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Sample records for addressed issues related

  1. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  2. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  3. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  5. From Professional Development to Classroom Instruction: Addressing Issues Related to Science Inquiry Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, I first provide a more detailed account of the discourse-focused professional development activities facilitated as part of the SMIT'N program, specifically addressing issues raised by van Zee with regard to the institute's overall format, goals and development strategies. Next, I resort to Peter Medawar's metaphorical view of…

  6. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  7. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Marian

    2016-01-01

    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  8. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations.

  9. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  10. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals.

    PubMed

    Lukasczik, Matthias; Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Küffner, Roland; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  11. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  12. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  13. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  14. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients. PMID:26225503

  15. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients.

  16. Addressing hypertext design and conversion issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glusko, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Hypertext is a network of information units connected by relational links. A hypertext system is a configuration of hardware and software that presents a hypertext to users and allows them to manage and access the information that it contains. Hypertext is also a user interface concept that closely supports the ways that people use printed information. Hypertext concepts encourage modularity and the elimination of redundancy in data bases because information can be stored only once but viewed in any appropriate context. Hypertext is such a hot idea because it is an enabling technology in that workstations and personal computers finally provide enough local processing power for hypertext user interfaces.

  17. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  18. THE ROLE OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN ADDRESSING HAZARDOUS WASTE ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment plays many important roles in addressing hazardous waste issues. In addition to providing a scientific framework and common health metric to evaluate risks. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or "Superfund") risk assessm...

  19. Introduction: the need to address older women's mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Victor J

    2007-01-01

    Women are the primary consumers of mental health services. Ironically, research addressing their unique needs lags behind that of men's issues. The aging process introduces an important variable that accentuates the relative lack of information and specific treatment guidelines for older women who are confronted by mental health problems. This volume offers a comprehensive overview for the health professional who is seeking a greater depth of understanding with respect to the study of mental health problems in general, and how these issues pertain specifically to women and the aging process. A second goal of this project is to provide the practicing therapist and counselor with a research update and a broad clinical perspective offered by seasoned clinicians. Using current psychiatric diagnosis as a framework, the contributions address the range of mental health problems, including dementia and cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, traumatic and dissociative conditions, sexual and eating disorders, and personality disorders. It is hoped that this book will inform, inspire and encourage students and health professionals in their work with middle aged and older women who are facing mental health challenges. PMID:17588876

  20. Addressing Physical and Emotional Issues in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jonathon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how physical and mental disabilities are addressed in children's literature. Many authors are able to integrate the issues into their work in a way that enhances the story and benefits the reader. As young readers learn about the issues and struggles faced by children with mental and physical disabilities,…

  1. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  2. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  3. Extending the ARS Experimental Watersheds to Address Regional Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, D.; Goodrich, D. C.; Winstral, A.; Bosch, D. D.; Pool, D.

    2001-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service's (ARS) Watershed Research Program maintains and operates a diverse, geog raphically distributed, nested, multi-scale, national ex perimental watershed network. This network, much of which has been operational for more than 40 years (several more than 60 years), constitutes one the best networks of its kind in the world. The watershed network and its instrumentation was primarily established to assess the hydrologic impacts of watershed conservation and management practices. It has evolved, through development of long-term hydrologic data, as a network of high quality outdoor laboratories for addressing emerging science issues facing hydrologists and resource managers. While the value of the experimental watershed for investigating precipitation, climatic, and hydrologic processes is unquestioned, extending the results from these investigations to other sites and larger areas is more difficult. ARS experimental watersheds are a few hundred km2 or smaller making it challenging to address regional scale issues. To address this the ARS watershed program is, with a suite of partners from universities and other federal agencies, enlarging its research focus to extend beyond the boundaries of the experimental watershed. In this poster we present several examples of this effort, with suggestions on how, using the experimental watershed and its core, a larger scale hydrologic observatory could be developed and maintained.

  4. 76 FR 58846 - Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... is to clarify the NRC staff guidance to address issues of gas accumulation in safety related systems... guidance documents. Disposition: On November 12, 2009 (74 FR 58323), the NRC staff issued proposed DC/COL... COMMISSION Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in...

  5. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  6. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  7. "Cairo must address the equity issue." Interview: Sandra Postel.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Sandra Postel, of the Worldwatch Institute, believes that inequalities in consumption and income foster environmental degradation. The richest 20% are getting richer and consuming excessively. The bottom 20%, comprising about 1 billion people, are getting poorer and are degrading their environment in order to survive. Per capita availability of resources is continually being reduced. If there is a desire to improve the quality of life for the poorest segment of the world population, then the richest must forfeit something. Environmental taxation could reduce excessive consumption in general; this strategy would be the most efficient and useful. Taxes would be placed on pollution and resources in danger of depletion; income taxes could be reduced to balance the impact of increased taxes on the economy. Wealthy countries must make a renewed commitment to poverty alleviation and to realistic sustainable development. Aid budgets should no longer reflect military priorities or strategic objectives. Trade is clearly related to the environment and poverty, and these connections must be made publicly known. National and international trade policies must deal with poverty issues and not contribute to further environmental destruction. Eliminating debt problems is another problem in need of change. The World Bank and structural adjustment policies have not proved to be environmentally sound and have not benefitted the poor. Evaluation of programs is needed, and lending policies should reflect the growing awareness of the problems of the poor and environmental consequences. Consumption of energy, wood, paper, and water are all higher among industrialized wealthy countries. Technology needs to be applied to maximize resource use, and policies must reflect this commitment. Israel has set a good example with water consumption reduction through advanced technology. PMID:12345839

  8. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  9. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  10. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  11. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  12. Teaching Writing in a Digital Age: Addressing Issues of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrill, Brittany B.

    2010-01-01

    The way people write and communicate has changed both inside and outside the university, and because of this writing instructors are professionally responsible for addressing these changes in the classroom. Technologies have affected writing for thousands of years. From the invention of the printing press to the Internet, challenges to writing…

  13. Teacher Education's Responsibility to Address Diversity Issues: Enhancing Institutional Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Susan L.; Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    1998-01-01

    Preservice teachers must be prepared to address substantial student diversity and to educate all students to higher levels of understanding and competence. Many teacher educators are not competent to prepare new teachers in this area. Several approaches to handling institutional aspects of teacher education for diversity are discussed, noting…

  14. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Kramer, J.

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  15. Creating Art Environments That Address Social Justice Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Gail

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I examine strategies for teaching students to make socially conscious art using a variety of media that emphasizes installation work. I present issues of social justice in the contemporary art world and include concerns of censorship that artists sometimes confront. I offer examples of team taught coordinated studies programs…

  16. Beyond Culturalism: Addressing Issues of Indigenous Disadvantage through Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda; Gowlett, Christina; Mills, Martin; Monk, Sue; Renshaw, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws from a study that explored issues of student equity, marginality and diversity in two secondary schools in regional Queensland (Australia). The paper foregrounds interview data gathered from administration, teaching and ancillary staff at one of the schools, "Crimson" High School. The school has a high Indigenous student…

  17. The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan

    1998-01-01

    Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual…

  18. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  19. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere

    2015-01-01

    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Uruguay. The tolls of disease-related malnutrition are high in both human and financial terms—increased infectious complications, higher incidence of pressure ulcers, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, greater costs of care, and increased risk of death. In an effort to draw attention to malnutrition in Latin American healthcare, a feedM.E. Latin American Study Group was formed to extend the reach and support the educational efforts of the feedM.E. Global Study Group. In this article, the feedM.E. Latin American Study Group shows that malnutrition incurs excessive costs to the healthcare systems, and the study group also presents evidence of how appropriate nutrition care can improve patients’ clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. To achieve the benefits of nutrition for health throughout Latin America, the article presents feedM.E.’s simple and effective Nutrition Care Pathway in English and Spanish as a way to facilitate its use. PMID:25883116

  20. A mental model proposed to address sustainability and terrorism issues.

    PubMed

    Schwing, Richard

    2002-06-01

    I have assembled traditional ways to think about human needs and power along with empirical data to support a mental model of human values. The hierarchy of needs from the world of psychology and the hierarchy of power from the world of diplomacy provide a structure for the model. The empirical data collected from several nations over the last three decades support the structure. Furthermore, an examination of specific trends in this data for specific values indicates that it is not impossible to achieve a sustainable world driven by sustainable values. A world that will be defined by its successful movement toward the "triple bottom line," a term articulated by John Elkington, is a world in which economic prosperity, environmental protection, and social equity are aligned. To say that the model allows one to address terrorism is based on the assumption that the lack of social equity or the perception of that lack determines the likelihood of terrorism.

  1. Newborn falls in-hospital: time to address the issue.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Goodman, Alexander; Remorino, Rowena; Bolger, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Newborn falls in-hospital are considered rare and mostly accidental. Few studies are available explaining such accidents. The number of cases may be under reported by parents because of the inevitable sense of guilt they experience. Although deaths have been rarely reported, such accidents may be associated with serious outcomes. An urgent assessment by both the midwifery and paediatric teams should be undertaken following the reporting of such accidents. This paper explains what is meant by newborn falls, presents some relevant literature and uses a case study involving a newborn in hospital to form the basis of a discussion. Importantly it is felt that there is a need to raise awareness of the potential of these accidents amongst health professionals. We hope this paper goes some way towards highlighting some key issues and, moreover, increases awareness of newborn falls in hospital. PMID:21560948

  2. Addressing Machining Issues for the Intermetallic Compound 60-NITINOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; Wozniak, Walter A.; McCue, Terry R.

    2012-01-01

    60-NITINOL (60 wt.% Ni - 40 wt.% Ti) is being studied as a material for advanced aerospace components. Frequent wire breakage during electrical-discharge machining of this material was investigated. The studied material was fabricated from hot isostatically pressed 60-NITINOL powder obtained through a commercial source. Bulk chemical analysis of the material showed that the composition was nominal but had relatively high levels of certain impurities, including Al and O. It was later determined that Al2O3 particles had contaminated the material during the hot isostatic pressing procedure and that these particles were the most likely cause of the wire breakage. The results of this investigation highlight the importance of material cleanliness to its further implementation.

  3. Gender relations and economic issues.

    PubMed

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US. PMID:12320735

  4. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  5. Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Hollie

    2005-01-01

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce.…

  6. Labor Relations. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara, Comp.

    This paper examines labor issues that affect school employees. It is divided into four sections: school reform; teacher compensation; scope of bargaining; and collaborative (nonadversarial) bargaining. The longest section, which focuses on various reform movements in the schools, examines accountability, school choice, and the questions…

  7. The New ASERVIC Competencies for Addressing Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Watts, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, leaders in the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC) developed new competencies for addressing spiritual and religious issues in counseling. This article briefly addresses the need for new ASERVIC competencies, provides an overview of the process whereby the new competencies emerged, and concludes…

  8. Sarah's Story: Using Ritual Therapy to Address Psychospiritual Issues in Treating Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Radha J.; Horton, H. Shelton, Jr.; Watson, Terri

    1997-01-01

    Describes an individual's healing from the trauma of childhood sexual abuse through counseling, spiritual growth, and the use of therapeutic ritual. Explores relationships between the psychospiritual issues associated with childhood sexual abuse and commonly designated treatment goals. Claims that addressing psychospiritual issues is crucial in…

  9. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million. PMID:12125747

  10. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million.

  11. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  12. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population. PMID:27215888

  13. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population.

  14. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  15. Addressing the shortage of health professionals in rural China: issues and progress

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianlin; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Maldistribution of health professionals between urban and rural areas has been a serious problem in China. Urban hospitals attract most of the health professionals with serious shortages in rural areas. To address this issue, a number of policies have been implemented by the government, such as free medical education in exchange for obligatory rural service. PMID:25905487

  16. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  17. Recommendations and Strategies for Addressing Comprehensive Health Issues on Two-Year College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Gene M.; And Others

    The Two-Year College Development Center invited representatives from two-year colleges throughout New York to attend a two-day meeting to address comprehensive health issues, particularly pertaining to the transmission and prevention of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), as well as other infectious and chronic diseases. The attending…

  18. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  19. Immigration Reform and Related Issues. Perspectivas Publicas. Issue Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Asserting that immigration reform and related issues have commanded sustained attention in the opening weeks of the 99th Congress, this paper provides an overview of important developments in this area, and highlights steps taken by the National Council of La Raza to help shape these developments. The developments discussed include: (1) The…

  20. Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn,, Paul P.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

  1. Teaching Science-Related Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Offers a brief introduction and resource list on teaching about science-related social issues. Provides three complete lesson plans for elementary, middle school, and high school use. The topics covered in the lessons are energy production and consumption in the United States; nuclear power concepts, issues, and controversies; and the arms race.…

  2. Pursuing Justice for Refugee Students: Addressing Issues of Cultural (Mis)Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper Nancy Fraser's conceptual tools are drawn on to theorise issues of justice in a culturally diverse primary school in Australia where approximately 30% of the student population are immigrant/refugees. The paper examines justice issues of cultural recognition in relation to refugee student identity, behaviour and assessment. Drawing…

  3. Addressing Key Science and Technology Issues for IFE Chambers, Target Fabrication and Target Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Goodin, D T; Nobile, A; Besenbruch, G; Haynes, D; Hoffer, J; Latkowski, J; Maxwell, J; Najmabadi, F; Nikroo, A; Peterson, P; Petzoldt, R; Rickman, W; Sethian, J; Steckle, W; Stephens, E; Tillack, M; Ying, A; Yoda, M

    2002-09-25

    Significant progress has been made in addressing critical issues for high repetition rate chambers, target fabrication and injection for inertial fusion energy (IFE) for both heavy ion and laser drivers. Research is being conducted in a coordinated manner by national laboratories, universities and industry. This paper provides an overview of U.S. research activities and discusses how interface considerations (such as beam propagation and target survival during injection) impact design choices.

  4. Multiple views to address diversity issues: an initial dialog to advance the chiropractic profession

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Christensen, Mark G.; Hyland, John K.; Mrozek, John P.; Zuker, R. Fred; Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Perle, Stephen M.; Oyelowo, Tolu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide expert viewpoints on the topic of diversity in the chiropractic profession, including cultural competency, diversity in the profession, educational and clinical practice strategies for addressing diversity, and workforce issues. Over the next decades, changing demographics in North America will alter how the chiropractic profession functions on many levels. As the population increases in diversity, we will need to prepare our workforce to meet the needs of future patients and society. PMID:23966884

  5. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  6. The Role of Violence Against Women Act in Addressing Intimate Partner Violence: A Public Health Issue

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Monica N.; Palmer, Sheallah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  7. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are constructed through media, the use of mass media in the science classroom may be risky. Limited research has explored how science teachers naturally use mass media to explore scientific issues in the classroom or how mass media is used to address potential overlaps between socio-scientific-issue based instruction and education for sustainability. This naturalistic study investigated the reported and actual classroom uses of mass media by secondary science teachers' to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues as well as the extent to which their instructional approaches did or did not overlap with frameworks for SSI-based instruction, education for sustainability, and media literacy education. The results of this study suggest that secondary science teachers use mass media to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues, but their use of frameworks aligned with SSI-based, education for sustainability, and media literacy education was limited. This paper provides suggestions for how we, as science educators and researchers, can advance a teaching and learning agenda for encouraging instruction that more fully utilizes the potential of mass media to explore socio-scientific issues in line with perspectives from education for sustainability.

  8. Rewarding altruism: addressing the issue of payments for volunteers in public health initiatives.

    PubMed

    South, Jane; Purcell, Martin E; Branney, Peter; Gamsu, Mark; White, Judy

    2014-03-01

    Lay involvement in public health programmes occurs through formalised lay health worker (LHW) and other volunteer roles. Whether such participation should be supported, or indeed rewarded, by payment is a critical question. With reference to policy in England, UK, this paper argues how framing citizen involvement in health only as time freely given does not account for the complexities of practice, nor intrinsic motivations. The paper reports results on payment drawn from a study of approaches to support lay people in public health roles, conducted in England, 2007-9. The first phase of the study comprised a scoping review of 224 publications, three public hearings and a register of projects. Findings revealed the diversity of approaches to payment, but also the contested nature of the topic. The second phase investigated programme support matters in five case studies of public health projects, which were selected primarily to reflect role types. All five projects involved volunteers, with two utilising forms of payment to support engagement. Interviews were conducted with a sample of project staff, LHWs (paid and unpaid), external partners and service users. Drawing on both lay and professional perspectives, the paper explores how payment relates to social context as well as various motivations for giving, receiving or declining financial support. The findings show that personal costs are not always absorbed, and that there is a potential conflict between financial support, whether sessional payment or expenses, and welfare benefits. In identifying some of the advantages and disadvantages of payment, the paper highlights the complexity of an issue often addressed only superficially. It concludes that, in order to support citizen involvement, fairness and value should be considered alongside pragmatic matters of programme management; however policy conflicts need to be resolved to ensure that employment and welfare rights are maintained.

  9. Rewarding altruism: addressing the issue of payments for volunteers in public health initiatives.

    PubMed

    South, Jane; Purcell, Martin E; Branney, Peter; Gamsu, Mark; White, Judy

    2014-03-01

    Lay involvement in public health programmes occurs through formalised lay health worker (LHW) and other volunteer roles. Whether such participation should be supported, or indeed rewarded, by payment is a critical question. With reference to policy in England, UK, this paper argues how framing citizen involvement in health only as time freely given does not account for the complexities of practice, nor intrinsic motivations. The paper reports results on payment drawn from a study of approaches to support lay people in public health roles, conducted in England, 2007-9. The first phase of the study comprised a scoping review of 224 publications, three public hearings and a register of projects. Findings revealed the diversity of approaches to payment, but also the contested nature of the topic. The second phase investigated programme support matters in five case studies of public health projects, which were selected primarily to reflect role types. All five projects involved volunteers, with two utilising forms of payment to support engagement. Interviews were conducted with a sample of project staff, LHWs (paid and unpaid), external partners and service users. Drawing on both lay and professional perspectives, the paper explores how payment relates to social context as well as various motivations for giving, receiving or declining financial support. The findings show that personal costs are not always absorbed, and that there is a potential conflict between financial support, whether sessional payment or expenses, and welfare benefits. In identifying some of the advantages and disadvantages of payment, the paper highlights the complexity of an issue often addressed only superficially. It concludes that, in order to support citizen involvement, fairness and value should be considered alongside pragmatic matters of programme management; however policy conflicts need to be resolved to ensure that employment and welfare rights are maintained. PMID:24581065

  10. SOFTWARE TOOLS THAT ADDRESS HAZARDOUS MATERIAL ISSUES DURING NUCLEAR FACILITY D and D

    SciTech Connect

    M. COURNOYER; R. GRUNDEMANN

    2001-03-01

    The 49-year-old Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility is where analytical chemistry and metallurgical studies on samples of plutonium and nuclear materials are conduct in support of the Department of Energy's nuclear weapons program. The CMR Facility is expected to be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) over the next ten to twenty years. Over the decades, several hazardous material issues have developed that need to be address. Unstable chemicals must be properly reassigned or disposed of from the workspace during D and D operation. Materials that have critical effects that are primarily chronic in nature, carcinogens, reproductive toxin, and materials that exhibit high chronic toxicity, have unique decontamination requirements, including the decontrolling of areas where these chemicals were used. Certain types of equipment and materials that contain mercury, asbestos, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls have special provisions that must be addressed. Utilization of commercially available software programs for addressing hazardous material issues during D and D operations such as legacy chemicals and documentation are presented. These user-friendly programs eliminate part of the tediousness associated with the complex requirements of legacy hazardous materials. A key element of this approach is having a program that inventories and tracks all hazardous materials. Without an inventory of chemicals stored in a particular location, many important questions pertinent to D and D operations can be difficult to answer. On the other hand, a well-managed inventory system can address unstable and highly toxic chemicals and hazardous material records concerns before they become an issue. Tapping into the institutional database provides a way to take advantage of the combined expertise of the institution in managing a cost effective D and D program as well as adding a quality assurance element to the program. Using laboratory requirements as a logic flow

  11. Issues related to field testing in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1982-12-31

    This paper has brought out the unique properties of tuffs and related them to needs associated with their use as a host rock for a high level nuclear waste repository. Major issues of temperature, pore water, joints, and depositional patterns have been identified and related responses and impacts outlined in Table 1. Planned experiments have been outlined and their relationships to the rock mechanics issues summarized in Table 2. The conclusions from this paper are: (1) tuff is a complex rock and basic phenomenological understanding is incomplete; and (2) available field test facilities will be used for a series of experiments designed to improve phenomenological understanding and support repository design efforts.

  12. Religiosity/spirituality of German doctors in private practice and likelihood of addressing R/S issues with patients.

    PubMed

    Voltmer, Edgar; Bussing, Arndt; Koenig, Harold G; Al Zaben, Faten

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the self-assessed religiosity and spirituality (R/S) of a representative sample of German physicians in private practice (n = 414) and how this related to their addressing R/S issues with patients. The majority of physicians (49.3 %)reported a Protestant denomination, with the remainder indicating mainly either Catholic(12.5 %) or none (31.9 %). A significant proportion perceived themselves as either religious(42.8 %) or spiritual (29.0 %). Women were more likely to rate themselves R/S than did men. Women (compared to men) were also somewhat more likely to attend religious services (7.4 vs. 2.1 % at least once a week) and participate in private religious activities(14.9 vs. 13.7 % at least daily), although these differences were not statistically significant.The majority of physicians (67.2 %) never/seldom addressed R/S issues with a typical patient. Physicians with higher self-perceived R/S and more frequent public and private religious activity were much more likely to address R/S issues with patients. Implications for patient care and future research are discussed.

