systems may be partitioned into the spacecraft segment, the wideband space-to-ground communication segment, and the ground-based data analysis and distribution segment. The paper discusses NASA's advanced technology programs aimed at providing improved sensors and on-board data systems. Advances in charge-transfer devices, lasers, and microwave technologies will be responsible for major improvements in NASA's sensing and detection capabilities for future missions. These improvements will result in a future data crush that will amplify the data management problem.

  7. Method for pulse control in a laser including a stimulated brillouin scattering mirror system

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2007-10-23

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  8. Jet engine nozzle exit configurations, including projections oriented relative to pylons, and associated systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter. Projections near a support pylon and/or associated heat shield can have particular configurations, including greater flow immersion than other projections.

  9. A Possible Approach for Addressing Neglected Human Factors Issues of Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity of safety-critical applications has led to the introduction of decision support tools in the transportation and process industries. Automation has also been introduced to support operator intervention in safety-critical applications. These innovations help reduce overall operator workload, and filter application data to maximize the finite cognitive and perceptual resources of system operators. However, these benefits do not come without a cost. Increased computational support for the end-users of safety-critical applications leads to increased reliance on engineers to monitor and maintain automated systems and decision support tools. This paper argues that by focussing on the end-users of complex applications, previous research has tended to neglect the demands that are being placed on systems engineers. The argument is illustrated through discussing three recent accidents. The paper concludes by presenting a possible strategy for building and using highly automated systems based on increased attention by management and regulators, improvements in competency and training for technical staff, sustained support for engineering team resource management, and the development of incident reporting systems for infrastructure failures. This paper represents preliminary work, about which we seek comments and suggestions.

  10. Systems and strippable coatings for decontaminating structures that include porous material

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2011-12-06

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  11. Evaluating the Handling Qualities of Flight Control Systems Including Nonlinear Aircraft and System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Raymond Chao

    The handling qualities evaluation of nonlinear aircraft systems is an area of concern in loss-of-control (LOC) prevention. The Get Transfer Function (GetTF) method was demonstrated for evaluating the handling qualities of flight control systems and aircraft containing nonlinearities. NASA's Generic Transport Model (GTM), a nonlinear model of a civilian jet transport aircraft, was evaluated. Using classical techniques, the stability, control, and augmentation (SCAS) systems were designed to control pitch rate, roll rate, and airspeed. Hess's structural pilot model was used to model pilot dynamics in pitch and roll-attitude tracking. The simulated task was simultaneous tracking of, both, pitch and roll attitudes. Eight cases were evaluated: 1) gain increase of pitch-attitude command signal, 2) gain increase of roll-attitude command signal, 3) gain reduction of elevator command signal, 4) backlash in elevator actuator, 5) combination 3 and 4 in elevator actuator, 6) gain reduction of aileron command signal, 7) backlash in aileron actuator, and 8) combination of 6 and 7 in aileron actuator. The GetTF method was used to estimate the transfer function approximating a linear relationship between the proprioceptive signal of the pilot model and the command input. The transfer function was then used to predict the handling qualities ratings (HQR) and pilot-induced oscillation ratings (PIOR). The HQR is based on the Cooper-Harper rating scale. In pitch-attitude tracking, the nominal aircraft is predicted to have Level 2* HQRpitch and 2 < PIORpitch < 4. The GetTF method generally predicted degraded handling qualities for cases with impaired actuators. The results demonstrate GetTF's utility in evaluating the handling qualities during the design phase of flight control and aircraft systems. A limited human-in-the-loop pitch tracking exercise was also conducted to validate the structural pilot model.

  12. Addressing parents' concerns: do multiple vaccines overwhelm or weaken the infant's immune system?

    PubMed

    Offit, Paul A; Quarles, Jessica; Gerber, Michael A; Hackett, Charles J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Kollman, Tobias R; Gellin, Bruce G; Landry, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Recent surveys found that an increasing number of parents are concerned that infants receive too many vaccines. Implicit in this concern is that the infant's immune system is inadequately developed to handle vaccines safely or that multiple vaccines may overwhelm the immune system. In this review, we will examine the following: 1) the ontogeny of the active immune response and the ability of neonates and young infants to respond to vaccines; 2) the theoretic capacity of an infant's immune system; 3) data that demonstrate that mild or moderate illness does not interfere with an infant's ability to generate protective immune responses to vaccines; 4) how infants respond to vaccines given in combination compared with the same vaccines given separately; 5) data showing that vaccinated children are not more likely to develop infections with other pathogens than unvaccinated children; and 6) the fact that infants actually encounter fewer antigens in vaccines today than they did 40 or 100 years ago.

  13. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system.

    PubMed

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-06-28

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere-ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system--System 4--has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981-2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  14. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system.

    PubMed

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-06-28

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere-ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system--System 4--has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981-2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  15. Probing the biology of dry biological systems to address the basis of seed longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying cells reduces molecular mobility and slows chemical and physical reactions. As a result, dry biological systems deteriorate slowly. The time course of deterioration in a population of living cells often follows a sigmoidal pattern in which aging is occurring but no changes to viability are ...

  16. Is robustness of stochastic uncertain systems related to information theory and statistical mechanics? (Keynote Address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambous, Charalambos D.; Kyprianou, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Fifty years ago, when Claude Shannon was developing the Mathematical Theory of Communications, for reliable data transmission, which evolved into the subject of information theory, another discipline was developing dealing with Feedback Control of Dynamical System, which evolved into a scientific subject dealing with decision, stability, and optimization. More recently, a separate discipline dealing with robustness of uncertain systems was born in response to the codification of high performance and reliability in the presence of modeling uncertainties. In principle, robustness in dynamical systems is captured through power dissipation via induced norms and dynamic games, while reliable data transmission is captured through measures of information via entropy, relative entropy, and certain laws of Large Deviations theory. The main ingredient in Large Deviations is the rate functional (or action functional in the classical mechanics terminology), often identified through the Cramer or Legendre-Fenchel Transform. On the other hand, robustness of stochastic uncertain systems is currently under development, using information theoretic as well as statistical mechanics concepts, such as, partition functions, free energy, relative entropy, and entropy rate functional. This lecture will summarize certain connections between fundamental concepts of robustness, information theory, and statistical mechanics, and possibly make future projections into the convergence of these disciplines.

  17. KEYNOTE ADDRESS: The role of standards in the emerging optical digital data disk storage systems market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Ross C.

    1984-09-01

    The Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology at the National Bureau of Standards is pleased to cooperate with the International Society for Optical Engineering and to join with the other distinguished organizations in cosponsoring this conference on applications of optical digital data disk storage systems.

  18. Addressing Indigenous (ICT) Approaches in South-East Asian Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a structural overview about indigenous approaches to learning in South East Asian countries, with a particular reference to education initiatives that have been operating in this region; and especially to investigate information and communication technologies (ICT) systems, in combination with…

  19. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  20. Collaborative Group Learning and Knowledge Building to Address Information Systems Project Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelo, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Approximately half of the information systems (IS) projects implemented each year are considered failures. These failed projects cost billions of dollars annually. Failures can be due to projects being delivered late, over-budget, abandoned after significant time and resource investment, or failing to achieve desired results. More often than not,…

  1. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system

    PubMed Central

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere–ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system—System 4—has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981–2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  2. A manual for addressing ineffectiveness within a Corrective Action System and driving on-time dispositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallari, Lawrence Anthony Castro

    This project proposes a manual specifically for remedying an ineffective Corrective Action Request System for Company ABC by providing dispositions within the company's quality procedure. A Corrective Action Request System is a corrective action tool that provides a means for employees to engage in the process improvement, problem elimination cycle. At Company ABC, Corrective Action Recommendations (CARs) are not provided with timely dispositions; CARs are being ignored due to a lack of training and awareness of Company ABC's personnel and quality procedures. In this project, Company ABC's quality management software database is scrutinized to identify the number of delinquent, non-dispositioned CARs in 2014. These CARs are correlated with the number of nonconformances generated for the same issue while the CAR is still open. Using secondary data, the primary investigator finds that nonconformances are being remediated at the operational level. However, at the administrative level, CARS are being ignored and forgotten.

  3. Refocusing health care systems to address both individual care and population health.

    PubMed

    Green, L W

    1994-04-01

    Population health depends on a qualitatively different set of investigative methods, decision-making procedures, and assignment of responsibility for action than those applied in the health care systems of Canada today. The focus shifts from a major preoccupation with acute and curative medicine to a greater concern with disease prevention and health promotion, from health outcomes as ends in themselves to quality of life concerns defined not just by the individual but also by the community. To achieve this refocusing, the health care system must decentralize the decision-making processes from provincial to regional and community levels, reorient the medical schools and hospitals from their increasingly global orientation to a greater role in the promotion of health in their own communities, and engage a broader range of disciplines and non-medical groups in partnerships and coalitions for health research and action.

  4. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  5. Application of fuzzy system theory in addressing the presence of uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Yusmye, A. Y. N.; Goh, B. Y.; Adnan, N. F.; Ariffin, A. K.

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, the combinations of fuzzy system theory with the finite element methods are present and discuss to deal with the uncertainties. The present of uncertainties is needed to avoid for prevent the failure of the material in engineering. There are three types of uncertainties, which are stochastic, epistemic and error uncertainties. In this paper, the epistemic uncertainties have been considered. For the epistemic uncertainty, it exists as a result of incomplete information and lack of knowledge or data. Fuzzy system theory is a non-probabilistic method, and this method is most appropriate to interpret the uncertainty compared to statistical approach when the deal with the lack of data. Fuzzy system theory contains a number of processes started from converting the crisp input to fuzzy input through fuzzification process and followed by the main process known as mapping process. The term mapping here means that the logical relationship between two or more entities. In this study, the fuzzy inputs are numerically integrated based on extension principle method. In the final stage, the defuzzification process is implemented. Defuzzification is an important process to allow the conversion of the fuzzy output to crisp outputs. Several illustrative examples are given and from the simulation, the result showed that propose the method produces more conservative results comparing with the conventional finite element method.

  6. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  7. Modeling the performance of direct-detection Doppler lidar systems including cloud and solar background variability.

    PubMed

    McGill, M J; Hart, W D; McKay, J A; Spinhirne, J D

    1999-10-20

    Previous modeling of the performance of spaceborne direct-detection Doppler lidar systems assumed extremely idealized atmospheric models. Here we develop a technique for modeling the performance of these systems in a more realistic atmosphere, based on actual airborne lidar observations. The resulting atmospheric model contains cloud and aerosol variability that is absent in other simulations of spaceborne Doppler lidar instruments. To produce a realistic simulation of daytime performance, we include solar radiance values that are based on actual measurements and are allowed to vary as the viewing scene changes. Simulations are performed for two types of direct-detection Doppler lidar system: the double-edge and the multichannel techniques. Both systems were optimized to measure winds from Rayleigh backscatter at 355 nm. Simulations show that the measurement uncertainty during daytime is degraded by only approximately 10-20% compared with nighttime performance, provided that a proper solar filter is included in the instrument design. PMID:18324169

  8. Addressing geometric nonlinearities with cantilever microelectromechanical systems: Beyond the Duffing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, E.; Bunkov, Yu. M.; Godfrin, H.

    2010-12-01

    We report on low-temperature measurements performed on microelectromechanical systems driven deeply into the nonlinear regime. The materials are kept in their elastic domain while the observed nonlinearity is purely of geometrical origin. Two techniques are used, harmonic drive and free decay. For each case, we present an analytic theory fitting the data. The harmonic drive is fit with a modified Lorentzian line shape obtained from an extended version of Landau and Lifshitz’s nonlinear theory. The evolution in the time domain is fit with an amplitude-dependent frequency decaying function derived from the Lindstedt-Poincaré theory of nonlinear differential equations. The technique is perfectly generic and can be straightforwardly adapted to any mechanical device made of ideally elastic constituents, and which can be reduced to a single degree of freedom, for an experimental definition of its nonlinear dynamics equation.

  9. How Do Integrated Health Care Systems Address Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Colon Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, Kim F.; Patel, Manali I.; Ma, Yifei; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities have persisted over the last two decades. CRC is a complex disease requiring multidisciplinary care from specialists who may be geographically separated. Few studies have assessed the association between integrated health care system (IHS) CRC care quality, survival, and disparities. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to an IHS positively affects quality of care, risk of mortality, and disparities. Patients and Methods This retrospective secondary-data analysis study, using the California Cancer Registry linked to state discharge abstracts of patients treated for colon cancer (2001 to 2006), compared the rates of National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline–based care, the hazard of mortality, and racial/ethnic disparities in an IHS versus other settings. Results More than 30,000 patient records were evaluated. The IHS had overall higher rates of adherence to NCCN guidelines. Propensity score–matched Cox models showed an independent and protective association between care in the IHS and survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.90). This advantage persisted across stage groups. Black race was associated with increased hazard of mortality in all other settings (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.27); however, there was no disparity within the IHS for any minority group (P > .11 for all groups) when compared with white race. Conclusion The IHS delivered higher rates of evidence-based care and was associated with lower 5-year mortality. Racial/ethnic disparities in survival were absent in the IHS. Integrated systems may serve as the cornerstone for developing accountable care organizations poised to improve cancer outcomes and eliminate disparities under health care reform. PMID:25624437

  10. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  11. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Rolllins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  12. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik F; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2013-10-15

    This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating strategies. Therefore, the LCA evaluation is repeated for three different scenarios depending on the limitation of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or both, when evaluating the nutrient enrichment impact in water bodies. The LCA results indicate that for treated effluent discharged into N-deficient aquatic systems (e.g. open coastal areas) the most eco-friendly strategies differ from the ones dealing with discharging into P-deficient (e.g. lakes and rivers) and N&P-deficient systems (e.g. coastal zones). More particularly, the results suggest that strategies that promote increased nutrient removal and/or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting of the impact categories is conducted to assess how value choices (policy decisions) may affect the management of WWTPs. For the scenarios with only N-limitation, the LCA-based ranking of the control strategies is sensitive to the choice of weighting factors, whereas this is not the case for N&P or P-deficient aquatic systems.

  13. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik F; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2013-10-15

    This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating strategies. Therefore, the LCA evaluation is repeated for three different scenarios depending on the limitation of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or both, when evaluating the nutrient enrichment impact in water bodies. The LCA results indicate that for treated effluent discharged into N-deficient aquatic systems (e.g. open coastal areas) the most eco-friendly strategies differ from the ones dealing with discharging into P-deficient (e.g. lakes and rivers) and N&P-deficient systems (e.g. coastal zones). More particularly, the results suggest that strategies that promote increased nutrient removal and/or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting of the impact categories is conducted to assess how value choices (policy decisions) may affect the management of WWTPs. For the scenarios with only N-limitation, the LCA-based ranking of the control strategies is sensitive to the choice of weighting factors, whereas this is not the case for N&P or P-deficient aquatic systems. PMID:23856224

  14. Cellerator: extending a computer algebra system to include biochemical arrows for signal transduction simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Bruce E.; Levchenko, Andre; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.; Wold, Barbara J.; Mjolsness, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    Cellerator describes single and multi-cellular signal transduction networks (STN) with a compact, optionally palette-driven, arrow-based notation to represent biochemical reactions and transcriptional activation. Multi-compartment systems are represented as graphs with STNs embedded in each node. Interactions include mass-action, enzymatic, allosteric and connectionist models. Reactions are translated into differential equations and can be solved numerically to generate predictive time courses or output as systems of equations that can be read by other programs. Cellerator simulations are fully extensible and portable to any operating system that supports Mathematica, and can be indefinitely nested within larger data structures to produce highly scaleable models.

  15. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  16. Dynamic Analysis of a Multibody System Including a Very Flexible Beam Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jong-Hwi; Jung, Il-Ho; Park, Tae-Won; Chai, Jang-Bom

    In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a multibody system including very flexible beam elements is presented. The very deformable motion of a beam is demonstrated using absolute nodal coordinate formulation, which is based on finite element procedures, and the general continuum mechanics theory to represent the elastic forces. In order to consider the dynamic interaction between flexible beams and a rigid multibody system, a combined system equation of motion is derived using an absolute nodal coordinate and a rigid body coordinate. In particular, a very flexible catenary cable on which a multibody system moves along its length is presented as a numerical example in this study. To do this, formulations for the sliding joint between a very flexible beam and a rigid body were derived using a non-generalized coordinate, which has no inertia or forces associated with it. This sliding joint is very important to many mechanical applications such as cable cars, pulley systems, and pantograph-catenary system for high-speed trains. In addition, a computation method for the dynamic stress in flexible multibody simulation using an absolute nodal coordinate is presented based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, and its reliability was verified by commercial program NASTRAN. Numerical examples are shown using the developed analysis program for flexible multibody systems that include a large deformable beam.

  17. Including oral health training in a health system strengthening program in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Brittany; Muhumuza, Ibra; Mumena, Chris; Isyagi, Moses; Barrow, Jane; Meeks, Valli

    2013-01-01

    Objective Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH) Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come. PMID:23473054

  18. 30 CFR 285.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 285.810 What must I include in my... your COP (provided under § 285.627(d)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (as provided in §...

  19. 75 FR 36678 - In the Matter of Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic... public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http... software and handheld electronic devices, by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No....

  20. Solar electric propulsion system thermal analysis. [including heat pipes and multilayer insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Thermal control elements applicable to the solar electric propulsion stage are discussed along with thermal control concepts. Boundary conditions are defined, and a thermal analysis was conducted with special emphasis on the power processor and equipment compartment thermal control system. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  1. Stand-alone digital data storage control system including user control interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth D. (Inventor); Gray, David L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A storage control system includes an apparatus and method for user control of a storage interface to operate a storage medium to store data obtained by a real-time data acquisition system. Digital data received in serial format from the data acquisition system is first converted to a parallel format and then provided to the storage interface. The operation of the storage interface is controlled in accordance with instructions based on user control input from a user. Also, a user status output is displayed in accordance with storage data obtained from the storage interface. By allowing the user to control and monitor the operation of the storage interface, a stand-alone, user-controllable data storage system is provided for storing the digital data obtained by a real-time data acquisition system.

  2. Lameness detection challenges in automated milking systems addressed with partial least squares discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; Klaas, I; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Enevoldsen, C

    2014-12-01

    Lameness causes decreased animal welfare and leads to higher production costs. This study explored data from an automatic milking system (AMS) to model on-farm gait scoring from a commercial farm. A total of 88 cows were gait scored once per week, for 2 5-wk periods. Eighty variables retrieved from AMS were summarized week-wise and used to predict 2 defined classes: nonlame and clinically lame cows. Variables were represented with 2 transformations of the week summarized variables, using 2-wk data blocks before gait scoring, totaling 320 variables (2 × 2 × 80). The reference gait scoring error was estimated in the first week of the study and was, on average, 15%. Two partial least squares discriminant analysis models were fitted to parity 1 and parity 2 groups, respectively, to assign the lameness class according to the predicted probability of being lame (score 3 or 4/4) or not lame (score 1/4). Both models achieved sensitivity and specificity values around 80%, both in calibration and cross-validation. At the optimum values in the receiver operating characteristic curve, the false-positive rate was 28% in the parity 1 model, whereas in the parity 2 model it was about half (16%), which makes it more suitable for practical application; the model error rates were, 23 and 19%, respectively. Based on data registered automatically from one AMS farm, we were able to discriminate nonlame and lame cows, where partial least squares discriminant analysis achieved similar performance to the reference method. PMID:25282423

  3. Potential enhancements to addressing programmatic risk in the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.; Fassbender, L.; Bilyard, G.; Levine, L.

    1996-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management methodology development task. The objective of this task was to develop risk management methodology focused on (1) the use of programmatic risk information in making TWRS architecture selection decisions and (2) the identification/evaluation/selection of TWRS risk-handling actions. Methods for incorporating programmatic risk/uncertainty estimates into trade studies are provided for engineers/analysts. Methods for identifying, evaluating, and selecting risk-handling actions are provided for managers. The guidance provided in this report is designed to help decision-makers make difficult judgments. Current approaches to architecture selection decisions and identification/evaluation/selection of risk-handling actions are summarized. Three categories of sources of programmatic risk (parametric, external, and organizational) are examined. Multiple analytical approaches are presented to enhance the current alternative generation and analysis (AGA) and risk-handling procedures. Appendix A describes some commercially available risk management software tools and Appendix B provides a brief introduction to quantification of risk attitudes. The report provides three levels of analysis for enhancing the AGA Procedure: (1) qualitative discussion coupled with estimated uncertainty ranges for scores in the alternatives-by-criteria matrix; (2) formal elicitation of probability distributions for the alternative scores; and (3) a formal, more structured, comprehensive risk analysis. A framework is also presented for using the AGA programmatic risk analysis results in making better decisions. The report also presents two levels of analysis for evaluation and selection of risk-handling actions: (1) qualitative analysis and judgmental rankings of alternative actions, and (2) Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART).

  4. Rabbit-Specific Ventricular Model of Cardiac Electrophysiological Function including Specialized Conduction System

    PubMed Central

    Bordas, R.; Gillow, K.; Lou, Q.; Efimov, I. R.; Gavaghan, D.; Kohl, P.; Grau, V.; Rodriguez, B.

    2011-01-01

    The function of the ventricular specialized conduction system in the heart is to ensure the coordinated electrical activation of the ventricles. It is therefore critical to the overall function of the heart, and has also been implicated as an important player in various diseases, including lethal ventricular arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation and drug-induced torsades de pointes. However, current ventricular models of electrophysiology usually ignore, or include highly simplified representations of the specialized conduction system. Here, we describe the development of a image-based, species-consistent, anatomically-detailed model of rabbit ventricular electrophysiology that incorporates a detailed description of the free-running part of the specialized conduction system. Techniques used for the construction of the geometrical model of the specialized conduction system from a magnetic resonance dataset and integration of the system model into a ventricular anatomical model, developed from the same dataset, are described. Computer simulations of rabbit ventricular electrophysiology are conducted using the novel anatomical model and rabbit-specific membrane kinetics to investigate the importance of the components and properties of the conduction system in determining ventricular function under physiological conditions. Simulation results are compared to panoramic optical mapping experiments for model validation and results interpretation. Full access is provided to the anatomical models developed in this study. PMID:21672547

  5. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  6. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  7. A multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design including local and system buckling constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Ramanathan, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    A rational multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design of truss and wing structures including local and system buckling constraints is presented. Overall proportioning of the structure is achieved at the system level subject to strength, displacement and system buckling constraints, while the detailed component designs are carried out separately at the component level satisfying local buckling constraints. Total structural weight is taken to be the objective function at the system level while employing the change in the equivalent system stiffness of the component as the component level objective function. Finite element analysis is used to predict static response while system buckling behavior is handled by incorporating a geometric stiffness matrix capability. Buckling load factors and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the assembled elastic stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices for the structural system. At the component level various local buckling failure modes are guarded against using semi-empirical formulas. Mathematical programming techniques are employed at both the system and component level.

  8. Dynamic modelling and response characteristics of a magnetic bearing rotor system including auxiliary bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.

    1993-01-01

    Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotor-dynamic model and assess the dynamic behavior of a magnetic bearing rotor system which includes the effects of auxiliary bearings. Of particular interest is the effects of introducing sideloading into such a system during failure of the magnetic bearing. A model is developed from an experimental test facility and a number of simulation studies are performed. These results are presented and discussed.

  9. Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Hollie

    2005-06-01

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce. Foreshadowing such under-representation in the workforce are the disproportionately low rates of African American and Hispanic students attaining college degrees in science and related fields. Evidence suggests disparate systemic factors in secondary science education are contributing to disproportionately low numbers of African American and Hispanic students in the science education pipeline. The present paper embarks on a critical analysis of the issue by elucidating some of the systemic factors within secondary education that contribute to the leak in the science education pipeline. In addition, this review offers a synthesis and explication of some of the policies and programs being implemented to address disparate systemic factors in secondary schools. Finally, recommendations are offered regarding potential mechanisms by which disparities may be alleviated.

  10. Addressing the epidemiologic transition in the former Soviet Union: strategies for health system and public health reform in Russia.

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, T H; Varavikova, E A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This paper reviews Russia's health crisis, financing, and organization and public health reform needs. METHODS. The structure, policy, supply of services, and health status indicators of Russia's health system are examined. RESULTS. Longevity is declining; mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases and trauma are high and rising; maternal and infant mortality are high. Vaccine-preventable diseases have reappeared in epidemic form. Nutrition status is problematic. CONCLUSIONS. The crisis relates to Russia's economic transition, but it also goes deep into the former Soviet health system. The epidemiologic transition from a predominance of infectious to noninfectious diseases was addressed by increasing the quantity of services. The health system lacked mechanisms for epidemiologic or economic analysis and accountability to the public. Policy and funding favored hospitals over ambulatory care and individual routine checkups over community-oriented preventive approaches. Reform since 1991 has centered on national health insurance and decentralized management of services. A national health strategy to address fundamental public health problems is recommended. PMID:8604754

  11. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  12. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  13. Method and apparatus for controlling a powertrain system including a multi-mode transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hessell, Steven M.; Morris, Robert L.; McGrogan, Sean W.; Heap, Anthony H.; Mendoza, Gil J.

    2015-09-08

    A powertrain including an engine and torque machines is configured to transfer torque through a multi-mode transmission to an output member. A method for controlling the powertrain includes employing a closed-loop speed control system to control torque commands for the torque machines in response to a desired input speed. Upon approaching a power limit of a power storage device transferring power to the torque machines, power limited torque commands are determined for the torque machines in response to the power limit and the closed-loop speed control system is employed to determine an engine torque command in response to the desired input speed and the power limited torque commands for the torque machines.

  14. Addressing Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

  15. Including health in systems responsible for urban planning’: a realist policy analysis research programme

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Patrick; Friel, Sharon; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Realist methods are increasingly being used to investigate complex public health problems. Despite the extensive evidence base clarifying the built environment as a determinant of health, there is limited knowledge about how and why land-use planning systems take on health concerns. Further, the body of research related to the wider determinants of health suffers from not using political science knowledge to understand how to influence health policy development and systems. This 4-year funded programme of research investigates how the land-use planning system in New South Wales, Australia, incorporates health and health equity at multiple levels. Methods and analysis The programme uses multiple qualitative methods to develop up to 15 case studies of different activities of the New South Wales land-use planning system. Comparison cases from other jurisdictions will be included where possible and useful. Data collection includes publicly available documentation and purposively sampled stakeholder interviews and focus groups of up to 100 participants across the cases. The units of analysis in each case are institutional structures (rules and mandates constraining and enabling actors), actors (the stakeholders, organisations and networks involved, including health-focused agencies), and ideas (policy content, information, and framing). Data analysis will focus on and develop propositions concerning the mechanisms and conditions within and across each case leading to inclusion or non-inclusion of health. Data will be refined using additional political science and sociological theory. Qualitative comparative analysis will compare cases to develop policy-relevant propositions about the necessary and sufficient conditions needed to include health issues. Ethics and dissemination Ethics has been approved by Sydney University Human Research Ethics Committee (2014/802 and 2015/178). Given the nature of this research we will incorporate stakeholders, often as

  16. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    DOEpatents

    DeWall, Kevin George; Garcia, Humberto Enrique; McKellar, Michael George

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  17. Optimal Design of Biomass Utilization System for Rural Area Includes Technical and Economic Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Yasuki; Nakata, Toshihiko

    In order to design optimal biomass utilization system for rural area, OMNIBUS (The Optimization Model for Neo-Integrated Biomass Utilization System) has been developed. OMNIBUS can derive the optimal system configuration to meet different objective function, such as current account balance, amount of biomass energy supply, and CO2 emission. Most of biomass resources in a focused region e.g. wood biomass, livestock biomass, and crop residues are considered in the model. Conversion technologies considered are energy utilization technologies e.g. direct combustion and methane fermentation, and material utilization technologies e.g. composting and carbonization. Case study in Miyakojima, Okinawa prefecture, has been carried out for several objective functions and constraint conditions. Considering economics of the utilization system as a priority requirement, composting and combustion heat utilization are mainly chosen in the optimal system configuration. However gasification power plant and methane fermentation are included in optimal solutions, only when both biomass energy utilization and CO2 reduction have been set as higher priorities. External benefit of CO2 reduction has large impacts on the system configuration. Provided marginal external benefit of more than 50,000 JPY/t-C, external benefit becomes greater than the revenue from electricity and compost etc. Considering technological learning in the future, expensive technologies such as gasification power plant and methane fermentation will have economic feasibility as well as market competitiveness.