  13. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  14. Teachers' Attitudes Toward Death-Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkes, A. Cordell

    1978-01-01

    Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)

  15. Addressing Cultural Issues in an Organizational Context. Edited Conference Proceedings of the Teachers College Winter Roundtable (New York, New York, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samuel D., Jr., Ed.; Carter, Robert T., Ed.

    Papers from this year's conference reflect the Roundtable's theme of addressing cultural issues in an organizational context. Topics cover a wide range of institutional and organizational issues in corporate, educational, and treatment settings. Papers include: (1) "The New Corporate Language for Race Relations" (keynote) (Clayton P. Alderfer);…

  16. Commentary: what role should physician organizations play in addressing social justice issues?

    PubMed

    Bright, Cedric M

    2012-06-01

    A study by Peek and colleagues in this issue reveals that although racial and ethnic health disparities are recognized as a major national challenge, few physician organizations with both the influence and ability to change practice standards and address disparities appear to be effectively directing their resources to mitigate health disparities. In this commentary, the author examines the history of U.S. health disparities through the lens of social justice. He argues that today, physician organizations have the opportunity to change the paradigm of medicine from being a reactive industry to becoming a proactive industry through collaborations such as the Commission to End Health Disparities, which brings together more than 60 organizations, and the National Medical Association's "We Stand With You" program to improve health and combat disparities. Physician organizations can also address health disparities through advocacy for fair reimbursement policies, funding for pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the workforce, diversity in clinical trials, and other issues. Health disparities present to us in organized medicine a challenge that is cleverly disguised as an immovable object but that is truly a great opportunity for innovation, improvement, and growth. Physician organizations have a unique opportunity to provide avenues of innovation and accomplishment.

  17. Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Hollie

    2005-06-01

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce. Foreshadowing such under-representation in the workforce are the disproportionately low rates of African American and Hispanic students attaining college degrees in science and related fields. Evidence suggests disparate systemic factors in secondary science education are contributing to disproportionately low numbers of African American and Hispanic students in the science education pipeline. The present paper embarks on a critical analysis of the issue by elucidating some of the systemic factors within secondary education that contribute to the leak in the science education pipeline. In addition, this review offers a synthesis and explication of some of the policies and programs being implemented to address disparate systemic factors in secondary schools. Finally, recommendations are offered regarding potential mechanisms by which disparities may be alleviated.

  18. Clothing the Emperor: Addressing the Issue of English Language Proficiency in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunworth, Katie

    2010-01-01

    The English language proficiency levels of students in Australian higher education who have English as an additional language (EAL) has become an increasingly prominent issue, particularly as it relates to international students. In 2009 this resulted in the publication of a set of good practice principles for the sector. This paper argues that…

  19. Where We Live: A Curriculum Guide. ABE Materials that Address Housing Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellowitch, Azi

    This curriculum was developed to give adult basic education (ABE) teachers starting points for developing their own units around housing-related issues. The texts have been chosen thematically, rather than by skill level. The materials are designed for group work--oral reading and discussion. Readings focus on housing repairs, court procedures,…

  20. Skirting the Issue: Teachers' Experiences "Addressing Sexuality in Middle School Language Arts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Klein, Nicole Aydt

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine perceptions, attitudes, and reported practices of a group of middle level Language Arts teachers concerning sexuality-related issues. Through interviews with 15 teachers, the study found that sexuality was in one sense pervasive, as it came up frequently in the teachers' practice. Yet at the same time the…

  1. Artificial intelligence issues related to automated computing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornfeck, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Large data processing installations represent target systems for effective applications of artificial intelligence (AI) constructs. The system organization of a large data processing facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is presented. The methodology and the issues which are related to AI application to automated operations within a large-scale computing facility are described. Problems to be addressed and initial goals are outlined.

  2. Optimization of Compound Plate Preparation to Address Precipitation Issue in Mammalian A549 Cytotoxicity Assay.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra Achar, Vijayashree Gauribidanur; Barde, Shubhada Pramod; Mallya, Meenakshy Venkatesh; Awasthy, Disha; Narayan, Chandan

    2016-06-01

    This study illustrates the optimization of low-volume dispensing on a liquid handling system (LHS) to overcome the precipitation of compounds in the mammalian cytotoxicity assay with low dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) tolerance. All compounds at AstraZeneca Bangalore are tested in the mammalian cytotoxicity assay. In order to maintain the DMSO levels, serially diluted plates were prepared in DMSO/water. It was observed that some of the compounds precipitated. The IC50 data for such compounds were therefore erratic. To circumvent the problem of compound precipitation, the LHS was optimized to dispense low volumes (<1 µL). The plates were serially diluted using neat DMSO. Since the dilution was done using neat DMSO, there were no issues with precipitation. The serially diluted sample (0.5 µL) from the plate was stamped onto the assay plate to give the desired DMSO concentration. No significant differences in IC50 data were observed for 1 µL dispenses made from DMSO/water and 0.5 µL dispenses from neat DMSO for the samples with no precipitation issues. These data therefore gave us the confidence to switch over to 0.5 µL dispenses for the cytotoxicity assay to address the precipitation issue. However, precipitation of samples in the assay buffer is beyond the scope of this discussion.

  3. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  4. Afterschool: A Strategy for Addressing and Preventing Middle School Bullying. MetLife Foundation Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No. 51

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Afterschool Alliance, in partnership with MetLife Foundation, is proud to present the second in a series of four issue briefs examining critical issues facing middle school youth and the vital role afterschool programs play in addressing these issues. This brief focuses on bullying awareness and prevention. Bullying is a dangerous behavior…

  5. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

  6. Utilizing Internet-based Community Collaboration Tools and Geobrowsers to Address Issues of Water Resource Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agnese, F. A.

    2007-12-01

    More frequently society is demanding that earth- and environmental-resource issues be evaluated and addressed by interdisciplinary investigators from the scientific, engineering, planning, and regulatory communities. Often these investigators are required to interact with a larger community of public stakeholders. Also, these investigators, by necessity, develop databases and models derived from disparate data sets that are often large, complex, and vary dramatically in scale and quality. The tools to facilitate the interactions of these communities of individuals have only recently garnered the appropriate sophistication to enable real-time data viewing, encoding, browsing, and modeling. At the same time, the advent of second-generation internet, or Web 2.0, technologies found in web-based communities and hosted services (such as social-networking, wikis, weblogs, social bookmarking, podcasts, and RSS web feeds) have fused with the more traditional two- and three-dimensional geographic information systems. This "mash-up" of web-based and stand-alone tools and services creates a highly interactive user environment that is favorable to real-time collaboration, community discussion, and broad public dissemination in a wide-area distributed network. These tools and services are being utilized to facilitate the investigations and conversations of scientists and other stakeholders addressing water resource sustainability issues in the desert southwestern United States. The data and models derived from these investigations are visualized using industry standard tools like ArcGIS, Google Earth, and Google Maps to enable ease-of-use by both the technical and the public stakeholder communities.

  7. Ethical issues raised in addressing the needs of people with serious mental disorders in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Wissow, Lawrence S; Rutkow, Lainie; Kass, Nancy E; Rabins, Peter V; Vernick, Jon S; Hodge, James G

    2012-03-01

    Recent manmade and natural disasters highlight weaknesses in the public health systems designed to protect populations from harm and minimize disruption of the social and built environments. Emergency planning and response efforts have, as a result, focused largely on ensuring populations' physical well-being during and after a disaster. Many public health authorities, including the World Health Organization, have recognized the importance of addressing both mental and physical health concerns in emergency plans. Individuals with mental disorders represent a notable proportion of the overall population, and anticipating their needs is critical to comprehensive emergency planning and response efforts. Because people with serious mental disorders historically have been stigmatized, and many individuals with mental disorders may be unable to care for themselves, ethical guidance may be of assistance to those engaged in emergency planning and response. This article considers several broad categories of ethical issues that arise during emergencies for people with serious mental disorders and offers recommendations for ways in which emergency planners and other stakeholders can begin to address these ethical challenges.

  8. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  9. Addressing Issues of Broadening Participation Highlighted in the Report on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Iverson, E. A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The final report for the Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education lays out a consensus on issues that must be tackled by the geoscience community collectively if there are to be enough qualified people to fill the large number of expected geoscience job vacancies over the coming decade. Focus areas cited in the report include: Strengthening the connections between two-year colleges and four-year institutions Sharing and making use of successful recruitment and retention practices for students from underrepresented groups Making students aware of high-quality job prospects in the geosciences as well as its societal relevance The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) program, and the Building Strong Geoscience Departments (BSGD) project together have developed a suite of web resources to help faculty and program leaders begin to address these and other issues. These resources address practices that support the whole student, both in the classroom and as a part of the co-curriculum as well as information on geoscience careers, guidance for developing coherent degree programs, practical advice for mentoring and advising, and many others. In addition to developing web resources, InTeGrate has also undertaken an effort to profile successful program practices at a variety of institutions. An analysis of these data shows several common themes (e.g. proactive marketing, community building, research experiences) that align well with the existing literature on what works to support student success. But there are also indications of different approaches and emphases between Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and Primarily White Institutions (PWIs) as well as between different kinds of MSIs. Highlighting the different strategies in use can point both MSIs and PWIs to possible alternate solutions to the challenges their students face. InTeGrate - http

  10. The National Academy of Sciences offers a new framework for addressing global warming issues.

    PubMed

    Barnard, R C; Morgan, D L

    2000-02-01

    The recent landmark report by the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the science on which the Kyoto Protocol was based. NAS concluded that the policy choices and the mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases by the developed nations were based on incomplete science with significant uncertainties. In view of these uncertainties the NAS report developed a comprehensive strategic 10-year research program to address the basic issue of whether human activity that results in environmental changes is responsible for climate changes. The report provides a new framework for consideration of global warming issues. The UN International Panel on Climate Change (the UN science advisor) in its 1997 report to the Kyoto parties pointed out the confusing difference between scientific usage of the term "climate change" that distinguishes human from natural causes of change and the official usage that combines natural and human causes of changes in climate. The conclusion of the UN panel on human causes is equivocal. The 1999 report of the U.S. Global Science Research Committee also reached an equivocal conclusion on human causes and announced a 10-year research program to be developed in consultation with NAS. The precautionary measures provided in the 1992 UN Framework Convention differ from the ill-defined "precautionary principle" based on fear of uncertainty, and are consistent with the objectives of the NAS proposed research program. These developments together with the third report of the UN Intergovernmental Science Panel on developments in climate science due in 2001 merit consideration by the convention of the parties under the Kyoto Protocol. PMID:10715229

  11. The National Academy of Sciences offers a new framework for addressing global warming issues.

    PubMed

    Barnard, R C; Morgan, D L

    2000-02-01

    The recent landmark report by the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the science on which the Kyoto Protocol was based. NAS concluded that the policy choices and the mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases by the developed nations were based on incomplete science with significant uncertainties. In view of these uncertainties the NAS report developed a comprehensive strategic 10-year research program to address the basic issue of whether human activity that results in environmental changes is responsible for climate changes. The report provides a new framework for consideration of global warming issues. The UN International Panel on Climate Change (the UN science advisor) in its 1997 report to the Kyoto parties pointed out the confusing difference between scientific usage of the term "climate change" that distinguishes human from natural causes of change and the official usage that combines natural and human causes of changes in climate. The conclusion of the UN panel on human causes is equivocal. The 1999 report of the U.S. Global Science Research Committee also reached an equivocal conclusion on human causes and announced a 10-year research program to be developed in consultation with NAS. The precautionary measures provided in the 1992 UN Framework Convention differ from the ill-defined "precautionary principle" based on fear of uncertainty, and are consistent with the objectives of the NAS proposed research program. These developments together with the third report of the UN Intergovernmental Science Panel on developments in climate science due in 2001 merit consideration by the convention of the parties under the Kyoto Protocol.

  12. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different aspects of the issues. In addition, students were given time to search for further information themselves. Analysis of students' written arguments, from the beginning of the intervention and afterwards, suggests that many students seem to be moving away from their use of everyday language towards using scientific concepts in their arguments. In addition, they moved from considering cloning and 'designer babies' solely in terms of the present to considering them in terms of the future. Furthermore, the students started to approach the issues in additional ways using not only consequentialism but also the approaches of virtue ethics, and rights and duties. Students' progression in ethical reasoning could be related to the characteristics of the interactions in peer discussions as students who critically and constructively argued with each other's ideas, and challenged each other's claims, made progress in more aspects of ethical reasoning than students merely using cumulative talk. As such, the work provides valuable indications for the importance of introducing peer discussions and debates about SSIs in connection to biotechnology into the teaching of science in schools.

  13. How Does the Capability Approach Address Current Issues in Special Educational Needs, Disability and Inclusive Education Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwich, Brahm

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to examine what the capability approach has to offer to the field of special needs and inclusive education. Several key questions are addressed: can the capability approach replace the language of needs and rights; whether the capability approach can address key issues in the field of disabilities and difficulties in education and…

  14. Addressing misallocation of variance in principal components analysis of event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Dien, J

    1998-01-01

    Interpretation of evoked response potentials is complicated by the extensive superposition of multiple electrical events. The most common approach to disentangling these features is principal components analysis (PCA). Critics have demonstrated a number of caveats that complicate interpretation, notably misallocation of variance and latency jitter. This paper describes some further caveats to PCA as well as using simulations to evaluate three potential methods for addressing them: parallel analysis, oblique rotations, and spatial PCA. An improved simulation model is introduced for examining these issues. It is concluded that PCA is an essential statistical tool for event-related potential analysis, but only if applied appropriately.

  15. Addressing issues associated with evaluating prediction models for survival endpoints based on the concordance statistic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Long, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Prediction models for disease risk and prognosis play an important role in biomedical research, and evaluating their predictive accuracy in the presence of censored data is of substantial interest. The standard concordance (c) statistic has been extended to provide a summary measure of predictive accuracy for survival models. Motivated by a prostate cancer study, we address several issues associated with evaluating survival prediction models based on c-statistic with a focus on estimators using the technique of inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). Compared to the existing work, we provide complete results on the asymptotic properties of the IPCW estimators under the assumption of coarsening at random (CAR), and propose a sensitivity analysis under the mechanism of noncoarsening at random (NCAR). In addition, we extend the IPCW approach as well as the sensitivity analysis to high-dimensional settings. The predictive accuracy of prediction models for cancer recurrence after prostatectomy is assessed by applying the proposed approaches. We find that the estimated predictive accuracy for the models in consideration is sensitive to NCAR assumption, and thus identify the best predictive model. Finally, we further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in both settings of low-dimensional and high-dimensional data under CAR and NCAR through simulations.

  16. Approaches and incentives to implement integrated pest management that addresses regional and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Goodell, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural, environmental, and social and policy interests have influenced integrated pest management (IPM) from its inception. The first 50 years of IPM paid special attention to field-based management and market-driven decision making. Concurrently, IPM strategies became available that were best applied both within and beyond the bounds of individual fields and that also provided environmental benefits. This generated an incentives dilemma for farmers: selecting IPM activities for individual fields on the basis of market-based economics versus selecting IPM activities best applied regionally that have longer-term benefits, including environmental benefits, that accrue to the broader community as well as the farmer. Over the past several decades, public-supported incentives, such as financial incentives available to farmers from conservation programs for farms, have begun to be employed to encourage use of conservation techniques, including strategies with IPM relevance. Combining private investments with public support may effectively address the incentives dilemma when advanced IPM strategies are used regionally and provide public goods such as those benefiting resource conservation. This review focuses on adaptation of IPM to these broader issues, on transitions of IPM from primarily individual field-based decision making to coordinated community decision making, and on the form of partnerships needed to gain long-lasting regional and environmental benefits.

  17. A modular approach to addressing model design, scale, and parameter estimation issues in distributed hydrological modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Restrepo, P.J.; Viger, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A modular approach to model design and construction provides a flexible framework in which to focus the multidisciplinary research and operational efforts needed to facilitate the development, selection, and application of the most robust distributed modelling methods. A variety of modular approaches have been developed, but with little consideration for compatibility among systems and concepts. Several systems are proprietary, limiting any user interaction. The US Geological Survey modular modelling system (MMS) is a modular modelling framework that uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to address collaboratively the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. Implementation of a common modular concept is not a trivial task. However, it brings the resources of a larger community to bear on the problems of distributed modelling, provides a framework in which to compare alternative modelling approaches objectively, and provides a means of sharing the latest modelling advances. The concepts and components of the MMS are described and an example application of the MMS, in a decision-support system context, is presented to demonstrate current system capabilities. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  18. From Silence to Safety and Beyond: Historical Trends in Addressing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Issues in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Pat; Ouellett, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an historical overview of changing perspectives in education practice and literature on addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) issues in public K-12 schools. This article describes how the presentation and analysis of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues in the past 80 years have…

  19. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  2. Codes of practice and related issues in biomedical waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, D.; Watt, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.

  3. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-12-31

    The public`s perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company`s community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance.

  4. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  5. Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs).

    PubMed

    Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G H

    2010-11-01

    More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO).

  6. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  7. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change. PMID:25613801

  8. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.

  9. Addressing oral health disparities, inequity in access and workforce issues in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M

    2013-10-01

    The health sector challenges in India like those in other low and middle income countries are formidable. India has almost one-third of the world's dental schools. However, provisions of oral health-care services are few in rural parts of India where the majority of the Indian population resides. Disparities exist between the oral health status in urban and rural areas. The present unequal system of mainly private practice directed towards a minority of the population and based on reparative services needs to be modified. National oral health policy needs to be implemented as a priority, with an emphasis on strengthening dental care services under public health facilities. A fast-changing demographic profile and its implications needs to be considered while planning for the future oral health-care workforce. Current oral health status in developing countries, including India, is a result of government public health policies, not lack of dentists. The aim of the article is to discuss pertinent issues relating to oral health disparities, equity in health-care access, dental workforce planning and quality concerns pertaining to the present-day dental education and practices in India, which have implications for other developing countries. PMID:24074015

  10. A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, and How May These Be Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    This paper has firstly discussed the topic of Ethical Issues in Education, and has accordingly highlighted the fact that ethics are not something to deem at the commencement of a research project or fieldwork, but rather throughout the entire research process. Furthermore, two of the most important ethical issues have been given…

  11. Environmental Awareness: Relating Current Issues to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    Presents examples of incorporating environmental issues into lesson plans to raise the level of students' environmental awareness. Topics include: ecology, taxonomy, biochemistry, energy reactions, cell structure and function, genetics and development, and human biology. (JRH)

  12. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  13. Earthquake Seismic Risk Reduction in Ohio: ODNR's Efforts to Address Issues with Natural and Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing concerns regarding both natural and induced seismicity in Ohio, ODNR (Ohio Department of Natural Resources) initial efforts on seismic risk reduction paved way to various changes and improvement to tackle several major issues. For natural earthquakes, regional seismicity indicates a NE-SW structure in the northern portion of the area associated with a number of moderate historical earthquakes but no active trace identified. On the other hand, earthquakes of 1986 and 2011 are most probably incidents of induced seismicity that trigger more public uproar against disposal of regulated waste waters through injections. ODNR, in efforts to adapt with increasing need to regulate all operations related to both the Utica and Marcellus shale play within the state, had recently strengthen itself both through additional human resources and improved infrastructure. Tougher regulations and additional field tests were required that took effect immediately when a M4 earthquake was associated with the operations of an injection well. Public meetings were undertaken focused on educating many local inhabitants related to oil and gas operations, hydraulic fracturing, injection wells, and seismicity. Trainings for new and existing staff were regularly done especially for field inspection, data management and technology advancements. Considering the existing seismic stations that are few and distant related to sites of the injection wells, additional seismic stations were installed to gather baseline data and monitor for earthquakes within the injection area(s). Furthermore, to assess if the sites of the injection wells are safe from active structures, initial geomorphic and structural analyses indicated possible active faults in the northern portion of state oriented NE-SW. With the above-mentioned recent changes, ODNR had made a significant leap not only in the improvement of its principal regulatory role in the state for oil and gas operations but also in its

  14. Ethical issues related to epilepsy care in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chong-Tin; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2009-05-01

    There are three major issues of ethical concern related to epilepsy care in the developing world. First, is it ethical for a developing country to channel its limited resources from direct epilepsy care to research? The main considerations in addressing this question are the particular research questions to be addressed and whether such research will bring direct benefits to the local community. Second, in a country with limited resources, when does ignoring the high treatment gap become an ethical issue? This question is of particular concern when the community has enough resources to afford treatment for its poor, yet is not providing such care because of gross wastage and misallocation of the national resources. Third, do countries with plentiful resources have an ethical responsibility to help relieve the high epilepsy treatment gap of poor countries? Indeed, we believe that reasonable health care is a basic human right, and that human rights transcend national boundaries. Although health care is usually the responsibility of the nation-state, many modern states in the developing world are arbitrary creations of colonization. There is often a long process from the establishment of a political-legal state to a mature functional nation. During the long process of nation building, help from neighboring countries is often required.

  15. Core Issues that Must be Addressed in Order to Improve Vocational Education and Training in Indonesia. An Institutional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cully, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Indonesia, like many other countries has to come to terms with the challenges of a rapidly advancing economic globalization. In order to address the major issues involved the government must take some very essential steps that are practical, attainable and sustainable. With global economies evolving from a traditional resource structure to that of…

  16. Teaching for Change: Addressing Issues of Difference in the College Classroom. Reprint Series No. 25. Harvard Educational Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geismar, Kathryn, Ed.; Nicoleau, Guitele, Ed.

    Contributors to this collection of essays describe how they address issues of race, gender, and class in their college courses as they attempt to ensure that their curricula and class discussions represent the perspectives of all students. Essays include: (1) "Introduction" (Kathryn Giesmar and Guitele Nicoleau); (2) "Dialogue across Differences:…

  17. Encouraging Pre-Service Teachers to Address Issues of Sexual Orientation in Their Classrooms: Walking the Walk & Talking the Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurie E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe ways that teacher educators can encourage future teachers to address lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) issues in their own classrooms. The Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network's ThinkB4YouSpeak Educator's Guide served as the framework for the activities that the author has implemented in…

  18. ISSUES THAT MUST BE ADDRESSED FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF MIXED EXPOSURES: THE EPA EXPERIENCE WITH AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues that Must be Addressed for Risk Assessment of Mixed Exposures: The EPA Experience with Air Quality

    Daniel L. Costa, Sc.D.

    Abstract
    Humans are routinely exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants in both their outdoor and indoor environments. The wide...

  19. Using Simulation to Address Hierarchy-Related Errors in Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Aaron William; Boone, Megan C; Porter, Melissa B; Miller, Karen H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hierarchy, the unavoidable authority gradients that exist within and between clinical disciplines, can lead to significant patient harm in high-risk situations if not mitigated. High-fidelity simulation is a powerful means of addressing this issue in a reproducible manner, but participant psychological safety must be assured. Our institution experienced a hierarchy-related medication error that we subsequently addressed using simulation. The purpose of this article is to discuss the implementation and outcome of these simulations. Methods: Script and simulation flowcharts were developed to replicate the case. Each session included the use of faculty misdirection to precipitate the error. Care was taken to assure psychological safety via carefully conducted briefing and debriefing periods. Case outcomes were assessed using the validated Team Performance During Simulated Crises Instrument. Gap analysis was used to quantify team self-insight. Session content was analyzed via video review. Results: Five sessions were conducted (3 in the pediatric intensive care unit and 2 in the Pediatric Emergency Department). The team was unsuccessful at addressing the error in 4 (80%) of 5 cases. Trends toward lower communication scores (3.4/5 vs 2.3/5), as well as poor team self-assessment of communicative ability, were noted in unsuccessful sessions. Learners had a positive impression of the case. Conclusions: Simulation is a useful means to replicate hierarchy error in an educational environment. This methodology was viewed positively by learner teams, suggesting that psychological safety was maintained. Teams that did not address the error successfully may have impaired self-assessment ability in the communication skill domain. PMID:24867545

  20. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the Education for All…

  1. Children with Cancer: School Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.

    2009-01-01

    School gives purpose to a student's life. Today, students with cancer and cancer survivors are encouraged to continue their educational experiences to maintain a sense of normalcy. This manuscript discusses the research findings on medical, physical, and cognitive issues that students with cancer and cancer survivors may encounter in their…

  2. Addressing Air, Land & Water Nitrogen Issues under Changing Climate Trends & Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    The climate of western U.S. dairy producing states is anticipated to change significantly over the next 50 to 75 years. A multimedia modeling system based upon the “nitrogen cascade” concept has been configured to address three aspects of sustainability (environmenta...

  3. Teaching Water: Connecting across Disciplines and into Daily Life to Address Complex Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Hall, Anne; Lee, Tong Soon; Zupko, Jack

    2009-01-01

    A central problem in higher education is how to best develop in students interdisciplinary thinking and application skills necessary to work and engage effectively in the twenty-first century. Traditional university structures make addressing this problem especially challenging. Using as a model courses with diverse perspectives on water taught by…

  4. 2016 State of the State Addresses: Governors' Top Education Issues. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auck, Alyssa; Railey, Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Each year, governors take the stage to highlight accomplishments and outline policy priorities for their states. In an effort to provide up-to-date information on education policy trends, Education Commission of the States tracks all education policy proposals and accomplishments featured by governors in these State of the State addresses. At the…

  5. Afterschool in Action: How Innovative Afterschool Programs Address Critical Issues Facing Middle School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four years, the Afterschool Alliance and MetLife Foundation have worked together to identify exemplary, and often lesser-known afterschool programs across the nation. For the past two years, efforts have focused on finding innovative afterschool programs serving middle school students. This focus was developed to address the need for…

  6. Use of Social Software to Address Literacy and Identity Issues in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The emerging trend of social software technology can address many different second language (L2) learner needs through authentic social interaction and a variety of scaffolding processes. Social software connects education with real-life learning and interests, and engages and motivates students. It can facilitate learning environments that are…

  7. Standards, Assessment, and Readiness: Addressing Postsecondary Transition Issues across State Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demarée K.

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes major challenges ahead for states, institutions, and most importantly, students as the standards and assessments from the Common Core Standards (CCSS) are implemented. It also offers recommendations to create a network structure that would assist K-12 and higher education leaders in addressing those challenges. To begin the…

  8. Governors' Top Education Issues: 2015 State of the State Addresses. ECS Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Education Commission of the States (ECS) strives to keep its constituency apprised of education policy trends across the states. To provide a comprehensive overview of educational priorities outlined by governors, ECS summarized the education proposals and accomplishments detailed in every 2015 State of the State address delivered to date. Each…

  9. Bridging the Gap: Essential Issues to Address in Recurring Writing Center Appointments with Chinese ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    As the population of international--and particularly Chinese--students grows in US academic institutions, it is critical that writing center tutors be able to address these students' needs. However, whereas writing tutors at the author's institution are often taught to be indirect and focus on higher order concerns, such strategies are not always…

  10. Open Lives, Safe Schools: Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

    In all but a handful of states, it is legal to discriminate against individuals on the basis of sexual orientation. Ways in which homophobia and anti-gay sentiments affect education in the United States are addressed in this collection of essays. They are written for educators and others concerned about schooling, from kindergarten through…

  11. 32 CFR 37.1010 - What substantive issues should my award document address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and negotiate a TIA individually to meet the specific requirements of the particular project, so the... document must address: (a) Project scope. The scope is an overall vision statement for the project, including a discussion of the project's purpose, objectives, and detailed military and commercial goals....

  12. 32 CFR 37.1010 - What substantive issues should my award document address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and negotiate a TIA individually to meet the specific requirements of the particular project, so the... document must address: (a) Project scope. The scope is an overall vision statement for the project, including a discussion of the project's purpose, objectives, and detailed military and commercial goals....

  13. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-Scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different…

  14. Extending Transition to Address Guardianship Alternatives: An Issue Concerning Students Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dorothy Squatrito

    2014-01-01

    As students who have intellectual disability reach or have reached the age of majority, concerns regarding their competence to make informed decisions are often raised, as is the issue of adult guardianship. Guardianship refers to when a judge appoints an adult to be the guardian of another adult (ward) who has been determined to be unable to care…

  15. Teach to Reach: Addressing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth Issues in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Horace R.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the delicate and complex issues immediate to the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. The author places the discussion within the context of learning environments and presents ways in which pre-service and in-service teachers can help create safe and equitable spaces for all learners. Presented are…

  16. The Role of Sexual Trauma in the Treatment of Chemically Dependent Women: Addressing the Relapse Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Rick; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores issues surrounding sexual trauma and chemical dependency. Aims to provide direction for relapse prevention with a relapse-prone population and explores application of traditional milieu substance-abuse treatment for sexual-trauma survivors. Makes recommendations for working with sexual-trauma survivors who are also substance abusers. (RJM)

  17. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  18. The Use of Cohorts: A Powerful Way for Addressing Issues of Diversity in Preparation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Bruce G.; Caffarella, Rosemary S.

    Educational administration preparation programs increasingly are using cohorts, particularly as a way to teach diversity issues. Cohorts are groups of students who go through a 1- to 2-year study program together. The special characteristics of adult learning, the need for acknowledgement and use of experience, the different learning techniques,…

  19. Addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues from the inside: one federal agency's approach.

    PubMed Central

    Craft, E M; Mulvey, K P

    2001-01-01

    The mission of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is to protect and serve underserved and vulnerable populations. Congress established SAMHSA under Public Law 102-321 on October 1, 1992, to strengthen the nation's health care capacity to provide prevention, diagnosis, and treatment services for substance abuse and mental illnesses. SAMHSA works in partnership with states, communities, and private organizations to address the needs of people with substance abuse and mental illnesses as well as the community risk factors that contribute to these illnesses. As part of its efforts to address the unique needs of special populations, SAMHSA has reached out to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. SAMHSA and its centers (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and Center for Mental Health Services) have made a concerted effort, through both policy and programs, to develop services responsive to this community. PMID:11392928

  20. Mitigating Issues Related to the Modeling of Insurgent Recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Erica; Trewhitt, Ethan; Weiss, Lora; Whitaker, Elizabeth

    Modeling the specific motivations and influences related to an individual's decision to become involved in insurgent warfare presents its own collection of unique challenges. The difficulty of the problem often necessitates simplifications that, while making the task more manageable, may inadvertently 'smooth away' critical aspects of the problem. Augmenting the challenge is that research into the motivations of terrorism has found there is not a definitive set of variables that serve as reliable indicators of an individual's involvement. This paper addresses techniques aimed toward mitigating issues that manifest in the modeling of insurgent recruitment so that these complications do not lessen the viability of models that are used in the prediction and evaluation of terrorist activity.

  1. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve. PMID:24532788

  2. Issues Related to Development of Anti-Epileptogenic Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Pitkänen, Asla; Nehlig, Astrid; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R.; Dudek, F. Edward; Friedman, Daniel; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Jensen, Frances E.; Kaminski, Rafal M.; Kapur, Jaideep; Klitgaard, Henrik; Löscher, Wolfgang; Mody, Istvan; Schmidt, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Summary Several preclinical proof-of-concept studies have provided evidence for positive treatment effects on epileptogenesis. However, none of these hypothetical treatments has advanced to clinic. The experience in other fields of neurology such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has indicated several problems in the design of pre-clinical studies which likely contribute to failures in translating the positive preclinical data to clinic. The Working Group on “Issues related to development of anti-epileptogenic therapies” of the International League Against Epilepsy and the American Society for Epilepsy has considered the possible problems that arise when moving from proof-of-concept antiepileptogenesis (AEG) studies to preclinical AEG trials, and eventually to clinical AEG trials. This article summarizes the discussions and provides recommendations on how to design a preclinical AEG monotherapy trial in adult animals. We specifically address study design, animal and model selection, number of studies needed, issues related to administration of the treatment, outcome measures, statistics, and reporting. In addition, we give recommendations for future actions to advance the pre-clinical AEG testing. PMID:23909852

  3. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors.

  4. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors. PMID:26691601

  5. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network: An Effective Infrastructure for Addressing Important Issues in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a rapidly evolving field with active preclinical and clinical development of new strategies for patient assessment, graft selection and manipulation, and pre- and post-transplantation drug and cell therapy. New strategies require evaluation in definitive clinical trials; however, HCT trials face unique challenges, including the relatively small number of transplantations performed at any single center, the diverse indications for HCT requiring dissimilar approaches, the complex nature of the intervention itself, the risk of multiple complications in the immediate post-transplantation period, and the risk of important, though infrequent, late effects. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) was established by the US National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute to meet these challenges. In its 15 years as a network, the BMT CTN has proven to be a successful infrastructure for planning, implementing, and completing such trials and for providing definitive answers to questions leading to improvements in the understanding and practice of HCT. It has opened 37 trials, about one-half phase 2 and one-half phase 3, enrolled more than 8000 patients, and published 57 papers addressing important issues in the treatment of patients with life-threatening malignant and nonmalignant blood disorders. This review describes the network's accomplishments, key components of its success, lessons learned over the past 15 years, and challenges for the future.

  6. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD.

  7. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD. PMID:20082971

  8. Unsolved issues related to human mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Lombès, Anne; Auré, Karine; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Gilleron, Mylène; Jardel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Human mitochondrial diseases, defined as the diseases due to a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defect, represent a large group of very diverse diseases with respect to phenotype and genetic causes. They present with many unsolved issues, the comprehensive analysis of which is beyond the scope of this review. We here essentially focus on the mechanisms underlying the diversity of targeted tissues, which is an important component of the large panel of these diseases phenotypic expression. The reproducibility of genotype/phenotype expression, the presence of modifying factors, and the potential causes for the restricted pattern of tissular expression are reviewed. Special emphasis is made on heteroplasmy, a specific feature of mitochondrial diseases, defined as the coexistence within the cell of mutant and wild type mitochondrial DNA molecules. Its existence permits unequal segregation during mitoses of the mitochondrial DNA populations and consequently heterogeneous tissue distribution of the mutation load. The observed tissue distributions of recurrent human mitochondrial DNA deleterious mutations are diverse but reproducible for a given mutation demonstrating that the segregation is not a random process. Its extent and mechanisms remain essentially unknown despite recent advances obtained in animal models.

  9. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds.

  10. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-01-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  11. Developing and Using Benchmarks for Eddy Current Simulation Codes Validation to Address Industrial Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayos, M.; Buvat, F.; Costan, V.; Moreau, O.; Gilles-Pascaud, C.; Reboud, C.; Foucher, F.

    2011-06-01

    To achieve performance demonstration, which is a legal requirement for the qualification of NDE processes applied on French nuclear power plants, the use of modeling tools is a valuable support, provided that the employed models have been previously validated. To achieve this, in particular for eddy current modeling, a validation methodology based on the use of specific benchmarks close to the actual industrial issue has to be defined. Nonetheless, considering the high variability in code origin and complexity, the feedback from experience on actual cases has shown that it was critical to define simpler generic and public benchmarks in order to perform a preliminary selection. A specific Working Group has been launched in the frame of COFREND, the French Association for NDE, resulting in the definition of several benchmark problems. This action is now ready for mutualization with similar international approaches.

  12. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PLAN Planning and Preparedness § 300.220 Related Title III issues. Other related Title III requirements are found in 40 CFR part 355. ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related Title III issues....

  13. Anticancer oral therapy: emerging related issues.

    PubMed

    Banna, Giuseppe Luigi; Collovà, Elena; Gebbia, Vittorio; Lipari, Helga; Giuffrida, Pietro; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; Condorelli, Rosaria; Buscarino, Calogero; Tralongo, Paolo; Ferraù, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The use of oral anticancer drugs has shown a steady increase. Most patients prefer anticancer oral therapy to intravenous treatment primarily for the convenience of a home-based therapy, although they require that the efficacy of oral therapy must be equivalent and toxicity not superior than those expected with the intravenous treatment. A better patient compliance, drug tolerability, convenience and possible better efficacy for oral therapy as compared to intravenous emerge as the major reasons to use oral anticancer agents among oncologists. Inter- and intra-individual pharmacokinetic variations in the bioavailability of oral anticancer drugs may be more relevant than for intravenous agents. Compliance is particularly important for oral therapy because it determines the dose-intensity of the treatment and ultimately treatment efficacy and toxicity. Patient stands as the most important determinant of compliance. Possible measures for an active and safe administration of oral therapy include a careful preliminary medical evaluation and selection of patients based on possible barriers to an adequate compliance, pharmacologic issues, patient-focused education, an improvement of the accessibility to healthcare service, as well as the development of home-care nursing symptom-focused interventions. Current evidences show similar quality of life profile between oral and intravenous treatments, although anticancer oral therapy seems to be more convenient in terms of administration and reduced time lost for work or other activities. Regarding cost-effectiveness, current evidences are in favor of oral therapy, mainly due to reduced need of visits and/or day in hospital for the administration of the drug and/or the management of adverse events. PMID:20570443

  14. Ethical Issues Relating to Living Organ Donation in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Yang, T; Li, L; Ma, W

    2016-01-01

    Although great developments have been made in living organ donation, the ethical issues relating to living organ donation still face dilemmas in China. In this report, we discuss several ethical issues concerning living organ donation in China. It is argued that living organ donation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this report are carefully considered. PMID:27569914

  15. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  16. Evaluation of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program: addressing resettlement issues in prison.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Pritchard, Cecilia; Haskayne, Donna; Watson, Andy; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the impact of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program on a sample of offenders who attended it. This program used theatre performance, experiential exercises, skills practice role-plays, and metaphors such as the masks to invite a group of offenders to consider and explore issues connected with their release and reconnecting with a life outside prison. Pre- and postprogram psychometric tests, behavior ratings, and interviews were completed to assess the effectiveness of the program. Significant changes were observed from pre- to posttreatment in terms of self-efficacy, motivation to change, and improved confidence in skills (i.e., social and friendship, occupational, family and intimacy, dealing with authority, alternatives to aggression or offending, and self-management and self-control skills). Improved behavior and engagement within the program was observed over the 3 days of the program. Interviews also revealed the positive impact the program had on the participants. This provides evidence supporting the short-term effectiveness of the Re-Connect program.

  17. Addressing the amorphous content issue in quantitative phase analysis : the certification of NIST SRM 676a.

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J. P.; Von Dreele, R. B.; Winburn, R.; Stephens, P. W.; Filliben, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% {+-} 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  18. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  19. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Muir, William M.; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  20. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  1. Critical Issue: Addressing the Literacy Needs of Emergent and Early Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Debra

    Literacy development begins in the very early stages of childhood, even though the activities of young children may not seem related to reading and writing. In 1966, New Zealand researcher Marie Clay introduced the term "emergent literacy" to describe the behaviors seen in young children when they use books and writing materials to imitate reading…

  2. National Technology Standards for K-12 Schools: A Case Study of Unresolved Issues in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.; Sullivan, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses an important need--the dissemination of information relating to technology as a public relations tool--and the associated exigency for administrator and teacher technology training. Specifically, we identify the increased expectations for the performance of school leaders and teachers, as well as unresolved issues in public…

  3. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  4. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  5. End of Life and Life After Death - Issues to be Addressed.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Poojar; Renuka, Pramod Kallur Parameshwar; Bonanthaya, Ravikiran

    2012-09-01

    Being an Oncologist, I have seen many patients suffering from cancer. It pains a lot looking at them fighting the battle of life, though knowing that they would lose miserably and surrender meekly as majority of the patients report to the hospital at an advanced stage of disease and only palliative care may be the option. There is an urgent need to create - Cancer Awareness in the villages and also about the end of life care in all terminally ill patients. 20 patients in the terminal phase were questioned regarding end of life care. The common questions they asked are, why has God punished me like this? Why me on earth? Should I die so early? Why should I leave my near and dear ones and go far away, from the point of no return? Do I ever see them again? With deep sorrow and sigh, they suffer till the last breath, having the feeling of insecurity as what would happen to their dear ones. In the terminal phase, the patients wishes must be respected and their needs must be fulfilled. The health care professionals should plan an appropriate care for each patient. Most of them feel that the best place to be in end of life is the home. Research has shown that Hospice care may improve the quality of life of a patient who is dying and of the patient's family. Communication about end of life care and decision making during the final moments of a person's life are very important. The patients suffering are mainly due to the physical, psychological, social and spiritual issues. Death of a terminally ill patient should never be a sudden loss. All healthcare professionals, Social workers and Non-Governmental Organisations must install the life after death of the person, who has struggled for every breath and assure that he/she shall rest in peace and shall smile seeing their near and dear ones living with dignity and pride in the society. Ultimately, the patient must have dignity in dying.

  6. CSI related dynamics and control issues in space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Eric; Ramey, Madison

    1993-01-01

    The research addressed includes: (1) CSI issues in space robotics; (2) control of elastic payloads, which includes 1-DOF example, and 3-DOF harmonic drive arm with elastic beam; and (3) control of large space arms with elastic links, which includes testbed description, modeling, and experimental implementation of colocated PD and end-point tip position controllers.

  7. Problems and Issues Related to Legislative Process: The State Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reibman, Jeanette F.

    Issues of concern to higher education in Pennsylvania and possible roles for the state government are addressed by a state senator. The difficulty of providing postsecondary education in view of reduced funds is noted. It is suggested that the expectation that adult students will help solve the problem of fewer traditional aged college students…

  8. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  9. Data Publication: Addressing the Issues of Provenance, Attribution, Citation, and Accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, L. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Lowry, R. K.; Urban, E. R.; Moncoiffe, G.; Pissierssens, P.; Norton, C.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by publisher and funding agency mandates, and a desire to properly attribute data sets to originating investigators, the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library and a team of data managers and scientists are collaborating with representatives from the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. The work is inspired by a June 2008 SCOR/IODE Workshop on Data Publishing. The goal is to identify best practices for tracking data provenance and clearly attributing credit to data collectors/providers for data published in journal articles. To improve efficacy of data directly associated with a scientific article those data must be discoverable, citeable and freely available on the Internet. Resources, standards, and workflows must be defined to support publisher and funding agency mandates. For the data to be discoverable, appropriate metadata, defined using community accepted metadata standards, must be associated with the data source. Data will be made citeable by the assignment of a persistent identifier as well as provenance and attribution metadata. The availability of the data will be assured by submission to a data repository that has stability and permanence. In April 2010, project participants were challenged to develop and execute pilot projects related to two use cases in which: (1) data held by data centers are packaged and served in formats that can be cited and (2) data related to traditional journal articles are assigned persistent identifiers referred to in the articles and stored in institutional repositories, such as DSpace. The MBLWHOI Library team chose to focus on data that support published articles, particularly the data used to create the figures and tables. Several published papers were identified and used to test the MBLWHOI Library model based on open archive

  10. Work group III: Methodologic issues in research on the food and physical activity environments: addressing data complexity.