  18. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  19. Design of check-out systems including laser scanners for sitting work posture.

    PubMed

    Hinnen, U; Läubli, T; Guggenbühl, U; Krueger, H

    1992-06-01

    Forty-six laser scanner operators were compared with 106 cashiers operating conventional cash registers. The influence of job rotation on the two groups was evaluated, and several design features were examined. For this purpose the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was determined by means of a questionnaire and a physical examination. In addition, a three-dimensional movement analysis system was employed. Work postures were analyzed with the Ovako working analysis system. The results indicate that a beneficial effect on the musculoskeletal system is achieved by combining the operation of a laser scanner with job rotation. The study also points out the need for better equipment, including flat scanners and smaller keyboards, and a change in the angle between the scanner and the take-off belt running up to the cashier.

  20. Including nuclear quantum effects into highly correlated electronic structure calculations of weakly bound systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Néstor F; Villarreal, Pablo; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo; Posada, Edwin; Reyes, Andrés; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O; de Lara-Castells, María Pilar

    2013-05-14

    An interface between the APMO code and the electronic structure package MOLPRO is presented. The any particle molecular orbital APMO code [González et al., Int. J. Quantum Chem. 108, 1742 (2008)] implements the model where electrons and light nuclei are treated simultaneously at Hartree-Fock or second-order Möller-Plesset levels of theory. The APMO-MOLPRO interface allows to include high-level electronic correlation as implemented in the MOLPRO package and to describe nuclear quantum effects at Hartree-Fock level of theory with the APMO code. Different model systems illustrate the implementation: (4)He2 dimer as a protype of a weakly bound van der Waals system; isotopomers of [He-H-He](+) molecule as an example of a hydrogen bonded system; and molecular hydrogen to compare with very accurate non-Born-Oppenheimer calculations. The possible improvements and future developments are outlined.

  1. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  2. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  3. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Budy, Fidel C T

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  4. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Budy, Fidel C T

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  5. How much detail and accuracy is required in plant growth sub-models to address questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural systems?

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Simulations that integrate sub-models of important biological processes can be used to ask questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural and ecological systems. Building sub-models with more detail and aiming for greater accuracy and realism may seem attractive, but is likely to be more expensive and time-consuming and result in more complicated models that lack transparency. This paper illustrates a general integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems that is based on the principle of starting simple and then directly testing for the need to add additional detail and complexity. Methodology The approach is demonstrated using LUSO (Land Use Sequence Optimizer), an agricultural system analysis framework based on simulation and optimization. A simple sensitivity analysis and functional perturbation analysis is used to test to what extent LUSO's crop–weed competition sub-model affects the answers to a number of questions at the scale of the whole farming system regarding optimal land-use sequencing strategies and resulting profitability. Principal results The need for accuracy in the crop–weed competition sub-model within LUSO depended to a small extent on the parameter being varied, but more importantly and interestingly on the type of question being addressed with the model. Only a small part of the crop–weed competition model actually affects the answers to these questions. Conclusions This study illustrates an example application of the proposed integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems based on testing whether complexity needs to be added to address particular questions of interest. We conclude that this example clearly demonstrates the potential value of the general approach. Advantages of this approach include minimizing costs and resources required for model construction, keeping models transparent and easy to analyse, and ensuring the model

  6. Hydraulically actuated fuel injector including a pilot operated spool valve assembly and hydraulic system using same

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to hydraulic systems including hydraulically actuated fuel injectors that have a pilot operated spool valve assembly. One class of hydraulically actuated fuel injectors includes a solenoid driven pilot valve that controls the initiation of the injection event. However, during cold start conditions, hydraulic fluid, typically engine lubricating oil, is particularly viscous and is often difficult to displace through the relatively small drain path that is defined past the pilot valve member. Because the spool valve typically responds slower than expected during cold start due to the difficulty in displacing the relatively viscous oil, accurate start of injection timing can be difficult to achieve. There also exists a greater difficulty in reaching the higher end of the cold operating speed range. Therefore, the present invention utilizes a fluid evacuation valve to aid in displacement of the relatively viscous oil during cold start conditions.

  7. iPSCs: A Minireview from Bench to Bed, including Organoids and the CRISPR System

    PubMed Central

    Orqueda, Andrés Javier; Giménez, Carla Alejandra; Pereyra-Bonnet, Federico

    2016-01-01

    When Dolly the sheep was born, the first probe into an adult mammalian genome traveling back in time and generating a whole new animal appeared. Ten years later, the reprogramming process became a defined method of producing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the overexpression of four transcription factors. iPSCs are capable of originating virtually all types of cells and tissues, including a whole new animal. The reprogramming strategies based on patient-derived cells should make the development of clinical applications of cell based therapy much more straightforward. Here, we analyze the current state, opportunities, and challenges of iPSCs from bench to bed, including organoids and the CRISPR system. PMID:26880972

  8. iPSCs: A Minireview from Bench to Bed, including Organoids and the CRISPR System

    PubMed Central

    Orqueda, Andrés Javier; Giménez, Carla Alejandra; Pereyra-Bonnet, Federico

    2016-01-01

    When Dolly the sheep was born, the first probe into an adult mammalian genome traveling back in time and generating a whole new animal appeared. Ten years later, the reprogramming process became a defined method of producing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the overexpression of four transcription factors. iPSCs are capable of originating virtually all types of cells and tissues, including a whole new animal. The reprogramming strategies based on patient-derived cells should make the development of clinical applications of cell based therapy much more straightforward. Here, we analyze the current state, opportunities, and challenges of iPSCs from bench to bed, including organoids and the CRISPR system. PMID:26880972

  9. iPSCs: A Minireview from Bench to Bed, including Organoids and the CRISPR System.

    PubMed

    Orqueda, Andrés Javier; Giménez, Carla Alejandra; Pereyra-Bonnet, Federico

    2016-01-01

    When Dolly the sheep was born, the first probe into an adult mammalian genome traveling back in time and generating a whole new animal appeared. Ten years later, the reprogramming process became a defined method of producing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the overexpression of four transcription factors. iPSCs are capable of originating virtually all types of cells and tissues, including a whole new animal. The reprogramming strategies based on patient-derived cells should make the development of clinical applications of cell based therapy much more straightforward. Here, we analyze the current state, opportunities, and challenges of iPSCs from bench to bed, including organoids and the CRISPR system. PMID:26880972

  10. [Serpiginous calcifications in breast filariasis: A descriptor not included in the BI-RADS classification system].

    PubMed

    Mora-Encinas, J P; Martín-Martín, B; Martín-Martín, L; Mora-Monago, R

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a parasitic disease with a benign course caused by nematodes. Filariasis is endemic in some tropical regions, and immigration has made it increasingly common in some centers in Spain. The death of the parasites can lead to calcifications that are visible in mammograms; these calcifications have specific characteristics and should not be confused with those arising in other diseases. However, the appearance of calcifications due to filariasis is not included in the most common systems used for the classification of calcifications on mammograms (BI-RADS), and this can lead to confusion. In this article, we discuss the need to update classification systems and warn radiologists about the appearance of these calcifications to ensure their correct diagnosis and avoid confusion with other diseases. PMID:25682995

  11. [Serpiginous calcifications in breast filariasis: A descriptor not included in the BI-RADS classification system].

    PubMed

    Mora-Encinas, J P; Martín-Martín, B; Martín-Martín, L; Mora-Monago, R

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a parasitic disease with a benign course caused by nematodes. Filariasis is endemic in some tropical regions, and immigration has made it increasingly common in some centers in Spain. The death of the parasites can lead to calcifications that are visible in mammograms; these calcifications have specific characteristics and should not be confused with those arising in other diseases. However, the appearance of calcifications due to filariasis is not included in the most common systems used for the classification of calcifications on mammograms (BI-RADS), and this can lead to confusion. In this article, we discuss the need to update classification systems and warn radiologists about the appearance of these calcifications to ensure their correct diagnosis and avoid confusion with other diseases.

  12. Inter-laboratory comparison of the in vivo comet assay including three image analysis systems.

    PubMed

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Guérard, Melanie

    2015-12-01

    To compare the extent of potential inter-laboratory variability and the influence of different comet image analysis systems, in vivo comet experiments were conducted using the genotoxicants ethyl methanesulfonate and methyl methanesulfonate. Tissue samples from the same animals were processed and analyzed-including independent slide evaluation by image analysis-in two laboratories with extensive experience in performing the comet assay. The analysis revealed low inter-laboratory experimental variability. Neither the use of different image analysis systems, nor the staining procedure of DNA (propidium iodide vs. SYBR® Gold), considerably impacted the results or sensitivity of the assay. In addition, relatively high stability of the staining intensity of propidium iodide-stained slides was found in slides that were refrigerated for over 3 months. In conclusion, following a thoroughly defined protocol and standardized routine procedures ensures that the comet assay is robust and generates comparable results between different laboratories.

  13. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Shunglu, V K

    1994-07-01

    Rapid and substantial population growth in India is hampering development. Family welfare programs in the country during the last four years have not met population reduction goals. The decentralization of political and administrative power in relevant programs, however, will help the country attain its goal of replacement fertility. To that end, the 73rd and 74th amendments to the constitution have recently been enacted to help decentralize power to people at the village, intermediate, and district levels. The participation of the people is essential for success. State ministers of health must begin assigning management of the rural health care systems to the Panchayats. Population policy has changed so that family planning is now provided within the broader context of maternal and child health care, emphasizing voluntarism and informed choice among contraceptive methods and popular participation. The speaker laments the decline of male participation in family planning and calls for high priority to be given to developing fertility regulation methods for men as well as identifying factors which prohibit male participation. The country's unbalanced female to male sex ratio and interstate and inter-district variations in social parameters which have a bearing upon population growth rates also merit attention. Investing in human resources is crucial to the success of population programs. Financing has therefore increased for poverty alleviation programs and other social sector programs.

  14. Monitoring system including an electronic sensor platform and an interrogation transceiver

    DOEpatents

    Kinzel, Robert L.; Sheets, Larry R.

    2003-09-23

    A wireless monitoring system suitable for a wide range of remote data collection applications. The system includes at least one Electronic Sensor Platform (ESP), an Interrogator Transceiver (IT) and a general purpose host computer. The ESP functions as a remote data collector from a number of digital and analog sensors located therein. The host computer provides for data logging, testing, demonstration, installation checkout, and troubleshooting of the system. The IT transmits signals from one or more ESP's to the host computer to the ESP's. The IT host computer may be powered by a common power supply, and each ESP is individually powered by a battery. This monitoring system has an extremely low power consumption which allows remote operation of the ESP for long periods; provides authenticated message traffic over a wireless network; utilizes state-of-health and tamper sensors to ensure that the ESP is secure and undamaged; has robust housing of the ESP suitable for use in radiation environments; and is low in cost. With one base station (host computer and interrogator transceiver), multiple ESP's may be controlled at a single monitoring site.

  15. A hospital system's response to a hurricane offers lessons, including the need for mandatory interfacility drills.

    PubMed

    Verni, Christina

    2012-08-01

    This case study explores the lessons learned when the North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, a large, integrated health network in New York, evacuated three hospitals at high risk of flooding from Hurricane Irene in August 2011. The episode resulted in the evacuation, transport, and placement of 947 patients without any resulting deaths or serious injuries. This case demonstrates the utility of having in place a functional evacuation plan, such as the one North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System developed through its own full-scale exercises in the years following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In those drills, the health system discovered that it needed to abandon its 1:1 matching of patients to available beds in the region in favor of the group transport of patients with similar needs to facilities that could accommodate them. Despite its overall success, the system identified the need for internal improvements, including automated patient tracking through the use of bar-coded wristbands and identification and training of additional backup personnel for its emergency operations center. Among other changes, policy makers at the state and federal levels should consider mandating full-scale interfacility evacuation drills to refine mechanisms to send and receive patients. PMID:22869660

  16. A hospital system's response to a hurricane offers lessons, including the need for mandatory interfacility drills.

    PubMed

    Verni, Christina

    2012-08-01

    This case study explores the lessons learned when the North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, a large, integrated health network in New York, evacuated three hospitals at high risk of flooding from Hurricane Irene in August 2011. The episode resulted in the evacuation, transport, and placement of 947 patients without any resulting deaths or serious injuries. This case demonstrates the utility of having in place a functional evacuation plan, such as the one North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System developed through its own full-scale exercises in the years following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In those drills, the health system discovered that it needed to abandon its 1:1 matching of patients to available beds in the region in favor of the group transport of patients with similar needs to facilities that could accommodate them. Despite its overall success, the system identified the need for internal improvements, including automated patient tracking through the use of bar-coded wristbands and identification and training of additional backup personnel for its emergency operations center. Among other changes, policy makers at the state and federal levels should consider mandating full-scale interfacility evacuation drills to refine mechanisms to send and receive patients.

  17. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  18. Politics and technology in health information systems development: a discourse analysis of conflicts addressed in a systems design group.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2008-02-01

    Different types of disagreements must be managed during the development of health information systems. This study examines the antagonisms discussed during the design of an information system for 175,000 users in a public health context. Discourse analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis. Three hundred and twenty-six conflict events were identified from four design meetings and divided into 16 categories. There were no differences regarding the types of conflicts that the different participants brought into the design discussions. Instead, conflict occurrence was primarily affected by the agendas that set the stage for examinations and debates. The results indicate that the selection of design method and the structure used for the meetings are important factors for the manner in which conflicts are brought into consideration during health information system design. Further studies comparing participatory and non-participatory information system design practices in health service settings are warranted.

  19. Welcome address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    overview of fields they are involved in. The topic of the present symposium is ‘advances in f-electron phenomena’. I will not go into detail about the importance of this field, because the Chairman of the organizing committee, Professor Russ Walstedt will tell you the outline later. Nevertheless, let me emphasize that the scientific subjects discussed at this symposium, namely the fundamental properties of f-electrons, are playing a crucial role in understanding the exotic effects of rare earth and actinide compounds such as magnetic and multi polar ordering, quantum critical phenomena and unconventional superconductivity. These are quite fascinating topics and I expect a variety of hot discussions throughout this symposium. Finally, I would like to thank our president, Dr S Saito, for allowing us to hold this symposium and for help with financial sponsorship. My special gratitude goes also to the Physical Society of Japan and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for their endorsement. I would like to close my speech by expressing my sincere wishes for the success of the symposium and for all participants to discover new opportunities in the still growing area of research on the f-electron systems. Thank you very much for your attention.

  20. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  1. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

  2. Individually addressable cathodes with integrated focusing stack or detectors

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Baylor, Larry R.; Voelkl, Edgar; Simpson, Michael L.; Paulus, Michael J.; Lowndes, Douglas; Whealton, John; Whitson, John C.; Wilgen, John B.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and method are described for addressable field emission array (AFEA) chips. A plurality of individually addressable cathodes are integrated with an electrostatic focusing stack and/or a plurality of detectors on the addressable field emission array. The systems and methods provide advantages including the avoidance of space-charge blow-up.

  3. Individual addressing of trapped {sup 171}Yb{sup +} ion qubits using a microelectromechanical systems-based beam steering system

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, S.; Mount, E.; Baek, S.; Kim, J.

    2014-11-03

    The ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits is one of the many challenges towards scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems technology, we focus laser beams on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. We demonstrate sequential single qubit gates on multiple {sup 171}Yb{sup +} qubits and characterize the gate performance using quantum state tomography. Our system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (<3×10{sup −4}), and switching speed comparable to typical single qubit gate times (<2 μs)

  4. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  5. Interest of including trauma photography in the picture archiving and communication system of a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Bronsard, N; Chignon Sicard, B; Amoretti, N; Rottier, H; Ertz, P; de Peretti, F

    2015-05-01

    Digital imaging is a daily practice in traumatology. Such photographs should remain confidential. However, there is a need for objectivity concerning the circumstances and clinical follow-up for trauma patients. This paper describes how to conserve these photographs within the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) safely as regards identity and confidentiality. A computer converts the photographs into DICOM files. The DICOM image is associated to a reconciliation layer, validated by the physician in charge, and then included in the hospital PACS. This improves transmission from one medical team to another, both initially and after the accident if an expert medical opinion is required. The literature has demonstrated the value of photographs in modern medicine, but the technical and legal challenges are many. They enhance the computerized medical records. Identification, confidentiality and integration in the PACS are obstacles that we have now overcome.

  6. Interest of including trauma photography in the picture archiving and communication system of a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Bronsard, N; Chignon Sicard, B; Amoretti, N; Rottier, H; Ertz, P; de Peretti, F

    2015-05-01

    Digital imaging is a daily practice in traumatology. Such photographs should remain confidential. However, there is a need for objectivity concerning the circumstances and clinical follow-up for trauma patients. This paper describes how to conserve these photographs within the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) safely as regards identity and confidentiality. A computer converts the photographs into DICOM files. The DICOM image is associated to a reconciliation layer, validated by the physician in charge, and then included in the hospital PACS. This improves transmission from one medical team to another, both initially and after the accident if an expert medical opinion is required. The literature has demonstrated the value of photographs in modern medicine, but the technical and legal challenges are many. They enhance the computerized medical records. Identification, confidentiality and integration in the PACS are obstacles that we have now overcome. PMID:25817905

  7. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  8. Which domains should be included in a cancer pain classification system? Analyses of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Anne Kari; Brunelli, Cinzia; Klepstad, Pål; Aass, Nina; Apolone, Giovanni; Corli, Oscar; Montanari, Mauro; Caraceni, Augusto; Kaasa, Stein

    2012-03-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to further develop an evidence-based platform for the content of an international cancer pain classification system. Data from a multicentre, observational longitudinal study of cancer patients were analysed. Analyses were carried out in 2 samples: (A) Cross-sectional data of patients on opioids at inclusion, and (B) patients just admitted to palliative care. Outcome measures in the models we investigated were pain on average, worst pain, and pain relief at inclusion, and at day 14, respectively. Uni- and multivariate regression models were applied to test the explicative power on pain outcomes of a series of known pain domains, including incident pain, psychological distress, neuropathic pain, pain localisation, sleep disturbances, total morphine equivalent daily dose (MEDD), and cancer diagnosis. In the 2 analyses, 1529 (A) and 352 (B) patients were included, respectively. Incident pain, pain localisation, MEDD, use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and sleep were associated with one or more of the pain outcomes in analysis A, while initial pain intensity, initial pain relief, incident pain, localisation of pain, cancer diagnosis, and age were predictors in the longitudinal analysis. Identified domains explained 16% to 24% of the variability of the pain outcome. Initial pain intensity emerged as the strongest predictor of pain outcome after 2 weeks, and incident pain was confirmed to be a relevant domain. The regression models explained only a minor part of the variability of pain outcomes.

  9. A structural design and analysis of a piping system including seismic load

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The structural design/analysis of a piping system at a nuclear fuel facility is used to investigate some aspects of current design procedures. Specifically the effect of using various stress measures including ASME Boiler Pressure Vessel (B PV) Code formulas is evaluated. It is found that large differences in local maximum stress values may be calculated depending on the stress criterion used. However, when the global stress maximum for the entire system are compared the differences are much smaller, being nevertheless, for some load combinations, of the order of 50 percent. The effect of using an Equivalent Static Method (ESM) analysis is also evaluated by comparing its results with those obtained from a Response Spectrum Method (RSM) analysis with the modal responses combined by using the absolute summation (ABS), by using the square root of the squares (SRSS), and by using the 10 percent method (10PC). It is shown that for a spectrum amplification factor (equivalent static coefficient greater than unity) of at least 1.32 must be used in the current application of the ESM analysis in order to obtain results which are conservative in all aspects relative to an RSM analysis based on ABS. However, it appears that an adequate design would be obtained from the ESM approach even without the use of a spectrum amplification factor. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2015-08-21

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  11. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G.; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2015-08-01

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  12. Operational Dataset Update Functionality Included in the NCAR Research Data Archive Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Z.; Worley, S. J.; Schuster, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Growing complexity, volume, and reliance on operationally created datasets poses challenges to the centers tasked with archiving and curating this information. Past tools focused on data delivered via media, such as tape, or data downloaded by single dataset customized ftp scripting. Presently nearly all data are acquired via network interactions, which can happen many times per day. Prior archive management technologies do not scale to this new paradigm. The Research Data Archive Management System (RDAMS) was developed to meet this challenge and has been implemented to support archive management within the Research Data Archive (RDA) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). RDAMS is driven by open source based databases and utilities, and is designed to support the complete data archive cycle by fetching, interrogating, archiving, and providing long-term research data stewardship. A good example of RDAMS functionality is found in the utility developed to specifically manage operational dataset updates, and can be applied to any dataset that requires periodic updating. The RDAMS dataset update utility (DSUPDT) accomplishes four basic tasks: 1) contact and query a remote server to see if new or modified data are available, 2) move data from a remote host to a local system and verify data transfer integrity, 3) execute any required data processing steps including metadata harvesting, 4) archive data to local disk and backup media systems. To accomplish these tasks across a diverse variety of datasets, DSUPDT incorporates a broad base of functionality. For example, it can be configured to run according to many different data set requirements, handles multiple web protocols, automatically recovers from system outages at the remote or local site, can execute 3rd party data manipulation software, and accommodates irregular data delivery schedules. Currently over 150 RDA dataset products are configured to be under DSUPDT control, with datasets being updated

  13. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Charles

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical information

  14. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-07-01

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to

  15. System for routing messages in a vertex symmetric network by using addresses formed from permutations of the transmission line indicees

    DOEpatents

    Faber, Vance; Moore, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs .GAMMA..sub.d (k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d+1)!/(d-k+1)! processors for each d.gtoreq.k and .GAMMA..sub.d (k,-1) with degree 3-1, diameter k+1, and (d+1)!/(d-k+1)! processors for each d.gtoreq.k.gtoreq.4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network .GAMMA..sub.d (k,-1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction .delta..sub.1. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations.

  16. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  17. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  18. Systems and methods for measuring a parameter of a landfill including a barrier cap and wireless sensor systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Kunerth, Dennis C.; Svoboda, John M.; Johnson, James T.

    2007-03-06

    A method of measuring a parameter of a landfill including a cap, without passing wires through the cap, includes burying a sensor apparatus in the landfill prior to closing the landfill with the cap; providing a reader capable of communicating with the sensor apparatus via radio frequency (RF); placing an antenna above the barrier, spaced apart from the sensor apparatus; coupling the antenna to the reader either before or after placing the antenna above the barrier; providing power to the sensor apparatus, via the antenna, by generating a field using the reader; accumulating and storing power in the sensor apparatus; sensing a parameter of the landfill using the sensor apparatus while using power; and transmitting the sensed parameter to the reader via a wireless response signal. A system for measuring a parameter of a landfill is also provided.

  19. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Donald S.A.; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D.; Ain, Kenneth B.; Cooper, David S.; Fein, Henry G.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Steward, David L.; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R.; Maxon, Harry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. Objective: This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Methods: A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R2). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. Results: The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45–50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50–55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003–0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). Conclusions: No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation. PMID:26203804

  20. 75 FR 22630 - Nautilus, Inc., Currently Known as Med-Fit Systems Incorporated, Commercial Division, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Nautilus, Inc., Commercial Division, including on-site leased workers from Select Staffing, Independence, Virginia. The notice was published in the Federal Register on February 16th, 2010 (75 FR 7032). At the..., Commercial Division, Including On-Site Workers From Select Staffing, Independence, VA; Amended...

  1. Engaging sub-national governments in addressing health equities: challenges and opportunities in China's health system reform.

    PubMed

    Brixi, Hana; Mu, Yan; Targa, Beatrice; Hipgrave, David

    2013-12-01

    China's current health system reform (HSR) is striving to resolve deep inequities in health outcomes. Achieving this goal is difficult not only because of continuously increasing income disparities in China but also because of weaknesses in healthcare financing and delivery at the local level. We explore to what extent sub-national governments, which are largely responsible for health financing in China, are addressing health inequities. We describe the recent trend in health inequalities in China, and analyse government expenditure on health in the context of China's decentralization and intergovernmental model to assess whether national, provincial and sub-provincial public resource allocations and local government accountability relationships are aligned with this goal. Our analysis reveals that government expenditure on health at sub-national levels, which accounts for ∼90% of total government expenditure on health, is increasingly regressive across provinces, and across prefectures within provinces. Increasing inequity in public expenditure at sub-national levels indicates that resources and responsibilities at sub-national levels in China are not well aligned with national priorities. China's HSR would benefit from complementary measures to improve the governance and financing of public service delivery. We discuss the existing weaknesses in local governance and suggest possible approaches to better align the responsibilities and capacity of sub-national governments with national policies, standards, laws and regulations, therefore ensuring local-level implementation and enforcement. Drawing on China's institutional framework and ongoing reform pilots, we present possible approaches to: (1) consolidate key health financing responsibilities at the provincial level and strengthen the accountability of provincial governments, (2) define targets for expenditure on primary health care, outputs and outcomes for each province and (3) use independent sources to

  2. Reliability analysis of the bulk cargo loading system including dependent components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokus-Roszkowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    In the paper an innovative approach to the reliability analysis of multistate series-parallel systems assuming their components' dependency is presented. The reliability function of a multistate series system with components dependent according to the local load sharing rule is determined. Linking these results for series systems with results for parallel systems with independent components, we obtain the reliability function of a multistate series-parallel system assuming dependence of components' departures from the reliability states subsets in series subsystem and assuming independence between these subsystems. As a particular case, the reliability function of a multistate series-parallel system composed of dependent components having exponential reliability functions is fixed. Theoretical results are applied practically to the reliability evaluation of a bulk cargo transportation system, which main area is to load bulk cargo on board the ships. The reliability function and other reliability characteristics of the loading system are determined in case its components have exponential reliability functions with interdependent departures rates from the subsets of their reliability states. Finally, the obtained results are compared with results for the bulk cargo transportation system composed of independent components.

  3. Design of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) (including design addendum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, D.; Gismondi, T.; Hamilton, B.; Kendig, J.; Kiedrowski, J.; Vroman, A.; Wilson, G.

    1980-01-01

    The Annular Suspension and Pointing System is an experiment pointing mount designed for extremely precise 3 axis orientation of shuttle experiments. It utilizes actively controlled magnetic bearing to provide noncontacting vernier pointing and translational isolation of the experiment. The design of the system is presented and analyzed.

  4. 75 FR 69469 - Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration Organization, Including On...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 34174). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification for... Employment and Training Administration Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration..., applicable to workers of Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration...

  5. Loved, Valued, and Included: Some Implications of Neurobiological, Systems, and Psychotherapeutic Research for Social Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The authors of the primary articles in this special edition provide early and promising evidence that developmentally sensitive psychotherapeutic interventions and integrated care systems improve the lives of children who have been exposed to abuse or neglect. Why, then, do so many children in the social welfare system receive care that is not…

  6. Design, Operation and Economic Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid PV-Diesel Power Systems Including Battery Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Demetrios P.; Maltas, Eleftherios Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economic analysis of autonomous PV-Diesel energy system with battery storage. This hybrid type power system was developed and installed on the roof of the Electrical Engineering Laboratory building in the city of Xanthi, Greece, where a weather station is also installed providing necessary meteorological data since 2002. Such system can be generally used to supply electrical loads of isolated remote areas. The actual design of such a system is based on: a pre-defined load pattern to be supplied; the pertinent weather data; the relevant market prices; and the applicable recent economic rates (eg June 2009 for the Greek case). The system is operated on a predictive manner using a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) which controls the main system parameters for safe and continuous power supply to meet reliably the desired load demand. Three distinct systems of this type and of equal capacity, which combine energy sources and battery storage have been proposed and assessed technically and economically.

  7. 77 FR 1073 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records, Including Addition of Routine Uses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records, Including Addition of Routine Uses to an Existing System of Records; Bioresearch Monitoring Information System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of an altered system of records....