    PubMed

    Oakes, J Michael; Mâsse, Louise C; Messer, Lynne C

    2009-04-01

    Progress in transdisciplinary research addressing the health effects of the food and physical activity environments appears hampered by several methodologic obstacles, including: (1) the absence of clear, testable conceptual models; (2) slow adoption of practicable, rigorous research designs; (3) improper use of analytic techniques; and (4) concerns about ubiquitous measurement error. The consequence of such obstacles is that data collected as part of the typical study are more complex than need be. We offer diagnoses and recommendations from an NIH-sponsored meeting that addressed core issues in food- and physical activity-environment research. Recommendations include improved conceptual models and more elaborate theories, experimental thinking and increased attention to causal effect estimation, adoption of cross-validation techniques, use of existing measurement-error models, and increased support for methodologic research.

  11. Stream macroinvertebrate response models for bioassessment metrics: addressing the issue of spatial scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Ian R.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Jones, Kimberly A.; Orlando, James L.

    2014-01-01

    We developed independent predictive disturbance models for a full regional data set and four individual ecoregions (Full Region vs. Individual Ecoregion models) to evaluate effects of spatial scale on the assessment of human landscape modification, on predicted response of stream biota, and the effect of other possible confounding factors, such as watershed size and elevation, on model performance. We selected macroinvertebrate sampling sites for model development (n = 591) and validation (n = 467) that met strict screening criteria from four proximal ecoregions in the northeastern U.S.: North Central Appalachians, Ridge and Valley, Northeastern Highlands, and Northern Piedmont. Models were developed using boosted regression tree (BRT) techniques for four macroinvertebrate metrics; results were compared among ecoregions and metrics. Comparing within a region but across the four macroinvertebrate metrics, the average richness of tolerant taxa (RichTOL) had the highest R2 for BRT models. Across the four metrics, final BRT models had between four and seven explanatory variables and always included a variable related to urbanization (e.g., population density, percent urban, or percent manmade channels), and either a measure of hydrologic runoff (e.g., minimum April, average December, or maximum monthly runoff) and(or) a natural landscape factor (e.g., riparian slope, precipitation, and elevation), or a measure of riparian disturbance. Contrary to our expectations, Full Region models explained nearly as much variance in the macroinvertebrate data as Individual Ecoregion models, and taking into account watershed size or elevation did not appear to improve model performance. As a result, it may be advantageous for bioassessment programs to develop large regional models as a preliminary assessment of overall disturbance conditions as long as the range in natural landscape variability is not excessive.

  12. Stream Macroinvertebrate Response Models for Bioassessment Metrics: Addressing the Issue of Spatial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Ian R.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Jones, Kimberly A.; Orlando, James L.

    2014-01-01

    We developed independent predictive disturbance models for a full regional data set and four individual ecoregions (Full Region vs. Individual Ecoregion models) to evaluate effects of spatial scale on the assessment of human landscape modification, on predicted response of stream biota, and the effect of other possible confounding factors, such as watershed size and elevation, on model performance. We selected macroinvertebrate sampling sites for model development (n = 591) and validation (n = 467) that met strict screening criteria from four proximal ecoregions in the northeastern U.S.: North Central Appalachians, Ridge and Valley, Northeastern Highlands, and Northern Piedmont. Models were developed using boosted regression tree (BRT) techniques for four macroinvertebrate metrics; results were compared among ecoregions and metrics. Comparing within a region but across the four macroinvertebrate metrics, the average richness of tolerant taxa (RichTOL) had the highest R2 for BRT models. Across the four metrics, final BRT models had between four and seven explanatory variables and always included a variable related to urbanization (e.g., population density, percent urban, or percent manmade channels), and either a measure of hydrologic runoff (e.g., minimum April, average December, or maximum monthly runoff) and(or) a natural landscape factor (e.g., riparian slope, precipitation, and elevation), or a measure of riparian disturbance. Contrary to our expectations, Full Region models explained nearly as much variance in the macroinvertebrate data as Individual Ecoregion models, and taking into account watershed size or elevation did not appear to improve model performance. As a result, it may be advantageous for bioassessment programs to develop large regional models as a preliminary assessment of overall disturbance conditions as long as the range in natural landscape variability is not excessive. PMID:24675770

  13. Legal issues to address when managing clinical information across Europe: the ECIT case study (www.ECIT.info).

    PubMed

    Lawford Davies, James; Jenkins, Julian

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies issues which will need to be addressed in pursuing the aims and objectives of the European Classification of Infertility Taskforce (ECIT), namely: to establish classification codes for infertility management; to improve the consistency of infertility information collection by specialist centres, particularly but not exclusively by computerised systems; to use these codes to enable the transfer of infertility information from specialist centres to national infertility data registries; to develop a Grid linking the data held in European infertility data registries; to use Grid processing to mine the data in the European infertility data registries to optimise patient management improving the effectiveness of treatment and reducing the risk.

  14. Langley's DEVELOP Team Applies NASA's Earth Observations to Address Environmental Issues Across the Country and Around the Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Miller, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program was established over a decade ago to provide students with experience in the practical application of NASA Earth science research results. As part of NASA's Applied Sciences Program, DEVELOP focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to address environmental issues. Cultivating a diverse and dynamic group of students and young professionals, the program conducts applied science research projects during three terms each year (spring, summer, and fall) that focus on topics ranging from water resource management to natural disasters.

  15. Insights into the Interactions between Educational Messages: Looking across Multiple Organizations Addressing Water Issues in Maricopa County, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Bethany; Saltz, Charlene; Elser, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The public receives environmental information from a variety of sources. Evaluation of a single program or one organization's effort is incomplete. Through surveys and interviews, we evaluate the cumulative impact of outreach by 20 water-related organizations in Maricopa County, Arizona. Household water conservation is a topic addressed by 18…

  16. Bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS: the Uganda experience.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, N K

    1998-01-01

    In Uganda, as in many other countries, there is a vacuum regarding an appropriate legal and ethical response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Whereas much has been done to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic in a multidisciplinary way, very little has been done regarding legal and ethical issues. Hence, cases of claimants to have cures for AIDS, spiritual healers and sale of fake drugs plus unauthorized vaccine and drug trials are on the increase. The rights and needs of people infected with HIV/AIDS are not adequately addressed. The property rights of those affected by the pandemic continue to be abused. Therefore there is need to mobilize doctors, lawyers and human rights activists who should advocate and address these issues. This paper therefore highlights the critical bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS. PMID:10396922

  17. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  18. How do medical journalists treat cancer-related issues?

    PubMed Central

    Nakada, Haruka; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kishi, Yukiko; Yuji, Koichiro; Matsumura, Tomoko; Kami, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients can obtain information about their illness through a variety of media sources. Therefore, it is important to know how medical journalists treat cancer-related issues; to that end, we sent self-administered questionnaires to 364 journalists in 82 organisations who had reported on medical issues for the Japanese media, asking for their reasons for reporting on cancer-related issues and the difficulties they had faced. The most common reason for reporting on health-related issues was their personal interest in a particular issue (n = 36). They mainly covered conventional therapies (n = 33), healthcare policy (n = 30), new therapies (n = 25), and diagnosis (n = 25). All of the journalists that were surveyed experienced some difficulties in reporting health issues. Significant concerns included the quality of information (n = 36), social impact (n = 35), lack of technical knowledge (n = 35), and difficulty in understanding technical terms (n = 35). Journalists commonly used personal networks, including physicians, as information sources (n = 42), as well as social media (e.g., e-mail, Twitter and Facebook) (n = 32). Topic selection was biased, with 35 of 48 journalists having never reported on topics concerning hospices. Physicians were the most trusted source of information about cancer, and journalists attached high importance to interviewing them. As medical knowledge is advancing rapidly, journalists may have increasing difficulty covering cancer-related issues. PMID:25729415

  19. ROV intervention issues relating to pipelay operations in ultra deepwater

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, S.E.; McCoy, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the water depths for some of the development projects of oil and gas fields. Not just in the installation of producing facilities, but of the transportation infrastructure. While ROVs are used extensively in support of deepwater pipelay operations, with the recent advances in J-Lay operations and the investigation into projects which may take this method to what is now being called ``ultra deepwater`` (i.e. 10,000 feet), there are new issues which must be addressed for continued ROV intervention to be successful. This paper will attempt to bring forth some of those issues and offer some potential solutions. It is necessary to begin thinking of these potential problem areas, as the solutions could impact the economics of the projects. These issues may well begin to influence the way the ROV industry further develops and refines it`s fleet to meet the needs of the authors clients in the future.

  20. A Cost-Efficient LDPC Decoder for DVB-S2 with the Solution to Address Conflict Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yan; Bao, Dan; Yu, Zhiyi; Zeng, Xiaoyang; Chen, Yun

    In this paper, a cost-efficient LDPC decoder for DVB-S2 is presented. Based on the Normalized Min-Sum algorithm and the turbo-decoding message-passing (TDMP) algorithm, a dual line-scan scheduling is proposed to enable hardware reusing. Furthermore, we present the solution to the address conflict issue caused by the characteristic of the parity-check matrix defined by DVB-S2 LDPC codes. Based on SMIC 0.13µm standard CMOS process, the LDPC decoder has an area of 12.51mm2. The required operating frequency to meet the throughput requirement of 135Mbps with maximum iteration number of 30 is 105MHz. Compared with the latest published DVB-S2 LDPC decoder, the proposed decoder reduces area cost by 34%.

  1. Patient and healthcare perspectives on the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Shane; McConnell, Shelagh; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Ager, Naree; Booker, Reanne; Enns, Bert; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to use a qualitative approach to better understand the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic from the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Setting Participants were recruited from the bone marrow transplant clinic of a large urban outpatient cancer care centre in western Canada. Participants: Focus groups were conducted with patients (n=7) and healthcare providers (n=9) to explore the importance of addressing spiritual issues across the treatment trajectory and to identify factors associated with effectively addressing these needs. Results Data were analysed using the qualitative approach of latent content analysis. Addressing spiritual issues was understood by patients and healthcare providers, as a core, yet under addressed, component of comprehensive care. Both sets of participants felt that addressing basic spiritual issues was the responsibility of all members of the interdisciplinary team, while recognising the need for specialised and embedded support from a spiritual care professional. While healthcare providers felt that the impact of the illness and treatment had a negative effect on patients’ spiritual well-being, patients felt the opposite. Skills, challenges, key time points and clinical indicators associated with addressing spiritual issues were identified. Conclusions Despite a number of conceptual and clinical challenges associated with addressing spiritual issues patients and their healthcare providers emphasised the importance of an integrated approach whereby basic spiritual issues are addressed by members of the interdisciplinary team and by an embedded spiritual care professional, who in addition also provides specialised support. The identification of clinical issues associated with addressing spiritual needs provides healthcare providers with clinical guidance on how to better integrate this aspect of care into

  2. Issues related to the inter-utility transfer of material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An option that utilities have for obtaining material is to procure the desired item(s) from another utility. There are several reasons utilities choose another utility as the procurement source including item obsolescence, prohibitive cost on the commercial market, and excessive lead time. This document provides information on the technical, quality, and commercial issues which utilities may need to address when selling material to or procuring material from other utilities. This report provides suggested approaches for each of the following technical and quality issues: Design considerations; item acceptability considerations; original supplier considerations; commercial grade item dedication considerations; reportability considerations; packaging, shipping, and storage considerations; documentation considerations; receipt inspection considerations. The information is provided primarily for the inter-utility transfer of safety-related material. Several of the topics, however, may also apply to the transfer of non-safety-related material. The report also provides considerations on commercial issues which may be addressed during the inter-utility transfer of materials.

  3. Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Upton, Jaki F.

    2010-02-01

    On October 9, 2008, federal, state and local policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and public health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about recovery and restoration through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems. The Principal Federal Official (PFO) provided an overview of the role of the PFO in a catastrophic event. A high-level summary of an anthrax scenario was presented. The remainder of the day was focused on interactive discussions among federal, state and local emergency management experts in the areas of: • Decision-making, prioritization, and command and control • Public health/medical services • Community resiliency and continuity of government. Key topics and issues that resulted from discussions included: • Local representation in the Joint Field Office (JFO) • JFO transition to the Long-Term Recovery Office • Process for prioritization of needs • Process for regional coordination • Prioritization - process and federal/military intervention • Allocation of limited resources • Re-entry decision and consistency • Importance of maintaining a healthy hospital system • Need for a process to establish a consensus on when it is safe to re-enter. This needs to be across all jurisdictions including the military. • Insurance coverage for both private businesses and individuals • Interaction between the government and industry. The symposium was sponsored by the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration, a collaborative regional program jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of Defense. To aid the program’s efforts and inform the development of blueprint for recovery from a biological incident

  4. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  5. Social justice issues related to uneven distribution of resources.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Naomi E; Bell, Sue Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the social justice issues resulting from the uneven distribution of resources. In this article, justice theories are discussed in relation to two of these issues: lack of adequate food and shelter and inequitable access to an appropriate continuum of health care. Public health nurses have the obligation to deal with the results of poverty and the uneven distribution of resources, which pose a threat to the common good in the United States and throughout the global community.

  6. System Issues Related to Implementing on the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, William; Bagg, Thomas C., III

    1999-01-01

    Implementing capabilities on the World Wide Web should never be taken lightly. A good systems engineer is able to examine such implementations from all points of view, including political, legal, security, access, technical deployment, and quality. The evacuation discussed in this paper was conducted to ensure that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was proceeding in a correct direction by implementing RECALL a Lessons Learned System on the Web and, subsequently, did so successfully. The systems approach extended well beyond technical implementation to several issue that are not often addressed by an implementation team. The resulting evaluation increased the team's sensitivity to such issues and, in fact, the authors believe that the evaluation provided as much benefit as the system itself.

  7. What Is the Purpose of the Theses Addressing the Issue of Program Evaluation in Turkey? (The Case of Curriculum and Instruction: 1997-2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin-Sahin, Senar; Tunca, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the aim is to investigate the theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of Curriculum and Instruction (C&I) in 1997-2015. The study employed the survey model. The universe of the study consists of totally 87 theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of C&I in 1997-2015. As the…

  8. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  9. Impact of learning nutrition on medical students: their eating habits, knowledge and confidence in addressing dietary issues of patients.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shama; Dwivedi, Shraddha; Khan, Maroof A

    2011-12-01

    Nutrition is an important component in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases and is a cornerstone in strategies for disease prevention and health promotion. Despite the acknowledged importance of nutrition, there is evidence to indicate that the nutrition training of medical students is inadequate in both quality and quantity. The study aimed to know the dietary/eating habits of medical students, assess their knowledge on nutrition and to assess their confidence in addressing the dietary issues of patients. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on final year medical students, interns and postgraduate students of Moti Lal Nehru Government Medical College, Allahabad. The sampling was purposive and a total of 218 participated in the study voluntarily. Overall 55% of the students were less knowledgeable and only 45% of them were more knowledgeable. Most (62%) postgraduates were more knowledgeable (p < 0.001). Majority of them (89.9%) were having healthy eating habits. There was no association between their healthy habits and more knowledge (p > 0.340). Only 45.4% of them were confident in assessing the diet of patients and 44% of them were confident in recommending change of diet in patients. However this study shows no association between increase in the level of knowledge and confidence levels of the students (p > 0.339 and p > 0.109) suggesting that we need to incorporate innovative teaching methods to increase their confidence. Most students (79%) said that the medical curriculum was either just enough or not enough in preparing them to deal with the dietary issues of patients and 55% of them were of the opinion that the faculty should be trained in nutrition. The study results intend to stimulate active consideration of proper role of nutrition learning in medical education.

  10. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family.

  11. Treating and Precepting with RESPECT: A Relational Model Addressing Race, Ethnicity, and Culture in Medical Training

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Julie; Gordon, Sandra; Chapman, Sheila; Gonzalez, Peter; Hardt, Eric; Delgado, Leyda; James, Thea; David, Michele

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2000 a diverse group of clinicians/educators at an inner-city safety-net hospital identified relational skills to reduce disparities at the point of care. DESCRIPTION The resulting interviewing and precepting model helps build trust with patients as well as with learners. RESPECT adds attention to the relational dimension, addressing documented disparities in respect, empathy, power-sharing, and trust while incorporating prior cross-cultural models. Specific behavioral descriptions for each component make RESPECT a concrete, practical, integrated model for teaching patient care. CONCLUSIONS Precepting with RESPECT fosters a safe climate for residents to partner with faculty, address challenges with patients at risk, and improve outcomes. PMID:20352510

  12. Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field is comprised of essays that delineate the genesis and evolution of the thought and work of pioneers in the field of social issues and education. The authors (many of whom, themselves, are noted professors of education and who have done…

  13. Nutrition and cancer: issues related to treatment and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Witham, Gary

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews nutritional issues related to cancer treatment and further explores nutritional needs pertinent to cancer survivorship. It examines the major problems with nutrition when patients undergo the main cancer treatment modalities of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Particular attention is paid to long-term dietary advice in acknowledgement of the improved effectiveness of cancer treatment and the chronic nature of the condition.

  14. Issues Related to Equipment and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances

    A multi-year project was initiated to examine production equipment issues related to implementation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The purposes of the research project were to determine foodservice directors' opinions regarding use and appropriateness of equipment in school foodservice, to identify the number and variety of menu…

  15. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Related Issues. Memo No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard; Russell, Pam

    This memo is an update of a previous memo to the Special Committee on Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Related Issues. It lists the suggestions that have been submitted by Committee members to staff as of February 21, 1991; and includes suggestions made since the January 24, 1991 meeting of the Special Committee. The suggestions are broken down…

  16. 76 FR 63573 - Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and... conflict minerals originating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjoining countries. Roundtable... reporting regulations regarding the use of conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo...

  17. University Students' Perceptions of Issues Related to Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert, Jr.; Lawver, David E.

    1995-01-01

    Telephone interviews with 390 of 400 college students revealed an overall favorable impression of food safety and agriculture's impact on the economy and environment. Males were more positive about animal welfare and production agriculture. Gender, college major, and hometown were related to attitudes about agriculture issues. (SK)

  18. Everyday Issues Related to Justice and Other Gospel Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J.

    This manual presents situations that occur in the lives of most children and suggests to the teacher related activities which might cause students to reflect on the deeper meaning and significance of the situations. It seeks to make the teacher, and thus students, aware of the fact that peace, justice, and other value issues are part of daily…

  19. An approach to addressing ethical issues in a community-based risk assessment for HIV: a case from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Murgavel, Kailapuri G; Mayer, Kenneth H; Anand, S; Celentano, David D; Solomon, Suniti

    2005-06-01

    Community-based assessment of HIV prevalence and behavioural risk factors is the basis for deciding priorities of prevention and care programmes. Here, upholding the human rights of participants in assessment is of utmost importance. The objective of the paper was to describe the process of implementation of an epidemiological survey to assess HIV-related behavioural and biological factors in Chennai city in South India and to suggest an ethical framework for conducting similar assessment activities in developing-country settings. A survey was conducted with participation from residents (n=1,659) of low-income urban communities (slums) as part of a community-based HIV/STD-prevention trial. Administration of the survey was preceded by extensive community contact and household visits to inform community members about the trial and assessment activities. Formative research further strengthened rapport with community, highlighted community concerns, and identified HIV-related risk behaviours that informed questionnaire design. The process of obtaining informed consent began before assessment activities and provided an opportunity for individuals to discuss participation with their families and friends. Privacy during assessment, comprehensive follow-up care for those who tested positive for HIV/STDs, such as nutritional and prevention counselling, referral services for opportunistic infections, and antenatal-care options for pregnant women increased trust and credibility of the project. The sustained availability of trial staff to facilitate access to resources to address non-HIV/STD-related felt-needs further strengthened participation of the community members. These resources included liaison services with local government to obtain public services, such as water and electricity and resources, to address concerns, such as alcohol abuse and domestic violence. Based on this experience, an ethical framework is suggested for conducting HIV epidemiological risk assessment

  20. Using Research to Identify and Address Student Difficulties with Galilean and Special Relativity*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokos, Stamatis

    1998-04-01

    The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington has been engaged in an ongoing project in which research is used as a guide for the development of curriculum on Galilean and special relativity. Results from the analysis of student interviews, pretests and examinations form the basis for the design of instructional materials to supplement the lecture and textbook of a standard introductory course and an undergraduate course on relativity. Examples of specific student difficulties and instructional strategies to address them will be presented. * This work has been funded in part by NSF grants DUE 9354501 and 9727648, which include support from other Divisions of EHR and the Physics Division of MPS.

  1. Addressing sexuality-related needs in practice: perspectives of maternal/child and women's health nurses.

    PubMed

    Propst, M G; Phillips, B R; Andrew, M E

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative, descriptive survey was conducted using Waterhouse's instrument, Survey of Sexuality-Related Nursing Practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which maternal/child and women's health nurses address sexuality in their practice and to assess the influence of select variables on that practice. A sample of maternal/child and women's health registered nurses (n = 130) was systematically selected from the 1995 Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses' (AWHONN) District VII mailing list. Findings reveal incongruities in maternal/child and women's health nurses' perspectives and the incorporation of sexuality-related nursing interventions into practice.

  2. Supporting adaptation decisions to address climate related impacts and hazards in the Caribbean (the CARIWIG project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aidan

    2015-04-01

    Managers and policy makers from regional and national institutions in the Caribbean require knowledge of the likely impacts and hazards arising from the present and future climate that are specific to their responsibility and geographical range, and relevant to their planning time-horizons. Knowledge, experience and the political support to develop appropriate adaptation strategies are also required. However, the climate information available for the region is of limited use as: observational records are intermittent and typically of short duration; climate model projections of the weather suffer from scale and bias issues; and statistical downscaling to provide locally relevant unbiased climate change information remains sporadic. Tropical cyclone activity is a considerable sporadic hazard in the region and yet related weather information is limited to historic events. Further, there is a lack of guidance for managers and policy makers operating with very limited resources to utilize such information within their remit. The CARIWIG project (June 2012 - May 2015) will be presented, reflecting on stakeholder impact, best practice and lessons learned. This project seeks to address the climate service needs of the Caribbean region through a combination of capacity building and improved provision of climate information services. An initial workshop with regional-scale stakeholders initiated a dialogue to develop a realistic shared vision of the needed information services which could be provided by the project. Capacity building is then achieved on a number of levels: knowledge and expertise sharing between project partners; raising understanding and knowledge of resources that support national and regional institutions' adaptation decisions; developing case studies in key sectors to test and demonstrate the information services; training for stakeholder technical staff in the use of the provided services; the development of a support network within and out

  3. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, L.W.; Chawla, M.K.; Swor, C.T.

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  4. Smog chamber experiments to test oxidant related control strategy issues. Final report 1978-81

    SciTech Connect

    Kamens, R.M.; Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.; Gerhardt, A.A.

    1982-03-01

    Outdoor smog chamber experiments were performed to address various issues relating to ozone (O3) production and oxidant control strategies. Temperature effects on single hydrocarbon-NOx systems were studied. Propylene-NOx systems were modeled with particular attention to peroxynitric acid chemistry. Mechanisms were developed to model the O3 reactions with the two major isoprene daughter products, methylvinylketone and methacrolein. Chamber systems with isoprene and O3 were also modeled.

  5. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family. PMID:27497456

  6. Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.E.; Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C. B. )

    1991-03-01

    Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  7. Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.

    1997-04-01

    Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework.

  8. Health and safety issues relating to Maine's fishing industry.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Allison P; Roy, Joyce; Stacey-Scott, Norma; Joy, Joanne E A; Bogdan, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The Maine Agricultural Safety and Health Program performed a needs assessment to determine the health and safety concerns of Maine's fishing community. Information for the assessment was obtained from clinicians, focus groups of wives of fishers, and government agencies. Reports from the United States Coast Guard showed that during 1993-1994, sixty-five people were injured on commercial fishing vessels and eight people died. Decompression illness was the most frequently reported non-fatal injury (n = 15). Chronic injuries reported by clinicians included back pain, tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, dysbaric osteonecrosis. Clinicians and family members were also concerned about hand and arm infections from the bait and sun exposure. Family health issues and access to care are addressed in the report. Recommendations include, in part, increasing surveillance, reducing barriers to access, increasing clinicians' knowledge about the fishing industry, and fostering collaboration between agencies providing health and safety information to fishers.

  9. Drug Delivery Approaches in Addressing Clinical Pharmacology-Related Issues: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hong; Jung, Huijeong; Li, Xuhong

    2015-11-01

    Various drug delivery approaches can be used to maximize therapeutic efficacy and minimize side effects, by impacting absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of a drug compound. For those drugs with poor water solubility or low permeability, techniques such as amorphous solid dispersion, liposomes, and complexations have been used to improve their oral bioavailability. Modified release (MR) formulations have been widely used to improve patient compliance, as well as to reduce side effects, especially for those drugs with short half-lives or narrow therapeutic windows. More than ten drugs using sterile long-acting release (LAR) formulations with clear clinical benefit have been successfully marketed. Furthermore, drug delivery systems have been used in delaying drug clearance processes. Additionally, modifying the in vivo drug distribution using targeted delivery systems has significantly improved oncology treatments. All the drug delivery approaches have their advantages and limitations. For both brand and generic drugs, the achievement of consistent quality and therapeutic performance using drug delivery systems can also pose serious challenges in developing a drug for the market, which requires close collaboration among industry, academia, and regulatory agencies. With the advent of personalized medicines, there will be great opportunities and challenges in utilizing drug delivery systems to provide better products and services for patients.

  10. Experimental learning projects address contemporary issues related to energy, environment, and sustainable agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “Bio-Fuel, sustainability, and geospatial information technologies to enhance experiential learning paradigm for precision agriculture project”, recently funded by USDA extends the environmental stewardship archetype of the preceding project titled “Environmentally conscious precision agricultur...

  11. What Educators in Catholic Schools Might Expect when Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues: A Study of Needs and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael J.; Sever, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicated that Catholic high schools in the United States were not addressing the topic of homosexuality in any significant and systematic way prior to the mid-1990s, though practitioners in Catholic high schools have begun to address the topic in recent years. This study, in sampling seven Catholic schools in the greater Chicago…

  12. Materials Issues Related to Catalysts for Treatment of Diesel Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Daw, C Stuart; Hoard, John W.; Hammer, T.

    2005-01-01

    The driver for lean NO{sub x} treatment is the need to meet regulatory standards for diesel engines and gasoline direct injection spark-ignited engines that offer better fuel economy. Efforts over the last decade have been focused toward finding an active lean NO{sub x} catalyst that can reduce NO{sub x} under oxidizing conditions or strategies such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR), plasma-catalysis, plasma catalyst SCR, and lean NO{sub x} traps with varying degrees of success. At present, it appears that SCR with urea and lean NO{sub x} traps are the leading contender technologies for commercial deployment. Key issues that remain to be resolved for these two technologies include byproduct formation, dosing control, and durability. In this review, we summarize material-related issues that are unique to each of these technologies, and point out the improvements necessary to facilitate their deployment.

  13. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.; English, M.; Altman, J.; Yourstone, E.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a ``cooperative arrangement,`` whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs` attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  14. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M. ); English, M.; Altman, J. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Yourstone, E. )

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a cooperative arrangement,'' whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs' attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  15. Adherence issues related to sublingual immunotherapy as perceived by allergists

    PubMed Central

    Scurati, Silvia; Frati, Franco; Passalacqua, Gianni; Puccinelli, Paola; Hilaire, Cecile; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a viable alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinitis and asthma, and is widely used in clinical practice in many European countries. The clinical efficacy of SLIT has been established in a number of clinical trials and meta-analyses. However, because SLIT is self-administered by patients without medical supervision, the degree of patient adherence with treatment is still a concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception by allergists of issues related to SLIT adherence. Methods: We performed a questionnaire-based survey of 296 Italian allergists, based on the adherence issues known from previous studies. The perception of importance of each item was assessed by a VAS scale ranging from 0 to 10. Results: Patient perception of clinical efficacy was considered the most important factor (ranked 1 by 54% of allergists), followed by the possibility of reimbursement (ranked 1 by 34%), and by the absence of side effects (ranked 1 by 21%). Patient education, regular follow-up, and ease of use of SLIT were ranked first by less than 20% of allergists. Conclusion: These findings indicate that clinical efficacy, cost, and side effects are perceived as the major issues influencing patient adherence to SLIT, and that further improvement of adherence is likely to be achieved by improving the patient information provided by prescribers. PMID:20622914

  16. A Research on Issues Related to RFID Security and Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongki; Yang, Chao; Jeon, Jinhwan

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology for automated identification of objects and people. RFID systems have been gaining more popularity in areas especially in supply chain management and automated identification systems. However, there are many existing and potential problems in the RFID systems which could threat the technology's future. To successfully adopt RFID technology in various applications, we need to develop the solutions to protect the RFID system's data information. This study investigates important issues related to privacy and security of RFID based on the recent literature and suggests solutions to cope with the problem.

  17. Top 10 Ways To Improve Public Schools. Innovative Solutions To Help Address the Issues and Challenges Facing Most Public School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Comptroller of Public Accounts, Austin.

    This report offers the top 10 challenges identified by public schools and the ways that the Texas School Performance Review (TSPR) suggests that these issues be addressed. The TSPR ensures that scarce education resources are spent in the classroom. For a TSPR review, the TSPR team is invited in for months of detailed study, during which it asks…

  18. A Survey of Solver-Related Geometry and Meshing Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, James; Daniel, Derick; Gudenkauf, Jared; Hine, David; Sideroff, Chris

    2016-01-01

    There is a concern in the computational fluid dynamics community that mesh generation is a significant bottleneck in the CFD workflow. This is one of several papers that will help set the stage for a moderated panel discussion addressing this issue. Although certain general "rules of thumb" and a priori mesh metrics can be used to ensure that some base level of mesh quality is achieved, inadequate consideration is often given to the type of solver or particular flow regime on which the mesh will be utilized. This paper explores how an analyst may want to think differently about a mesh based on considerations such as if a flow is compressible vs. incompressible or hypersonic vs. subsonic or if the solver is node-centered vs. cell-centered. This paper is a high-level investigation intended to provide general insight into how considering the nature of the solver or flow when performing mesh generation has the potential to increase the accuracy and/or robustness of the solution and drive the mesh generation process to a state where it is no longer a hindrance to the analysis process.

  19. Inclusion in Urban Educational Environments: Addressing Issues of Diversity, Equity, and Social Justice. Issues in the Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice of Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Denise E.; McMahon, Brenda J.

    2006-01-01

    This book is motivated by the authors' experiences in working with students and their families in urban communities. They are particularly concerned about the urgent imperative to address the endemic educational and societal challenges that pervade the lives of urban students, particularly those who live in poverty, are of minority and immigrant…

  20. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  1. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  2. A Task-Based Needs Analysis for Australian Aboriginal Students: Going beyond the Target Situation to Address Cultural Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Grote, Ellen; Rochecouste, Judith; Exell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While needs analyses underpin the design of second language analytic syllabi, the methodologies undertaken are rarely examined. This paper explores the value of multiple data sources and collection methods for developing a needs analysis model to enable vocational education and training teachers to address the needs of Australian Aboriginal…

  3. Addressing Three Common Issues in Research on Youth Activities: An Integrative Approach for Operationalizing and Analyzing Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Youth activity involvement has been operationalized and analyzed using a wide range of approaches. Researchers face the challenges of distinguishing between the effects of involvement versus noninvolvement and intensity of involvement in a particular activity, accounting simultaneously for cumulative effects of involvement, and addressing multiple…

  4. The American Competitiveness Initiative: Addressing the STEM Teacher Shortage and Improving Student Academic Readiness. BHEF Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    America's leaders are increasingly concerned about U.S. competitiveness in a rapidly globalizing world. In response, during the 2006 State of the Union Address, President Bush introduced the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) to promote policy that bolsters student achievement in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and…

  5. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  6. Women Reaching Women: Change in Action--Using Action Learning to Help Address Seemingly Intractable and Large Scale Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Dawn; Watts, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 28 women from the Women's Institute volunteered to join us in a project exploring the issue of world poverty and gender inequality, specifically highlighting the disproportionate effects of climate change on women. Collectively we were asking a big question about how we as individuals, based in England, make a difference on a global…

  7. Beyond Boston: Applying Theory to Understand and Address Sustainability Issues in Focused Deterrence Initiatives for Violence Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Engel, Robin S.; Lovins, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Focused deterrence initiatives, including the most famous, Boston's Operation Ceasefire, have been associated with significant reductions in violence in several U.S. cities. Despite early successes, some cities have experienced long-term sustainability issues. Recent work in Cincinnati, Ohio, has focused on institutionalizing focused deterrence in…

  8. Issues Related to the Updated 2014 Korean Guidelines for Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in South Korea. The Joint Committee for the Development of Korean Guidelines for Tuberculosis published the Korean Guidelines for Tuberculosis in 2011 to provide evidence-based practical recommendations to health care workers caring for patients with TB in South Korea. After reviewing recent national and international scientific data on TB, the committee updated the Korean guidelines for TB in 2014. This article presents some practical issues related to the 2014 updated guidelines: namely use of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis - polymerase chain reaction assay and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in the diagnosis of TB, as well as medical treatment for patients with multidrug-resistant TB.

  9. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), “addressing inequalities” and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  10. Legislative and regulatory issues related to reusable launch systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinemann, Manfred K. A.

    1996-03-01

    The development of reusable launch systems with private investment funds for primarily commercial launch services raises a number of novel legal and regulatory issues. The issues discussed include requirements for a whole new spectrum of safety and environmental issues; new certification rules, procedures and oversight organizations; liability and jurisdiction definitions, taxation treatments; government commitments and/or participation in commercial enterprises; and international legal and business issues. The satisfactory solution to all of these issues is a necessary condition for the development and operation of reusable launch vehicles to be a viable commercial enterprise.

  11. Water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bandara, N J G J

    2003-01-01

    The primary problems concerning water resources in Sri Lanka are the depletion and degradation of the resource caused by various anthropogenic activities. Surface inland waters in urban areas are polluted heavily with domestic sewage and industrial effluents, and in rural areas with agricultural runoff. With regard to ground water in certain areas of the dry zone, there is a high fluoride content and in hard, rocky, alluvial areas, there is a high concentration of iron. In urban over-crowded cities, there is biological contamination of ground water. Over-utilization, particularly through tube wells, is another major problem affecting ground water resources in Sri Lanka. Oil spills, dumping of waste from ships, coral and sand mining, and activities are the main causes of marine pollution in the country. Except for pipe-borne water supply, irrigation and hydropower schemes, in general water resources in Sri Lanka are managed very poorly. Regulations are available to control most water related problems but enforcement of these regulations is lacking. The ultimate result of degradation and depletion of water resources is the increasing health hazards. Water-borne and vector-borne diseases are prevalent, particularly amongst urban low-income communities with poor sanitary facilities and drainage. Despite government initiatives and legislation, very slow progress has been made towards combating water pollution. This paper examines the most significant water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka and their controlling mechanisms. PMID:12926703

  12. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-05-29

    This paper describes a prototype for this EAS (real time) in the Bay area. Approach is pragmatic, attempting to establish a prototype system at a low cost and quickly. A real-time warning system can protect the public and mitigate earthquake damage. The proposed system is a distributed network of real-time strong-motion monitoring stations that telemetered data in real time to a central analysis facility which could transmit earthquake parameter information to an area before elastic wave energy arrived. Upgrades and issues that should be resolved before an operational EAS can be established, are listed.

  13. Occasional Addresses by Edward Teller at Conferences of Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena (LIRPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Heinrich; Miley, George H.

    2016-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Futurology of High Intensity Lasers (LIRPP Vol. 3A) * Lecture in Connection with the Edward Teller Medal Award (LIRPP Vol. 10) * Photo of the First Recipients of the Edward Teller Medal in 1991 * Photos from the Edward Teller Medal Celebration in 1997 * Photo with Participants of the LIRPP No. 12 Conference, 1995 * Photo with Edward Teller Medalists at IFSA01, Kyoto, 2001 * Keynote Address: The Edward Teller Lecture (LIRPP Vol. 11) * Keynote Address: Dr. Edward Teller (LIRPP Vol. 12) * Teller Award Presentation and Keynote Address (LIRPP Vol. 13) * Laudations of Awardees 1991-1995 (LIRPP Vol. 13) * Laudations of Awardees 1999-2003

  14. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    PubMed

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  15. Addressing Ebola-related Stigma: Lessons Learned from HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davtyan, Mariam; Brown, Brandon; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS and Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) are contemporary epidemics associated with significant social stigma in which communities affected suffer from social rejection, violence, and diminished quality of life. Objective To compare and contrast stigma related to HIV/AIDS and EVD, and strategically think how lessons learned from HIV stigma can be applied to the current EVD epidemic. Methods To identify relevant articles about HIV/AIDS and EVD-related stigma, we conducted an extensive literature review using multiple search engines. PubMed was used to search for relevant peer-reviewed journal articles and Google for online sources. We also consulted the websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the National Institutes of Health to retrieve up-to-date information about EVD and HIV/AIDS. Results Many stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors directed towards those with EVD are strikingly similar to those with HIV/AIDS but there are significant differences worthy of discussion. Both diseases are life-threatening and there is no medical cure. Additionally misinformation about affected groups and modes of transmission runs rampant. Unlike in persons with EVD, historically criminalized and marginalized populations carry a disproportionately higher risk for HIV infection. Moreover, mortality due to EVD occurs within a shorter time span as compared to HIV/AIDS. Conclusions Stigma disrupts quality of life, whether it is associated with HIV infection or EVD. When addressing EVD, we must think beyond the immediate clinical therapeutic response, to possible HIV implications of serum treatment. There are emerging social concerns of stigma associated with EVD infection and double stigma associated with EVD and HIV infection. Drawing upon lessons learned from HIV, we must work to empower and mobilize prominent members of the community, those who recovered from the disease, and organizations working at the grassroots

  16. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  17. Fostering youth leadership to address workplace and community environmental health issues: a university-school-community partnership.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Brown, Marianne; Domenzain, Alejandra

    2005-07-01

    Many communities of color are disproportionately exposed to workplace and community environmental hazards. This article presents the results of a pilot project designed by a university-school-community partnership to develop youth leadership to confront these exposures. Using a popular empowerment education approach, students applied peer education, research, and organizing skills learned in the classroom to community-based internships in a service-learning model. Evaluation results from pretests and posttests, focus groups, and in-depth interviews demonstrated that students shared what they learned about young workers' rights and environmental justice with family and friends. They developed a critical analysis of environmental inequities, created a citywide youth coalition that advocates around legal, educational, and environmental issues affecting youth, and implemented campaigns to enforce child labor laws and to prevent school construction on contaminated land. This multifaceted model can serve as an important foundation to develop youth leaders to influence environmental policies in a variety of communities.

  18. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled.

  19. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues.

    PubMed

    Rottier, Bart L; Eber, Ernst; Hedlin, Gunilla; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Mantzourani, Eva; Kulkarni, Neeta

    2015-06-01

    Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

  20. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2003-04-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently published a detailed study of technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. Excluding political factors, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk and ensuing discussion will elaborate on the study. The principal conclusion of the report, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons.

  1. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently completed a detailed study of the technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. While political factors were excluded, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk will elaborate on the study. The primary conclusion, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons."

  2. Relating realist metatheory to issues of gender and mental health.

    PubMed

    Bergin, M; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara

    2010-06-01

    This paper seeks to advance the debate that considers critical realism as an alternative approach for understanding gender and mental health and its relatedness to mental health research and practice. The knowledge base of how 'sex' and 'gender' affect mental health and illness is expanding. However, the way we conceptualize gender is significant and challenging as quite often our ability to think about 'gender' as independent of 'sex' is not common. The influences and interplay of how sex (biological) and gender (social) affect mental health and illness requires consideration. Critical realism suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. While much of the debate surrounding gender is guided within a constructivist discourse, an exploration of the concept 'gender' is reflected on and some key realist propositions are considered for mental health research and practice. This is achieved through the works of some key realist theorists. Critical realism offers potential for research and practice in relation to gender and mental health because it facilitates changes in our understanding, while simultaneously, not discarding that which is already known. In so doing, it allows the biological (sex) and social (gender) domains of knowledge for mental health and illness to coexist, without either being reduced to or defined by the other. Arguably, greater depth and explanations for gender and mental health issues are presented within a realist metatheory.

  3. Understanding the support needs of patients accessing test results online. PHRs offer great promise, but support issues must be addressed to ensure appropriate access.

    PubMed

    Wiljer, David; Urowitz, Sara; Apatu, Emma; Leonard, Kevin; Quartey, Naa Kwarley; Catton, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Personal health records (PHR) offer great promise in transforming the patient experience, but a number of support issues must be addressed to ensure that patients have appropriate access to their health information. Two hundred and fifty breast cancer patients registered to use a portal providing access to personal health information over a six-week period. All support calls were directed to a research triage centre and redirected either to technical, clinical or psychosocial support. Log files were coded and analyzed. Two hundred and thirty-nine support contacts were logged by 122 participants. The majority was referred to technical support; the remaining contacts were directed to clinical support. Seven categories of technical support were identified: registration problems, site access, login issues, password reset, activation key issues, result access and other difficulties. In accessing their test results, patients required support in a number of technical domains, but educational and psychosocial support were not heavily utilized.

  4. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals.