  8. Remote System Technologies for Deactivating Hanford Hot Cells (for WM'03 - abstract included)

    SciTech Connect

    BERLIN, G.T.

    2003-01-28

    Remote system technologies are being deployed by Fluor Hanford to help accelerate the deactivation of highly-radioactive hot cell facilities. This paper highlights the application of several remotely deployed technologies enabling the deactivation tasks.

  9. Application of symbolic computation to the analysis of mechanical systems, including robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, M. A.; Noble, B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper illustrates the application of symbolic computation in connection with three aspects of mechanical systems: (1) The derivation of dynamical equations by Lagrangian methods; (2) The analysis and synthesis of kinematic mechanisms; and (3) A robot manipulator arm.

  10. Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance

  11. Regional Arctic System Model (RASM): A Tool to Address the U.S. Priorities and Advance Capabilities for Arctic Climate Modeling and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslowski, W.; Roberts, A.; Cassano, J. J.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Nijssen, B.; Osinski, R.; Zeng, X.; Brunke, M.; Duvivier, A.; Hamman, J.; Hossainzadeh, S.; Hughes, M.; Seefeldt, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing some of the most coordinated rapid climatic changes currently occurring anywhere on Earth, including the retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, which integrates forcing by, exchanges with and feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and land. While historical reconstructions from Earth System Models (ESMs) are in broad agreement with these changes, the rate of change in ESMs generally remains outpaced by observations. Reasons for that relate to a combination of coarse resolution, inadequate parameterizations, under-represented processes and a limited knowledge of physical interactions. We demonstrate the capability of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) in addressing some of the ESM limitations in simulating observed variability and trends in arctic surface climate. RASM is a high resolution, pan-Arctic coupled climate model with the sea ice and ocean model components configured at an eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12o and the atmosphere and land hydrology model components at 50 km resolution, which are all coupled at 20-minute intervals. RASM is an example of limited-area, process-resolving, fully coupled ESM, which due to the constraints from boundary conditions facilitates detailed comparisons with observational statistics that are not possible with ESMs. The overall goal of RASM is to address key requirements published in the Navy Arctic Roadmap: 2014-2030 and in the Implementation Plan for the National Strategy for the Arctic Region, regarding the need for advanced modeling capabilities for operational forecasting and strategic climate predictions through 2030. The main science objectives of RASM are to advance understanding and model representation of critical physical processes and feedbacks of importance to sea ice thickness and area distribution. RASM results are presented to quantify relative contributions by (i) resolved processes and feedbacks as well as (ii) sensitivity to space dependent sub-grid parameterizations to better

  12. Including Quantum Effects in the Dynamics of Complex (i.e., Large)Molecular Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William H.

    2006-04-27

    The development in the 1950's and 60's of crossed molecular beam methods for studying chemical reactions at the single-collision molecular level stimulated the need and desire for theoretical methods to describe these and other dynamical processes in molecular systems. Chemical dynamics theory has made great strides in the ensuing decades, so that methods are now available for treating the quantum dynamics of small molecular systems essentially completely. For the large molecular systems that are of so much interest nowadays (e.g. chemical reactions in solution, in clusters, in nano-structures, in biological systems, etc.), however, the only generally available theoretical approach is classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Much effort is currently being devoted to the development of approaches for describing the quantum dynamics of these complex systems. This paper reviews some of these approaches, especially the use of semiclassical approximations for adding quantum effects to classical MD simulations, also showing some new versions that should make these semiclassical approaches even more practical and accurate.

  13. A feedback model for leukemia including cell competition and the action of the immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balea, S.; Halanay, A.; Neamtu, M.

    2014-12-01

    A mathematical model, coupling the dynamics of short-term stem-like cells and mature leukocytes in leukemia with that of the immune system, is investigated. The model is described by a system of nine delay differential equations with nine delays. Three equilibrium points E0, E1, E2 are highlighted. The stability and the existence of the Hopf bifurcation for the equilibrium points are investigated. In the analysis of the model, the rate of asymmetric division and the rate of symmetric division are very important.

  14. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  15. Autonomous video camera system for monitoring impacts to benthic habitats from demersal fishing gear, including longlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Robert; Ewing, Graeme; Lamb, Tim; Welsford, Dirk; Constable, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the interactions of demersal fishing gear with the benthic environment are needed in order to manage conservation of benthic habitats. There has been limited direct assessment of these interactions through deployment of cameras on commercial fishing gear especially on demersal longlines. A compact, autonomous deep-sea video system was designed and constructed by the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) for deployment on commercial fishing gear to observe interactions with benthos in the Southern Ocean finfish fisheries (targeting toothfish, Dissostichus spp). The Benthic Impacts Camera System (BICS) is capable of withstanding depths to 2500 m, has been successfully fitted to both longline and demersal trawl fishing gear, and is suitable for routine deployment by non-experts such as fisheries observers or crew. The system is entirely autonomous, robust, compact, easy to operate, and has minimal effect on the performance of the fishing gear it is attached to. To date, the system has successfully captured footage that demonstrates the interactions between demersal fishing gear and the benthos during routine commercial operations. It provides the first footage demonstrating the nature of the interaction between demersal longlines and benthic habitats in the Southern Ocean, as well as showing potential as a tool for rapidly assessing habitat types and presence of mobile biota such as krill ( Euphausia superba).

  16. University Residential Building System. Phase II Report (Including Evaluation of Bids).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Dept. of Physical Planning and Construction.

    The primary objective of the University Residential Building Systems (URBS) project was the achievement of significant gains in environmental qualities concurrent with reductions in the cost for construction, maintenance and alteration of student housing facilities. Evaluation of the bids for the URBS components indicates that the foregoing…

  17. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N). This...

  18. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Text: Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N)...

  19. Including School Finance in Systemic Reform Strategies: A Commentary. CPRE Finance Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    School finance is once again a hot topic across the country. Despite the current turmoil in education finance, reform remains a priority at both the state and federal levels. This report examines the school finance issue and proposes that education funding be tied more closely to systemic reform initiatives. It next describes past trends in school…

  20. Case Studies in Systems Chemistry. Final Report. [Includes Complete Case Study, Carboxylic Acid Equilibria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, George

    This publication was produced as a teaching tool for college chemistry. The book is a text for a computer-based unit on the chemistry of acid-base titrations, and is designed for use with FORTRAN or BASIC computer systems, and with a programmable electronic calculator, in a variety of educational settings. The text attempts to present computer…

  1. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation... services. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 18, 2012 (75 FR 23289). At the request of a company official, the Department reviewed the certification for workers of the subject firm....

  2. Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Hollie

    2005-01-01

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce.…

  3. 76 FR 7187 - Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk-Power System; Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Trent Franks, U.S. House of Representatives. 10:35 a.m. Introductions; Commissioner Cheryl LaFleur... protecting against sophisticated and fast-moving threats? What role do you expect Smart Grid to play in the... grid reliability under Smart Grid applications? If not, how should NERC address these issues? c....

  4. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  5. Neutron monitoring systems including gamma thermometers and methods of calibrating nuclear instruments using gamma thermometers

    DOEpatents

    Moen, Stephan Craig; Meyers, Craig Glenn; Petzen, John Alexander; Foard, Adam Muhling

    2012-08-07

    A method of calibrating a nuclear instrument using a gamma thermometer may include: measuring, in the instrument, local neutron flux; generating, from the instrument, a first signal proportional to the neutron flux; measuring, in the gamma thermometer, local gamma flux; generating, from the gamma thermometer, a second signal proportional to the gamma flux; compensating the second signal; and calibrating a gain of the instrument based on the compensated second signal. Compensating the second signal may include: calculating selected yield fractions for specific groups of delayed gamma sources; calculating time constants for the specific groups; calculating a third signal that corresponds to delayed local gamma flux based on the selected yield fractions and time constants; and calculating the compensated second signal by subtracting the third signal from the second signal. The specific groups may have decay time constants greater than 5.times.10.sup.-1 seconds and less than 5.times.10.sup.5 seconds.

  6. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, Michael J.; Arzoumanidis, Gregory G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  7. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  8. A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  9. Two-statge sorption type cryogenic refrigerator including heat regeneration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Wen, Liang-Chi (Inventor); Bard, Steven (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A lower stage chemisorption refrigeration system physically and functionally coupled to an upper stage physical adsorption refrigeration system. Waste heat generated by the lower stage cycle is regenerated to fuel the upper stage cycle thereby greatly improving the energy efficiency of a two-stage sorption refrigerator. The two stages are joined by disposing a first pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a first refrigerant for the lower stage refrigeration cycle within a second pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a second refrigerant for the upper stage refrigeration cycle. The first pressurization chamber is separated from the second pressurization chamber by a gas-gap thermal switch which at times is filled with a thermoconductive fluid to allow conduction of heat from the first pressurization chamber to the second pressurization chamber.

  10. Stabilization of a Power System including Inverter Type Distributed Generators by the Virtual Synchronous Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimoto, Kenichi; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi

    The capacity of Distributed Generators (DGs) connected to grid by inverters are growing year and year. The inverters are generally controlled by PLL (Phase Locked Loop) in order to synchronize with power system frequency. Power systems will become unstable, if the capacity of inverter type DGs become larger and larger, because inverter frequency is controlled just to follow the frequency decided by other synchronous generators. There is the idea that inverters are controlled to behave like a synchronous generator. This concept is called Virtual Synchronous Generator (VSG). In this paper, a control scheme of VSG is presented, and the design method of required energy storage and the ability of grid stabilizing control by VSG is investigated by computer simulations.

  11. Individual welfare maximization in electricity markets including consumer and full transmission system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, James Daniel

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation presents a new algorithm that allows a market participant to maximize its individual welfare in the electricity spot market. The use of such an algorithm in determining market equilibrium points, called Nash equilibria, is also demonstrated. The start of the algorithm is a spot market model that uses the optimal power flow (OPF), with a full representation of the transmission system. The OPF is also extended to model consumer behavior, and a thorough mathematical justification for the inclusion of the consumer model in the OPF is presented. The algorithm utilizes price and dispatch sensitivities, available from the Hessian matrix of the OPF, to help determine an optimal change in an individual's bid. The algorithm is shown to be successful in determining local welfare maxima, and the prospects for scaling the algorithm up to realistically sized systems are very good. Assuming a market in which all participants maximize their individual welfare, economic equilibrium points, called Nash equilibria, are investigated. This is done by iteratively solving the individual welfare maximization algorithm for each participant until a point is reached where all individuals stop modifying their bids. It is shown that these Nash equilibria can be located in this manner. However, it is also demonstrated that equilibria do not always exist, and are not always unique when they do exist. It is also shown that individual welfare is a highly nonconcave function resulting in many local maxima. As a result, a more global optimization technique, using a genetic algorithm (GA), is investigated. The genetic algorithm is successfully demonstrated on several systems. It is also shown that a GA can be developed using special niche methods, which allow a GA to converge to several local optima at once. Finally, the last chapter of this dissertation covers the development of a new computer visualization routine for power system analysis: contouring. The contouring algorithm is

  12. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  13. Including long-term biological index performance in a multi-criteria Decision Support System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, T.; Bowen, Z.; Bovee, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    A Decision Support System (DSS) was developed for the reservoirs operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation that incorporates biological resources in a palette of decision variables. A scoring technique was developed for the DSS to help to evaluate the long-term effects of proposed reservoir system operations on those variables. The biological component of the DSS was developed to help Bureau of Reclamation reservoir operators evaluate the effects of different scenarios of reservoir operations on a variety of water-related biological resources. In this DSS, Reclamation's Reservoir Operations Modeling System (ROMS) is linked to modules evaluating power production, flood control benefits, irrigation water deliveries, municipal and industrial water supplies, habitat for endemic fish communities, tailwater fisheries, nesting habitat for shorebirds, reservoir recreation, reservoir fisheries, and regeneration of riparian cottonwood forests. Operation scenarios generated in ROMS are scored for each decision variable by comparison to a target range of a decision variable for a reference location and time period. The score for a variable is calculated based on the ratio between the percent of time that target conditions are met under alternative operating conditions and under the reference condition, respectively. A scoring technique was developed that recognizes that under either natural or highly managed conditions the reference target is not met at all times. Higher scores are achieved for environmental decision variables by operations scenarios that approach natural seasonal and annual variability in habitat availability.

  14. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level. PMID:26893178

  15. Changes in prostate cancer grading: Including a new patient-centric grading system.

    PubMed

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-04-01

    The first structured approach to grade prostate cancer based on the underlying histological architecture was developed by Donald Gleason who in 1966 proposed a morphologic classification of prostate cancer and in 1974 demonstrated its clinical significance based on prostate cancer-specific death. Contemporarily referred to as the Gleason grading system, it has gained worldwide recognition allowing a more individualized approach to patients with prostate cancer. In 2005, the International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) made the first revisions to the grading system. Subsequently, based on the new discoveries in pathologic and clinical aspects of prostate cancer, as well as the changing nature of the prostate cancer in part due to a robust screening, there was a need for experts to re-visit the approach to grade prostate cancer. In November 2014, the ISUP experts and clinical leaders in prostate cancer from 17 countries conducted a consensus conference in Chicago, IL, USA. The consensus conference defined various grade patterns and proposed the adoption of a new grading system of prostate cancer. Herein, we describe the background and rationale for the changes and provide guidelines to their clinical implementation.

  16. Migration path for structured documentation systems including standardized medical device data.

    PubMed

    Kock, Ann-Kristin; Ingenerf, Josef; Halkaliev, Stoyan; Handels, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    A standardized end-to-end solution has been implemented with the aim of supporting the semantic integration of clinical content in institution spanning applications. The approach outlined is a proof-of-concept design. It has shown that the standards chosen are suitable to integrate device data into forms, to document the results consistently and finally enable semantic interoperability. In detail the implementation includes a standardized device interface, a standardized representation of data entry forms and enables the communication of structured data via HL7 CDA. Because the proposed method applies a combination of standards semantic interoperability and the possibility of a contextual interpretation at each stage can be ensured. PMID:22874149

  17. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey; Ordaz, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  18. The Langley thermal protection system test facility: A description including design operating boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Langley thermal protection system test facility is presented. This facility was designed to provide realistic environments and times for testing thermal protection systems proposed for use on high speed vehicles such as the space shuttle. Products from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures, having a maximum total enthalpy of 10.3 MJ/kg, are used as a test medium. Test panels with maximum dimensions of 61 cm x 91.4 cm are mounted in the side wall of the test region. Static pressures in the test region can range from .005 to .1 atm and calculated equilibrium temperatures of test panels range from 700 K to 1700 K. Test times can be as long as 1800 sec. Some experimental data obtained while using combustion products of methane-air mixtures are compared with theory, and calibration of the facility is being continued to verify calculated values of parameters which are within the design operating boundaries.

  19. Robust and Adaptive OMR System Including Fuzzy Modeling, Fusion of Musical Rules, and Possible Error Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossant, Florence; Bloch, Isabelle

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a system for optical music recognition (OMR) in case of monophonic typeset scores. After clarifying the difficulties specific to this domain, we propose appropriate solutions at both image analysis level and high-level interpretation. Thus, a recognition and segmentation method is designed, that allows dealing with common printing defects and numerous symbol interconnections. Then, musical rules are modeled and integrated, in order to make a consistent decision. This high-level interpretation step relies on the fuzzy sets and possibility framework, since it allows dealing with symbol variability, flexibility, and imprecision of music rules, and merging all these heterogeneous pieces of information. Other innovative features are the indication of potential errors and the possibility of applying learning procedures, in order to gain in robustness. Experiments conducted on a large data base show that the proposed method constitutes an interesting contribution to OMR.

  20. Letter Report to Address Comments on the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-03-17

    The Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on November 01, 2007. The approval letter contained the following two comments: Comment 1--For 06-05-01, 06-17-04, 06-23-01 provide evidence that the 6 inch VCP pipe originating from building CP-2 is no longer active and sealed to prevent possible future contamination. Comment 2--For the area that includes 06-03-01, provide evidence that active lines are no longer feeding the North and South lagoons and have been sealed to prevent possible future contamination. To address these comments, closure documentation was reviewed, and site visits were conducted to locate and document the areas of concern. Additional fieldwork was conducted in March 2008 to seal the lines and openings described in the two comments. Photographs were taken of the closed drains and lines to document that the NDEP comments were adequately addressed and potential inadvertent discharge to the environment has been eliminated. Investigation and closure documentation was reviewed to identify the locations of potential drains, lines, and other features that could receive and/or transmit liquid. Based on the investigation findings and subsequent closure activities, no openings, distribution boxes, or other features (excluding known floor drains at CP-2) that could receive liquid were found at the CP-2 location (Figure 1), and potential manholes for the north and south sewage lagoons were identified for Corrective Action Site (CAS) 06-03-01 (Figure 2). The distribution box identified in Figure 1 was not located during the investigation and was assumed to have been previously removed.

  1. Recent progress in the 3N system including three-nucleon forces

    SciTech Connect

    Hueber, D.; Witala, H.; Kamada, H.; Nogga, A.; Gloeckle, W.

    1997-07-01

    A new single Faddeev equation for the inclusion of a three-nucleon force (3NF) into the three-nucleon (3N) continuum and a new partial wave decomposition of a 3NF is presented. This allows for the first time in momentum space calculations the inclusion of a 3NF in higher angular momenta. The authors present converged calculations including a 3NF up to j{sub max} = 6 for the three-nucleon bound state and j{sub max} = 3 in the 3N continuum, where j is the total nucleon-nucleon angular momentum. Several 3N Hamiltonians are generated based on modern nucleon-nucleon (NN) forces and properly adjusted 3NFs, which give the correct triton binding energy. They are used to analyze recent measurements of spin transfer coefficients in elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering. They show that scales with the triton binding energy, whereas K{sub y}{sup z{prime}z{prime}} does not.

  2. Neoclassical Transport Including Impurities and the Bootstrap Current in Advanced Helical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Shin; Sugama, Hideo

    2004-07-15

    A recently developed method to calculate the neoclassical viscosity, diffusion, and current coefficients in general nonsymmetric toroidal plasmas by using the direct solution of the linearized drift kinetic equation with the pitch-angle-scattering collision operator is applied to impurity transport problems and bootstrap current calculations in stellarators. In this new method based on the basic idea of the so-called moment approach, the collisional momentum conservation is taken into account, and thus, it is applicable to the heat and particle diffusivity in advanced stellarators with quasi symmetry, and also to plasma flows currents, and viscosities in general nonsymmetric multispecies plasmas. In this paper, the impurity flow and the bootstrap current observed in the neoclassical internal transport barrier operation in the Compact Helical System are compared with theoretical calculations. Another topic is the benchmark test of existing analytical expressions for the bootstrap currents by comparing with numerically obtained current coefficients. The geometric factor, which is required for the current calculation based on the moment method, given by our new method is compared with these formulas.

  3. Unmanned Aerial Systems as Part of a Multi-Component Assessment Strategy to Address Climate Change and Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Sciare, Jean; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been established as versatile tools for different applications, providing data and observations for atmospheric and Earth-Systems research. They offer an urgently needed link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations and are distinguished by significant versatility, flexibility and moderate operational costs. UAS have the proven potential to contribute to a multi-component assessment strategy that combines remote-sensing, numerical modelling and surface measurements in order to elucidate important atmospheric processes. This includes physical and chemical transformations related to ongoing climate change as well as issues linked to aerosol-cloud interactions and air quality. The distinct advantages offered by UAS comprise, to name but a few: (i) their ability to operate from altitudes of a few meters to up to a few kilometers; (ii) their capability to perform autonomously controlled missions, which provides for repeat-measurements to be carried out at precisely defined locations; (iii) their relative ease of operation, which enables flexible employment at short-term notice and (iv) the employment of more than one platform in stacked formation, which allows for unique, quasi-3D-observations of atmospheric properties and processes. These advantages are brought to bear in combining in-situ ground based observations and numerical modeling with UAS-based remote sensing in elucidating specific research questions that require both horizontally and vertically resolved measurements at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Employing numerical atmospheric modelling, UAS can provide survey information over spatially and temporally localized, focused areas of evolving atmospheric phenomena, as they become identified by the numerical models. Conversely, UAS observations offer urgently needed data for model verification and provide boundary conditions for numerical models. In this presentation, we will

  4. A catchment-scale groundwater model including sewer pipe leakage in an urban system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peche, Aaron; Fuchs, Lothar; Spönemann, Peter; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    -202. itwh (2002). Modellbeschreibung, Institut für technisch-wissenschaftliche Hydrologie GmbH, Hannover. Karpf, C. & Krebs, P. (2013). Modelling of groundwater infiltration into sewer systems. Urban Water Journal, 10:4, 221-229, DOI: 10.1080/1573062X.2012.724077. Kolditz, O., Bauer, S. et al. (2012). OpenGeoSys: an open source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media. Env. Earth Sci. 67(2):589-599. Wolf, L., Held, I., Eiswirth, M., & Hötzl, H. (2004). Impact of leaky sewers on groundwater quality. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, 32(4-5), 361-373. doi:10.1002/aheh.200400538. Wolf, L. (2006). Influence of leaky sewer systems on groundwater resources beneath the city of Rastatt, Germany. Dissertation, University of Karlsruhe.

  5. Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Systems for Wastewater Processing: Effects of Environmental Stresses Including Dormancy Cycling and Antibiotic Dosing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Larson, Brian D.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Kosiba, Michael L.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Catechis, John A.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) have been studied for a number of years as an alternate approach for treating wastewater streams during space exploration. While the technology provides a promising pre-treatment for lowering organic carbon and nitrogen content without the need for harsh stabilization chemicals, several challenges must be addressed before adoption of the technology in future missions. One challenge is the transportation of bioreactors containing intact, active biofilms as a means for rapid start-up on the International Space Station or beyond. Similarly, there could be a need for placing these biological systems into a dormant state for extended periods when the system is not in use, along with the ability for rapid restart. Previous studies indicated that there was little influence of storage condition (4 or 25 C, with or without bulk fluid) on recovery of bioreactors with immature biofilms (48 days old), but that an extensive recovery time was required (20+ days). Bioreactors with fully established biofilms (13 months) were able to recover from a 7-month dormancy within 4 days (approximately 1 residence). Further dormancy and recovery testing is presented here that examines the role of biofilm age on recovery requirements, repeated dormancy cycle capabilities, and effects of long-duration dormancy cycles (8-9 months) on HFMB systems. Another challenge that must be addressed is the possibility of antibiotics entering the wastewater stream. Currently, for most laboratory tests of biological water processors, donors providing urine may not contribute to the study when taking antibiotics because the effects on the system are yet uncharacterized. A simulated urinary tract infection event, where an opportunistic, pathogenic organism, E. coli, was introduced to the HFMBs followed by dosing with an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, was completed to study the effect of the antibiotic on reactor performance and to also examine the development of

  6. Advanced theoretical and experimental studies in automatic control and information systems. [including mathematical programming and game theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.

  7. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Update to Include Evaluation of Impact of Including a Humidifier Option

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D

    2007-02-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes

  8. 75 FR 28655 - Rexam Closure Systems, Inc. a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Closure Systems, Inc., a subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Hamlet, North Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). At the request of the State Agency, the Department... Employment and Training Administration Rexam Closure Systems, Inc. a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC Including...

  9. 76 FR 65212 - Caterpillar, Inc., Large Power Systems Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Gray...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    .... The notice was published in the Federal Register on January 25, 2010 (75 FR 3935). At the request of... Employment and Training Administration Caterpillar, Inc., Large Power Systems Division, Including On- Site... Adjustment Assistance on November 2, 2009, applicable to Caterpillar, Inc., Large Power Systems...

  10. 32 CFR 37.615 - What standards do I include for financial systems of for-profit firms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are to apply the standards in 32 CFR 34.11. You may grant an exception and allow a for-profit... system, as a minimum: (1) Complies with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. (2) Effectively controls all project funds, including Federal funds and any required cost share. The system must...

  11. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  12. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  13. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    PubMed

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  14. A design assessment of multiwall, metallic stand-off, and RSI reusable thermal protection systems including space shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R.; Dixon, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The design and assessment of reusable surface insulation (RSI), metallic stand off and multiwall thermal protection systems (TPS) is discussed. Multiwall TPS is described in some detail, and analyses useful for design of multiwall are included. Results indicate that multiwall has the potential to satisfy the TPS design goals better than the other systems. The total mass of the stand-off TPS and of the metallic systems require less primary structure mass than the RSI system, since the nonbuckling skin criteria required for RSI may be removed. Continued development of multiwall TPS is required to verify its potential and to provide the necessary data base for design.

  15. General design, construction, and operation guidelines: Constructed wetlands wastewater treatment systems for small users including individual residences

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, G.R.; Watson, J.T.; Choate, K.D.

    1991-03-01

    A constructed wetlands system (CW) treats wastewater through natural water quality improvement processes (physical, chemical and biological) that occur in natural wetlands. Proper design, construction and operation of a CW optimize the processes. Treatment by CW can be effective, reliable, simple and relatively inexpensive as compared to conventional systems. CW systems can be built for wide flow ranges, including sources having relatively small flows (e.g., individual homes, small businesses and schools). A CW is an alternative for a small system where conventional on-site methods are ineffective due to poor site conditions (e.g., low soil percolation, shallow soils, high groundwater table, Karst topography). 4 figs.

  16. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-05-29

    This paper describes a prototype for this EAS (real time) in the Bay area. Approach is pragmatic, attempting to establish a prototype system at a low cost and quickly. A real-time warning system can protect the public and mitigate earthquake damage. The proposed system is a distributed network of real-time strong-motion monitoring stations that telemetered data in real time to a central analysis facility which could transmit earthquake parameter information to an area before elastic wave energy arrived. Upgrades and issues that should be resolved before an operational EAS can be established, are listed.

  17. A computer software system for the generation of global ocean tides including self-gravitation and crustal loading effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer software system is described which computes global numerical solutions of the integro-differential Laplace tidal equations, including dissipation terms and ocean loading and self-gravitation effects, for arbitrary diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. The integration algorithm features a successive approximation scheme for the integro-differential system, with time stepping forward differences in the time variable and central differences in spatial variables.

  18. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  19. A Domain Analysis Model for eIRB Systems: Addressing the Weak Link in Clinical Research Informatics

    PubMed Central

    He, Shan; Narus, Scott P.; Facelli, Julio C.; Lau, Lee Min; Botkin, Jefferey R.; Hurdle, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are a critical component of clinical research and can become a significant bottleneck due to the dramatic increase, in both volume and complexity of clinical research. Despite the interest in developing clinical research informatics (CRI) systems and supporting data standards to increase clinical research efficiency and interoperability, informatics research in the IRB domain has not attracted much attention in the scientific community. The lack of standardized and structured application forms across different IRBs causes inefficient and inconsistent proposal reviews and cumbersome workflows. These issues are even more prominent in multi-institutional clinical research that is rapidly becoming the norm. This paper proposes and evaluates a domain analysis model for electronic IRB (eIRB) systems, paving the way for streamlined clinical research workflow via integration with other CRI systems and improved IRB application throughput via computer-assisted decision support. PMID:24929181

  20. Quantifying and Addressing the DOE Material Reactivity Requirements with Analysis and Testing of Hydrogen Storage Materials & Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Y. F.

    2012-04-30

    The objective of this project is to examine safety aspects of candidate hydrogen storage materials and systems being developed in the DOE Hydrogen Program. As a result of this effort, the general DOE safety target will be given useful meaning by establishing a link between the characteristics of new storage materials and the satisfaction of safety criteria. This will be accomplished through the development and application of formal risk analysis methods, standardized materials testing, chemical reactivity characterization, novel risk mitigation approaches and subscale system demonstration. The project also will collaborate with other DOE and international activities in materials based hydrogen storage safety to provide a larger, highly coordinated effort.

  1. Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including a current collector in communication with an electrode thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Herring, James S.; Stoots, Carl M.; O'Brien, James E.

    2013-03-05

    Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including such bundles include an electrically conductive current collector in communication with an anode or a cathode of each of a plurality of cells. A cross-sectional area of the current collector may vary in a direction generally parallel to a general direction of current flow through the current collector. The current collector may include a porous monolithic structure. At least one cell of the plurality of cells may include a current collector that surrounds an outer electrode of the cell and has at least six substantially planar exterior surfaces. The planar surfaces may extend along a length of the cell, and may abut against a substantially planar surface of a current collector of an adjacent cell. Methods for generating electricity and for performing electrolysis include flowing current through a conductive current collector having a varying cross-sectional area.

  2. A Systems Thinking Framework for Assessing and Addressing Malaria Locally: An Alternative to the Globalization of Anti-Malaria Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Derek W.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes a decision system that was used in the early 1900s in the Federated Malay States (FMS) by Malcolm Watson in order to make anti-malaria program recommendations to decision makers in a wide range of ecological settings. Watson's recommendations to decision makers throughout the FMS led to a dramatic suppression of malaria…

  3. Addressing the Needs of Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: The Current Status of Evidence-Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Daniel P.; Aron, Laudan; Bernstein, Jenny

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge about children and youth with disabilities at risk of delinquency or already involved with the juvenile justice system. It reviews the existing research as well as perspectives of service providers, administrators, policy makers, and advocates. Following an executive summary and introductory chapter,…

  4. 75 FR 34172 - Rexam Closure Systems, Inc., a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). The notice was amended on May 11, 2010 to... notice was published in the Federal Register on May 21, 2010 (75 FR 28655). At the request of a company... Employment and Training Administration Rexam Closure Systems, Inc., a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Including...

  5. Extension of TVCAI Project to Include Demonstration of Intelligent Videodisc System. Hardware, Software, and Courseware Implementation Component. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Richard C.; Knapp, Barbara H.

    This project, stemming from work started under the National Science Foundation grant "Development of a Television Computer Assisted Instruction (TVCAI) System" SER-7806412, called for the transfer to videodisc of some of the videotape materials developed under the grant. Three efforts were included in the proposal: design and development of…

  6. 34 CFR 403.202 - What must each State's system of core standards and measures of performance include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by the Office of Management and Budget under Control No. 1830-0030) Cross Reference: See 34 CFR 400.6. ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must each State's system of core standards and measures of performance include? 403.202 Section 403.202 Education Regulations of the Offices of...

  7. 34 CFR 403.202 - What must each State's system of core standards and measures of performance include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by the Office of Management and Budget under Control No. 1830-0030) Cross Reference: See 34 CFR 400.6. ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must each State's system of core standards and measures of performance include? 403.202 Section 403.202 Education Regulations of the Offices of...

  8. Maine Exhibitions Assessment Project, September 2002-June 2004. Technical Criteria for Including Exhibition Assessments in Comprehensive Local Assessment Systems. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In September 2002, the Maine Department of Education began organizing an Exhibition Assessment Advisory Committee whose purpose it was to consider meaningful ways to include exhibition assessments in comprehensive local assessment systems. School administrators were invited to participate and/or nominate practitioners in their districts to become…

  9. Addressing the pasture anomaly: how uncertainty in historical pasture data leads to divergence of atmospheric CO2 in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, L. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Frolking, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Thornton, P. E.; Fisk, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The characterization of land-use changes and activities within Earth System Models (ESMs) has evolved over the years, from inclusion of net emissions only, to dynamic maps of land-use activity. As part of the land-use harmonization (LUH) project for the 5th IPCC Assessment Report (AR5), new historical reconstructions of land-use change were developed for use in ESMs; these were formulated in terms of gridded maps of land-use activities and land-use transitions including agricultural expansion and abandonment, wood harvest, and shifting cultivation. In addition, due to the uncertainties involved in historical land-use reconstructions, the LUH data was evaluated in over 1600 different reconstructions. Here, we build upon the LUH approach and convert the LUH method into an optimization problem that allows model parameters to be varied in a systematic way to quantitatively meet a desired set of model constraints. We use these methods to address the "pasture anomaly" - an anomalous sudden increase in pasture-related emissions that occurs around 1950-1960 and which causes the simulated atmospheric CO2 in ESMs to diverge from the observed record (prior to that period, ESMs using the LUH data products are typically very successful at reproducing observed atmospheric CO2). First, we apply our optimization method while attempting to preserve as much LUH data as possible and simultaneously removing the pasture anomaly from the land-use emissions time-series. Next, we broaden the method and allow key model inputs to vary within realistic bounds (corresponding to specific ways in which the pasture reconstruction is uncertain). The result is a set of alternative land-use histories that quantify the manifold of possible solutions to the pasture anomaly problem. The most realistic reconstructions within this set can be employed by ESMs as a practical solution to closing the gap between historical atmospheric CO2 records and ESM predictions.

  10. Opportunity, risk, and success recognizing, addressing, and balancing multiple factors crucial to the success of a project management system deployed to support multi-lateral decommissioning programs

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Greg; Longsworth, Paul

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the factors involved in effectively implementing a world-class program/project management information system funded by multiple nations. Along with many other benefits, investing in and utilizing such systems improves delivery and drive accountability for major expenditures. However, there are an equally large number of impediments to developing and using such systems. To be successful, the process requires a dynamic combining of elements and strategic sequencing of initiatives. While program/project-management systems involve information technologies, software and hardware, they represent only one element of the overall system.. Technology, process, people and knowledge must all be integrated and working in concert with one another to assure a fully capable system. Major system implementations occur infrequently, and frequently miss established targets in relatively small organizations (with the risk increasing with greater complexity). The European Bank of Reconstruction (EBRD) is midway through just such an implementation. The EBRD is using funds from numerous donor countries to sponsor development of an overarching program management system. The system will provide the Russian Federation with the tools to effectively manage prioritizing, planning, and physically decommissioning assets{sub i}n northwest Russia to mitigate risks associated the Soviet era nuclear submarine program. Project-management delivery using world-class techniques supported by aligned systems has been proven to increase the probability of delivering on-time and on-budget, assuring those funding such programs optimum value for money. However, systems deployed to manage multi-laterally funded projects must be developed with appropriate levels of consideration given to unique aspects such as: accommodation of existing project management methods, consideration for differences is management structures and organizational behaviors, incorporation of unique strengths, and

  11. Addressing the impact of environmental uncertainty in plankton model calibration with a dedicated software system: the Marine Model Optimization Testbed (MarMOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, J. C. P.; Challenor, P. G.

    2011-08-01

    A wide variety of different marine plankton system models have been coupled with ocean circulation models, with the aim of understanding and predicting aspects of environmental change. However, an ability to make reliable inferences about real-world processes from the model behaviour demands a quantitative understanding of model error that remains elusive. Assessment of coupled model output is inhibited by relatively limited observing system coverage of biogeochemical components. Any direct assessment of the plankton model is further inhibited by uncertainty in the physical state. Furthermore, comparative evaluation of plankton models on the basis of their design is inhibited by the sensitivity of their dynamics to many adjustable parameters. The Marine Model Optimization Testbed is a new software tool designed for rigorous analysis of plankton models in a multi-site 1-D framework, in particular to address uncertainty issues in model assessment. A flexible user interface ensures its suitability to more general inter-comparison, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, including model comparison at the level of individual processes, and to state estimation for specific locations. The principal features of MarMOT are described and its application to model calibration is demonstrated by way of a set of twin experiments, in which synthetic observations are assimilated in an attempt to recover the true parameter values of a known system. The experimental aim is to investigate the effect of different misfit weighting schemes on parameter recovery in the presence of error in the plankton model's environmental input data. Simulated errors are derived from statistical characterizations of the mixed layer depth, the horizontal flux divergences of the biogeochemical tracers and the initial state. Plausible patterns of uncertainty in these data are shown to produce strong temporal and spatial variability in the expected simulation error over an annual cycle, indicating

  12. Addressing disproportionality through undoing racism, leadership development, and community engagement.

    PubMed

    James, Joyce; Green, Deborah; Rodriguez, Carolyne; Fong, Rowena

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 the Texas 79th legislature passed Senate Bill 6, which included mandates to address disproportionality. This article will describe how the Texas Department of Family Protective Services in collaboration with Casey Family Programs' Texas State Strategy systems improvement initiative is addressing disproportionality statewide through promising practices and innovations in undoing racism trainings, values-based leadership development, and community engagement strategies.

  13. Addressing Disproportionality through Undoing Racism, Leadership Development, and Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Joyce; Green, Deborah; Rodriguez, Carolyne; Fong, Rowena

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 the Texas 79th legislature passed Senate Bill 6, which included mandates to address disproportionality. This article will describe how the Texas Department of Family Protective Services in collaboration with Casey Family Programs' Texas State Strategy systems improvement initiative is addressing disproportionality statewide through…

  14. A perfusion bioreactor system efficiently generates cell‐loaded bone substitute materials for addressing critical size bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhans, Claudia; Mohan, Ramkumar Ramani; Vacun, Gabriele; Schwarz, Thomas; Haller, Barbara; Sun, Yang; Kahlig, Alexander; Kluger, Petra; Finne‐Wistrand, Anna; Walles, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Critical size bone defects and non‐union fractions are still challenging to treat. Cell‐loaded bone substitutes have shown improved bone ingrowth and bone formation. However, a lack of methods for homogenously colonizing scaffolds limits the maximum volume of bone grafts. Additionally, therapy robustness is impaired by heterogeneous cell populations after graft generation. Our aim was to establish a technology for generating grafts with a size of 10.5 mm in diameter and 25 mm of height, and thus for grafts suited for treatment of critical size bone defects. Therefore, a novel tailor‐made bioreactor system was developed, allowing standardized flow conditions in a porous poly(L‐lactide‐co‐caprolactone) material. Scaffolds were seeded with primary human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different donors. In contrast to static experimental conditions, homogenous cell distributions were accomplished under dynamic culture. Additionally, culture in the bioreactor system allowed the induction of osteogenic lineage commitment after one week of culture without addition of soluble factors. This was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of calcification and gene expression markers related to osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the novel bioreactor technology allows efficient and standardized conditions for generating bone substitutes that are suitable for the treatment of critical size defects in humans. PMID:26011163

  15. A perfusion bioreactor system efficiently generates cell-loaded bone substitute materials for addressing critical size bone defects.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, Claudia; Mohan, Ramkumar Ramani; Vacun, Gabriele; Schwarz, Thomas; Haller, Barbara; Sun, Yang; Kahlig, Alexander; Kluger, Petra; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Critical size bone defects and non-union fractions are still challenging to treat. Cell-loaded bone substitutes have shown improved bone ingrowth and bone formation. However, a lack of methods for homogenously colonizing scaffolds limits the maximum volume of bone grafts. Additionally, therapy robustness is impaired by heterogeneous cell populations after graft generation. Our aim was to establish a technology for generating grafts with a size of 10.5 mm in diameter and 25 mm of height, and thus for grafts suited for treatment of critical size bone defects. Therefore, a novel tailor-made bioreactor system was developed, allowing standardized flow conditions in a porous poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) material. Scaffolds were seeded with primary human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different donors. In contrast to static experimental conditions, homogenous cell distributions were accomplished under dynamic culture. Additionally, culture in the bioreactor system allowed the induction of osteogenic lineage commitment after one week of culture without addition of soluble factors. This was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of calcification and gene expression markers related to osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the novel bioreactor technology allows efficient and standardized conditions for generating bone substitutes that are suitable for the treatment of critical size defects in humans.

  16. A perfusion bioreactor system efficiently generates cell-loaded bone substitute materials for addressing critical size bone defects.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, Claudia; Mohan, Ramkumar Ramani; Vacun, Gabriele; Schwarz, Thomas; Haller, Barbara; Sun, Yang; Kahlig, Alexander; Kluger, Petra; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Critical size bone defects and non-union fractions are still challenging to treat. Cell-loaded bone substitutes have shown improved bone ingrowth and bone formation. However, a lack of methods for homogenously colonizing scaffolds limits the maximum volume of bone grafts. Additionally, therapy robustness is impaired by heterogeneous cell populations after graft generation. Our aim was to establish a technology for generating grafts with a size of 10.5 mm in diameter and 25 mm of height, and thus for grafts suited for treatment of critical size bone defects. Therefore, a novel tailor-made bioreactor system was developed, allowing standardized flow conditions in a porous poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) material. Scaffolds were seeded with primary human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different donors. In contrast to static experimental conditions, homogenous cell distributions were accomplished under dynamic culture. Additionally, culture in the bioreactor system allowed the induction of osteogenic lineage commitment after one week of culture without addition of soluble factors. This was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of calcification and gene expression markers related to osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the novel bioreactor technology allows efficient and standardized conditions for generating bone substitutes that are suitable for the treatment of critical size defects in humans. PMID:26011163

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama. [Includes engineering drawings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Information is provided on the solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center. The solar space heating and hot water facility and the project involved in its construction are described in considerable detail and detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are included. The facility was designed to provide 85 percent of the hot water and 85 percent of the space heating requirements. Two important factors concerning this project for commercial demonstration are the successful use of silicon oil as a heat transfer fluid and the architecturally aesthetic impact of a large solar energy system as a visual centerpoint. There is no overheat or freeze protection due to the characteristics of the silicon oil and the design of the system. Construction proceeded on schedule with no cost overruns. It is designed to be relatively free of scheduled maintenance, and has experienced practically no problems.

  18. Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  19. Addressing the Challenges of Diverse Knowledge Systems through Landscape Analysis: A Case Study in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, A. H.; Griggs, D.; Joachim, L.; Heider, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Barmah-Millewa region of the Murray-Darling Basin is the heart of the Traditional Lands of the Yorta Yorta people. Management of water and ecosystem services in the region is governed by a wide array of sometimes inconsistent legislation and policies with differing rules, management focus and plans, and permitting and allocation procedures. Geographic information systems are a common framework for the integration of Indigenous knowledge and insights into natural resources management. But only with appropriate collection, management and database design protocols in place can geodatabase development and analysis support the effective and respectful participation of the Yorta Yorta community in management of this ecologically, economically and culturally important region. Here we describe the knowledge collection and protection protocols that were applied to develop the integrated geodatabase. We present approaches to generating meaningful guidance for water managers on the cultural implications of water allocation decisions.

  20. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  1. A new scoring system for the chances of identifying a BRCA1/2 mutation outperforms existing models including BRCAPRO

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D; Eccles, D; Rahman, N; Young, K; Bulman, M; Amir, E; Shenton, A; Howell, A; Lalloo, F

    2004-01-01

    Methods: DNA samples from affected subjects from 422 non-Jewish families with a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were screened for BRCA1 mutations and a subset of 318 was screened for BRCA2 by whole gene screening techniques. Using a combination of results from screening and the family history of mutation negative and positive kindreds, a simple scoring system (Manchester scoring system) was devised to predict pathogenic mutations and particularly to discriminate at the 10% likelihood level. A second separate dataset of 192 samples was subsequently used to test the model's predictive value. This was further validated on a third set of 258 samples and compared against existing models. Results: The scoring system includes a cut-off at 10 points for each gene. This equates to >10% probability of a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 individually. The Manchester scoring system had the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity at 10% prediction for the presence of mutations as shown by its highest C-statistic and was far superior to BRCAPRO. Conclusion: The scoring system is useful in identifying mutations particularly in BRCA2. The algorithm may need modifying to include pathological data when calculating whether to screen for BRCA1 mutations. It is considerably less time-consuming for clinicians than using computer models and if implemented routinely in clinical practice will aid in selecting families most suitable for DNA sampling for diagnostic testing. PMID:15173236

  2. A computer software system for the generation of global ocean tides including self-gravitation and crustal loading effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer software system is described which computes global numerical solutions of the integro-differential Laplace tidal equations, including dissipation terms and ocean loading and self-gravitation effects, for arbitrary diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. The integration algorithm features a successive approximation scheme for the integro-differential system, with time stepping forward differences in the time variable and central differences in spatial variables. Solutions for M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1 tidal constituents neglecting the effects of ocean loading and self-gravitation and a converged M2, solution including ocean loading and self-gravitation effects are presented in the form of cotidal and corange maps.

  3. Ultrasonic Data Display and Analysis System Developed (Including Fuzzy Logic Analysis) for the Windows-Based PC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, Jeffrey J.; Cios, Kryzsztof J.; Roth, Don J.; cAO, wEI n.

    2001-01-01

    Post-Scan Interactive Data Display (PSIDD) III is a user-oriented Windows-based system that facilitates the display and comparison of ultrasonic contact measurement data obtained at NASA Glenn Research Center's Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation measurement facility. The system is optimized to compare ultrasonic measurements made at different locations within a material or at different stages of material degradation. PSIDD III provides complete analysis of the primary waveforms in the time and frequency domains along with the calculation of several frequency-dependent properties including phase velocity and attenuation coefficient and several frequency-independent properties, like the cross correlation velocity. The system allows image generation on all the frequency-dependent properties at any available frequency (limited by the bandwidth used in the scans) and on any of the frequency-independent properties. From ultrasonic contact scans, areas of interest on an image can be studied with regard to underlying raw waveforms and derived ultrasonic properties by simply selecting the point on the image. The system offers various modes of indepth comparison between scan points. Up to five scan points can be selected for comparative analysis at once. The system was developed with Borland Delphi software (Visual Pascal) and is based on an SQL data base. It is ideal for the classification of material properties or the location of microstructure variations in materials. Along with the ultrasonic contact measurement software that it is partnered with, this system is technology ready and can be transferred to users worldwide.

  4. Acceleration of dormant storage effects to address the reliability of silicon surface micromachined Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, James V.; Candelaria, Sam A.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Duesterhaus, Michelle Ann; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Timpe, Shannon J.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Skousen, Troy J.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Parson, Ted Blair

    2006-06-01

    Qualification of microsystems for weapon applications is critically dependent on our ability to build confidence in their performance, by predicting the evolution of their behavior over time in the stockpile. The objective of this work was to accelerate aging mechanisms operative in surface micromachined silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with contacting surfaces that are stored for many years prior to use, to determine the effects of aging on reliability, and relate those effects to changes in the behavior of interfaces. Hence the main focus was on 'dormant' storage effects on the reliability of devices having mechanical contacts, the first time they must move. A large number ({approx}1000) of modules containing prototype devices and diagnostic structures were packaged using the best available processes for simple electromechanical devices. The packaging processes evolved during the project to better protect surfaces from exposure to contaminants and water vapor. Packages were subjected to accelerated aging and stress tests to explore dormancy and operational environment effects on reliability and performance. Functional tests and quantitative measurements of adhesion and friction demonstrated that the main failure mechanism during dormant storage is change in adhesion and friction, precipitated by loss of the fluorinated monolayer applied after fabrication. The data indicate that damage to the monolayer can occur at water vapor concentrations as low as 500 ppm inside the package. The most common type of failure was attributed to surfaces that were in direct contact during aging. The application of quantitative methods for monolayer lubricant analysis showed that even though the coverage of vapor-deposited monolayers is generally very uniform, even on hidden surfaces, locations of intimate contact can be significantly depleted in initial concentration of lubricating molecules. These areas represent defects in the film prone to adsorption of water or

  5. Potential for Expanding the Near Real Time ForWarn Regional Forest Monitoring System to Include Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Gasser, Gerald; Hargrove, William; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    The on-line near real time (NRT) ForWarn system is currently deployed to monitor regional forest disturbances within the conterminous United States (CONUS), using daily MODIS Aqua and Terra NDVI data to derive monitoring products. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated such a system. Work on ForWarn began in 2006 with development and validation of retrospective MODIS NDVI-based forest monitoring products. Subsequently, NRT forest disturbance monitoring products were demonstrated, leading to the actual system deployment in 2010. ForWarn provides new CONUS forest disturbance monitoring products every 8 days, using USGS eMODIS data for current NDVI. ForWarn currently does not cover Alaska, which includes extensive forest lands at risk to multiple biotic and abiotic threats. This poster discusses a case study using Alaska eMODIS Terra data to derive ForWarn like forest change products during the 2010 growing season. The eMODIS system provides current MODIS Terra NDVI products for Alaska. Resulting forest change products were assessed with ground, aerial, and Landsat reference data. When cloud and snow free, these preliminary products appeared to capture regional forest disturbances from insect defoliation and fires; however, more work is needed to mitigate cloud and snow contamination, including integration of eMODIS Aqua data.

  6. Three-dimensional dynamics of scientific balloon systems in response to sudden gust loadings. [including a computer program user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, D. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed of the three-dimensional dynamics of a high-altitude scientific research balloon system perturbed from its equilibrium configuration by an arbitrary gust loading. The platform is modelled as a system of four coupled pendula, and the equations of motion were developed in the Lagrangian formalism assuming a small-angle approximation. Three-dimensional pendulation, torsion, and precessional motion due to Coriolis forces are considered. Aerodynamic and viscous damping effects on the pendulatory and torsional motions are included. A general model of the gust field incident upon the balloon system was developed. The digital computer simulation program is described, and a guide to its use is given.

  7. A three-dimensional model of the human masticatory system, including the mandible, the dentition and the temporomandibular joints.

    PubMed

    Pileicikiene, Gaivile; Varpiotas, Edvinas; Surna, Rimas; Surna, Algimantas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create a three-dimensional mathematical model of a human masticatory system, including the mandible, the dentition and the temporomandibular joints. Object of research was one 20 year old dead man. The research was approved by Committee of bioethics (Kaunas University of Medicine). Required extent of computed tomography scanning and required high amount and high resolution of images increased X-ray radiation for the object and made this research impossible to perform on alive human. Spiral computed tomography scanning was performed to achieve two-dimensional images, necessary for creating three-dimensional model. The 3D modeling was done using the "Image pro plus" and "Imageware"software. A three-dimensional physiological (normal) model of a human masticatory system, simulating the mandible, the dentition and the temporomandibular joints was generated. This model system will be used subsequently in stress analysis comparison for the physiological and pathological systems after improvement of its physical properties. We suggest that computer simulation is a promising way to study musculoskeletal biomechanics of masticatory system.

  8. PSIDD3: Post-Scan Ultrasonic Data Display System for the Windows-Based PC Including Fuzzy Logic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, Jeffrey J.; Cios, Krzysztof J.; Roth, Don J.; Cao, Wei

    2000-01-01

    Post-Scan Interactive Data Display (PSIDD) III is a user-oriented Windows-based system that facilitates the display and comparison of ultrasonic contact data. The system is optimized to compare ultrasonic measurements made at different locations within a material or at different stages of material degradation. PSIDD III provides complete analysis of the primary wave forms in the time and frequency domains along with the calculation of several frequency dependent properties including Phase Velocity and Attenuation Coefficient and several frequency independent properties, like the Cross Correlation Velocity. The system allows image generation on all of the frequency dependent properties at any available frequency (limited by the bandwidth used in the scans) and on any of the frequency independent properties. From ultrasonic contact scans, areas of interest on an image can be studied with regard to underlying raw waveforms and derived ultrasonic properties by simply selecting the point on the image. The system offers various modes of in-depth comparison between scan points. Up to five scan points can be selected for comparative analysis at once. The system was developed with Borland Delphi software (Visual Pascal) and is based on a SQL database. It is ideal for classification of material properties, or location of microstructure variations in materials.

  9. A conceptual configuration of the lunar base bioregenerative life support system including soil-like substrate for growing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Yu, C. Y.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu L.; Wang, J.

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents a conceptual configuration of the lunar base bioregenerative life support system (LBLSS), including soil-like substrate (SLS) for growing plants. SLS makes it possible to combine the processes of plant growth and the utilization of plant waste. Plants are to be grown on SLS on the basis of 20 kg of dry SLS mass or 100 kg of wet SLS mass per square meter. The substrate is to be delivered to the base ready-made as part of the plant growth subsystem. Food for the crew was provided by prestored stock 24% and by plant growing system 76%. Total dry weight of the food is 631 g per day (2800 kcal/day) for one crew member (CM). The list of candidate plants to be grown under lunar BLSS conditions included 14 species: wheat, rice, soybean, peanuts, sweet pepper, carrots, tomatoes, coriander, cole, lettuce, radish, squash, onion and garlic. From the prestored stock the crew consumed canned fish, iodinated salt, sugar, beef sauce and seafood sauce. Our calculations show that to provide one CM with plant food requires the area of 47.5 m 2. The balance of substance is achieved by the removal dehydrated urine 59 g, feces 31 g, food waste 50 g, SLS 134 g, and also waters 86 g from system and introduction food 236 g, liquid potassium soap 4 g and mineral salts 120 g into system daily. To reduce system setup time the first plants could be sowed and germinated to a certain age on the Earth.

  10. Airframe-propulsion system aerodynamic interference predictions at high transonic Mach numbers including off-design engine airflow effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulfan, R. M.; Sigalla, A.

    1981-01-01

    The transonic speed regime for airplanes at conditions where inlet spillage takes place is discussed. A wind tunnel test program to evaluate aerodynamic performance penalties associated with propulsion system installation and operation at subsonic through low supersonic speeds was conducted. The accuracy of analytic methods for predicting transonic engine airframe interference effects was assessed. Study variables included Mach number, angle of attack, relative nacelle location, and nacelle mass flow ratio. Results include test theory comparisons of forces as well as induced pressure fields. Prediction capability of induced shock wave strength and locations is assessed. It was found that large interference forces due to engine location and flow spillage occur at transonic speeds, that theory explains these effects; and that theory can predict quantitatively these effects.

  11. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS) model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV) loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves. PMID:21942971

  12. An enhanced bacterial foraging algorithm approach for optimal power flow problem including FACTS devices considering system loadability.

    PubMed

    Belwin Edward, J; Rajasekar, N; Sathiyasekar, K; Senthilnathan, N; Sarjila, R

    2013-09-01

    Obtaining optimal power flow solution is a strenuous task for any power system engineer. The inclusion of FACTS devices in the power system network adds to its complexity. The dual objective of OPF with fuel cost minimization along with FACTS device location for IEEE 30 bus is considered and solved using proposed Enhanced Bacterial Foraging algorithm (EBFA). The conventional Bacterial Foraging Algorithm (BFA) has the difficulty of optimal parameter selection. Hence, in this paper, BFA is enhanced by including Nelder-Mead (NM) algorithm for better performance. A MATLAB code for EBFA is developed and the problem of optimal power flow with inclusion of FACTS devices is solved. After several run with different initial values, it is found that the inclusion of FACTS devices such as SVC and TCSC in the network reduces the generation cost along with increased voltage stability limits. It is also observed that, the proposed algorithm requires lesser computational time compared to earlier proposed algorithms.

  13. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  14. Addressing the complexity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: from phenotypes and biomarkers to scale-free networks, systems biology, and P4 medicine.

    PubMed

    Agusti, Alvar; Sobradillo, Patricia; Celli, Bartolomé

    2011-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease at the clinical, cellular, and molecular levels. However, its diagnosis, assessment, and therapeutic management are based almost exclusively on the severity of airflow limitation. A better understanding of the multiple dimensions of COPD and its relationship to other diseases is very relevant and of high current interest. Recent theoretical (scale-free networks), technological (high-throughput technology, biocomputing), and analytical improvements (systems biology) provide tools capable of addressing the complexity of COPD. The information obtained from the integrated use of those techniques will be eventually incorporated into routine clinical practice. This review summarizes our current knowledge in this area and offers an insight into the elements needed to progress toward an integrated, multilevel view of COPD based on the novel scientific strategy of systems biology and its potential clinical derivative, P4 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, and Participatory).