  5. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  6. Addressing the Amorphous Content Issue in Quantitative Phase Analysis: The Certification of NIST Standard Reference Material 676a

    SciTech Connect

    J Cline; R Von Dreele; R Winburn; P Stephens; J Filliben

    2011-12-31

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% {+-} 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  7. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    DOE PAGES

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; et al

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptancemore » function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is

  8. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; Wilbert, S.

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptance function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced

  9. Successful Drug Development Despite Adverse Preclinical Findings Part 1: Processes to Address Issues and Most Important Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Prentice, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected adverse preclinical findings (APFs) are not infrequently encountered during drug development. Such APFs can be functional disturbances such as QT prolongation, morphological toxicity or carcinogenicity. The latter is of particular concern in conjunction with equivocal genotoxicity results. The toxicologic pathologist plays an important role in recognizing these effects, in helping to characterize them, to evaluate their risk for man, and in proposing measures to mitigate the risk particularly in early clinical trials. A careful scientific evaluation is crucial while termination of the development of a potentially useful drug must be avoided. This first part of the review discusses processes to address unexpected APFs and provides an overview over typical APFs in particular classes of drugs. If the mode of action (MoA) by which a drug candidate produces an APF is known, this supports evaluation of its relevance for humans. Tailor-made mechanistic studies, when needed, must be planned carefully to test one or several hypotheses regarding the potential MoA and to provide further data for risk evaluation. Safety considerations are based on exposure at no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAEL) of the most sensitive and relevant animal species and guide dose escalation in clinical trials. The availability of early markers of toxicity for monitoring of humans adds further safety to clinical studies. Risk evaluation is concluded by a weight of evidence analysis (WoE) with an array of parameters including drug use, medical need and alternatives on the market. In the second part of this review relevant examples of APFs will be discussed in more detail. PMID:22272031

  10. Cabin Safety Issues Related to Pre-Departure and Inflight Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), participating carriers, and labor organizations. It is designed to improve the National Airspace System by collecting and studying reports detailing unsafe conditions and events in the aviation industry. Employees are able to report safety issues or concerns with confidentiality and without fear of discipline. Safety reports highlighting the human element in cabin safety issues and concerns.

  11. Addressing Dropout Related Factors at the Local Level: Recommendations for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra Covington

    2008-01-01

    As educators and practitioners continue to seek effective interventions to prevent dropout, they must focus on identifying, monitoring, and addressing risk factors that are influenced by teachers (e.g., academic performance, peer and adult interactions, attendance, and behavior). As a result, teachers' roles in dropout prevention are critical.…

  12. Damage Tolerance Issues as Related to Metallic Rotorcraft Dynamic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.; Elber, W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper issues related to the use of damage tolerance in life managing rotorcraft dynamic components are reviewed. In the past, rotorcraft fatigue design has combined constant amplitude tests of full-scale parts with flight loads and usage data in a conservative manner to provide "safe life" component replacement times. In contrast to the safe life approach over the past twenty years the United States Air Force and several other NATO nations have used damage tolerance design philosophies for fixed wing aircraft to improve safety and reliability. The reliability of the safe life approach being used in rotorcraft started to be questioned shortly after presentations at an American Helicopter Society's specialist meeting in 1980 showed predicted fatigue lives for a hypothetical pitch-link problem to vary from a low of 9 hours to a high in excess of 2594 hours. This presented serious cost, weight, and reliability implications. Somewhat after the U.S. Army introduced its six nines reliability on fatigue life, attention shifted towards using a possible damage tolerance approach to the life management of rotorcraft dynamic components. The use of damage tolerance in life management of dynamic rotorcraft parts will be the subject of this paper. This review will start with past studies on using damage tolerance life management with existing helicopter parts that were safe life designed. Also covered will be a successful attempt at certifying a tail rotor pitch rod using damage tolerance, which was designed using the safe life approach. The FAA review of rotorcraft fatigue design and their recommendations along with some on-going U.S. industry research in damage tolerance on rotorcraft will be reviewed. Finally, possible problems and future needs for research will be highlighted.

  13. Damage Tolerance Issues as Related to Metallic Rotorcraft Dynamic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.; Elber, W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper issues related to the use of damage tolerance in life managing rotorcraft dynamic components are reviewed. In the past, rotorcraft fatigue design has combined constant amplitude tests of full-scale parts with flight loads and usage data in a conservative manner to provide "safe life" component replacement times. In contrast to the safe life approach over the past twenty years the United States Air Force and several other NATO nations have used damage tolerance design philosophies for fixed wing aircraft to improve safety and reliability. The reliability of the safe life approach being used in rotorcraft started to be questioned shortly after presentations at an American Helicopter Society's specialist meeting in 1980 showed predicted fatigue lives for a hypothetical pitch-link problem to vary from a low of 9 hours to a high in excess of 2594 hours. This presented serious cost, weight, and reliability implications. Somewhat after the U.S. Army introduced its six nines reliability on fatigue life, attention shifted towards using a possible damage tolerance approach to the life management of rotorcraft dynamic components. The use of damage tolerance in life management of dynamic rotorcraft parts will be the subject of this paper. This review will start with past studies on using damage tolerance life management with existing helicopter parts that were safe life designed. Also covered will be a successful attempt at certifying a tail rotor pitch rod using damage tolerance, which was designed using the safe life approach. The FAA review of rotorcraft fatigue design and their recommendations along with some on-going U.S. industry research in damage tolerance on rotorcraft will be reviewed.

  14. A pilot study of medical student attitudes to, and use of, commercial movies that address public health issues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An innovative approach to learning public health by using feature-length commercial movies was piloted in the fourth year of a medical degree. We aimed to explore how students responded to this approach and the relative effectiveness of two promotional strategies. Firstly we placed DVDs of 15 movies (with public health-related content) in the medical school library. Then alternating groups of students (total n = 82 students) were exposed to either a brief promotional intervention or a more intensive intervention involving a class presentation. The response rates were 99% at baseline and 85% at follow-up. Findings The level and strength of support for using movies in public health training increased after exposure to the public health module with significantly more students "strongly agreeing". Student behaviour, in terms of movies viewed or accessed from the library, also suggested student interest. While there were no statistically significant differences in median viewing or library access rates between the two intervention groups, the distribution of viewing patterns was shifted favourably. Those exposed to the more intensive intervention (class presentation) were significantly more likely to have reported watching at least one movie (97% vs. 81%; p = 0.033) or to having accessed at least one movie from the library (100% vs. 70%, p = 0.0001). Conclusions This pilot study found that the students had very positive attitudes towards viewing public health-related commercial movies. Movie access rates from the library were also favourable. PMID:21473773

  15. SOME STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODELING OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a fast and effective technique, the multiple linear regression (MLR) method has been widely used in modeling and prediction of beach bacteria concentrations. Among previous works on this subject, however, several issues were insufficiently or inconsistently addressed. Those is...

  16. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  17. Interdisciplinary team discussion on work environment issues related to low back disability: a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Costa-Black, Kátia M; Durand, Marie-José; Imbeau, Daniel; Baril, Raymond; Loisel, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    From both a social and cost-benefit perspective, disability prevention and associated management strategies for assisting employees with back pain are only successful if they address critical return-to-work (RTW) determining factors present in the workplace, including ergonomic factors. Despite our current knowledge of the importance of an integrated team approach targeting these factors, questions remain regarding the conceptual framework adopted by contemporary rehabilitation teams as it relates to work-oriented interventions to accommodate employees back to work. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the work environment issues discussed by an interdisciplinary team engaged in the work rehabilitation process of low back disability cases. A qualitative content analysis was conducted for 10 sample cases that underwent a rehabilitation program in Quebec (Canada). Drawing on the results of these analyses, a framework representing a synopsis of practitioners' involvement in the person-environment dynamic is presented and discussed. This study makes a unique contribution to the understanding of the 'real-life' content of an interdisciplinary activity in disability management, thus, helping rehabilitation practitioners to build knowledge on the practical application of a cross-disciplinary framework to address work environment issues during the RTW process of those patients sick-listed due to back pain.

  18. On the measurement of pilot perceptual workload - A comparison of assessment techniques addressing sensitivity and intrusion issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casali, J. G.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1984-01-01

    A flight simulator-based study was conducted to examine fourteen distinct mental workload estimation measures, including opinion, secondary task, physiological, and primary task measures. Both the relative sensitivity of the measures to changes in mental workload and the differential intrusion of the changes on primary task performance were assessed. The flight task was varied in difficulty by manipulation of the presentation rate and complexity of a hazard-perception task that required each of 48 licensed pilots to rely heavily on their perceptual abilities. Three rating scales (Modified Cooper-Harper, Multi-descriptor, and Workload-Compensation-Interference/Technical Effectiveness), two secondary task measures (time estimation and tapping regularity), one physiological measure (respiration frequency), and one primary task measure (danger-condition response time) were reliable indicants of workload changes. Recommendations for applying the workload measures are presented.

  19. Ninth Annual Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address: effects of childhood radiation exposure: an issue from computed tomography scans to Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Fred A; Constine, Louis S; Nosske, Dietmar; Shore, Roy E

    2013-11-01

    The acute and chronic effects of radiation on children have been and will continue to be of great social, public health, scientific, and clinical importance. The focus of interest on ionizing radiation and children has been clear for over half a century and ranges from the effects of fallout from nuclear weapons testing to exposures from accidents, natural radiation, and medical procedures. There is a loosely stated notion that "children are three to five times more sensitive to radiation than adults." Is this really true? In fact, children are at greater risk for some health effects, but not all. For a few sequelae, children may be more resistant than adults. Which are those effects? How and why do they occur? While there are clear instances of increased risk of some radiation-induced tumors in children compared to adults, there are other tumor types in which there appears to be little or no difference in risk by age at exposure and some in which published models that assume the same relative increase in risks for child compared to adult exposures apply to nearly all tumor types are not supported by the scientific data. The United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has a task group producing a comprehensive report on the subject. The factors to be considered include relevant radiation sources; developmental anatomy and physiology; dosimetry; and stochastic, deterministic, and hereditary effects.

  20. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule). ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...

  1. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule). ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...

  2. Addressing Issues in the Development and Use of the Composite International Reference Values as Rorschach Norms for Adults.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregory J; Shaffer, Thomas W; Erdberg, Philip; Horn, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    This article describes 3 studies evaluating normative reference data for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003, 2007), with a particular focus on the viability of the Composite International Reference Values (CIRVs) that were compiled from 21 adult studies by Meyer, Erdberg, and Shaffer (2007). Study 1 documented how the CIRV norms are virtually identical when organized into 3 groups differentiated by the quality of their data collection effort, including an optimal group of 4 samples that relied on multiple experienced examiners and provided ongoing quality control over administration and coding. Analyses also showed that relative to the group of more optimal samples, the group of less optimal samples did not produce more variability in summary scores within or across samples or lower interrater reliability for coding. Study 2 used the existing CS reference norms to generate T scores for the CIRV means and documented how the CS norms make other samples of healthy nonpatients look psychologically impaired in multiple domains. Study 3 documented with examples from 4 different countries how 2 sets of within-country local norms produced notably different results on some variables, which compromises the ability of local norms to be used instead of the CIRVs. Taken together, the 3 studies provide support for the use of CIRVs in clinical practice as norms that are generalizable across samples, settings, languages, and cultures and that account for the natural variability that is present when clinicians and researchers contend with the ambiguity contained in the standard CS reference materials concerning the proper ways to administer and code. We conclude by urging CS users to rely on the CIRVs when making clinical inferences and to adopt alternative methods of ensuring they are following cohesively standardized administration and coding guidelines. PMID:25297806

  3. Analysis of coaxial spray combustion flames and related numerical issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, P. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to the simulation of strongly coupled multiphase flows in combustion hardware is sketched and its unique requirements highlighted. An example of a successful application to a coaxial injector flame is presented. Furthermore, several numerical issues that tend to interact with the physics of the problem are discussed with special regard to their potential impact on the choices of numerical parameters by the analyst. These include the issues of stability, numerical diffusivity, stiffness, and boundary conditions. The theme of this paper focuses on the intriguing relationships among the grid, the solution algorithm, and the actual physical mechanisms themselves.

  4. Outstanding issues related to thermospheric measurements and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Kenneth; Moe, Mildred M.; Doornbos, Eelco

    Semi-empirical thermospheric models are dependent on measurements made in orbit. Out-standing issues regarding the interpretation of those measurements and the effects on models are considered. These include the present state of knowledge of drag coefficients, long-term trends, instrument calibration, radiation pressure, and spacecraft geometry. Many recent and ongoing efforts to evaluate and improve thermospheric models will be described. The advent of attitude-controlled nanosatellites of simple shapes presents opportunities to resolve some of these outstanding issues in conjunction with the forthcoming SWARM program.

  5. Legal and Program Issues Related to Child Custody and Late Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Training for Child Care Project.

    This bulletin, the third in a series on selected issues in day care, addresses two problems involving legal issues: (1) what are the implications for the day care program when parents or other legal guardians are involved in a dispute over the custody of children? and (2) what are the rights and responsibilities of day care programs when parents…

  6. Usefulness of a KT Event to Address Practice and Policy Gaps Related to Integrated Care.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Karen; Boakye, Omenaa; Wallace, Nicole

    2016-02-01

    There are limited evaluations of the impact of knowledge translation (KT) activities aimed at addressing practice and policy gaps. We report on the impact of an interactive, end-of-grant KT event. Although action items were developed and key stakeholder support attained, minimal follow-through had occurred three months after the KT event. Several organizational obstacles to transitioning knowledge into action were identified: leadership, program policies, infrastructure, changing priorities, workload and physician engagement. Key messages include: (1) ensure ongoing and facilitated networking opportunities, (2) invest in building implementation capacity, (3) target multi-level implementation activities and (4) focus further research on KT evaluation.

  7. Religious Congregations' Collaborations: With Whom Do They Work and What Resources Do They Share in Addressing HIV and Other Health Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werber, Laura; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Dominguez, Blanca X.; Mata, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how religious congregations interact with other community organizations to address health and, in particular, HIV-related needs within their membership and/or local communities. Case study data from a diverse sample of 14 urban congregations (6 Black, 4 Latino, 2 White, and 2 mixed race-ethnicity) indicate that they engaged in…

  8. Addressing mental health disparities through clinical competence not just cultural competence: the need for assessment of sociocultural issues in the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Brekke, John S

    2008-12-01

    Recognition of ethnic/racial disparities in mental health services has not directly resulted in the development of culturally responsive psychosocial interventions. There remains a fundamental need for assessment of sociocultural issues that have been linked with the expectations, needs, and goals of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. The authors posit that embedding the assessment of sociocultural issues into psychosocial rehabilitation practice is one step in designing culturally relevant empirically supported practices. It becomes a foundation on which practitioners can examine the relevance of their interventions to the diversity encountered in everyday practice. This paper provides an overview of the need for culturally and clinically relevant assessment practices and asserts that by improving the assessment of sociocultural issues the clinical competence of service providers is enhanced. The authors offer a conceptual framework for linking clinical assessment of sociocultural issues to consumer outcomes and introduce an assessment tool adapted to facilitate the process in psychosocial rehabilitation settings. Emphasizing competent clinical assessment skills will ultimately offer a strategy to address disparities in treatment outcomes for understudied populations of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness.

  9. Methodological issues in HIV-related social research in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Erinosho, Olayiwola; Joseph, Richard; Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche; Dike, Nkem; Aderinto, Adeyinka A

    2013-12-01

    This paper is about methodological issues in a community-wide study in Nigeria on an infectious disease, namely HIV/AIDS. The study was designed to ascertain the risk factors that contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and how that can be tackled in order to bring about behavioural change. The research team believed at the onset that a study on the interplay between HIV/AIDS and sensitive issues like sexual mores and sexuality requires much more than a straightjacket social science method, such as simply doing a cross-section study and/or using interview schedule. This paper reviews the essence of cross-disciplinary approach; team building; as well as the use of a non-participatory observational approach in data collection. It also shows why ample consideration was given to ethical issues which are often glossed over in social research in developing countries. The lessons from the study underscore the methodological imperatives in social research that focus on sensitive issues in largely non-literate context like Nigeria. Although there are formidable challenges in community-based studies in largely non-literate societies, nevertheless they could easily be surmounted if there are ample time and resources to navigate the various sticking points.

  10. Contemporary Issues in U.S.-Mexico Relations, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Amy; Kim, Pearl; Lai, Selena; Mukai, Gary; Nunez, Lucia; Valadez, Martin

    The lessons in this 3-part series are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the relationship between the United States and Mexico, with emphasis on multiple perspectives, conflict and cooperation, and interdependence. This curriculum unit, Part 2, examines three contemporary issues: immigration, the North American Free Trade…

  11. Issues Relating to the Assessment of Flexible Efficient Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacke, Phil L.

    An integral dimension in the concept of flexible efficient reading is the process of skimming, which is defined as the reading behavior in which information is processed without looking at all or most of the words in continuous printed discourse. Measurement of flexible reading efficiency presents problems which revolve around four major issues.…

  12. College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

  13. Caregiving, Marriage and Work Related Issues as Differentiated by Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastorello, Thomas; And Others

    A recently published national profile of caregivers of the frail elderly suggests potentially negative consequences of caregiving for work and employment for as many as one-third of the employed caregivers in a large 1983 sample. The study was undertaken to explore a comprehensive set of issues on informal caregiving and to determine the extent to…

  14. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  15. Issues related to SPR joints subjected to fatigue loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A.; Senatore, F.; Greco, A.

    2016-05-01

    SPR joints will represent an alternative solution to spot welding in automotive field. However, their fatigue behavior shows several critical issues. After a brief introduction of this new solution, different crack modes are described, emphasizing the parameters that characterize them, i.e. the applied loads, the geometry of the joint and other phenomenon as fretting, vibration and corrosion.

  16. Ecological Issues Related to Children's Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry; Kohler, Maxie

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning the health and safety of children and youth occur at multiple levels. Bronfenbrenner (1995) proposed an ecological systems approach in which multiple systems interact to enhance or diminish children's development. The same systems are at work in health promotion. The authors present and review articles that reflect the multiple…

  17. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  18. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  19. Evaluation of structural issues related to isolation of the 100-KE/100-KW discharge chute

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, B.V.; Hyde, L.L.

    1995-03-10

    The issue of excessive post-seismic leakage in the discharge chute of the K East and K West fuel storage basins was resolved by designing isolation barriers to maintain basin water levels if the discharge chute should drain. This report addresses the structural issues associated with isolation of the discharge chute. The report demonstrates the structural adequacy of the components associated with chute isolation for normal and seismic loading. Associated issues, such as hardware drop accidents and seismic slosh heights are also addressed.

  20. Ethical issues regarding related and nonrelated living organ donors.

    PubMed

    Testa, Giuliano

    2014-07-01

    The ethics of the clinical practice of transplanting human organs for end-stage organ disease is a fascinating topic. Who is the "owner" of the transplantable organs of a deceased, brain-dead patient? Who should have a right to receive these organs? Who set the boundaries between a living donor's autonomy and a "paternalistic" doctor? What constitutes a proper consent? These questions are only some of the ethical issues that have been discussed in the last 60 years. All of these ethical issues are intensified by the fact that supply of human organs does not match demand, and that, as a consequence, living-donor organ transplantation is widely utilized. The aim of this article is not to be exhaustive but to present the general ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice as applied to organ transplantation. Moreover, the topic of reimbursement for organ donation is also discussed. PMID:24705806

  1. Chlorofluorocarbon environmental issues related to conservation acquisition in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Recent scientific evidence strongly suggests that the release of large quantities of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases into the atmosphere will result in environmentally harmful long-term effects. Because of those effects, a massive worldwide effort is currently under way to ban their use. At request of the Bonneville Power Administration, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a literature search to identify the issues surrounding the CFC phaseout. The search was focused on how these issues impact the commercial building sector. Information was obtained that describes: How the release of CFCs into the atmosphere may affect the global environment; legislative and regulatory programs initiated to restrict CFCs; potential impacts the reduced CFC supply will have on commercial buildings; the most promising CFC substitute technologies; and the potential costs of CFC restriction. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Addressing dysfunctional relations among healthcare teams: improving team cooperation through applied organizational theories.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Sujin K; Horwitz, Irwin B; Barshes, Neal R

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that communication failure and interpersonal conflicts are significant impediments among health-care teams to assess complex information and engage in the meaningful collaboration necessary for optimizing patient care. Despite the prolific research on the role of effective teamwork in accomplishing complex tasks, such findings have been traditionally applied to business organizations and not medical contexts. This chapter, therefore, reviews and applies four theories from the fields of organizational behavior (OB) and organization development (OD) as potential means for improving team interaction in health-care contexts. This study is unique in its approach as it addresses the long-standing problems that exist in team communication and cooperation in health-care teams by applying well-established theories from the organizational literature. The utilization and application of the theoretical constructs discussed in this work offer valuable means by which the efficacy of team work can be greatly improved in health-care organizations.

  3. Compensability of, and legal issues related to, coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Haley, Luann

    2007-09-01

    Legal issues that may develop when treating patients with coccidioidomycosis include allegations of medical malpractice, claims for workers' compensation benefits, and civil actions against business owners. In states where the disease is most prevalent, California recognizes cocci diodomycosis as a compensable condition, although Arizona does not. In civil actions, the state courts have not imposed liability on any business or institution for those that claim to have developed cocci diodomycosis on or near the premises of the business.