  15. In situ calibration of atmospheric-infrasound sensors including the effects of wind-noise-reduction pipe systems.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2011-09-01

    A worldwide network of more than 40 infrasound monitoring stations has been established as part of the effort to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Each station has four to eight individual infrasound elements in a kilometer-scale array for detection and bearing determination of acoustic events. The frequency range of interest covers a three-decade range-roughly from 0.01 to 10 Hz. A typical infrasound array element consists of a receiving transducer connected to a multiple-inlet pipe network to average spatially over the short-wavelength turbulence-associated "wind noise." Although the frequency response of the transducer itself may be known, the wind-noise reduction system modifies that response. In order to understand the system's impact on detection and identification of acoustical events, the overall frequency response must be determined. This paper describes a technique for measuring the absolute magnitude and phase of the frequency response of an infrasound element including the wind-noise-reduction piping by comparison calibration using ambient noise and a reference-microphone system. Measured coherence between the reference and the infrasound element and the consistency between the magnitude and the phase provide quality checks on the process. PMID:21895058

  16. In situ calibration of atmospheric-infrasound sensors including the effects of wind-noise-reduction pipe systems.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2011-09-01

    A worldwide network of more than 40 infrasound monitoring stations has been established as part of the effort to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Each station has four to eight individual infrasound elements in a kilometer-scale array for detection and bearing determination of acoustic events. The frequency range of interest covers a three-decade range-roughly from 0.01 to 10 Hz. A typical infrasound array element consists of a receiving transducer connected to a multiple-inlet pipe network to average spatially over the short-wavelength turbulence-associated "wind noise." Although the frequency response of the transducer itself may be known, the wind-noise reduction system modifies that response. In order to understand the system's impact on detection and identification of acoustical events, the overall frequency response must be determined. This paper describes a technique for measuring the absolute magnitude and phase of the frequency response of an infrasound element including the wind-noise-reduction piping by comparison calibration using ambient noise and a reference-microphone system. Measured coherence between the reference and the infrasound element and the consistency between the magnitude and the phase provide quality checks on the process.

  17. Advances with the new AIMS fab 193 2nd generation: a system for the 65 nm node including immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibold, Axel M.; Poortinga, E.; Doornmalen, H. v.; Schmid, R.; Scherubl, T.; Harnisch, W.

    2005-06-01

    The Aerial Image Measurement System, AIMS, for 193nm lithography emulation is established as a standard for the rapid prediction of wafer printability for critical structures including dense patterns and defects or repairs on masks. The main benefit of AIMS is to save expensive image qualification consisting of test wafer exposures followed by wafer CD-SEM resist or wafer analysis. By adjustment of numerical aperture (NA), illumination type and partial coherence (σ) to match any given stepper/ scanner, AIMS predicts the printability of 193nm reticles such as binary with, or without OPC and phase shifting. A new AIMS fab 193 second generation system with a maximum NA of 0.93 is now available. Improvements in field uniformity, stability over time, measurement automation and higher throughput meet the challenging requirements of the 65nm node. A new function, "Global CD Map" can be applied to automatically measure and analyse the global CD uniformity of repeating structures across a reticle. With the options of extended depth-of-focus (EDOF) software and the upcoming linear polarisation capability in the illumination the new AIMS fab 193 second generation system is able to cover both dry and immersion requirements for NA < 1. Rigorous simulations have been performed to study the effects of polarisation for imaging by comparing the aerial image of the AIMS to the resist image of the scanner.

  18. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  19. A performance model of Thermal Imaging System (TISs) which includes the human observer's response to state of the art displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Denise M.

    1991-09-01

    This paper presents a model for predicting the performance of thermal imaging systems (TISs). This model combines conventional modeling relationships and recently reported characteristics of display monitors to determine the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) out of the TIS. Also included are the results of psychophysical experiments which evaluated the capability of a human observer to detect the presence of an object displayed on the same monitor. The model is then used to determine the noise equivalent temperature difference (NEdeltaT) based on background photon noise limited (BLIP) operating conditions of the TIS. Finally, the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDT) in the scene is determined from the maximum signal-to-noise ratio of the monitor.

  20. Addressing the social determinants of health through health system strengthening and inter-sectoral convergence: the case of the Indian National Rural Health Mission

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Amit Mohan; Chakraborty, Gautam; Yadav, Sajjan Singh; Bhatia, Salima

    2013-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 21st century, India was plagued by significant rural–urban, inter-state and inter-district inequities in health. For example, in 2004, the infant mortality rate (IMR) was 24 points higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. To address these inequities, to strengthen the rural health system (a major determinant of health in itself) and to facilitate action on other determinants of health, India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in April 2005. Methods Under the NRHM, Rs. 666 billion (US$12.1 billion) was invested in rural areas from April 2005 to March 2012. There was also a substantially higher allocation for 18 high-focus states and 264 high-focus districts, identified on the basis of poor health and demographic indicators. Other determinants of health, especially nutrition and decentralized action, were addressed through mechanisms like State/District Health Missions, Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committees, and Village Health and Nutrition Days. Results Consequently, in bigger high-focus states, rural IMR fell by 15.6 points between 2004 and 2011, as compared to 9 points in urban areas. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate in high-focus states declined by 17.9% between 2004–2006 and 2007–2009 compared to 14.6% in other states. Conclusion The article, on the basis of the above approaches employed under NRHM, proposes the NRHM model to ‘reduce health inequities and initiate action on SDH’. PMID:23458089

  1. Pulsar population synthesis using palfa detections and pulsar search collaboratory discoveries including a wide DNS system and a nearby MSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiggum, Joseph Karl

    Using the ensemble of detections from pulsar surveys, we can learn about the sizes and characteristics of underlying populations. In this thesis, I analyze results from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) precursor and Green Bank Telescope 350 MHz Drift Scan surveys; I examine survey sensitivity to see how detections can inform pulsar population models, I look at new ways of including young scientists -- high school students -- in the discovery process and I present timing solutions for students' discoveries (including a nearby millisecond pulsar and a pulsar in a wide-orbit double neutron star system). The PALFA survey is on-going and uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver at 1400 MHz to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo (32° ?£? 77° and 168° ?£? 214°) close to the Galactic plane (|b| ? 5°) for pulsars. The PALFA precursor survey observed a subset of this region, (|b| ? 1°) and detected 45 pulsars, including one known millisecond pulsar (MSP) and 11 previously unknown, long-period (normal) pulsars. I assess the sensitivity of the PALFA precursor survey and use the number of normal pulsar and MSP detections to infer the size of each underlying Galactic population. Based on 44 normal pulsar detections and one MSP, we constrain each population size to 107,000+36,000-25,000 and 15,000 +85,000-6,000 respectively with 95% confidence. Based on these constraints, we predict yields for the full PALFA survey and find a deficiency in normal pulsar detections, possibly due to radio frequency interference and/or scintillation, neither of which are currently accounted for in population simulations. The GBT 350 MHz Drift Scan survey collected data in the summer of 2007 while the GBT was stationary, undergoing track replacement. Results discussed here come from ~20% of the survey data, which were processed and donated to the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC). The PSC is a joint outreach program between WVU and NRAO, involving high school

  2. Evaluation and optimization of a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack model including an integrated cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hering, Martin; Brouwer, Jacob; Winkler, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    A micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack model including an integrated cooling system was developed using a quasi three-dimensional, spatially resolved, transient thermodynamic, physical and electrochemical model that accounts for the complex geometrical relations between the cells and cooling-tubes. For the purpose of model evaluation, reference operating, geometrical and material properties are determined. The reference stack design is composed of 3294 cells, with a diameter of 2 mm, and 61 cooling-tubes. The stack is operated at a power density of 300 mW/cm2 and air is used as the cooling fluid inside the integrated cooling system. Regarding the performance, the reference design achieves an electrical stack efficiency of around 57% and a power output of 1.1 kW. The maximum occurring temperature of the positive electrode electrolyte negative electrode (PEN)-structure is 1369 K. As a result of a design of experiments, parameters of a best-case design are determined. The best-case design achieves a comparable power output of 1.1 kW with an electrical efficiency of 63% and a maximum occurring temperature of the PEN-structure of 1268 K. Nevertheless, the best-case design has an increased volume based on the higher diameter of 3 mm and increased spacing between the cells.

  3. One-electron pseudopotential investigation of CsAr van der Waals system including the spin-orbit interaction.

    PubMed

    Dhiflaoui, J; Berriche, H

    2010-07-01

    The potential energy curves of the ground state and many excited states of the CsAr van der Waals system have been determined using [Cs(+)] and [Ar] core pseudopotentials and by considering core polarization operators on both atoms. This has permitted to reduce the number of active electrons of the CsAr system to only one electron, i.e., the valence electron, which led to use of large basis sets for Cs and Ar atoms. In this context, the potential energy curves of the ground state and many excited states are performed at the self consistent field (SCF) level. Spin-orbit interaction is also considered within a semiempirical scheme for the states dissociating into Cs(6p) and Cs(5d). The core-core interactions for Cs(+)Ar is included using the coupled cluster simple and double excitation (CCSD) accurate potential of Hickling et al. (Hickling, H.; Viehland, L.; Shepherd, D.; Soldan, P.; Lee, E.; Wright, T. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2004, 6, 4233). In addition, the spectroscopic constants of these states are derived and compared with the available theoretical and experimental works. Such comparison has shown a very good agreement for the ground and the first excited states. However, the spectroscopic data for the higher excited states are presented for the first time.

  4. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  5. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  6. Phase II study of dasatinib in Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute and chronic myeloid diseases, including systemic mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Verstovsek, Srdan; Tefferi, Ayalew; Cortes, Jorge; O’Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Pardanani, Animesh; Akin, Cem; Faderl, Stefan; Manshouri, Taghi; Thomas, Deborah; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2016-01-01

    Molecular characterization of Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph−) chronic myeloproliferative disorders, such as systemic mastocytosis (SM), has provided a clear rationale for investigating novel targeted therapies. The tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor dasatinib is 325-fold more potent against Bcr-Abl TK than imatinib in vitro, significantly inhibiting wild-type KIT and PDGFR-B TKs, and is active against cells carrying the mutant KIT-D816V gene. In this phase 2, open-label study, the efficacy of dasatinib (140 mg/day) was investigated in 67 patients with various Ph− myeloid disorders, including SM (N=33; 28 KIT-D816V positive). The overall response rate to dasatinib in patients with SM was 33%. Only two patients, one with SM-myelofibrosis and one with SM-chronic eosinophilic leukemia, achieved complete response (elimination of mastocytosis) lasting for 5 and 16 months, respectively. Both patients were negative for KIT-D816V mutation, had low tryptase levels, abnormal WBC counts, and anemia, and had failed prior therapy with erythropoietin. Additional 9 SM patients had symptomatic response, lasting 3 to 18+ months. Complete responses were achieved in two other patients (acute myeloid leukemia, hypereosinophilic syndrome). No responses were observed among patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and primary myelofibrosis. The majority of adverse events were grade 1/2. These data show that dasatinib may benefit a selected group of SM patients, primarily by improving their symptoms. PMID:18559612

  7. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  8. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  9. A System of Deception and Fraud Detection Using Reliable Linguistic Cues Including Hedging, Disfluencies, and Repeated Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpherys, Sean LaMarc

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing problem of fraud, crime, and national security threats, assessing credibility is a recurring research topic in Information Systems and in other disciplines. Decision support systems can help. But the success of the system depends on reliable cues that can distinguish deceptive/truthful behavior and on a proven classification…

  10. Changing systems to address elder abuse: examples from aging services, the courts, the long-term care ombudsman, and the faith community.

    PubMed

    Malks, Betty F; Strobel, Donna M; Leung, Yolanda; Court, Michelle Williams; Morris, Janet R; May, Gus; Reeves, Shawna; Davies, Molly; Cartan, Heidi; Philyaw, Meredith L

    2010-07-01

    The authors describe their use of systems change as a means of ameliorating elder abuse. After assessing the needs of their target audiences, projects developed a variety of strategies. These include disseminating promising practices in courts, creating Elder Law Clinics to assist with conservatorships, educating older adults about predatory mortgage lending, building a new response system for complaints of abuse and neglect in unlicensed care facilities, and convening clergy and lay leader groups to learn how faith communities can make a difference in elder abuse and neglect. The authors share tips on replicating their work, describing barriers to implementation and possible solutions.

  11. The Cellulosome System of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus Includes a Novel Type of Adaptor Protein and a Cell Surface Anchoring Protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Gao, Wenchen; Ding, Shi-You; Kenig, Rina; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    A scaffoldin gene cluster was identified in the mesophilic cellulolytic anaerobe Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. The previously described scaffoldin gene, cipV, encodes an N-terminal family 9 glycoside hydrolase, a family 3b cellulose-binding domain, seven cohesin domains, and a C-terminal dockerin. The gene immediately downstream of cipV was sequenced and designated scaB. The protein encoded by this gene has 942 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular weight of 100,358 and includes an N-terminal signal peptide, four type II cohesions, and a C-terminal dockerin. ScaB cohesins 1 and 2 are very closely linked. Similar, but not identical, 39-residue Thr-rich linker segments separate cohesin 2 from cohesin 3 and cohesin 3 from cohesin 4, and an 84-residue Thr-rich linker connects the fourth cohesin to a C-terminal dockerin. The scaC gene downstream of scaB codes for a 1,237-residue polypeptide that includes a signal peptide, three cohesins, and a C-terminal S-layer homology (SLH) module. A long, ca. 550-residue linker separates the third cohesin and the SLH module of ScaC and is characterized by an 18-residue Pro-Thr-Ala-Ser-rich segment that is repeated 27 times. The calculated molecular weight of the mature ScaC polypeptide (excluding the signal peptide) is 124,162. The presence of the cohesins and the conserved SLH module implies that ScaC acts as an anchoring protein. The ScaC cohesins are on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree that is close to, but distinct from, the type I cohesins. Affinity blotting with representative recombinant probes revealed the following specific intermodular interactions: (i) an expressed CipV cohesin binds selectively to an enzyme-borne dockerin, (ii) a representative ScaB cohesin binds to the CipV band of the cell-free supernatant fraction, and (iii) a ScaC cohesin binds to the ScaB dockerin. The experimental evidence thus indicates that CipV acts as a primary (enzyme-recognizing) scaffoldin, and the protein was also

  12. 34 CFR 403.202 - What must each State's system of core standards and measures of performance include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Reference: See 34 CFR 400.6. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under Control No. 1830-0030... work skill attainment or enhancement including student progress in achieving occupational skills necessary to obtain employment in the field for which the student has been prepared, including...

  13. 75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 2136). The certification was amended on December 29, 2008 to correct the impact date to read December 6, 2008. The notice was published in the Federal Register on January 6, 2009 (74 FR 469... Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ryder Integrated Logistics and Including On-Site Workers From...

  14. IP address management : augmenting Sandia's capabilities through open source tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Nayar, R. Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Internet Protocol (IP) address management is an increasingly growing concern at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the networking community as a whole. The current state of the available IP addresses indicates that they are nearly exhausted. Currently SNL doesn't have the justification to obtain more IP address space from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There must exist a local entity to manage and allocate IP assignments efficiently. Ongoing efforts at Sandia have been in the form of a multifunctional database application notably known as Network Information System (NWIS). NWIS is a database responsible for a multitude of network administrative services including IP address management. This study will explore the feasibility of augmenting NWIS's IP management capabilities utilizing open source tools. Modifications of existing capabilities to better allocate available IP address space are studied.

  15. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized. PMID:26134739

  16. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized.

  17. 76 FR 2368 - Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Balance Power Systems, LLC's application for...

  18. 78 FR 29156 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ..., Tablets and Mobile Phones, Components Thereof and Associated Software: Notice of Receipt of Complaint... Systems, Tablets and Mobile Phones, Components Thereof and Associated Software, DN 2954; the Commission is... systems, tablets and mobile phones, components thereof and associated software. The complaint names...

  19. School-Wide Systems of Positive Behavioral Support: Promoting the Mental Health of All Students, Including Those with SED. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Marc; Collins, Kari; Devine-Johnston, Laura; Eber, Lucille; Pacchiano, Debra; Palmer, Teri; Robbins, Vestena

    Summaries of four papers and a discussion presented at a symposium on expanding the research base of systems of care for children's mental health examine school-wide systems of positive behavioral support and provide data on a three-tiered Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS) program for improving mental health functioning of…

  20. 78 FR 48467 - Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on February 22, 2013 (Volume 78 FR... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions... workers of Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, Original...

  1. 77 FR 37035 - SunPower Corporation, Systems; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SunPower Corporation, Systems; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of SunPower Corporation, Systems's application for...

  2. 77 FR 67399 - Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc., Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group... of Trim Systems Operating Corp., a subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc., Statesville, North..., who were adversely affected by a shift in production to a foreign country. The amended...

  3. Finite volume TVD scheme on an unstructured grid system for three-dimensional MHD simulation of inhomogeneous systems including strong background potential fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.

    1994-04-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation scheme on an unstructured grid system is developed for inhomogeneous systems, including strong background potential fields. The scheme is based on the finite volume method (FVM) with an upwinding numerical flux by the linearized Riemann solver. Upwindings on an unstructured grid system are realized from the fact that the MHD equations are symmetric with the rotation of the space. The equation system is modified to avoid direct inclusions of the background potential field as a dependent variable, through the use of changed dependent variables. Despite such a change of the equation system, the eigenvectors in the mode-synthesis matrix that are necessary for the evaluation of the upwinding numerical flux vectors can still be written analytically. The eigenvalues of the MHD flux Jacobian matrix that are also necessary for the upwinding calculations are derived from the well-known Alfven, fast and slow, velocities. The calculations of the eigenvectors is done with special care when the wave propagations become parallel or perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, because degeneration of the eigenvalues occurs in these cases. To obtain a higher order of accuracy, the upwinding flux is extended to the second-order TVD numerical flux in the calculation of FVM, through the MUSCL approach and Van Leer's differentiable limiter. In order to show the efficiency of the above scheme, a numerical example is given for the interaction process of high-beta supersonic plasma flow with the region of a strong dipole field, including magnetized low-beta plasma.

  4. Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  5. 46 CFR 61.20-3 - Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... control for the means of stopping machinery driving forced and induced draft fans, fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit pumps, and fans in the ventilation systems serving machinery and cargo spaces shall...

  6. 46 CFR 61.20-3 - Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... control for the means of stopping machinery driving forced and induced draft fans, fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit pumps, and fans in the ventilation systems serving machinery and cargo spaces shall...

  7. 46 CFR 61.20-3 - Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... control for the means of stopping machinery driving forced and induced draft fans, fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit pumps, and fans in the ventilation systems serving machinery and cargo spaces shall...

  8. 46 CFR 61.20-3 - Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... control for the means of stopping machinery driving forced and induced draft fans, fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit pumps, and fans in the ventilation systems serving machinery and cargo spaces shall...

  9. 46 CFR 61.20-3 - Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... control for the means of stopping machinery driving forced and induced draft fans, fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit pumps, and fans in the ventilation systems serving machinery and cargo spaces shall...

  10. General design, construction, and operation guidelines: Constructed wetlands wastewater treatment systems for small users including individual residences. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, G.R.; Watson, J.T.

    1993-05-01

    One of the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA`s) major goals is cleanup and protection of the waters of the Tennessee River system. Although great strides have been made, point source and nonpoint source pollution still affect the surface water and groundwater quality in the Tennessee Valley and nationally. Causes of this pollution are poorly operating wastewater treatment systems or the lack of them. Practical solutions are needed, and there is great interest and desire to abate water pollution with effective, simple, reliable and affordable wastewater treatment processes. In recognition of this need, TVA began demonstration of the constructed wetlands technology in 1986 as an alternative to conventional, mechanical processes, especially for small communities. Constructed wetlands can be downsized from municipal systems to small systems, such as for schools, camps and even individual homes.

  11. One common structural peculiarity of the Solar system bodies including the star, planets, satellites and resulting from their globes rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, , G. G.

    2008-09-01

    Often observed a sensible difference in appearance and structure between tropical and extra-tropical zones of various heavenly bodies including rocky and gas planets, satellites and Sun compels to look for a common reason of such phenomenon. All bodies rotate and their spherical shape makes zones at different latitudes to have differing angular momenta as a distance to the rotation axis diminishes gradually from the equator to the poles (this is felt particularly when one launches rockets into space -preferable more cheap launches are from the equatorial regions - Kourou is better than Baikonur). One of remarkable changes occurs at tropics. As a single rotating planetary body tends to have angular momenta of its tectonic blocks equilibrated it starts mechanisms leveling this basic physical property. At tropical zones (bulged also due to the rotation ellipsoid) the outer shell - crust as a consequence tends to be destroyed, sunk, subsided and shrunk; a density of crust material changes; the atmosphere reacts changing chemistry and structure; in terrestrial anthroposphere man looses its mass and stature. But according to the Le Chatelier rule mechanisms with an opposing tendency also begin to act. At Earth the wide planetary long tropical zone is marked by destruction of the crust. It is demonstrated by development of numerous islands of the Malay Archipelago (the Sunda Isls., Maluku Isls, Philippines) between the Southeastern Asia and Australia. In Africa and South America huge depressions of the Congo and Amazon Rivers develops where the Archean crust is subsided to depths of more than 2 km. In the Pacific along the equator numerous islands of Micronesia occur. Subsidence of the basaltic oceanic crust is followed by an intensive folding and faulting of basalt and sedimentary layers (Fig. 1) as a larger mass must be held by a smaller space (a planetary radius is diminished). The central Atlantic is very demonstrative in this sense suffering huge transform fault

  12. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  13. Addressing the impact of environmental uncertainty in plankton model calibration with a dedicated software system: the Marine Model Optimization Testbed (MarMOT 1.1 alpha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, J. C. P.; Challenor, P. G.

    2012-04-01

    A wide variety of different plankton system models have been coupled with ocean circulation models, with the aim of understanding and predicting aspects of environmental change. However, an ability to make reliable inferences about real-world processes from the model behaviour demands a quantitative understanding of model error that remains elusive. Assessment of coupled model output is inhibited by relatively limited observing system coverage of biogeochemical components. Any direct assessment of the plankton model is further inhibited by uncertainty in the physical state. Furthermore, comparative evaluation of plankton models on the basis of their design is inhibited by the sensitivity of their dynamics to many adjustable parameters. Parameter uncertainty has been widely addressed by calibrating models at data-rich ocean sites. However, relatively little attention has been given to quantifying uncertainty in the physical fields required by the plankton models at these sites, and tendencies in the biogeochemical properties due to the effects of horizontal processes are often neglected. Here we use model twin experiments, in which synthetic data are assimilated to estimate a system's known "true" parameters, to investigate the impact of error in a plankton model's environmental input data. The experiments are supported by a new software tool, the Marine Model Optimization Testbed, designed for rigorous analysis of plankton models in a multi-site 1-D framework. Simulated errors are derived from statistical characterizations of the mixed layer depth, the horizontal flux divergence tendencies of the biogeochemical tracers and the initial state. Plausible patterns of uncertainty in these data are shown to produce strong temporal and spatial variability in the expected simulation error variance over an annual cycle, indicating variation in the significance attributable to individual model-data differences. An inverse scheme using ensemble-based estimates of the

  14. Generalized two-dimensional (2D) linear system analysis metrics (GMTF, GDQE) for digital radiography systems including the effect of focal spot, magnification, scatter, and detector characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T.; Gupta, Sandesh K.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks. PMID:21243038

  15. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS - ASH BEHAVIOR IN POWER SYSTEMS. INCLUDES THE SEMIANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 01, 1998 - JUNE 30, 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature; Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined; Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (T{sub cv}) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt; Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles; Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems; and Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems.

  16. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  17. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  18. Removal of metal from acid mine drainage using a hybrid system including a pipes inserted microalgae reactor.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Tae; Lee, Hongkyun; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Song, Kyung-Guen; Yeom, Sung-Ho; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the microalgae culture system to combined active treatment system and pipe inserted microalgae reactor (PIMR) was investigated. After pretreated AMD in active treatment system, the effluent load to PIMR in order to Nephroselmis sp. KGE 8 culture. In experiment, effect of iron on growth and lipid accumulation in microalgae were inspected. The 2nd pretreatment effluent was economic feasibility of microalgae culture and lipid accumulation. The growth kinetics of the microalgae are modeled using logistic growth model and the model is primarily parameterized from data obtained through an experimental study where PIMR were dosed with BBM, BBM added 10 mg L(-1) iron and 2nd pretreatment effluent. Moreover, the continuous of microalgae culture in PIMR can be available. Overall, this study indicated that the use of pretreated AMD is a viable method for culture microalgae and lipid accumulation.

  19. 34 CFR 403.202 - What must each State's system of core standards and measures of performance include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.202 What must each State's... work skill attainment or enhancement including student progress in achieving occupational...

  20. Close to community health providers post 2015: Realising their role in responsive health systems and addressing gendered social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Universal health coverage is gaining momentum and is likely to form a core part of the post Millennium Development Goal (MDG) agenda and be linked to social determinants of health, including gender; Close to community health providers are arguably key players in meeting the goal of universal health coverage through extending and delivering health services to poor and marginalised groups; Close to community health providers are embedded in communities and may therefore be strategically placed to understand intra household gender and power dynamics and how social determinants shape health and well-being. However, the opportunities to develop critical awareness and to translate this knowledge into health system and multi-sectoral action are poorly understood; Enabling close to community health providers to realise their potential requires health systems support and human resource management at multiple levels.

  1. 32 CFR 37.705 - What standards do I include for purchasing systems of for-profit firms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the purchasing standards in 32 CFR 34.31 to use the same requirements for TIAs, unless there are... purchasing systems, as long as they flow down the applicable requirements in Federal statutes, Executive...) If your TIA is a fixed-support award, you need only require for-profit participants to flow down...

  2. 32 CFR 37.705 - What standards do I include for purchasing systems of for-profit firms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the purchasing standards in 32 CFR 34.31 to use the same requirements for TIAs, unless there are... purchasing systems, as long as they flow down the applicable requirements in Federal statutes, Executive...) If your TIA is a fixed-support award, you need only require for-profit participants to flow down...

  3. 34 CFR 403.202 - What must each State's system of core standards and measures of performance include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.202 What must each State's... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must each State's system of core standards...

  4. Well Wishes: A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M.

    2004-01-01

    The case of Well Wishes involves students in a thorough examination of the interaction among nitrogen-composed species in the septic systems and well water, which helps to clean household water. The case supports the attainment of five goals for students, and can be analyzed through classroom discussions or laboratory experiments.

  5. Microbial community structure and abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of a tomato cropping system that includes cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this report we use Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) in a tomato production system to “finger printing” the soil microbial community structure with Phylum specific primer sets. Factors influencing the soil microbes are a cover crop of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) or Rye (...

  6. 78 FR 42804 - Whirlpool Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek/Tek Systems (Subcontractor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Corporation), Fort Smith, Arkansas. The Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on May 30, 2013 (Volume 78 FR Pages 32464-32467). At the request of the State Workforce Office.../Tek Systems (Subcontractor of IBM Corporation) and Jones Lang LaSalle for Smith, Arkansas;...

  7. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  8. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  9. Long-term morphological response to dredging including cut-across-shoal in a tidal channel-shoal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Chong-Hao; Tang, Li-Qun; Liu, Da-Bin; Guo, Chuan-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Jing; Zhao, Hui-Ming

    2014-12-01

    This study examines long-term channel-shoal stability in the Tieshan Bay, which is located on the southwest coast of China. A large-scale channel-shoal system has historically existed in the outer Tieshan Bay. A navigation waterway is initiated by cutting and dredging a mid-channel shoal to supply coal to a power plant on the middle coast of the Tieshan Bay. Dredging of the access channel to the Tieshan Port was conducted in two stages followed by land reclamation. It is thus of practical meaning to explore how the channel-shoal system will evolve in long term afterwards. This study uses the process-based finite-volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) to investigate long-term (centennial) morphological evolution of the channel-shoal system. After well calibration of hydrodynamics and sediment transport, the model forecasts morphodynamic evolution in hundred years. The simulations show that continuous erosion in tidal channels and accretion over shoals and intertidal flats occur. However, the cutting and access channels will be subjected to long-term siltation. A secondary channel indicating the reorientation of the access channel will emerge, and a localized channel-ridge system at the junction of the major channels will be formed. The overall erosion/accretion pattern demonstrates the combined effect of bottom friction and advective sediment transport processes to be responsible for the channel-shoal formation. Dredging of the tidal channels will stimulate the stability of the channel-shoal pattern. It suggests that the navigation waterway should be set up following the long-term morphological evolution of the channel-shoal system at a design stage and maintenance dredging volume might thus be minimized.

  10. End of FY2014 Report - Filter Measurement System for Nuclear Material Storage Canisters (Including Altitude Correction for Filter Pressure Drop)

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.; Reeves, Kirk Patrick

    2015-02-24

    Two LANL FTS (Filter Test System ) devices for nuclear material storage canisters are fully operational. One is located in PF-4 ( i.e. the TA-55 FTS) while the other is located at the Radiation Protection Division’s Aerosol Engineering Facility ( i.e. the TA-3 FTS). The systems are functionally equivalent , with the TA-3 FTS being the test-bed for new additions and for resolving any issues found in the TA-55 FTS. There is currently one unresolved issue regarding the TA-55 FTS device. The canister lid clamp does not give a leak tight seal when testing the 1 QT (quart) or 2 QT SAVY lids. An adapter plate is being developed that will ensure a correct test configuration when the 1 or 2 QT SAVY lid s are being tested .

  11. The Dipeptidyl Peptidase Family, Prolyl Oligopeptidase, and Prolyl Carboxypeptidase in the Immune System and Inflammatory Disease, Including Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Waumans, Yannick; Baerts, Lesley; Kehoe, Kaat; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; De Meester, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Research from over the past 20 years has implicated dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV and its family members in many processes and different pathologies of the immune system. Most research has been focused on either DPPIV or just a few of its family members. It is, however, essential to consider the entire DPP family when discussing any one of its members. There is a substantial overlap between family members in their substrate specificity, inhibitors, and functions. In this review, we provide a comprehensive discussion on the role of prolyl-specific peptidases DPPIV, FAP, DPP8, DPP9, dipeptidyl peptidase II, prolyl carboxypeptidase, and prolyl oligopeptidase in the immune system and its diseases. We highlight possible therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, a condition that lies at the frontier between inflammation and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26300881

  12. Survey of tracking systems and rotary joints for coolant piping. Final report, August 15, 1978-August 14, 1978. [Includes patents

    SciTech Connect

    Furaus, J P; Gruchalla, M E; Sower, G D

    1980-01-01

    Problems were surveyed and evaluated with respect to solar tracking mechanisms and rotary joints for coolant piping. An analytical development of celestial mechanics, one- and two-axis tracking configurations and the effect of tracking accuracy versus collector efficiency are reported. Daily operational requirements and tracking modes were defined and evaluated. A literature and patent search on solar tracking technology was performed. Tracking system and control system performance specifications were determined. Alternative conceptual tracking approaches were defined and a cost and performance evaluation of a mechanical tracking concept was performed. Fluid coupling service specifications were determined. The cost and performance of several types of actuators and error detectors were evaluated with respect to solar tracking mechanisms.

  13. A Flight Evaluation of an Airborne Physiological Instrumentation System, Including Preliminary Results Under Conditions of Varying Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedal, Harald A.; Holden, George R.; Smith, Joseph R., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    A physiological instrumentation system capable of recording the electrocardiogram, pulse rate, respiration rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during flight has been developed. This instrumentation system was designed for use during control studies at varied levels of acceleration in order to monitor the well-being of the pilot and at the same time to obtain data for study of the relationships between his various physiological functions and his performance capability. Flights, made in a T-33 aircraft, demonstrated the ability of the system to obtain the desired physiological data in flight. The data obtained in these flights, although limited in nature, indicate a slowing of the pulse rate under the subgravity conditions of brief duration. There appeared to be a proportional nearly in-phase relationship between pulse rate and acceleration. A decrease in diastolic blood pressure together with an increase in pulse pressure was noted during subgravity conditions and an elevation of the diastolic pressure together with a decrease in pulse pressure du-ring increased accelerations. No change worthy of note was seen in the records of the systolic blood pressure, the respiration rate, or the electrocardiogram over the range of acceleration studied (0 to 3 g).

  14. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  15. Point Kernel Code System for Neutron and Gamma-Ray Shielding Calculations in Complex Geometry, Including a Graphical User Interface.

    SciTech Connect

    SUBBAIAH, K. V.

    2001-10-01

    Version 01 GUI2QAD is an aid in preparation of input for the included QAD-CGPIC program, which is based on CCC-493/QAD-CGGP and PICTURE. QAD-CGPIC is a Fortran code for fast neutron and gamma-ray shielding calculations through various shield configurations defined by combinatorial geometry specifications. Provision is available to interactively input the geometry and view the same in three dimensions with arbitrary rotations along x,y,z axis. The salient features of the present package include: a) Handles off centered multiple identical sources b) Axis of cylindrical sources can be parallel to any of the axes. c) Provides plots of buildup factors (ANSI-1990) and material cross sections d) Estimates dose rate for point source-slab shield situations e) Interactive input of CG geometry with 3D view and rotation f) Fission product decay power computation and plots for source term calculations. g) Provision to read and graphical 1y display picture input file.

  16. Point Kernel Code System for Neutron and Gamma-Ray Shielding Calculations in Complex Geometry, Including a Graphical User Interface.

    2001-10-01

    Version 01 GUI2QAD is an aid in preparation of input for the included QAD-CGPIC program, which is based on CCC-493/QAD-CGGP and PICTURE. QAD-CGPIC is a Fortran code for fast neutron and gamma-ray shielding calculations through various shield configurations defined by combinatorial geometry specifications. Provision is available to interactively input the geometry and view the same in three dimensions with arbitrary rotations along x,y,z axis. The salient features of the present package include: a) Handles offmore » centered multiple identical sources b) Axis of cylindrical sources can be parallel to any of the axes. c) Provides plots of buildup factors (ANSI-1990) and material cross sections d) Estimates dose rate for point source-slab shield situations e) Interactive input of CG geometry with 3D view and rotation f) Fission product decay power computation and plots for source term calculations. g) Provision to read and graphical 1y display picture input file.« less

  17. Identification of IAA transport inhibitors including compounds affecting cellular PIN trafficking by two chemical screening approaches using maize coleoptile systems.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Matano, Naoyuki; Morishima, Taichi; Kakinuma, Chieko; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Komano, Teruya; Kubo, Minoru; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2012-10-01

    The monocot coleoptile tip region has been generally supposed to be the source of IAA to supply IAA to basal parts by the polar IAA transport system, which results in gravi- and phototropic curvature of coleoptiles. Based on this IAA transport system and gravitropism of maize coleoptiles, we have developed two screening methods to identify small molecules from a large chemical library that inhibit IAA transport. The methods detect molecules that affect (i) gravitropic curvature of coleoptiles; and (ii) the amount of IAA transported from the tip. From 10,000 chemicals, eight compounds were identified and categorized into two groups. Four chemicals in group A decreased IAA transport from the tip, and increased endogenous IAA levels in the tip. The structures of two compounds resembled that of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), but those of the other two differed from structures of known IAA transport inhibitors. Four chemicals in group B strongly inhibited IAA transport from the tip, but IAA levels at the tip were only slightly affected. At higher concentrations, group B compounds inhibited germination of Arabidopsis, similarly to brefeldin A (BFA). Analysis of the cellular distribution of PIN2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN1-GFP in Arabidopsis revealed that one of the four chemicals in group B induced internalization of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins into vesicles smaller than BFA bodies, suggesting that this compound affects cellular vesicle trafficking systems related to PIN trafficking. The eight chemicals identified here will be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of IAA transport in plants. PMID:22875609

  18. Stochastic variability and noise-induced generation of chaos in a climate feedback system including the carbon dioxide dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Bashkirtseva, I. A.; Ryashko, L. B.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a non-linear dynamics of a simple three-dimensional climate model in the presence of stochastic forcing is studied. We demonstrate that a dynamic scenario of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations of the climate system near its equilibrium can be formed. As this takes place, a growth of noise intensity increases the frequency of interspike intervals responsible for the abrupt climate changes. In addition, a certain enhancement of stochastic forcing abruptly increases the atmospheric carbon dioxide and decreases the Earth's ice mass. A transition from order to chaos occurring at a critical noise is shown.

  19. Alkoxyallene-ynes: Selective Preparation of Bicyclo[5.3.0] Ring Systems Including a δ-Alkoxy Cyclopentadienone.

    PubMed

    Tap, Aurélien; Lecourt, Camille; Dhambri, Sabrina; Arnould, Mathieu; Galvani, Gilles; Nguyen, Van Buu Olivier; Jouanneau, Morgan; Férézou, Jean-Pierre; Ardisson, Janick; Lannou, Marie-Isabelle; Sorin, Geoffroy

    2016-03-24

    The development of an intramolecular rhodium(I)-catalyzed Pauson-Khand reaction of alkoxyallene-ynes with a proximal alkoxy group is reported. This reaction, in the presence of a [Rh(cycloocta-1,5-diene)Cl]2/propane-1,3-diylbis(diphenylphosphane) system under a CO atmosphere, constitutes a powerful tool for selectively accessing carbo- and heterobicyclo[5.3.0] frameworks featuring an enol ether moiety. Through this procedure, a straightforward access to guaiane skeletons with a tertiary hydroxy group at the C10 position was achieved.

  20. An inventory of state natural resources information systems. [including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinko, E. A. (Principal Investigator); Caron, L. M.; Stewart, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Data bases and information systems developed and maintained by state agencies to support planning and management of environmental and nutural resources were inventoried for all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands. The information obtained is assembled into a computerized data base catalog which is throughly cross-referecence. Retrieval is possible by code, state, data base name, data base acronym, agency, computer, GIS capability, language, specialized software, data category name, geograhic reference, data sources, and level of reliability. The 324 automated data bases identified are described.

  1. A Theoretical Investigation of Longitudinal Stability of Airplanes with Free Controls Including Effect of Friction in Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Harry; Sternfield, Leonard

    1944-01-01

    The relation between the elevator hinge moment parameters and the control forces for changes in forward speed and in maneuvers is shown for several values of static stability and elevator mass balance. The stability of the short period oscillations is shown as a series of boundaries giving the limits of the stable regions in terms of the elevator hinge moment parameters. The effects of static stability, elevator moment of inertia, elevator mass unbalance, and airplane density are also considered. Dynamic instability is likely to occur if there is mass unbalance of the elevator control system combined with a small restoring tendency (high aerodynamic balance). This instability can be prevented by a rearrangement of the unbalancing weights which, however, involves an increase of the amount of weight necessary. It can also be prevented by the addition of viscous friction to the elevator control system provided the airplane center of gravity is not behind a certain critical position. For high values of the density parameter, which correspond to high altitudes of flight, the addition of moderate amounts of viscous friction may be destabilizing even when the airplane is statically stable. In this case, increasing the viscous friction makes the oscillation stable again. The condition in which viscous friction causes dynamic instability of a statically stable airplane is limited to a definite range of hinge moment parameters. It is shown that, when viscous friction causes increasing oscillations, solid friction will produce steady oscillations having an amplitude proportional to the amount of friction.

  2. 14 CFR 61.60 - Change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... mailing address may not, after 30 days from that date, exercise the privileges of the certificate unless..., OK 73125, of the new permanent mailing address, or if the permanent mailing address includes a...

  3. Electronic structure and spectra of the RbAr van der Waals system including spin-orbit interaction.

    PubMed

    Dhiflaoui, J; Berriche, H; Herbane, M; Alsehimi, A G; Heaven, M C

    2012-11-01

    The potential energy curves and spectroscopic constants of the ground and excited states of the RbAr van der Waals system have been determined using a one-electron pseudopotential approach. This technique is used to replace the effect of the Rb(+) core and the electron-Ar interactions by effective potentials. The core-core interaction for Rb(+)Ar was incorporated using the accurate CCSD(T) potential of Hickling et al. [Hickling, H. L.; Viehland, L. A.; Shepherd, D. T.; Soldán, P.; Lee, E. P. F.; Wright, T. G. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2004, 6, 4233-4239]. This model reduces the number of active electrons of the RbAr van der Waals systems to just the single valence electron, permitting the use of very large basis sets for the Rb and Ar atoms. Using this approach, the potential energy curves of the ground and excited states dissociating into Rb(5s, 5p, 4d, 6s, 6p, 6d, and 7s) + Ar are calculated at the SCF level. Spin-orbit interaction was also considered within a semiempirical scheme for the states dissociating into Rb(5p) and Rb(6p). Spectroscopic constants are derived and compared with the available theoretical and experimental data. Such comparisons for RbAr show very good agreement for the ground and the first excited states. Furthermore, we have predicted the B(2)Σ(+)(1/2) ← X(2)Σ(+), A(2)Π(1/2) ← X(2)Σ(+), A(2)Π(3/2) ← X(2)Σ(+), A(2)Π(3/2) ← X(2)Σ(+), 5(2)Σ(+) ← X(2)Σ(+), 3(2)Π(1/2) ← X(2)Σ(+), and 3(2)Π(3/2) ← X(2)Σ(+) absorption spectra.

  4. Toward improving hurricane forecasts using the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS): A framework to address the issues of Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Boothe, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Haddad, Z. S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; montgomery, M. T.; Niamsuwan, N.; Tallapragada, V. S.; Tanelli, S.; Turk, J.; Vukicevic, T.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forecasting of extreme weather requires the use of both regional models as well as global General Circulation Models (GCMs). The regional models have higher resolution and more accurate physics - two critical components needed for properly representing the key convective processes. GCMs, on the other hand, have better depiction of the large-scale environment and, thus, are necessary for properly capturing the important scale interactions. But how to evaluate the models, understand their shortcomings and improve them? Satellite observations can provide invaluable information. And this is where the issues of Big Data come: satellite observations are very complex and have large variety while model forecast are very voluminous. We are developing a system - TCIS - that addresses the issues of model evaluation and process understanding with the goal of improving the accuracy of hurricane forecasts. This NASA/ESTO/AIST-funded project aims at bringing satellite/airborne observations and model forecasts into a common system and developing on-line tools for joint analysis. To properly evaluate the models we go beyond the comparison of the geophysical fields. We input the model fields into instrument simulators (NEOS3, CRTM, etc.) and compute synthetic observations for a more direct comparison to the observed parameters. In this presentation we will start by describing the scientific questions. We will then outline our current framework to provide fusion of models and observations. Next, we will illustrate how the system can be used to evaluate several models (HWRF, GFS, ECMWF) by applying a couple of our analysis tools to several hurricanes observed during the 2013 season. Finally, we will outline our future plans. Our goal is to go beyond the image comparison and point-by-point statistics, by focusing instead on understanding multi-parameter correlations and providing robust statistics. By developing on-line analysis tools, our framework will allow for consistent

  5. Multi-modal adaptive optics system including fundus photography and optical coherence tomography for the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Salas, Matthias; Drexler, Wolfgang; Levecq, Xavier; Lamory, Barbara; Ritter, Markus; Prager, Sonja; Hafner, Julia; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Pircher, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We present a new compact multi-modal imaging prototype that combines an adaptive optics (AO) fundus camera with AO-optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a single instrument. The prototype allows acquiring AO fundus images with a field of view of 4°x4° and with a frame rate of 10fps. The exposure time of a single image is 10 ms. The short exposure time results in nearly motion artifact-free high resolution images of the retina. The AO-OCT mode allows acquiring volumetric data of the retina at 200kHz A-scan rate with a transverse resolution of ~4 µm and an axial resolution of ~5 µm. OCT imaging is acquired within a field of view of 2°x2° located at the central part of the AO fundus image. Recording of OCT volume data takes 0.8 seconds. The performance of the new system is tested in healthy volunteers and patients with retinal diseases.

  6. Multi-modal adaptive optics system including fundus photography and optical coherence tomography for the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Salas, Matthias; Drexler, Wolfgang; Levecq, Xavier; Lamory, Barbara; Ritter, Markus; Prager, Sonja; Hafner, Julia; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Pircher, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We present a new compact multi-modal imaging prototype that combines an adaptive optics (AO) fundus camera with AO-optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a single instrument. The prototype allows acquiring AO fundus images with a field of view of 4°x4° and with a frame rate of 10fps. The exposure time of a single image is 10 ms. The short exposure time results in nearly motion artifact-free high resolution images of the retina. The AO-OCT mode allows acquiring volumetric data of the retina at 200kHz A-scan rate with a transverse resolution of ~4 µm and an axial resolution of ~5 µm. OCT imaging is acquired within a field of view of 2°x2° located at the central part of the AO fundus image. Recording of OCT volume data takes 0.8 seconds. The performance of the new system is tested in healthy volunteers and patients with retinal diseases. PMID:27231621

  7. Generalization of Boundary-Layer Momentum-Integral Equations to Three-Dimensional Flows Including Those of Rotating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mager, Arthur

    1952-01-01

    The Navier-Stokes equations of motion and the equation of continuity are transformed so as to apply to an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system rotating with a uniform angular velocity about an arbitrary axis in space. A usual simplification of these equations as consistent with the accepted boundary-layer theory and an integration of these equations through the boundary layer result in boundary-layer momentum-integral equations for three-dimensional flows that are applicable to either rotating or nonrotating fluid boundaries. These equations are simplified and an approximate solution in closed integral form is obtained for a generalized boundary-layer momentum-loss thickness and flow deflection at the wall in the turbulent case. A numerical evaluation of this solution carried out for data obtained in a curving nonrotating duct shows a fair quantitative agreement with the measures values. The form in which the equations are presented is readily adaptable to cases of steady, three-dimensional, incompressible boundary-layer flow like that over curved ducts or yawed wings; and it also may be used to describe the boundary-layer flow over various rotating surfaces, thus applying to turbomachinery, propellers, and helicopter blades.

  8. Multi-modal adaptive optics system including fundus photography and optical coherence tomography for the clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Matthias; Drexler, Wolfgang; Levecq, Xavier; Lamory, Barbara; Ritter, Markus; Prager, Sonja; Hafner, Julia; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Pircher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present a new compact multi-modal imaging prototype that combines an adaptive optics (AO) fundus camera with AO-optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a single instrument. The prototype allows acquiring AO fundus images with a field of view of 4°x4° and with a frame rate of 10fps. The exposure time of a single image is 10 ms. The short exposure time results in nearly motion artifact-free high resolution images of the retina. The AO-OCT mode allows acquiring volumetric data of the retina at 200kHz A-scan rate with a transverse resolution of ~4 µm and an axial resolution of ~5 µm. OCT imaging is acquired within a field of view of 2°x2° located at the central part of the AO fundus image. Recording of OCT volume data takes 0.8 seconds. The performance of the new system is tested in healthy volunteers and patients with retinal diseases. PMID:27231621

  9. Addressing a Historical Mission in a Performance Driven System: A Case Study of a Public Historically Black University Engaged in the Equity Scorecard Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    The case study utilizes interviews, observations, and document analysis to examine how the Equity Scorecard supported a public Historically Black University's ability to (a) respond to their state Performance-Based Funding policy and (b) address outcomes such as retention and graduation rates. The participants identified nurturing, discussions of…

  10. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  11. Numerical Modeling of the Hydrothermal System at East Pacific Rise 9°50'N Including Anhydrite Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolandaivelu, K. P.; Lowell, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the effects of anhydrite precipitation on mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we conducted 2-D numerical simulations of two-phase hydrothermal circulation in a NaCl-H2O fluid at the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N. The simulations were constrained by key observational thermal data and seismicity that suggests the fluid flow is primarily along axis with recharge focused into a small zone near a 4th order discontinuity. The simulations considered an open-top square box with a fixed seafloor pressure of 25 MPa, and nominal seafloor temperature of 10 °C. The sides of the box were assumed to be impermeable and insulated. We considered two models: a homogeneous model with a permeability of 10-13 m2 and a heterogeneous model in which layer 2A extrusives were given a higher permeability. Both models had a fixed bottom temperature distribution and initial porosity of 0.1. Assuming that anhydrite precipitation resulted from the decrease in solubility with increasing temperature as downwelling fluid gets heated, we calculated the rate of porosity decrease and sealing times in each cell at certain time snapshots in the simulations. The results showed that sealing would occur most rapidly in limited regions near the base of the high-temperature plumes, where complete sealing could occur on decadal time scales. Though more detailed analysis is needed, it appeared that the areas of rapid sealing would likely have negligible impact on the overall circulation pattern and hydrothermal vent temperatures. The simulations also indicated that sealing due to anhydrite precipitation would occur more slowly at the margins of the ascending plumes. The sealing times in the deep recharge zone determined in these simulations were considerably greater than estimated from 1D analytical calculations, suggesting that with a 2D model, focused recharge at the EPR 9°50'N site may occur, at least on a decadal time scale.

  12. Intensifying groundnut production in the Sudan savanna zone of Nigeria: including groundnut in the irrigated cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, A A

    2011-11-15

    Inadequate and erratic rainfall pattern and extreme temperature variations induced by climate change being experienced in Sudan savanna areas have compromised the cropping systems of these areas. A change in the cropping patterns is required to maintain and improve upon crop output levels. The pod yield ha(-1) and other growth and yield components of three varieties of groundnut grown under irrigated conditions were measured in a field experiment conducted at the Irrigation Research Station of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Zaria, from 2003 to 2006 dry seasons. Treatments consisted of three plant populations (50,000, 100,000 and 200,000 plants ha(-1)), three varieties (Samnut 23, Samnut 21 and Samnut 11) and three basin sizes (3 x 3, 3 x 4 and 3 x 5 m) arranged in a split plot design with population and variety as main plot and basin size as sub plot. Treatments were randomly assigned and replicated three times. Plant populations significantly affected plant height and canopy spread but had no effect on number of branches plant. Plants grew significantly taller at 200,000 plants ha(-1) while plant canopy spread was significantly widest at 50,000 plants ha(-1). Samnut 23 grew significantly taller than Samnut 21 and 11 although they exhibited wider canopies. Pod yield ha(-1) and 100 seed weight were significantly highest at 200,000 plants ha(-1). Samnut 23 produced the significantly highest pod yield ha(-1) and number of pods plant(-1). Samnut 11 produced significantly highest 100 seed weight. Samnut 23 planted at 200,000 plants ha(-1) in 3 x 4 m basins is most promising for irrigated groundnut cultivation in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria. PMID:22514881

  13. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  14. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  15. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  16. Multi-port, optically addressed RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor); Esener, Sadik (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A random access memory addressing system utilizing optical links between memory and the read/write logic circuits comprises addressing circuits including a plurality of light signal sources, a plurality of optical gates including optical detectors associated with the memory cells, and a holographic optical element adapted to reflect and direct the light signals to the desired memory cell locations. More particularly, it is a multi-port, binary computer memory for interfacing with a plurality of computers. There are a plurality of storage cells for containing bits of binary information, the storage cells being disposed at the intersections of a plurality of row conductors and a plurality of column conductors. There is interfacing logic for receiving information from the computers directing access to ones of the storage cells. There are first light sources associated with the interfacing logic for transmitting a first light beam with the access information modulated thereon. First light detectors are associated with the storage cells for receiving the first light beam, for generating an electrical signal containing the access information, and for conducting the electrical signal to the one of the storage cells to which it is directed. There are holographic optical elements for reflecting the first light beam from the first light sources to the first light detectors.

  17. CEDS Addresses: Rubric Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 4 introduced a common data vocabulary for defining rubrics in a data system. The CEDS elements support digital representations of both holistic and analytic rubrics. This document shares examples of holistic and analytic project rubrics, available CEDS Connections, and a logical model showing the…

  18. Electronic circuits and systems: A compilation. [including integrated circuits, logic circuits, varactor diode circuits, low pass filters, and optical equipment circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technological information is presented electronic circuits and systems which have potential utility outside the aerospace community. Topics discussed include circuit components such as filters, converters, and integrators, circuits designed for use with specific equipment or systems, and circuits designed primarily for use with optical equipment or displays.

  19. Addressing Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  20. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  1. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  2. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Kuijlaars, Jennifer S.; Mesters, Ilse; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. Aim To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. Methods All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in Limburg, the Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. Results The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11%) of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. Conclusions Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, the Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed. PMID:24809443

  3. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  4. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  5. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  6. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  7. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  8. DARE: Unesco Computerized Data Retrieval System for Documentation in the Social and Human Sciences (Including an Analysis of the Present System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasarhelyi, Paul

    The new data retrieval system for the social sciences which has recently been installed in the UNESCO Secretariat in Paris is described in this comprehensive report. The computerized system is designed to facilitate the existing storage systems in the circulation of information, data retrieval, and indexing services. Basically, this report…

  9. Addressing the Training and Employment Needs of Youth with Mental Health Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System. Conference Proceedings with Recommendations to the Presidential Task Force on Employment of Adults with Disabilities (March 3-4, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagungun, Hazel

    This document contains information about and from a conference on addressing the training and employment needs of youth with mental health disabilities in the juvenile justice system that was held by the National Mental Health Association (NMHA). The document begins with an executive summary and nine recommendations for the Youth Subcommittee of…

  10. Addressing the municipal market

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, R.

    1993-05-12

    Most municipalities employ simple, fairly inexpensive water treatment regimes, which is why some large industrial treatment firms stay away from the municipal market, despite rapid growth in the sector. Of the $625 million/year spent for US wastewater treatment, 46% is for municipalities, up 14.5% from 1987. Waste treatment in general grew by 12% in that period, according to Kline Co. (Fairfield, NJ). Some of the challenges facing municipalities in the Clean Water Act reauthorization bills are metals-contaminated sediments and storm water containment and treatment. Bill Tullos, business manager for chlor-alkali at Elf Atochem North America, does not foresee a phaseout of chlorine-based products used as disinfectant in drinking water treatment by municipalities, or as a wastewater treatment in municipal and industrial use. [open quotes]Alternatives are not as effective and are more expensive,[close quotes] says Tullos. [open quotes]There was some promise with ozone, but unfortunately it tends to tear apart your corrosion and scale inhibitors. Chlorine also provides residual protection from contamination all along the water line system.[close quotes] Tullos adds that the formation of tetrahydromethane-one of the problems of using chlorine-based products-can be avoided by screening out the hydrocarbons first and then adding chlorine.

  11. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  12. Identifying Liquid-Gas System Misconceptions and Addressing Them Using a Laboratory Exercise on Pressure-Temperature Diagrams of a Mixed Gas Involving Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on students' understandings of a liquid-gas system with liquid-vapor equilibrium in a closed system using a pressure-temperature ("P-T") diagram. By administrating three assessment questions concerning the "P-T" diagrams of liquid-gas systems to students at the beginning of undergraduate general chemistry…

  13. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502

  14. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  15. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  16. Addressing Invisible Barriers: Improving Outcomes for Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osher, David; Quinn, Mary Magee; Kendziora, Kimberly; Woodruff, Darren; Rouse, Gerald

    This monograph introduces a series on youth with cognitive or behavioral disabilities and the juvenile justice system. The first section discusses the importance of prevention and early intervention to divert youth with disabilities from entering the justice system. It offers examples of such efforts and considers early and later intervention…

  17. Should Non-Cognitive Skills Be Included in School Accountability Systems? Preliminary Evidence from California's CORE Districts. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence confirms that student skills other than academic achievement and ability predict a broad range of academic and life outcomes. This evidence, along with a new federal requirement that state accountability systems include an indicator of school quality or student success not based on test scores, has sparked interest in incorporating such…

  18. Exploration and implementation for the construction of the quaternary teaching system of medical genetics including teaching, practice, research and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Fengjuan, Zhou; Wenmei, Xie; Qiang, Wang; Xiaorong, Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Medical genetics, the connection between basic and clinical medicine, is a subject with strong applicability and plays important role in modern medical education system. Based on years of teaching experience and during the construction of state-level top quality course, our teaching team has established the quaternary teaching system of medical genetics which includes teaching, practice, research and clinical application. The four elements of the system interpenetrate, complement and reinforce each other. Specifically, classroom teaching is the basics which is further complemented by social practice, improved by research and promoted by clinical application. The quaternary teaching system provides a feasible way to integrate theoretical and clinical courses. After years of implementation, the teaching system has got great effects on the obvious improvement of research ability, social reputation and clinical service capacities of the research team.