  4. Building non-traditional collaborations to innovatively address climate-related scientific and management needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamzai, A.; Mcpherson, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The South Central Climate Science Center (SC-CSC) is one of eight regional centers formed by the U.S. Department of the Interior in order to provide decision makers with the science, tools, and information they need to address the impacts of climate variability and change on their areas of responsibility. The SC-CSC is operated through the U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with a consortium led by the University of Oklahoma that also includes Texas Tech University, Oklahoma State University, Louisiana State University, the Chickasaw Nation, the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, and NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab (GFDL). The SC-CSC is distinct from all other CSCs in that we have strategically included non-traditional collaborators directly within our governing consortium. The SC-CSC is the only CSC to include any Tribal nations amongst our consortium (the Chickasaw Nation and the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma) and to employ a full-time tribal liaison. As a result and in partnership with Tribes, we are able to identify the unique challenges that the almost 70 federally recognized Tribes within our region face. We also can develop culturally sensitive research projects or outreach efforts that bridge western science and traditional knowledge to address their needs. In addition, the SC-CSC is the only CSC to include another federal institution (GFDL) amongst our consortium membership. GFDL is a world-leader in climate modeling and model interpretation. Partnering GFDL's expertise in the evaluation of climate models and downscaling methods with the SC-CSC's stakeholder-driven approach allows for the generation and dissemination of guidance documents and training to accompany the high quality datasets already in development. This presentation will highlight the success stories and co-benefits of the SC-CSC's collaborations with Tribal nations and with GFDL, as well as include information on how other partners can connect to our ongoing efforts.

  5. [An exploration of the issues involved in family related research].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Li; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Mei Chang; Weng, Li-Chueh

    2007-06-01

    Nowadays, health care delivery systems are changing from hospital-based services to more family-oriented or community-oriented care. The development of family nursing and family research is the focus of more attention than ever before. A family is composed of individuals. It combines the characteristics of individuals and collective groups, which makes family research more complex than studies of individuals. Consequently, research into family-oriented areas presents additional challenges concerning conceptual methodological issues. This article focuses on the issues of family research concepts, research designs, definitions of family, sampling, study tools, and data analysis. In order to promote high-quality family research outcomes, we propose below suggestions to serve as a guide to conducting family research: (1) identify the definition of family involved in a particular research question and choose a suitable methodology; (2) determine the number of family members and un its of analysis on theoretical bases; (3) select high-validity, high-reliability research tools in answering research questions; (4) analysis methods must match the concept of family and the characteristics of the units of analysis; (5) ethical issues must be respected in the recruitment of family members. PMID:17554671

  6. Review of Selected Dissertations Addressing School Public Relations, Administrator Communication, and Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decman, John M.; Simieou, Felix, III

    2009-01-01

    This article is an extension to Kowalski's (2005) identification of possible lines of scholarly inquiry into themes related to schools and public relations. The article first cites professional accreditation standards for educational leaders as significant factors in providing a framework for increased scholarly inquiry. It then summarizes the…

  7. Basic issues related to quantity and quality of health care, and quality assurance in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jacobalis, S

    1989-01-01

    Issues and problems related to the needs for quantity and quality in health care have been presented. The need for quantity has been quite successfully addressed in the last 20 years. Better quality of health care is very much in the minds of policy makers, providers and the informed public. Quality assessment and assurance as a programmed and on-going process in individual hospitals is systematically promoted and developed. An accreditation system for hospitals is planned for the future. This paper has not been able to contribute anything of value to the current practice of quality assurance. The industrialized world has passed the stages Indonesia is now going through. To some Australian colleagues, this presentation perhaps has revealed that one of their closest neighbours is struggling hard to improve the quality of life of its people, despite the tremendous problems and constraints with which it is confronted. Australia has always provided a helping hand in this struggle.

  8. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  9. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  10. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services.

  11. Dealing with quantum weirdness: Holism and related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Elby, A.R.

    1995-12-01

    Various issues are discussed in interpretation of quantum mechanics. All these explorations point toward the same conclusion, that some systems are holistically connected, i.e., some composite systems have properties that cannot, even in principle, be reduced to the properties of its subsystems. This is argued to be the central metaphysical lesson of quantum theory; this will remain pertinent even if quantum mechanics gets replaced by a superior theory. Chap. 2 discusses nonlocality and rules out hidden-variable theories that approximately reproduce the perfect correlations of quantum mechanics, as well as theories that obey locality conditions weaker than those needed to derive Bell`s inequality. Chap. 3 shows that SQUID experiments can rule out non-invasive measurability if not macrorealism. Chap. 4 looks at interpretational issues surrounding decoherence, the dissipative interaction between a system and its environment. Decoherence klcan help ``modal`` interpretations pick out the desired ``preferred`` basis. Chap. 5 explores what varieties of causation can and cannot ``explain`` EPR correlations. Instead of relying on ``watered down`` causal explanations, we should instead develop new, holistic explanatory frameworks.

  12. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Using Relational Dialectics to Address Differences in Community-Campus Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumlao, Rebecca J.; Janke, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    Community and campus partners face inherent differences due to their distinct cultures, assumptions, practices, and constituencies. How partners handle the resulting tensions can impact how well the partnership functions. This article introduces relational dialectics as a framework to think about recurring tensions as natural and normal when…

  14. Addressing Size Stereotypes: A Weight Bias and Weight-Related Teasing Intervention among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyairi, Maya; Reel, Justine J.; Próspero, Moisés; Okang, Esther N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a weight-related teasing prevention program implemented for both female and male students in a school setting. Methods: Junior High School students (N = 143) in seventh grade were invited to participate in the program. One hundred eighteen participants completed pre- and posttest surveys to assess…

  15. Levothyroxine: therapeutic use and regulatory issues related to bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    Wartofsky, Leonard

    2002-06-01

    Levothyroxine is the overwhelming choice of clinicians for the treatment of hypothyroidism and for the suppression of goitre and thyroid nodules in selected cases. The monitoring of serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone is necessary for appropriate dosage adjustment of levothyroxine. Levothyroxine has a narrow therapeutic index: both underdosage (subclinical hypothyroidism) and excessive dosage (subclinical hyperthyroidism) are associated with adverse symptoms and pathophysiological effects and are to be avoided. The consequent necessity for careful titration of doses has had an impact on the issue of switchability, or bioequivalence, of the various marketed levothyroxine products. In this article, the basis for concern about currently accepted standards of the FDA for pharmacological bioequivalence are examined in the context of levothyroxine. The history and status of the recent request by the FDA for a new drug application for all levothyroxine products, and its impact on the market leader Synthroid, is also discussed.

  16. Issues related to criticality safety analysis for burnup credit applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.

    1995-12-01

    Spent fuel transportation and storage cask designs based on a burnup credit approach must consider issues that are not relevant in casks designed under a fresh fuel loading assumption. Parametric analyses are required to characterize the importance of fuel assembly and fuel cycle parameters on spent fuel composition and reactivity. Numerical models are evaluated to determine the sensitivity of criticality safety calculations to modeling assumptions. This paper discusses the results of studies to determine the effect of two important modeling assumptions on the criticality analysis of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) spent fuel: (1) the effect of assumed burnup history (i.e., specific power during and time-dependent variations in operational power) during depletion calculations, and (2) the effect of axial burnup distributions on the neutron multiplication factor calculated for a three-dimensional (3-D) conceptual cask design.

  17. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long − term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico

  18. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Álvarez, B. F.; Son, L. H.; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-03-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. Case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within their organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme showed a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM, models and decision support systems and international water law) which are required for such an integrated topic. The post training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed the increase in familiarity of the topics for all 37 respondents, with highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and educational institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught is shown by the fact that 95% of the respondents indicated they saw the relevance of the subjects and 78% had already used some knowledge acquired in their job. The respondents also indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge acquired. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops, had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their training institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a

  19. Multiaxial Creep-Fatigue and Creep-Ratcheting Failures of Grade 91 and Haynes 230 Alloys Toward Addressing Design Issues of Gen IV Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Tasnim; Lissenden, Cliff; Carroll, Laura

    2015-04-01

    The proposed research will develop systematic sets of uniaxial and multiaxial experimental data at a very high temperature (850-950°C) for Alloy 617. The loading histories to be prescribed in the experiments will induce creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting failure mechanisms. These experimental responses will be scrutinized in order to quantify the influences of temperature and creep on fatigue and ratcheting failures. A unified constitutive model (UCM) will be developed and validated against these experimental responses. The improved UCM will be incorporated into the widely used finite element commercial software packages ANSYS. The modified ANSYS will be validated so that it can be used for evaluating the very high temperature ASME-NH design-by-analysis methodology for Alloy 617 and thereby addressing the ASME-NH design code issues.

  20. Is robustness of stochastic uncertain systems related to information theory and statistical mechanics? (Keynote Address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambous, Charalambos D.; Kyprianou, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Fifty years ago, when Claude Shannon was developing the Mathematical Theory of Communications, for reliable data transmission, which evolved into the subject of information theory, another discipline was developing dealing with Feedback Control of Dynamical System, which evolved into a scientific subject dealing with decision, stability, and optimization. More recently, a separate discipline dealing with robustness of uncertain systems was born in response to the codification of high performance and reliability in the presence of modeling uncertainties. In principle, robustness in dynamical systems is captured through power dissipation via induced norms and dynamic games, while reliable data transmission is captured through measures of information via entropy, relative entropy, and certain laws of Large Deviations theory. The main ingredient in Large Deviations is the rate functional (or action functional in the classical mechanics terminology), often identified through the Cramer or Legendre-Fenchel Transform. On the other hand, robustness of stochastic uncertain systems is currently under development, using information theoretic as well as statistical mechanics concepts, such as, partition functions, free energy, relative entropy, and entropy rate functional. This lecture will summarize certain connections between fundamental concepts of robustness, information theory, and statistical mechanics, and possibly make future projections into the convergence of these disciplines.

  1. Ethical and legal issues relating to abortion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Silber, T J

    1989-04-01

    At least 1 million teenagers in the United States get pregnant every year; 350,000 teenagers choose to terminate their pregnancies by abortion. Doctors who examine teenagers usually find that their patients come in fairly late, and some teenagers may carry their pregnancy to term while others request abortions as late as the 2nd trimester. Abortion as well as full-term pregnancy are procedures that carry extreme mental stress. Many teenagers that go through with either procedure suffer mental breakdowns. Adolescents' stages of moral development can be classified into a 3 major categories: preconventional; conventional; or postconventional. Preconventional behavior may consist of worry about the reactions of individuals holding power over the adolescent's life; conventional behavior may consist of the adolescent conforming, as well as maintaining societal rules; and postconventional behavior may consist of the wishes of the adolescent outweighing societal expectations in their decision-making. The legal aspects concerning adolescents seeking abortions are governed by the "mature minor doctrine". Some abortions can be performed on adolescents without parental support; however, recent court decisions have provided certain measures for "immature minors." Recent debates on ethical and moral issues have been on the autonomy of the adolescent to make decisions on their own and the rights of the fetus versus the mother. Counseling is available for adolescents unsure of what decisions to make the unable to get support from their families.

  2. [Related reproductive issues on male autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong-cai; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a most common inherited renal disease, about 50% with a family history, although the exact etiology not yet clear. To date, ADPKD, a multisystem disorder without effective preventive and therapeutic means, has been shown to be detrimental to human health. Recent studies show that severe oligoasthenozoospermia, necrospermia, immotile sperm, azoospermia, epididymal cyst, seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct cyst found in male ADPKD patients may lead to male infertility, though the specific mechanisms remain unknown. Structural anomaly of spermatozoa, defect of polycystin, mutation of PKD genes, and micro-deletion of the AZF gene could be the reasons for the higher incidence of abnormal semen quality in male ADPKD patients. Assisted reproductive techniques can increase the chances of pregnancy, whereas the health of the offspring should be taken into consideration. This article presents an overview of reproductive issues concerning infertile male ADPKD patients from the perspective of the morbidity, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnosis, and management of the disease. PMID:26738331

  3. Invited review: gender issues related to spaceflight: a NASA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, D. L.; Jennings, R. T.; Meck, J. V.; Powell, M. R.; Putcha, L.; Sams, C. P.; Schneider, S. M.; Shackelford, L. C.; Smith, S. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    This minireview provides an overview of known and potential gender differences in physiological responses to spaceflight. The paper covers cardiovascular and exercise physiology, barophysiology and decompression sickness, renal stone risk, immunology, neurovestibular and sensorimotor function, nutrition, pharmacotherapeutics, and reproduction. Potential health and functional impacts associated with the various physiological changes during spaceflight are discussed, and areas needing additional research are highlighted. Historically, studies of physiological responses to microgravity have not been aimed at examining gender-specific differences in the astronaut population. Insufficient data exist in most of the discipline areas at this time to draw valid conclusions about gender-specific differences in astronauts, in part due to the small ratio of women to men. The only astronaut health issue for which a large enough data set exists to allow valid conclusions to be drawn about gender differences is orthostatic intolerance following shuttle missions, in which women have a significantly higher incidence of presyncope during stand tests than do men. The most common observation across disciplines is that individual differences in physiological responses within genders are usually as large as, or larger than, differences between genders. Individual characteristics usually outweigh gender differences per se.

  4. Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, A M

    1986-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials. PMID:3602637

  5. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  6. The Ability of Narrative Communication to Address Health-related Social Norms

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Murphy, Sheila T.; Frank, Lauren; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Social norms are an important predictor of health behavior and have been targeted by a variety of health communication campaigns. However, these campaigns often encounter challenges related to the socially specific context in which norms exist: specifically, the extent to which the target population identifies with the reference group presented in the ad and the extent to which the target population believes the campaign's message. We argue that because of its capacity to effect identification among viewers, narrative communication is particularly appropriate for impacting social norms and, consequently, behavioral intention. This manuscript presents the results of a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of two films – one narrative, one non-narrative – in changing perceived social norms and behavioral intention regarding Pap testing to detect cervical cancer. Results of the study indicate that the narrative film was in fact more effective at producing positive changes in perceived norm and intention. PMID:24179677

  7. Understanding and Addressing AIDS-Related Stigma: From Anthropological Theory to Clinical Practice in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Arachu; Farmer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    For the past several years, diverse and often confused concepts of stigma have been invoked in discussions on AIDS. Many have argued compellingly that AIDS-related stigma acts as a barrier to voluntary counseling and testing. Less compelling are observations regarding the source of stigma or its role in decreasing interest in HIV care. We reviewed these claims as well as literature from anthropology, sociology, and public health. Preliminary data from research in rural Haiti suggest that the introduction of quality HIV care can lead to a rapid reduction in stigma, with resulting increased uptake of testing. Rather than stigma, logistic and economic barriers determine who will access such services. Implications for scale-up of integrated AIDS prevention and care are explored. PMID:15623859

  8. Understanding and addressing AIDS-related stigma: from anthropological theory to clinical practice in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Castro, Arachu; Farmer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    For the past several years, diverse and often confused concepts of stigma have been invoked in discussions on AIDS. Many have argued compellingly that AIDS-related stigma acts as a barrier to voluntary counseling and testing. Less compelling are observations regarding the source of stigma or its role in decreasing interest in HIV care. We reviewed these claims as well as literature from anthropology, sociology, and public health. Preliminary data from research in rural Haiti suggest that the introduction of quality HIV care can lead to a rapid reduction in stigma, with resulting increased uptake of testing. Rather than stigma, logistic and economic barriers determine who will access such services. Implications for scale-up of integrated AIDS prevention and care are explored.

  9. A Needs Assessment of Health Issues Related to Maternal Mortality Rates in Afghanistan: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Naim, Ali; Feldman, Robert; Sawyer, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal death rates in Afghanistan were among the highest in the world during the reign of the Taliban. Although these figures have improved, current rates are still alarming. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a needs assessment of the major health issues related to the high maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with managerial midwives, clinical midwives, and mothers. Results of the interviews indicate that the improvement in the maternal mortality rate may be attributed to the increase in the involvement of midwives in the birthing process. However, barriers to decreasing maternal mortality still exist. These include transportation, access to care, and sociocultural factors such as the influence of the husband and mother-in-law in preventing access to midwives. Therefore, any programs to decrease maternal mortality need to address infrastructure issues (making health care more accessible) and sociocultural factors (including husbands and mother-in-laws in maternal health education). However, it should be noted that these findings are based on a small pilot study to help develop a larger scale need assessment.

  10. Problematic Issues Related to the Systematic Teaching of Affective Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruff, Frances K.; Roberts, Jane M. E.

    This paper presents a discussion of three problem areas that were delineated during the course of a field test designed to assess the effects of the "Heartsmart Adventures," an interpersonal skills curriculum developed from the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) Theory as described by William C. Schutz. Students and teachers…

  11. Should relatives witness resuscitation? Ethical issues and practical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rosenczweig, C

    1998-01-01

    In winning second prize in the Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest in 1997, Carolyn Rosenczweig raised questions about the role patients' family members should be allowed to play during resuscitative efforts by medical staff. She concluded that even though their presence might complicate resuscitation attempts, "blanket policies that exclude all relatives from being present seem a knee-jerk reaction." PMID:9526478

  12. Relating Work and Education. Current Issues in Higher Education 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermilye, Dyckman; Ferris, William, Eds.

    The relationship between education and work is examined in relation to improving the quality of life. Part one provides a philosophical framework in which the authors reject the idea that work and education should be oriented toward porducing goods and making money, but should contribute to the growth and development of the workers. Part two…

  13. Kenyan government to establish special tribunal for HIV-related issues.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Kelly

    2010-06-01

    On 21 January 2010, Kenyan government officials formally announced the creation of the first-ever tribunal dedicated to hearing legal issues related to HIV/AIDS. Among other things, the Tribunal will handle issues relating to the transmission of HIV; confidentiality of medical information and records; testing; access to healthcare services; discriminatory acts and policies; and HIV-related research.

  14. Environmental issues related to mineral development in the Stillwater Complex, Mt. Information Circular/1985

    SciTech Connect

    Nigbor, M.T.; Iverson, S.R.; Hyndman, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    This Bureau of Mines publication identifies the significant environmental issues associated with the potential development of strategic and critical minerals in the Stillwater Complex, MT. The Stillwater Complex contains deposits of Cr, platinum-group metals (PGM), and Ni. Issues that must be addressed prior to minerals development include the effects mining, milling, and smelting will have on the land, water, and air, and methods of minimizing the environmental impacts.

  15. Implementation of the NCSS Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues: Exemplar Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert A., Ed.