  19. Broadband ultrasound field mapping system using a wavelength tuned, optically scanned focused laser beam to address a Fabry Perot polymer film sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul

    2006-07-01

    An optical system for rapidly mapping broad-band ultrasound fields with high spatial resolution has been developed. The transduction mechanism is based upon the detection of acoustically induced changes in the optical thickness of a thin polymer film acting as a Fabry Perot sensing interferometer (FPI). By using a PC-controlled galvanometer mirror to line-scan a focused laser beam over the surface of the FPI, and a wavelength-tuned phase bias control system to optimally set the FPI working point, a notional 1D ultrasound array was synthesized. This system enabled ultrasound fields to be mapped over an aperture of 40 mm, in 50-microm steps with an optically defined element size of 50 microm and an acquisition time of 50 ms per step. The sensor comprised a 38-microm polymer film FPI which was directly vacuum-deposited onto an impedance-matched polycarbonate backing stub. The -3 dB acoustic bandwidth of the sensor was 300 kHz to 28 MHz and the peak noise-equivalent-pressure was 10 kPa over a 20-MHz measurement bandwidth. To demonstrate the system, the outputs of various planar and focused pulsed ultrasound transducers with operating frequencies in the range 3.5 to 20 MHz were mapped. It is considered that this approach offers a practical and inexpensive alternative to piezoelectric-based arrays and scanning systems for rapid transducer field characterization and biomedical and industrial ultrasonic imaging applications. PMID:16889340

  20. Overview of chemical imaging methods to address biological questions.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcel Menezes Lyra; Trepout, Sylvain; Messaoudi, Cédric; Wu, Ting-Di; Ortega, Richard; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Marco, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    Chemical imaging offers extensive possibilities for better understanding of biological systems by allowing the identification of chemical components at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels. In this review, we introduce modern methods for chemical imaging that can be applied to biological samples. This work is mainly addressed to the biological sciences community and includes the bases of different technologies, some examples of its application, as well as an introduction to approaches on combining multimodal data.

  1. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  2. Can the sustainable development goals reduce the burden of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases without truly addressing major food system reforms?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-06-16

    While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; 2000-2015) focused primarily on poverty reduction, hunger and infectious diseases, the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets pay more attention to nutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). One of the 169 proposed targets of the SDGs is to reduce premature deaths from NCDs by one third; another is to end malnutrition in all its forms. Nutrition-related NCDs (NR-NCDs) stand at the intersection between malnutrition and NCDs. Driven in large part by remarkable transformations of food systems, they are rapidly increasing in most low and middle income countries (LMICs). The transformation to modern food systems began in the period following World War II with policies designed to meet a very different set of nutritional and food needs, and continued with globalization in the 1990s onwards. Another type of food systems transformation will be needed to shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet--as will meeting many of the other SDGs. The process will be complex but is necessary. Communities concerned with NCDs and with malnutrition need to work more closely together to demand food systems change.

  3. Staff Preparation, Reward, and Support: Are Quality Rating and Improvement Systems Addressing All of the Key Ingredients Necessary for Change? Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Lea J. E.; Whitebook, Marcy; Connors, Maia; Darrah, Rory

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting the growing momentum in support of quality rating and improvement systems (QRISs) as a key strategy to improve early care and education quality, significant amounts of public dollars have been devoted to their development and implementation. In this brief, the authors report on their investigation of both quality rating and improvement…

  4. Can the sustainable development goals reduce the burden of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases without truly addressing major food system reforms?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; 2000-2015) focused primarily on poverty reduction, hunger and infectious diseases, the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets pay more attention to nutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). One of the 169 proposed targets of the SDGs is to reduce premature deaths from NCDs by one third; another is to end malnutrition in all its forms. Nutrition-related NCDs (NR-NCDs) stand at the intersection between malnutrition and NCDs. Driven in large part by remarkable transformations of food systems, they are rapidly increasing in most low and middle income countries (LMICs). The transformation to modern food systems began in the period following World War II with policies designed to meet a very different set of nutritional and food needs, and continued with globalization in the 1990s onwards. Another type of food systems transformation will be needed to shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet--as will meeting many of the other SDGs. The process will be complex but is necessary. Communities concerned with NCDs and with malnutrition need to work more closely together to demand food systems change. PMID:26082154

  5. Violence Goes to School. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Increased juvenile violence in schools has led to suggested solutions that are politically expedient but fail to address what makes violence so appealing. Instead of school uniforms, conflict resolution programs, or media rating systems, a grass roots approach of alternative programs, parental involvement, and youth support systems could repair…

  6. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  7. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  8. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  9. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  10. Mental health care delivery system reform in Belgium: the challenge of achieving deinstitutionalisation whilst addressing fragmentation of care at the same time.

    PubMed

    Nicaise, Pablo; Dubois, Vincent; Lorant, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Most mental health care delivery systems in welfare states currently face two major issues: deinstitutionalisation and fragmentation of care. Belgium is in the process of reforming its mental health care delivery system with the aim of simultaneously strengthening community care and improving integration of care. The new policy model attempts to strike a balance between hospitals and community services, and is based on networks of services. We carried out a content analysis of the policy blueprint for the reform and performed an ex-ante evaluation of its plan of operation, based on the current knowledge of mental health service networks. When we examined the policy's multiple aims, intermediate goals, suggested tools, and their articulation, we found that it was unclear how the new policy could achieve its goals. Indeed, deinstitutionalisation and integration of care require different network structures, and different modes of governance. Furthermore, most of the mechanisms contained within the new policy were not sufficiently detailed. Consequently, three major threats to the effectiveness of the reform were identified. These were: issues concerning the relationship between network structure and purpose, the continued influence of hospitals despite the goal of deinstitutionalisation, and the heterogeneity in the actual implementation of the new policy. PMID:24582489

  11. Mental health care delivery system reform in Belgium: the challenge of achieving deinstitutionalisation whilst addressing fragmentation of care at the same time.

    PubMed

    Nicaise, Pablo; Dubois, Vincent; Lorant, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Most mental health care delivery systems in welfare states currently face two major issues: deinstitutionalisation and fragmentation of care. Belgium is in the process of reforming its mental health care delivery system with the aim of simultaneously strengthening community care and improving integration of care. The new policy model attempts to strike a balance between hospitals and community services, and is based on networks of services. We carried out a content analysis of the policy blueprint for the reform and performed an ex-ante evaluation of its plan of operation, based on the current knowledge of mental health service networks. When we examined the policy's multiple aims, intermediate goals, suggested tools, and their articulation, we found that it was unclear how the new policy could achieve its goals. Indeed, deinstitutionalisation and integration of care require different network structures, and different modes of governance. Furthermore, most of the mechanisms contained within the new policy were not sufficiently detailed. Consequently, three major threats to the effectiveness of the reform were identified. These were: issues concerning the relationship between network structure and purpose, the continued influence of hospitals despite the goal of deinstitutionalisation, and the heterogeneity in the actual implementation of the new policy.

  12. Expansion Hamiltonian model for a diatomic molecule adsorbed on a surface: Vibrational states of the CO/Cu(100) system including surface vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Qingyong; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2015-10-28

    Molecular-surface studies are often done by assuming a corrugated, static (i.e., rigid) surface. To be able to investigate the effects that vibrations of surface atoms may have on spectra and cross sections, an expansion Hamiltonian model is proposed on the basis of the recently reported [R. Marquardt et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074108 (2010)] SAP potential energy surface (PES), which was built for the CO/Cu(100) system with a rigid surface. In contrast to other molecule-surface coupling models, such as the modified surface oscillator model, the coupling between the adsorbed molecule and the surface atoms is already included in the present expansion SAP-PES model, in which a Taylor expansion around the equilibrium positions of the surface atoms is performed. To test the quality of the Taylor expansion, a direct model, that is avoiding the expansion, is also studied. The latter, however, requests that there is only one movable surface atom included. On the basis of the present expansion and direct models, the effects of a moving top copper atom (the one to which CO is bound) on the energy levels of a bound CO/Cu(100) system are studied. For this purpose, the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree calculations are carried out to obtain the vibrational fundamentals and overtones of the CO/Cu(100) system including a movable top copper atom. In order to interpret the results, a simple model consisting of two coupled harmonic oscillators is introduced. From these calculations, the vibrational levels of the CO/Cu(100) system as function of the frequency of the top copper atom are discussed.

  13. ANL/RBC: a computer code for the analysis of Rankine bottoming cyles, including system cost evaluation and off-design performance

    SciTech Connect

    McLennan, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes, and is a User's Manual for, a computer code (ANL/RBC) which calculates cycle performance for Rankine bottoming cycles extracting heat from a specified source gas stream. The code calculates cycle power and efficiency and the sizes for the heat exchangers, using tabular input of the properties of the cycle working fluid. An option is provided to calculate the costs of system components from user defined input cost functions. These cost functions may be defined in equation form or by numerical tabular data. A variety of functional forms have been included for these functions and they may be combined to create very general cost functions. An optional calculation mode can be used to calculate the off-design performance of a system when operated away from the design-point, using the heat exchanger areas calculated for the design-point.

  14. ANL/RBC: A computer code for the analysis of Rankine bottoming cycles, including system cost evaluation and off-design performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclennan, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes, and is a User's Manual for, a computer code (ANL/RBC) which calculates cycle performance for Rankine bottoming cycles extracting heat from a specified source gas stream. The code calculates cycle power and efficiency and the sizes for the heat exchangers, using tabular input of the properties of the cycle working fluid. An option is provided to calculate the costs of system components from user defined input cost functions. These cost functions may be defined in equation form or by numerical tabular data. A variety of functional forms have been included for these functions and they may be combined to create very general cost functions. An optional calculation mode can be used to determine the off-design performance of a system when operated away from the design-point, using the heat exchanger areas calculated for the design-point.

  15. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  16. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  17. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  18. Nisin production in a chitin-including continuous fermentation system with Lactococcus lactis displaying a cell wall chitin-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Ömer

    2014-03-01

    The limiting factors in the continuous production of nisin are high amount of biomass loss and low dilution rate application. In this study, a chitin-including continuous nisin fermentation system (CICON-FER) was constructed for high volumetric nisin production using nisin producer L. lactis displaying cell wall chitin-binding domain (ChBD) together with chitin in the reactor. In this respect, the highest binding conditions of relevant L. lactis cells to chitin were determined. Then the chitin flakes carrying nisin-producing L. lactis cells were used within the CICON-FER system at different dilution rates (0.1-0.9 h⁻¹) and initial glucose concentrations (20-60 g l⁻¹). The results revealed that the pH 7 conditions and the use of 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer with 0.1 % Tween 20 and Triton X-100 significantly increased the binding capacity of ChBD displaying L. lactis cells to chitin. The constructed CICON-FER system maintained the presence of the ChBD surface displaying L. lactis cells in the reactor system until 0.9 h⁻¹ dilution rate that resulted in a considerably high level of volumetric nisin production and productivity (10,500 IU ml⁻¹ and 9,450 IU ml⁻¹ h⁻¹, respectively) with the combination of a 0.9-h⁻¹ dilution rate and a 40-g l⁻¹ initial glucose concentration. In conclusion, an innovative nisin fermentation system that yielded the highest nisin production thus far and that was feasible for industrial application was created.

  19. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  20. Electrostatically focused addressable field emission array chips (AFEA's) for high-speed massively parallel maskless digital E-beam direct write lithography and scanning electron microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Baylor, Larry R.; Voelkl, Edgar; Simpson, Michael L.; Paulus, Michael J.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Whealton, John H.; Whitson, John C.; Wilgen, John B.

    2002-12-24

    Systems and methods are described for addressable field emission array (AFEA) chips. A method of operating an addressable field-emission array, includes: generating a plurality of electron beams from a pluralitly of emitters that compose the addressable field-emission array; and focusing at least one of the plurality of electron beams with an on-chip electrostatic focusing stack. The systems and methods provide advantages including the avoidance of space-charge blow-up.

  1. Addressing spiritual leadership: an organizational model.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Lisa; Solari-Twadell, P Ann; Haas, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Commission requires health systems to address spiritual care. Research indicates that spirituality is associated with better physical, psychological, and social health and that culturally diverse populations and individuals at end-of-life often request spiritual care. The authors report the results of a consensus conference of 21 executives representing 10 large faith-based health systems who discussed the input, process, and outcomes of a corporate model for spiritual leadership. Specific initiatives are highlighted.

  2. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  3. Theoretical modeling of UV-Vis absorption and emission spectra in liquid state systems including vibrational and conformational effects: Explicit treatment of the vibronic transitions

    SciTech Connect

    D’Abramo, Marco; Aschi, Massimiliano; Amadei, Andrea

    2014-04-28

    Here, we extend a recently introduced theoretical-computational procedure [M. D’Alessandro, M. Aschi, C. Mazzuca, A. Palleschi, and A. Amadei, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 114102 (2013)] to include quantum vibrational transitions in modelling electronic spectra of atomic molecular systems in condensed phase. The method is based on the combination of Molecular Dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations within the Perturbed Matrix Method approach. The main aim of the presented approach is to reproduce as much as possible the spectral line shape which results from a subtle combination of environmental and intrinsic (chromophore) mechanical-dynamical features. As a case study, we were able to model the low energy UV-vis transitions of pyrene in liquid acetonitrile in good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Patterns of Address in Dili Tetum, East Timor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-van Klinken, Catharina; Hajek, John

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on a detailed description of patterns of address in Dili Tetum today. It outlines the complexities of the address system and points to considerable variation in its evolving present-day use. We find, amongst other things, that a speaker may use a range of address strategies even to the same addressee, and that the use of…

  5. Current state of evidence on 'off-label' therapeutic options for systemic lupus erythematosus, including biological immunosuppressive agents, in Germany, Austria and Switzerland--a consensus report.

    PubMed

    Aringer, M; Burkhardt, H; Burmester, G R; Fischer-Betz, R; Fleck, M; Graninger, W; Hiepe, F; Jacobi, A M; Kötter, I; Lakomek, H J; Lorenz, H M; Manger, B; Schett, G; Schmidt, R E; Schneider, M; Schulze-Koops, H; Smolen, J S; Specker, C; Stoll, T; Strangfeld, A; Tony, H P; Villiger, P M; Voll, R; Witte, T; Dörner, T

    2012-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be a severe and potentially life-threatening disease that often represents a therapeutic challenge because of its heterogeneous organ manifestations. Only glucocorticoids, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide and very recently belimumab have been approved for SLE therapy in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Dependence on glucocorticoids and resistance to the approved therapeutic agents, as well as substantial toxicity, are frequent. Therefore, treatment considerations will include 'off-label' use of medication approved for other indications. In this consensus approach, an effort has been undertaken to delineate the limits of the current evidence on therapeutic options for SLE organ disease, and to agree on common practice. This has been based on the best available evidence obtained by a rigorous literature review and the authors' own experience with available drugs derived under very similar health care conditions. Preparation of this consensus document included an initial meeting to agree upon the core agenda, a systematic literature review with subsequent formulation of a consensus and determination of the evidence level followed by collecting the level of agreement from the panel members. In addition to overarching principles, the panel have focused on the treatment of major SLE organ manifestations (lupus nephritis, arthritis, lung disease, neuropsychiatric and haematological manifestations, antiphospholipid syndrome and serositis). This consensus report is intended to support clinicians involved in the care of patients with difficult courses of SLE not responding to standard therapies by providing up-to-date information on the best available evidence.

  6. Effects of including surface depressions in the application of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System in the Upper Flint River Basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viger, Roland J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Jones, John W.; Buell, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents an extension of the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System that accounts for the effect of a large number of water-holding depressions in the land surface on the hydrologic response of a basin. Several techniques for developing the inputs needed by this extension also are presented. These techniques include the delineation of the surface depressions, the generation of volume estimates for the surface depressions, and the derivation of model parameters required to describe these surface depressions. This extension is valuable for applications in basins where surface depressions are too small or numerous to conveniently model as discrete spatial units, but where the aggregated storage capacity of these units is large enough to have a substantial effect on streamflow. In addition, this report documents several new model concepts that were evaluated in conjunction with the depression storage functionality, including: ?hydrologically effective? imperviousness, rates of hydraulic conductivity, and daily streamflow routing. All of these techniques are demonstrated as part of an application in the Upper Flint River Basin, Georgia. Simulated solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, and water balances match observations well, with small errors for the first two simulated data in June and August because of differences in temperatures from the calibration and evaluation periods for those months. Daily runoff simulations show increasing accuracy with streamflow and a good fit overall. Including surface depression storage in the model has the effect of decreasing daily streamflow for all but the lowest flow values. The report discusses the choices and resultant effects involved in delineating and parameterizing these features. The remaining enhancements to the model and its application provide a more realistic description of basin geography and hydrology that serve to constrain the calibration process to more physically realistic parameter values.

  7. Controlling Legionella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa re-growth in therapeutic spas: implementation of physical disinfection treatments, including UV/ultrafiltration, in a respiratory hydrotherapy system.

    PubMed

    Leoni, E; Sanna, T; Zanetti, F; Dallolio, L

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the efficacy of an integrated water safety plan (WSP) in controlling Legionella re-growth in a respiratory hydrotherapy system located in a spa centre, supplied with sulphurous water, which was initially colonized by Legionella pneumophila. Heterotrophic plate counts, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella spp. were detected in water samples taken 6-monthly from the hydrotherapy equipment (main circuit, entry to benches, final outlets). On the basis of the results obtained by the continuous monitoring and the changes in conditions, the original WSP, including physical treatments of water and waterlines, environmental surveillance and microbiological monitoring, was integrated introducing a UV/ultrafiltration system. The integrated treatment applied to the sulphurous water (microfiltration/UV irradiation/ultrafiltration), waterlines (superheated stream) and distal outlets (descaling/disinfection of nebulizers and nasal irrigators), ensured the removal of Legionella spp. and P. aeruginosa and a satisfactory microbiological quality over time. The environmental surveillance was successful in evaluating the hazard and identifying the most suitable preventive strategies to avoid Legionella re-growth. Ultrafiltration is a technology to take into account in the control of microbial contamination of therapeutic spas, since it does not modify the chemical composition of the water, thus allowing it to retain its therapeutic properties. PMID:26608761

  8. Controlling Legionella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa re-growth in therapeutic spas: implementation of physical disinfection treatments, including UV/ultrafiltration, in a respiratory hydrotherapy system.

    PubMed

    Leoni, E; Sanna, T; Zanetti, F; Dallolio, L

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the efficacy of an integrated water safety plan (WSP) in controlling Legionella re-growth in a respiratory hydrotherapy system located in a spa centre, supplied with sulphurous water, which was initially colonized by Legionella pneumophila. Heterotrophic plate counts, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella spp. were detected in water samples taken 6-monthly from the hydrotherapy equipment (main circuit, entry to benches, final outlets). On the basis of the results obtained by the continuous monitoring and the changes in conditions, the original WSP, including physical treatments of water and waterlines, environmental surveillance and microbiological monitoring, was integrated introducing a UV/ultrafiltration system. The integrated treatment applied to the sulphurous water (microfiltration/UV irradiation/ultrafiltration), waterlines (superheated stream) and distal outlets (descaling/disinfection of nebulizers and nasal irrigators), ensured the removal of Legionella spp. and P. aeruginosa and a satisfactory microbiological quality over time. The environmental surveillance was successful in evaluating the hazard and identifying the most suitable preventive strategies to avoid Legionella re-growth. Ultrafiltration is a technology to take into account in the control of microbial contamination of therapeutic spas, since it does not modify the chemical composition of the water, thus allowing it to retain its therapeutic properties.

  9. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every Other…

  10. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  11. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  12. Thermodynamic models of aqueous solutions containing inorganic electrolytes and dicarboxylic acids at 298.15 K. 2. Systems including dissociation equilibria.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Simon L; Seinfeld, John H

    2006-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols contain a significant fraction of water-soluble organic compounds, including dicarboxylic acids. Pitzer activity coefficient models are developed, using a wide range of data at 298.15 K, for the following systems containing succinic acid (H(2)Succ) and/or succinate salts: [H(+), Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), Cs(+)]Cl(-)-H(2)Succ-H(2)O, HNO(3)-H(2)Succ-H(2)O, H(+)-NH(4)(+)-HSucc(-)-Succ(2-)-NH(3)-H(2)Succ-H(2)O, NH(4)Cl-(NH(4))(2)Succ-H(2)O, H(+)-Na(+)-HSucc(-)-Succ(2-)-Cl(-)-H(2)Succ-H(2)O, NH(4)NO(3)-H(2)Succ-H(2)O, and H(2)SO(4)-H(2)Succ-H(2)O. The above compositions are given in terms of ions in the cases where acid dissociation was considered. Pitzer models were also developed for the following systems containing malonic acid (H(2)Malo): H(+)-Na(+)-HMalo(-)-Malo(2-)-Cl(-)-H(2)Malo-H(2)O, and H(2)Malo-H(2)SO(4)-H(2)O. The models are used to evaluate the extended Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) model proposed by Clegg and Seinfeld (J. Phys. Chem. A 2004, 108, 1008-1017) for calculating water and solute activities in solutions in which dissociation equilibria occur. The ZSR model yields satisfactory results only for systems that contain moderate to high concentrations of (nondissociating) supporting electrolyte. A practical modeling scheme is proposed for aqueous atmospheric aerosols containing both electrolytes and dissociating (organic) nonelectrolytes.

  13. Cascaded-systems analyses and the detective quantum efficiency of single-Z x-ray detectors including photoelectric, coherent and incoherent interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Seungman; Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A.; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Theoretical models of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of x-ray detectors are an important step in new detector development by providing an understanding of performance limitations and benchmarks. Previous cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) models accounted for photoelectric interactions only. This paper describes an extension of the CSA approach to incorporate coherent and incoherent interactions, important for low-Z detectors such as silicon and selenium. Methods: A parallel-cascade approach is used to describe the three types of x-ray interactions. The description of incoherent scatter required developing expressions for signal and noise transfer through an 'energy-labeled reabsorption' process where the parameters describing reabsorption are random functions of the scatter photon energy. The description of coherent scatter requires the use of scatter form factors that may not be accurate for some crystalline detector materials. The model includes the effects of scatter reabsorption and escape, charge collection, secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, and additive noise. Model results are validated by Monte Carlo calculations for Si and Se detectors assuming free-atom atomic form factors. Results: The new signal and noise transfer expressions were validated by showing agreement with Monte Carlo results. Coherent and incoherent scatter can degrade the DQE of Si and sometimes Se detectors depending on detector thickness and incident-photon energy. Incoherent scatter can produce a substantial low-frequency drop in the modulation transfer function and DQE. Conclusions: A generally useful CSA model of the DQE is described that is believed valid for any single-Z material up to 10 cycles/mm at both mammographic and radiographic energies within the limitations of Fourier-based linear-systems models and the use of coherent-scatter form factors. The model describes a substantial low-frequency drop in the DQE of Si systems due to incoherent scatter above 20

  14. Public health approach to address maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health. PMID:23229211

  15. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  16. Monte Carlo N–Particle Transport Code System Including MCNP6.1, MCNP5-1.60, MCNPX-2.7.0 and Data Libraries.

    SciTech Connect

    GOORLEY, TIM

    2013-07-16

    Version 00 US DOE 10CFR810 Jurisdiction. MCNP6™ is a general-purpose, continuous-energy, generalized-geometry, time-dependent, Monte Carlo radiation-transport code designed to track many particle types over broad ranges of energies. MCNP6 represents the culmination of a multi-year effort to merge the MCNP5™ [X-503] and MCNPX™ [PEL11] codes into a single product comprising all features of both. For those familiar with previous versions of MCNP, you will discover the code has been expanded to handle a multitude of particles and to include model physics options for energies above the cross-section table range, a material burnup feature, and delayed particle production. Expanded and/or new tally, source, and variance-reduction options are available to the user as well as an improved plotting capability. The capability to calculate keff eigenvalues for fissile systems remains a standard feature. Although MCNP6 is simply and accurately described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, the result is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. MCNP6 is the result of five years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. These groups of people, residing in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3), and Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Systems Design and Analysis Group (NEN-5, formerly D-5), have combined their code development efforts to produce the next evolution of MCNP. While maintenance and bug fixes will continue for MCNP5 v.1.60 and MCNPX v.2.7.0 for upcoming years, new code development capabilities will be developed and released only in MCNP6. In fact, this initial production release of MCNP6 (v. 1.0) contains 16 new features not previously found in either code. These new features include (among others) the abilities to import unstructured mesh geometries from the finite element code Abaqus, to transport photons down to 1.0 eV, to model complete atomic

  17. Monte Carlo N–Particle Transport Code System Including MCNP6.1, MCNP5-1.60, MCNPX-2.7.0 and Data Libraries.

    SciTech Connect

    GOORLEY, TIM

    2013-07-16

    Version 01 US DOE 10CFR810 Jurisdiction. MCNP6™ is a general-purpose, continuous-energy, generalized-geometry, time-dependent, Monte Carlo radiation-transport code designed to track many particle types over broad ranges of energies. MCNP6 represents the culmination of a multi-year effort to merge the MCNP5™ [X-503] and MCNPX™ [PEL11] codes into a single product comprising all features of both. For those familiar with previous versions of MCNP, you will discover the code has been expanded to handle a multitude of particles and to include model physics options for energies above the cross-section table range, a material burnup feature, and delayed particle production. Expanded and/or new tally, source, and variance-reduction options are available to the user as well as an improved plotting capability. The capability to calculate keff eigenvalues for fissile systems remains a standard feature. Although MCNP6 is simply and accurately described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, the result is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. MCNP6 is the result of five years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. These groups of people, residing in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3), and Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Systems Design and Analysis Group (NEN-5, formerly D-5), have combined their code development efforts to produce the next evolution of MCNP. While maintenance and bug fixes will continue for MCNP5 v.1.60 and MCNPX v.2.7.0 for upcoming years, new code development capabilities will be developed and released only in MCNP6. In fact, this initial production release of MCNP6 (v. 1.0) contains 16 new features not previously found in either code. These new features include (among others) the abilities to import unstructured mesh geometries from the finite element code Abaqus, to transport photons down to 1.0 eV, to model complete atomic

  18. Monte Carlo N–Particle Transport Code System Including MCNP6.1, MCNP5-1.60, MCNPX-2.7.0 and Data Libraries.

    2013-07-16

    Version 00 US DOE 10CFR810 Jurisdiction. MCNP6™ is a general-purpose, continuous-energy, generalized-geometry, time-dependent, Monte Carlo radiation-transport code designed to track many particle types over broad ranges of energies. MCNP6 represents the culmination of a multi-year effort to merge the MCNP5™ [X-503] and MCNPX™ [PEL11] codes into a single product comprising all features of both. For those familiar with previous versions of MCNP, you will discover the code has been expanded to handle a multitude ofmore » particles and to include model physics options for energies above the cross-section table range, a material burnup feature, and delayed particle production. Expanded and/or new tally, source, and variance-reduction options are available to the user as well as an improved plotting capability. The capability to calculate keff eigenvalues for fissile systems remains a standard feature. Although MCNP6 is simply and accurately described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, the result is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. MCNP6 is the result of five years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. These groups of people, residing in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3), and Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Systems Design and Analysis Group (NEN-5, formerly D-5), have combined their code development efforts to produce the next evolution of MCNP. While maintenance and bug fixes will continue for MCNP5 v.1.60 and MCNPX v.2.7.0 for upcoming years, new code development capabilities will be developed and released only in MCNP6. In fact, this initial production release of MCNP6 (v. 1.0) contains 16 new features not previously found in either code. These new features include (among others) the abilities to import unstructured mesh geometries from the finite element code Abaqus, to transport photons down to 1.0 eV, to model

  19. Monte Carlo N–Particle Transport Code System Including MCNP6.1, MCNP5-1.60, MCNPX-2.7.0 and Data Libraries.

    2013-07-16

    Version 01 US DOE 10CFR810 Jurisdiction. MCNP6™ is a general-purpose, continuous-energy, generalized-geometry, time-dependent, Monte Carlo radiation-transport code designed to track many particle types over broad ranges of energies. MCNP6 represents the culmination of a multi-year effort to merge the MCNP5™ [X-503] and MCNPX™ [PEL11] codes into a single product comprising all features of both. For those familiar with previous versions of MCNP, you will discover the code has been expanded to handle a multitude ofmore » particles and to include model physics options for energies above the cross-section table range, a material burnup feature, and delayed particle production. Expanded and/or new tally, source, and variance-reduction options are available to the user as well as an improved plotting capability. The capability to calculate keff eigenvalues for fissile systems remains a standard feature. Although MCNP6 is simply and accurately described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, the result is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. MCNP6 is the result of five years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. These groups of people, residing in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3), and Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Systems Design and Analysis Group (NEN-5, formerly D-5), have combined their code development efforts to produce the next evolution of MCNP. While maintenance and bug fixes will continue for MCNP5 v.1.60 and MCNPX v.2.7.0 for upcoming years, new code development capabilities will be developed and released only in MCNP6. In fact, this initial production release of MCNP6 (v. 1.0) contains 16 new features not previously found in either code. These new features include (among others) the abilities to import unstructured mesh geometries from the finite element code Abaqus, to transport photons down to 1.0 eV, to model

  20. A Hidden Crisis: Including the LGBT Community When Addressing Sexual Violence on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez, Zenen Jaimes; Hussey, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Recently, sexual assault on college campuses has received increased national attention. In its first report, the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault highlighted steps colleges and universities can take to curb the number of sexual assaults on campuses. For the first time, the U.S. Department of Education has released the…

  1. The human myelin basic protein gene is included within a 179-kilobase transcription unit: Expression in the immune and central nervous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pribyl, T.M.; Campagnoni, C.W.; Kampf, K.; Kashima, T.; Handley, V.W.; Campagnoni, A.T. ); McMahon, J. )

    1993-11-15

    Two human Golli (for gene expressed in the oligodendrocyte lineage)-MBP (for myelin basic protein) cDNAs have been isolated from a human oligodendroglioma cell line. Analysis of these cDNAs has enabled the authors to determine the entire structure of the human Golli-MBP gene. The Golli-MBP gene, which encompasses the MBP transcription unit, is [approx] 179 kb in length and consists of 10 exons, seven of which constitute the MBP gene. The human Golli-MBP gene contains two transcription start sites, each of which gives rise to a family of alternatively spliced transcipts. At least two Golli-MBP transcripts, containing the first three exons of the gene and one or more MBP exons, are produced from the first transcription start site. The second family of transcripts contains only MBP exons and produces the well-known MBPs. In humans, RNA blot analysis revealed that Golli-MBP transcripts were expressed in fetal thymus, spleen, and human B-cell and macrophage cell lines, as well as in fetal spinal cord. These findings clearly link the expression of exons encoding the autoimmunogen/encephalitogen MBP in the central nervous system to cells and tissues of the immune system through normal expression of the Golli-MBP gene. They also establish that this genetic locus, which includes the MBP gene, is conserved among species, providing further evidence that the MBP transcription unit is an integral part of the Golli transcription unit and suggest that this structural arrangement is important for the genetic function and/or regulation of these genes.

  2. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each. PMID:24000836

  3. Genetic gain and economic values of selection strategies including semen traits in three- and four-way crossbreeding systems for swine production.

    PubMed

    González-Peña, D; Knox, R V; MacNeil, M D; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2015-03-01

    Four semen traits: volume (VOL), concentration (CON), progressive motility of spermatozoa (MOT), and abnormal spermatozoa (ABN) provide complementary information on boar fertility. Assessment of the impact of selection for semen traits is hindered by limited information on economic parameters. Objectives of this study were to estimate economic values for semen traits and to evaluate the genetic gain when these traits are incorporated into traditional selection strategies in a 3-tier system of swine production. Three-way (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) and 4-way (additional paternal nucleus line D) crossbreeding schemes were compared. A novel population structure that accommodated selection for semen traits was developed. Three selection strategies were simulated. Selection Strategy I (baseline) encompassed selection for maternal traits: number of pigs born alive (NBA), litter birth weight (LBW), adjusted 21-d litter weight (A21), and number of pigs at 21 d (N21); and paternal traits: number of days to 113.5 kg (D113), backfat (BF), ADG, feed efficiency (FE), and carcass lean % (LEAN). Selection Strategy II included Strategy I and the number of usable semen doses per collection (DOSES), a function of the 4 semen traits. Selection Strategy III included Strategy I and the 4 semen traits individually. The estimated economic values of VOL, CON, MOT, ABN, and DOSES for 7 to 1 collections/wk ranged from $0.21 to $1.44/mL, $0.12 to $0.83/10 spermatozoa/mm, $0.61 to $12.66/%, -$0.53 to -$10.88/%, and $2.01 to $41.43/%, respectively. The decrease in the relative economic values of semen traits and DOSES with higher number of collections per wk was sharper between 1 and 2.33 collections/wk than between 2.33 and 7 collections/wk. The higher economic value of MOT and ABN relative to VOL and CON could be linked to the genetic variances and covariances of these traits. Average genetic gains for the maternal traits were comparable across strategies

  4. Addressing medical errors in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shepard P; Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-09-01

    Influential think tanks such as the Institute of Medicine have raised awareness about the implications of medical errors. In response, organizations, medical societies, and hospitals have initiated programs to decrease the incidence and prevent adverse effects of these errors. Surgeons deal with the direct implications of adverse events involving patients. In addition to managing the physical consequences, they are confronted with ethical and social issues when caring for a harmed patient. Although there is considerable effort to implement system-wide changes, there is little guidance for hand surgeons on how to address medical errors. Admitting an error by a physician is difficult, but a transparent environment where patients are notified of errors and offered consolation and compensation is essential to maintain physician-patient trust. Furthermore, equipping hand surgeons with a guide for addressing medical errors will help identify system failures, provide learning points for safety improvement, decrease litigation against physicians, and demonstrate a commitment to ethical and compassionate medical care.

  5. Interactive actuation of multiple opto-thermocapillary flow-addressed bubble microrobots

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenqi; Fan, Qihui; Ohta, Aaron T

    2014-01-01

    Opto-thermocapillary flow-addressed bubble (OFB) microrobots are a potential tool for the efficient transportation of micro-objects. This microrobot system uses light patterns to generate thermal gradients within a liquid medium, creating thermocapillary forces that actuate the bubble microrobots. An interactive control system that includes scanning mirrors and a touchscreen interface was developed to address up to ten OFB microrobots. Using this system, the parallel and cooperative transportation of 20-μm-diameter polystyrene beads was demonstrated. PMID:25678988

  6. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. These include regionally extensive disturbances (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and result in extensive forest mortality. In addition, forests can be subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and types of storm damage. After prolonged severe disturbance, signs of forest recovery can vary in terms of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. The increased extent and threat of forest disturbances in part led to the enactment of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act, which mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build the near real time ForWarn forest threat EWS for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances, starting on-line operations in 2010. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six nationwide 'weekly' forest change products. ForWarn uses daily 232 meter MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite NDVI data, including MOD13 products for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS products for compiling current NDVI. Separately pre-processing the current and historical NDVIs, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally reduce noise, fuse, and aggregate MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of forest change products per year. The 24 day compositing interval typically enables new disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. ForWarn's three standard forest change products compare current NDVI to that from the previous year, previous 3 years, and

  7. A KT intervention including the evidence alert system to improve clinician’s evidence-based practice behavior—a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is difficult to foster research utilization among allied health professionals (AHPs). Tailored, multifaceted knowledge translation (KT) strategies are now recommended but are resource intensive to implement. Employers need effective KT solutions but little is known about; the impact and viability of multifaceted KT strategies using an online KT tool, their effectiveness with AHPs and their effect on evidence-based practice (EBP) decision-making behavior. The study aim was to measure the effectiveness of a multifaceted KT intervention including a customized KT tool, to change EBP behavior, knowledge, and attitudes of AHPs. Methods This is an evaluator-blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in an Australian community-based cerebral palsy service. 135 AHPs (physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech pathologists, psychologists and social workers) from four regions were cluster randomized (n = 4), to either the KT intervention group (n = 73 AHPs) or the control group (n = 62 AHPs), using computer-generated random numbers, concealed in opaque envelopes, by an independent officer. The KT intervention included three-day skills training workshop and multifaceted workplace supports to redress barriers (paid EBP time, mentoring, system changes and access to an online research synthesis tool). Primary outcome (self- and peer-rated EBP behavior) was measured using the Goal Attainment Scale (individual level). Secondary outcomes (knowledge and attitudes) were measured using exams and the Evidence Based Practice Attitude Scale. Results The intervention group’s primary outcome scores improved relative to the control group, however when clustering was taken into account, the findings were non-significant: self-rated EBP behavior [effect size 4.97 (95% CI -10.47, 20.41) (p = 0.52)]; peer-rated EBP behavior [effect size 5.86 (95% CI -17.77, 29.50) (p = 0.62)]. Statistically significant improvements in EBP knowledge were

  8. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  9. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  10. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  11. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure. PMID:26841076

  12. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  13. Characterization of Patients With Lupus Nephritis Included in a Large Cohort From the Spanish Society of Rheumatology Registry of Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (RELESSER).

    PubMed

    Galindo-Izquierdo, María; Rodriguez-Almaraz, Esther; Pego-Reigosa, José M; López-Longo, Francisco J; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; Olivé, Alejandro; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Martinez-Taboada, Víctor; Vela-Casasempere, Paloma; Freire, Mercedes; Narváez, Francisco J; Rosas, José; Ibáñez-Barceló, Mónica; Uriarte, Esther; Tomero, Eva; Zea, Antonio; Horcada, Loreto; Torrente, Vicenç; Castellvi, Iván; Calvet, Joan; Menor-Almagro, Raúl; Zamorano, María A Aguirre; Raya, Enrique; Díez-Álvarez, Elvira; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Tomás; García de la Peña, Paloma; Movasat, Atusa; Andreu, José L; Richi, Patricia; Marras, Carlos; Montilla-Morales, Carlos; Hernández-Cruz, Blanca; Marenco de la Fuente, José L; Gantes, María; Úcar, Eduardo; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J; Manero, Javier; Ibáñez-Ruán, Jesús; Rodríguez-Gómez, Manuel; Quevedo, Víctor; Hernández-Beriaín, José; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Alonso, Fernando; Pérez, Sabina; Rúa-Figueroa, Iñigo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to profile those patients included in the RELESSER registry with histologically proven renal involvement in order to better understand the current state of lupus nephritis (LN) in Spain. RELESSER-TRANS is a multicenter cross-sectional registry with an analytical component. Information was collected from the medical records of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who were followed at participating rheumatology units. A total of 359 variables including demographic data, clinical manifestations, disease activity, severity, comorbidities, LN outcome, treatments, and mortality were recorded. Only patients with a histological confirmation of LN were included. We performed a descriptive analysis, chi-square or Student's t tests according to the type of variable and its relationship with LN. Odds ratio and confidence intervals were calculated by using simple logistic regression. LN was histologically confirmed in 1092/3575 patients (30.5%). Most patients were female (85.7%), Caucasian (90.2%), and the mean age at LN diagnosis was 28.4 ± 12.7 years. The risk for LN development was higher in men (M/F:47.85/30.91%, P < 0.001), in younger individuals (P < 0.001), and in Hispanics (P = 0.03). Complete response to treatment was achieved in 68.3% of patients; 10.35% developed ESRD, which required a kidney transplant in 45% of such cases. The older the patient, the greater was the likelihood of complete response (P < 0.001). Recurrences were associated with persistent lupus activity at the time of the last visit (P < 0.001) and with ESRD (P < 0.001). Thrombotic microangiopathy was a risk factor for ESRD (P = 0.04), as for the necessity of dialysis (P = 0.01) or renal transplantation (P = 0.03). LN itself was a poor prognostic risk factor of mortality (OR 2.4 [1.81-3.22], P < 0.001). Patients receiving antimalarials had a significantly lower risk of developing LN (P < 0.001) and ESRD (P < 0

  14. Characterization of Patients With Lupus Nephritis Included in a Large Cohort From the Spanish Society of Rheumatology Registry of Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (RELESSER).

    PubMed

    Galindo-Izquierdo, María; Rodriguez-Almaraz, Esther; Pego-Reigosa, José M; López-Longo, Francisco J; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; Olivé, Alejandro; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Martinez-Taboada, Víctor; Vela-Casasempere, Paloma; Freire, Mercedes; Narváez, Francisco J; Rosas, José; Ibáñez-Barceló, Mónica; Uriarte, Esther; Tomero, Eva; Zea, Antonio; Horcada, Loreto; Torrente, Vicenç; Castellvi, Iván; Calvet, Joan; Menor-Almagro, Raúl; Zamorano, María A Aguirre; Raya, Enrique; Díez-Álvarez, Elvira; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Tomás; García de la Peña, Paloma; Movasat, Atusa; Andreu, José L; Richi, Patricia; Marras, Carlos; Montilla-Morales, Carlos; Hernández-Cruz, Blanca; Marenco de la Fuente, José L; Gantes, María; Úcar, Eduardo; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J; Manero, Javier; Ibáñez-Ruán, Jesús; Rodríguez-Gómez, Manuel; Quevedo, Víctor; Hernández-Beriaín, José; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Alonso, Fernando; Pérez, Sabina; Rúa-Figueroa, Iñigo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to profile those patients included in the RELESSER registry with histologically proven renal involvement in order to better understand the current state of lupus nephritis (LN) in Spain. RELESSER-TRANS is a multicenter cross-sectional registry with an analytical component. Information was collected from the medical records of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who were followed at participating rheumatology units. A total of 359 variables including demographic data, clinical manifestations, disease activity, severity, comorbidities, LN outcome, treatments, and mortality were recorded. Only patients with a histological confirmation of LN were included. We performed a descriptive analysis, chi-square or Student's t tests according to the type of variable and its relationship with LN. Odds ratio and confidence intervals were calculated by using simple logistic regression. LN was histologically confirmed in 1092/3575 patients (30.5%). Most patients were female (85.7%), Caucasian (90.2%), and the mean age at LN diagnosis was 28.4 ± 12.7 years. The risk for LN development was higher in men (M/F:47.85/30.91%, P < 0.001), in younger individuals (P < 0.001), and in Hispanics (P = 0.03). Complete response to treatment was achieved in 68.3% of patients; 10.35% developed ESRD, which required a kidney transplant in 45% of such cases. The older the patient, the greater was the likelihood of complete response (P < 0.001). Recurrences were associated with persistent lupus activity at the time of the last visit (P < 0.001) and with ESRD (P < 0.001). Thrombotic microangiopathy was a risk factor for ESRD (P = 0.04), as for the necessity of dialysis (P = 0.01) or renal transplantation (P = 0.03). LN itself was a poor prognostic risk factor of mortality (OR 2.4 [1.81-3.22], P < 0.001). Patients receiving antimalarials had a significantly lower risk of developing LN (P < 0.001) and ESRD (P < 0

  15. Characterization of Patients With Lupus Nephritis Included in a Large Cohort From the Spanish Society of Rheumatology Registry of Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (RELESSER)

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Izquierdo, María; Rodriguez-Almaraz, Esther; Pego-Reigosa, José M.; López-Longo, Francisco J.; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; Olivé, Alejandro; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Martinez-Taboada, Víctor; Vela-Casasempere, Paloma; Freire, Mercedes; Narváez, Francisco J.; Rosas, José; Ibáñez-Barceló, Mónica; Uriarte, Esther; Tomero, Eva; Zea, Antonio; Horcada, Loreto; Torrente, Vicenç; Castellvi, Iván; Calvet, Joan; Menor-Almagro, Raúl; Zamorano, María A. Aguirre; Raya, Enrique; Díez-Álvarez, Elvira; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Tomás; García de la Peña, Paloma; Movasat, Atusa; Andreu, José L.; Richi, Patricia; Marras, Carlos; Montilla-Morales, Carlos; Hernández-Cruz, Blanca; Marenco de la Fuente, José L.; Gantes, María; Úcar, Eduardo; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J.; Manero, Javier; Ibáñez-Ruán, Jesús; Rodríguez-Gómez, Manuel; Quevedo, Víctor; Hernández-Beriaín, José; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Alonso, Fernando; Pérez, Sabina; Rúa-Figueroa, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to profile those patients included in the RELESSER registry with histologically proven renal involvement in order to better understand the current state of lupus nephritis (LN) in Spain. RELESSER-TRANS is a multicenter cross-sectional registry with an analytical component. Information was collected from the medical records of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who were followed at participating rheumatology units. A total of 359 variables including demographic data, clinical manifestations, disease activity, severity, comorbidities, LN outcome, treatments, and mortality were recorded. Only patients with a histological confirmation of LN were included. We performed a descriptive analysis, chi-square or Student's t tests according to the type of variable and its relationship with LN. Odds ratio and confidence intervals were calculated by using simple logistic regression. LN was histologically confirmed in 1092/3575 patients (30.5%). Most patients were female (85.7%), Caucasian (90.2%), and the mean age at LN diagnosis was 28.4 ± 12.7 years. The risk for LN development was higher in men (M/F:47.85/30.91%, P < 0.001), in younger individuals (P < 0.001), and in Hispanics (P = 0.03). Complete response to treatment was achieved in 68.3% of patients; 10.35% developed ESRD, which required a kidney transplant in 45% of such cases. The older the patient, the greater was the likelihood of complete response (P < 0.001). Recurrences were associated with persistent lupus activity at the time of the last visit (P < 0.001) and with ESRD (P < 0.001). Thrombotic microangiopathy was a risk factor for ESRD (P = 0.04), as for the necessity of dialysis (P = 0.01) or renal transplantation (P = 0.03). LN itself was a poor prognostic risk factor of mortality (OR 2.4 [1.81–3.22], P < 0.001). Patients receiving antimalarials had a significantly lower risk of developing LN (P < 0.001) and ESRD (P

  16. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  17. A biological method of including mineralized human liquid and solid wastes into the mass exchange of bio-technical life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Litovka, Yu. A.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2012-10-01

    The main obstacle to using mineralized human solid and liquid wastes as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivated in bio-technical life support systems (BLSS) is that they contain NaCl. The purpose of this study is to determine whether mineralized human wastes can be used to prepare the nutrient solution for long-duration conveyor cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. plant community. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the method of "wet incineration" developed by Yu. Kudenko. They served as a basis for preparing the solutions that were used for conveyor-type cultivation of wheat community represented by 5 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated hydroponically on expanded clay particles. To reduce salt content of the nutrient solution, every two weeks, after wheat was harvested, 12 L of solution was removed from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation in water culture in a conveyor mode. The Salicornia community was represented by 2 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. As some portion of the nutrient solution used for wheat cultivation was regularly removed, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/L, and mineral elements contained in the removed portion were used for Salicornia cultivation. The experiment lasted 4 months. The total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g · m-2 · day-1, and the harvest index amounted to 36.8%. The average productivity of Salicornia edible biomass on a dry weight basis was 39.3 g · m-2 · day-1, and its aboveground mass contained at least 20% of NaCl. Thus, the proposed technology of cultivation of wheat and halophyte plant community enables using mineralized human wastes as a basis for preparing nutrient solutions and including NaCl in the mass exchange of the BLSS; moreover, humans are supplied with additional amounts of leafy vegetables.

  18. 5 CFR 843.212 - Lump-sum payments which include contributions made to a retirement system for employees of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 843.212 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  19. 5 CFR 843.212 - Lump-sum payments which include contributions made to a retirement system for employees of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 843.212 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  20. 5 CFR 843.212 - Lump-sum payments which include contributions made to a retirement system for employees of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 843.212 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  1. 5 CFR 843.212 - Lump-sum payments which include contributions made to a retirement system for employees of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 843.212 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  2. 5 CFR 843.212 - Lump-sum payments which include contributions made to a retirement system for employees of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 843.212 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  3. Changing concepts: the presidential address.

    PubMed

    Weed, J C

    1974-09-01

    A discussion of conceptual change in areas related to fertility and medicine is presented in an address by the president of the American Fertility Society. Advances in technological research and medicine, particularly in steroids and reporductive physiology, have been the most readily acceptable changes. Cesarean section and surgical sterilization have also become increasingly accepted. Newer developments such as sperm banks, artificial insemination, and ovum transfer have created profound ethical, moral, and medical issued in human engineering research and evolutionary theory. The legalization of abortion has brought moral, ethical, and legal problems for many members of the medical profession. It is urged that the Society promote education of the people in reproductive function, sexual activity, and parental obligation while being acutely aware of the problems in influencing or altering human reproduction.

  4. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Addressing community concerns about asthma and air toxics.

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C; Berger-Frank, Sherri A; Middleton, Dannie C; Falk, Henry

    2002-01-01

    People with asthma who live near or downwind from a source of toxic emissions commonly express concerns about the possible impact of hazardous air pollution on their health, especially when these emissions are visible or odorous. Citizens frequently turn to their local and state health departments for answers, but health departments face many challenges in addressing these concerns. These challenges include a lack of asthma statistics at the local level, limited exposure information, and a paucity of scientific knowledge about the contributions of hazardous air pollutants to asthma induction or exacerbation. Health agencies are creatively developing methods to address these challenges while working toward improving asthma surveillance data at the state and local levels. Recent community health investigations suggest that hazardous air pollutants that are occupational asthmagens or associated with odors may deserve more attention. In seeking to address community concerns about hazardous air pollution and asthma, community health investigations may also help to fill gaps in our scientific knowledge and identify areas for further research or environmental intervention. The solutions to community problems associated with environmental contamination and asthma, however, require sustained, coordinated efforts by public and private groups and citizens. Public health agencies can make a unique contribution to this effort, but additional resources and support will be required to develop information systems and epidemiologic capacity at the state and local levels. PMID:12194887

  6. Listening to Include

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  7. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  8. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  9. 32 CFR 37.640 - Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.640 Must I include a provision... any periodic audits are to be performed, addressed in § 37.655. (d) Other matters described in §...

  10. 32 CFR 37.640 - Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.640 Must I include a provision... any periodic audits are to be performed, addressed in § 37.655. (d) Other matters described in §...

  11. 32 CFR 37.640 - Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.640 Must I include a provision... any periodic audits are to be performed, addressed in § 37.655. (d) Other matters described in §...

  12. 32 CFR 37.640 - Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.640 Must I include a provision... any periodic audits are to be performed, addressed in § 37.655. (d) Other matters described in §...

  13. 32 CFR 37.640 - Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.640 Must I include a provision... any periodic audits are to be performed, addressed in § 37.655. (d) Other matters described in §...

  14. Addressing Barriers to Ecological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Kim; Curthoys, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    Capra defines ecological literacy as "understanding the basic principles of ecology and being able to embody them in daily life." Roth describes ecological literacy as "the capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and to take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems." It…

  15. High Speed Video Data Acquisition System (VDAS) for H. E. P. , including Reference Frame Subtractor, Data Compactor and 16 megabyte FIFO

    SciTech Connect

    Knickerbocker, K.L.; Baumbaugh, A.E.; Ruchti, R.; Baumbaugh, B.W.

    1987-02-01

    A Video-Data-Acquisition-System (VDAS) has been developed to record image data from a scintillating glass fiber-optic target developed for High Energy Physics. VDAS consists of a combination flash ADC, reference frame subtractor, high speed data compactor, an N megabyte First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memory (where N is a multiple of 4), and a single board computer as a control processor. System data rates are in excess of 30 megabytes/second. The reference frame subtractor, in conjunction with the data compactor, records only the differences from a standard frame. This greatly reduces the amount of data needed to record an image. Typical image sizes are reduced by as much as a factor of 20. With the exception of the ECL ADC board, the system uses standard TTL components to minimize power consumption and cost. VDAS operation as well as enhancements to the original system are discussed.

  16. A Multiscale Model of Cardiovascular System Including an Immersed Whole Heart in the Cases of Normal and Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD).

    PubMed

    Lee, Wanho; Jung, Eunok

    2015-07-01

    A mathematical and computational model combining the heart and circulatory system has been developed to understand the hemodynamics of circulation under normal conditions and ventricular septal defect (VSD). The immersed boundary method has been introduced to describe the interaction between the moving two-dimensional heart and intracardiac blood flow. The whole-heart model is governed by the Navier-Stokes system; this system is combined with a multi-compartment model of circulation using pressure-flow relations and the linearity of the discretized Navier-Stokes system. We investigate the velocity field, flowmeters, and pressure-volume loop in both normal and VSD cases. Simulation results show qualitatively good agreements with others found in the literature. This model, combining the heart and circulation, is useful for understanding the complex, hemodynamic mechanisms involved in normal circulation and cardiac diseases.

  17. A Multiscale Model of Cardiovascular System Including an Immersed Whole Heart in the Cases of Normal and Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD).

    PubMed

    Lee, Wanho; Jung, Eunok

    2015-07-01

    A mathematical and computational model combining the heart and circulatory system has been developed to understand the hemodynamics of circulation under normal conditions and ventricular septal defect (VSD). The immersed boundary method has been introduced to describe the interaction between the moving two-dimensional heart and intracardiac blood flow. The whole-heart model is governed by the Navier-Stokes system; this system is combined with a multi-compartment model of circulation using pressure-flow relations and the linearity of the discretized Navier-Stokes system. We investigate the velocity field, flowmeters, and pressure-volume loop in both normal and VSD cases. Simulation results show qualitatively good agreements with others found in the literature. This model, combining the heart and circulation, is useful for understanding the complex, hemodynamic mechanisms involved in normal circulation and cardiac diseases. PMID:26223734

  18. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. I - First observational results, including Lyman-alpha and Lyman-limit systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Sargent, W. L. W.; Savage, Blair D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Turnshek, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Spectra are presented for 37 quasars with small and moderate redshifts; the quasars were observed with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the HST. New higher resolution measurements of the absorption lines in the UV spectra of 11 quasars with emission-line redshifts that lie between 0.3 and 1.0 are reported. Calibrated spectra and continuum fits are shown for each object. A total of 104 extragalactic Ly-alpha systems are identified, nine of which are found at the same redshifts as metal-line systems. The local number density of Ly-alpha systems with rest equivalent widths larger than 0.32 A and without detected metal lines is about 15.1 +/- 4.3 Ly-alpha systems per unit redshift with gamma = 0.30 +/- 0.62 and W* = 0.22 +/- 0.02 A. A total of 10 Lyman-limit systems with an optical depth greater than 0.4 are identified. The paucity of damped Ly-alpha lines at small and moderate redshifts shows that the number density of damped absorption systems decreases with decreasing redshift.

  19. Light, Including Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Maverakis, Emanual; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Bowen, Michael P.; Correa, Genevieve; Ono, Yoko; Goodarzi, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is intricately linked to the functional status of the cutaneous immune system. In susceptible individuals, UV radiation can ignite pathogenic inflammatory pathways leading to allergy or autoimmunity. In others, this same UV radiation can be used as a phototherapy to suppress pathogenic cutaneous immune responses. These vastly different properties are a direct result of UV light’s ability to ionize molecules in the skin and thereby chemically alter them. Sometimes these UV-induced chemical reactions are essential, the formation of pre-vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol, for example. In other instances they can be potentially detrimental. UV radiation can ionize a cell’s DNA causing adjacent pyrimidine bases to chemically bond to each other. To prevent malignant transformation, a cell may respond to this UV-induced DNA damage by undergoing apoptosis. Although this pathway prevents skin cancer it also has the potential of inducing or exacerbating autoreactive immune responses by exposing the cell’s nuclear antigens. Ultaviolet-induced chemical reactions can activate the immune system by a variety of other mechanisms as well. In response to UV irradiation keratinocytes secrete cytokines and chemokines, which activate and recruit leukocytes to the skin. In some individuals UV-induced chemical reactions can synthesize novel antigens resulting in a photoallergy. Alternatively, photosensitizing molecules can damage cells by initiating sunburn-like phototoxic reactions. Herein we review all types of UV-induced skin reactions, especially those involving the immune system. PMID:20018479

  20. Addressing the social determinants of children's health: a cliff analogy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Camara Phyllis; Jones, Clara Yvonne; Perry, Geraldine S; Barclay, Gillian; Jones, Camille Arnel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a "Cliff Analogy" illustrating three dimensions of health intervention to help people who are falling off of the cliff of good health: providing health services, addressing the social determinants of health, and addressing the social determinants of equity. In the terms of the analogy, health services include an ambulance at the bottom of the cliff, a net or trampoline halfway down, and a fence at the top of the cliff. Addressing the social determinants of health involves the deliberate movement of the population away from the edge of the cliff. Addressing the social determinants of equity acknowledges that the cliff is three-dimensional and involves interventions on the structures, policies, practices, norms, and values that differentially distribute resources and risks along the cliff face. The authors affirm that we need to address both the social determinants of health, including poverty, and the social determinants of equity, including racism, if we are to improve health outcomes and eliminate health disparities.