    This document contains the Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues adopted in 1982 by the National Council for the Social Studies and 10 examplar lessons each keyed to particular guidelines and drawing upon contemporary issues. The premise upon which the guidelines are based is that science is a social issue and that the examination…

  16. A Simulation-Based Curriculum To Address Relational Crises in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Eleanor B.; Porter, Melissa B.; Calhoun, Aaron W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Preparing health care professionals for challenging communication tasks such as delivering bad news to patients and families is an area where a need for improved teaching has been identified. Objectives We developed a simulation-based curriculum to enhance the skills of health care professionals, with an emphasis on the communication of difficult or bad news, which we termed relational crises. Methods Our approach was based on a review of existing simulation-based curricula, with the addition of unique features, including a learner-focused needs assessment to shape curriculum development, use of 360-degree evaluations, and provision of written feedback. Development and implementation of our curriculum occurred in 3 phases. Phase I involved a multidisciplinary needs assessment, creation of a clinical scenario based on needs assessment results, and training of standardized patients. In Phase II we implemented the curriculum with 36 pediatric and internal medicine-pediatrics residents, 20 nurses, and 1 chaplain. Phase III consisted of the provision of written feedback for learners, created from the 360-degree evaluations compiled from participants, observers, faculty, and standardized patients. Results Participants felt the scenarios were realistic (average rating of 4.7 on a 5-point Likert scale) and improved their practice and preparedness for these situations (average rating, 4.75/5 and 4.18/5, respectively). Our curriculum produced a statistically significant change in participants' pre- and postcurriculum self-reported perceptions of skill (2.42/5 vs. 3.23/5, respectively, P < .001) and level of preparedness (2.91/5 vs. 3.72/5, respectively, P < .001). Discussion A simulation-based curriculum using standardized patients, learner-identified needs, 360-degree evaluations, and written feedback demonstrated a statistically significant change in participants' self-perceived skills and preparedness for communicating difficult news in pediatrics. PMID

  17. General Overview and Summary of Concepts Regarding Tendon Disease Topics Addressed Related to Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Paul W; Hart, David A

    2016-01-01

    Painful and non-healing musculoskeletal disorders, eg. tendinopathy, pose a tremendous burden on society and the quality of life for patients. New advances in the understanding of connective tissue disorders such as tendinopathy reveal that common health problems such as obesity, atherosclerosis, hormonal dysfunctions and diabetes mellitus are closely linked to the metabolism of components of the musculoskeletal system, particularly tendons. As tendons function as multi-component "organ systems" (Muscle-TMJ-Tendon-Enthesis to Bone), tendons can be influenced directly, or indirectly via, for instance, alterations to muscle. However, this volume/set of chapters focus mainly on the tendon.Emerging findings in musculoskeletal research have established important new links in our understanding of tendon metabolism. Thereby, the function of the neuroendocrine/-immune axis, as well as supply of neuro-vascular factors, can be directly linked to the quality of tendon metabolism.Since some conditions, eg. atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, are more common in individuals as they age, and aging can also affect pain and tissue repair, convergence of such complications will potentially exert an increasingly significant impact on tendons as the demographics of many societies change with expanding percentages of the populations >60-65 years of age.Comorbidities related to metabolic dysfunction have to be identified early in patients with musculoskeletal disorders, such as acute tendon injuries or chronic tendinopathy, for therapeutic considerations regarding both operative and non-operative treatment protocols. Necessary interactions between researchers and clinicians with different subspecialties have to be initiated in order to optimize tissue metabolism for improved healing potentials. PMID:27535271

  18. Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit: Is it an adequate public health response to addressing the issue of caregiver burden in end-of-life care?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasingly significant public health issue in Canada, and elsewhere throughout the developed world, pertains to the provision of adequate palliative/end-of-life (P/EOL) care. Informal caregivers who take on the responsibility of providing P/EOL care often experience negative physical, mental, emotional, social and economic consequences. In this article, we specifically examine how Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit (CCB) - a contributory benefits social program aimed at informal P/EOL caregivers - operates as a public health response in sustaining informal caregivers providing P/EOL care, and whether or not it adequately addresses known aspects of caregiver burden that are addressed within the population health promotion (PHP) model. Methods As part of a national evaluation of Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit, 57 telephone interviews were conducted with Canadian informal P/EOL caregivers in 5 different provinces, pertaining to the strengths and weaknesses of the CCB and the general caregiving experience. Interview data was coded with Nvivo software and emerging themes were identified by the research team, with such findings published elsewhere. The purpose of the present analysis was identified after comparing the findings to the literature specific to caregiver burden and public health, after which data was analyzed using the PHP model as a guiding framework. Results Informal caregivers spoke to several of the determinants of health outlined in the PHP model that are implicated in their burden experience: gender, income and social status, working conditions, health and social services, social support network, and personal health practises and coping strategies. They recognized the need for improving the CCB to better address these determinants. Conclusions This study, from the perspective of family caregivers, demonstrates that the CCB is not living up to its full potential in sustaining informal P/EOL caregivers. Effort is required to

  19. Delay related issues in integrated voice and data networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, J. G.

    1981-06-01

    The described investigation is concerned with the problem of transmitting voice with data in a computer communications network. The motivations for considering mixed voice and data traffic in such a shared network environment include the advent of new voice related applications with the technology now existing to economically support them, and the desire to plan for and design future integrated networks for reasons of economy and flexibility. Attention is given to the problem of variable delays in a shared network environment handling voice traffic. Previous work in packetized voice, as well as various approaches to integrated voice and data transmission, are reviewed. These approaches may be regarded as enhanced versions of circuit, packet, and hybrid switching. The impact of network interfacing and delay considerations for voice traffic is discussed.

  20. Accelerators for charged particle therapy: PAMELA and related issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, Ken

    2014-05-01

    Cancer is a dreadful disease that will affect one in three people at some point in their life; radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cancer treatment, and contributes about 40% to the successful treatment of cancer. Charged Particle Therapy uses protons and other light ions to deliver the lethal dose to the tumor while being relatively sparing of healthy tissue and, because of the finite range of the particles, is able to avoid giving any dose to vital organs. While there are adequate technologies currently available to deliver the required energies and fluxes, the two main technologies (cyclotrons and synchrotrons) have limitations. PAMELA (the Particle Accelerator for MEdicaLApplications) uses the newly-developed non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerator concepts to deliver therapeutically relevant beams. The status of the development of the PAMELA conceptual design is discussed.

  1. Some issues related to evidence-based implantology.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews relevant dental literature to answer some frequent questions related to evidence-based implantology. There are hundreds of implant systems on the market, but the majority lack clinical documentation. Recommended number of implants for full-arch fixed prostheses is four or five in the mandible but at least six in the maxilla. Less expensive implant-retained overdentures make implant treatment available to a greater portion of edentulous subjects. Mandibular overdentures on two implants, and even one implant, have shown excellent long-term outcomes. In the maxilla, less than four implants are not recommended for good results. Single implant restorations have good prognosis, but placement of the implant should be postponed until adulthood. Osseointegrated implants have revolutionized clinical dentistry. However, in a global perspective, implants make up only a small part of all prosthodontic treatment. Knowledge and skill in conventional prosthodontics must be maintained as it will remain the most common part of the specialty.

  2. Processing and post-processing issues related to polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Chad David

    1998-12-01

    In Chapter 1, the effect of heat sealing variables on seal strength of a linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) was examined. Blown films were heat sealed for various times and temperatures so that the films ranged from partially to fully melted. A temperature of 115sp°C or higher was required to form a good seal and was related to the heterogeneous composition of the LLDPE studied. At 115sp°C, the lower molecular weight, more highly branched chains easily diffused across the interface. However, because these chains represented a small fraction of the crystallinity and the molecular weight was low, they contributed much less than the full peel strength. Conversely, chains with less branching represented the main fraction of crystallinity (anchors for tie chains) and the highest molecular weights (more entanglements). Only at temperatures where the higher molecular weight, less branched chains began to melt and diffuse across the interface could high peel strengths be achieved. In Chapter 2, a novel coextrusion process used to create microlayered hierarchically structured films is described. With this technology, two or three polymers can be multiplied into tens or thousands of alternating layers. This unique coextrusion process can be used to combine polymers of widely dissimilar solid state morphologies and properties into unique layered and gradient structures. In addition, the effect of the viscosity ratio of the component materials and the effect of the layer multiplier geometry on the layer structure and uniformity was investigated. In Chapter 3, the development of a breathable film produced by the microlayer process is described. Two systems were produced: one with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and CaCOsb3-filled LLDPE and the other with PEO and CaCOsb3-filled polypropylene. The water vapor transport (WVT) behavior of these films was measured and related to the tortuousity of the path through the PEO and filled polyolefin domains. PEO is water soluble and has

  3. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  4. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  5. Nutritional and growth issues related to child neglect.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Drennen, Chloe R

    2014-11-01

    Child neglect and obesity are major public health problems that undermine children's health and contribute to lifelong disparities. Most of the past research has focused on relations between child neglect and failure to thrive. This article finds that evidence linking child neglect with obesity is mixed. In a recent meta-analysis, five of the eight studies reviewed did not find an increased risk of obesity among neglected children. The case study and three longitudinal studies that reported a relationship between neglect and obesity were conducted among young children, and used caregiver or teacher/clinician definitions of neglect, rather than referrals to state protective service agencies. Dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system associated with neglect has been implicated, but further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that may increase children's risk for obesity. Findings suggest that under some conditions neglect may increase the risk for excessive weight gain, and that high body mass index may be an indicator of possible neglect. By exploring both possibilities, clinicians can promote children's healthy growth and development and prevent subsequent health disparities. PMID:25369579

  6. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  7. A discussion of issues related to hydrogeology of deep geologic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, C. F.; Niemi, A.

    2012-04-01

    The state of the deep hydrogeological system, including its hydraulic structures and flow patterns, distribution of permeability and porosity, and distribution of hydraulic head values, is very much an open research field. Much work needs to be done to obtain such data and to understand the current conditions at depth. Deep drilling projects worldwide have often been dominated by studies concerning the geological and geophysical processes, as well as the geochemical composition of the deep underground. Hydrogeological processes, on the other hand, have received relatively less attention. Yet many of the important chemical, thermal and mechanical processes of the deep underground are closely linked and cannot be properly addressed without an adequate understanding of fluid flow and solute migration. Hydrologic condition and its evolution may also play a significant role in long term geologic processes, such as orogenesis. Presently, intended to be part of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), a deep drilling project is under preparation on the Swedish Caledonides (www.sddp.se/cosc), with the objective to address, among other things, issues related to fluid flow and solute migration. Partly prompted by this project, and partly by the desire to compile the existing knowledge, a workshop was convened in September 2011 in Uppsala, Sweden, to review the state-of-the-art of hydrogeological studies of deep systems, both from the point of view of available observations and data, and from the point of view of modeling and generic conceptual considerations. The discussions and presentations were structured around the following topics: (1) Spatial Extent and Dynamics of the Fluid Flow in the Deep Subsurface; (2) Fluid Flow in Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes occurring at depth; and (3) Monitoring and Modeling Methods. The present talk will aim to present the main outcomes and recommendations from this workshop.

  8. Ethical Issues Relating to Teaching via an Interactive Two-Way Television System (ITV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Karen Jarrett

    The information age has introduced new methods of delivering educational materials to students. One method is two-way interactive television (ITV). As more schools utilize ITV, for distance education and other educational purposes, certain administrative, legal, and ethical issues need to be addressed. This paper focuses on human and ethical…

  9. Psychological Terms, Logical Positivism, and Realism: Issues Related to Construct Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Frederick S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The standard conception of test validity which makes philosophical assumptions about the nature of scientific inquiry is discussed. The general kinds of questions and issues which psychologists and educators should address in order to develop a complete theory of test validity that is philosophically sound are outlined. (MT)

  10. Using Popular Culture Texts in the Classroom to Interrogate Issues of Gender Transgression Related Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel-Parkins, Alison; Esposito, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how undergraduate instructors of pre-service educators can address complex issues of sexuality and sexual orientation within the classroom. First, we explain our own backgrounds and positionalities to provide a context for our ensuing ideas and discussions. Second, by reviewing the literature on homophobic bullying, we…

  11. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the...

  12. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the...

  13. 75 FR 57469 - Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues... Retention and Other Related Issues.'' The guidance document provides OHRP's first formal guidance on this... (73 FR 72804). OHRP received comments on the draft guidance document from 30 individuals...

  14. Touching the Screen: Issues Related to the Use of Touchscreen Technology in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Geoff; Edwards, Suzy; McNamara, Sue; Walker, Ian; Ziguras, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Reports on research that investigated use of touchscreens by children in early childhood and junior primary settings by introducing touchscreens in five classrooms in Melbourne, Australia. Five themes were identified, relating to developmental issues, input device performance, technical issues, individual differences in children's use of…

  15. SPECIAL ISSUE OF ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT FOR PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Atmospheric Environment provides a selection of papers that were presented at the 2005 AAAR PM Supersites Program and Related Studies International Specialty Conference held in Atlanta, GA, 7-11 February 2005. Topics of papers in this issue range from the e...

  16. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1991-12-31

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  17. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. ); Aggarwal, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  18. Exploring Ivorian Perspectives on the Effectiveness of the Current Ivorian Science Curriculum in Addressing Issues Related to HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    2014-01-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the…

  19. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science classroom, providing teachers with adequate HIV/AIDS teaching resources that are more responsive to and inclusive of youth cultural beliefs, and by aligning teaching practices to Ivorian youth cultural and academics interests, there is a chance that HIV/AIDS education could lead to safer sexual behaviors amongst Ivorian youth.

  20. Toward improving hurricane forecasts using the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS): A framework to address the issues of Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Boothe, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Haddad, Z. S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; montgomery, M. T.; Niamsuwan, N.; Tallapragada, V. S.; Tanelli, S.; Turk, J.; Vukicevic, T.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forecasting of extreme weather requires the use of both regional models as well as global General Circulation Models (GCMs). The regional models have higher resolution and more accurate physics - two critical components needed for properly representing the key convective processes. GCMs, on the other hand, have better depiction of the large-scale environment and, thus, are necessary for properly capturing the important scale interactions. But how to evaluate the models, understand their shortcomings and improve them? Satellite observations can provide invaluable information. And this is where the issues of Big Data come: satellite observations are very complex and have large variety while model forecast are very voluminous. We are developing a system - TCIS - that addresses the issues of model evaluation and process understanding with the goal of improving the accuracy of hurricane forecasts. This NASA/ESTO/AIST-funded project aims at bringing satellite/airborne observations and model forecasts into a common system and developing on-line tools for joint analysis. To properly evaluate the models we go beyond the comparison of the geophysical fields. We input the model fields into instrument simulators (NEOS3, CRTM, etc.) and compute synthetic observations for a more direct comparison to the observed parameters. In this presentation we will start by describing the scientific questions. We will then outline our current framework to provide fusion of models and observations. Next, we will illustrate how the system can be used to evaluate several models (HWRF, GFS, ECMWF) by applying a couple of our analysis tools to several hurricanes observed during the 2013 season. Finally, we will outline our future plans. Our goal is to go beyond the image comparison and point-by-point statistics, by focusing instead on understanding multi-parameter correlations and providing robust statistics. By developing on-line analysis tools, our framework will allow for consistent

  1. Religious congregations' collaborations: with whom do they work and what resources do they share in addressing HIV and other health issues?

    PubMed

    Werber, Laura; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Domínguez, Blanca X; Mata, Michael A

    2012-12-01

    This study explores how religious congregations interact with other community organizations to address health and, in particular, HIV-related needs within their membership and/or local communities. Case study data from a diverse sample of 14 urban congregations (6 Black, 4 Latino, 2 White, and 2 mixed race-ethnicity) indicate that they engaged in three types of relationships to conduct HIV and other health-related activities: (a) resources flowed to congregations from external entities, (b) resources flowed from congregations to external entities, and (c) congregations interacted with external entities. These types of relationships were present in roughly equal proportions; thus, congregations were not primarily the recipients of resources from other organizations in these interactions. Financial, material, and human capital resources were shared across these three relationship types, and the most common organization types that congregations were involved with for health efforts were prevention and social service organizations, health care providers, and other congregations. In addition, congregations tended to have more collaborative relationships with other faith-based organizations (FBOs) and tended to engage with non-FBOs more to either receive or provide resources. Results suggest that congregations contribute to community health by not only sponsoring health activities for their own members but also by providing specific support or resources to enhance the programming of other community organizations and collaborating with external organizations to sponsor congregation-based and community-based health activities.

  2. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment.

    PubMed

    Perry, Courtney D; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-05-25

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40-60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change.

  3. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Courtney D.; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  4. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  5. Invariance of molecular charge transport upon changes of extended molecule size and several related issues.

    PubMed

    Bâldea, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    As a sanity test for the theoretical method employed, studies on (steady-state) charge transport through molecular devices usually confine themselves to check whether the method in question satisfies the charge conservation. Another important test of the theory's correctness is to check that the computed current does not depend on the choice of the central region (also referred to as the "extended molecule"). This work addresses this issue and demonstrates that the relevant transport and transport-related properties are indeed invariant upon changing the size of the extended molecule, when the embedded molecule can be described within a general single-particle picture (namely, a second-quantized Hamiltonian bilinear in the creation and annihilation operators). It is also demonstrates that the invariance of nonequilibrium properties is exhibited by the exact results but not by those computed approximately within ubiquitous wide- and flat-band limits (WBL and FBL, respectively). To exemplify the limitations of the latter, the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR) is considered. It is shown that the exactly computed current may exhibit a substantial NDR, while the NDR effect is absent or drastically suppressed within the WBL and FBL approximations. The analysis done in conjunction with the WBLs and FBLs reveals why general studies on nonequilibrium properties require a more elaborate theoretical than studies on linear response properties (e.g., ohmic conductance and thermopower) at zero temperature. Furthermore, examples are presented that demonstrate that treating parts of electrodes adjacent to the embedded molecule and the remaining semi-infinite electrodes at different levels of theory (which is exactly what most NEGF-DFT approaches do) is a procedure that yields spurious structures in nonlinear ranges of current-voltage curves. PMID:27335734

  6. Invariance of molecular charge transport upon changes of extended molecule size and several related issues

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary As a sanity test for the theoretical method employed, studies on (steady-state) charge transport through molecular devices usually confine themselves to check whether the method in question satisfies the charge conservation. Another important test of the theory’s correctness is to check that the computed current does not depend on the choice of the central region (also referred to as the “extended molecule”). This work addresses this issue and demonstrates that the relevant transport and transport-related properties are indeed invariant upon changing the size of the extended molecule, when the embedded molecule can be described within a general single-particle picture (namely, a second-quantized Hamiltonian bilinear in the creation and annihilation operators). It is also demonstrates that the invariance of nonequilibrium properties is exhibited by the exact results but not by those computed approximately within ubiquitous wide- and flat-band limits (WBL and FBL, respectively). To exemplify the limitations of the latter, the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR) is considered. It is shown that the exactly computed current may exhibit a substantial NDR, while the NDR effect is absent or drastically suppressed within the WBL and FBL approximations. The analysis done in conjunction with the WBLs and FBLs reveals why general studies on nonequilibrium properties require a more elaborate theoretical than studies on linear response properties (e.g., ohmic conductance and thermopower) at zero temperature. Furthermore, examples are presented that demonstrate that treating parts of electrodes adjacent to the embedded molecule and the remaining semi-infinite electrodes at different levels of theory (which is exactly what most NEGF-DFT approaches do) is a procedure that yields spurious structures in nonlinear ranges of current–voltage curves. PMID:27335734

  7. 1.5-μm optical up-conversion: wafer fusion and related issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Dayan; Luo, Hui; Liu, Hui-Chun; SpringThorpe, Anthony J.; Wasilewski, Zbigniew R.; Bezinger, Andrew; Bogdanov, Alexei; Buchanan, Margaret

    2004-11-01

    Imaging devices working in the near infrared (NIR), especially in the so-called eye-safe range, i.e., around 1.5 mm, have become increasingly important in many military and commercial applications; these include night vision, covert surveillance, range finding and semiconductor wafer inspection. We proposed a new approach in which a wafer-fused optical up-converter, combined with a commercially available charged coupled device (CCD), functions as an infrared camera. The optical up-converter converts incoming infrared light into shorter wavelength radiation that can be efficiently detected by the silicon CCD (cutoff wavelength about 1 mm). An optical up-converter with high efficiency at room-temperature is critical for low cost and large-area infrared imaging applications. A prototype 1.5 mm optical up-converter based on wafer fusion technology has been successfully fabricated. The device consists of an InGaAs/InP pin photodetector and a GaAs/AlGaAs light emitting diode. Experimental results show that the end-to-end up-conversion efficiency is 0.0177 W/W at room-temperature, corresponding to an internal quantum up-conversion efficiency of 76%. In this paper, the design, fabrications and characterization of the optical up-conversion devices is presented. Issues related to device optimization, such as improving internal and external up-conversion efficiency, are addressed. Preliminary results demonstrate the room-temperature up-conversion imaging operation of a pixelated wafer-fused device.

  8. State Legislators’ Work on Public Health-Related Issues: What Influences Priorities?

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Elizabeth A.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Chalifour, Stephanie; Haire-Joshu, Debra; McBride, Timothy; Brownson, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Policies are an effective way to influence population health and prevent disease. Unfortunately, public health research is often not well translated for policy audiences. Furthermore, researchers seeking to influence policy face an incomplete understanding of what influences legislators’ decisions regarding which issues will receive their limited time and focus. Objective The objective of this analysis was to examine various factors that may influence state legislators’ decisions about which health issues they address. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a randomized trial. Setting State legislatures. Participants State-level legislators. Main Outcome Measure(s) Measures included a rating of the influence of various factors on health policy priorities. A 7-point scale was used to measure political ideology on social and fiscal issues. Standard demographic questions were included on age, gender, and level of education. Results Seventy-five legislators completed surveys. Sixty-three percent were aged 55 years or older, and 76% male. When they were asked to rate factors according to importance in determining what health issues to work on, the top-rated factor was constituents’ needs or opinions followed by evidence of scientific effectiveness. Ratings were also examined by subgroups. Conclusions These findings point to several important applications for public health practitioners and researchers. Because legislators value constituents’ opinions, it is critical to inform and educate constituents about public health issues as well as policy options that may be effective in addressing problems. The results also highlight the importance of public health researchers and practitioners improving dissemination efforts to ensure that evidence-based scientific information is shared with policymakers in an effective and timely manner. PMID:23169400

  9. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  10. Introduction to the Special Issue: New and Interdisciplinary Approaches to Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel; Casasanto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of "Language Learning" presents an interdisciplinary state-of-the-art overview of current approaches to linguistic relativity. It contains empirical and theoretical studies and reflections on linguistic relativity from a variety of perspectives, such as associative learning, conceptual transfer, multilingual awareness,…

  11. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  12. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress.

  13. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs

    PubMed Central

    Verrinder, Joy M.; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students’ preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  14. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  15. Enhanced care assistant training to address the workforce crisis in home care: changes related to job satisfaction and career commitment.

    PubMed

    Coogle, Constance L; Parham, Iris A; Jablonski, Rita; Rachel, Jason A

    2007-01-01

    Changes in job satisfaction and career commitment were observed as a consequence of a geriatric case management training program focusing on skills development among personal care attendants in home care. A comparison of pretraining and posttraining scores uncovered a statistically significant increase in Intrinsic Job Satisfaction scores for participants 18-39 years of age, whereas levels declined among the group of middle aged participants and no change was observed among participants age 52 and older. On the other hand, a statistically significant decline in Extrinsic Job Satisfaction was documented over all participants, but this was found to be primarily due to declines among participants 40-51 years of age. When contacted 6-12 months after the training series had concluded participants indicated that the training substantially increased the likelihood that they would stay in their current jobs and improved their job satisfaction to some extent. A comparison of pretraining and posttraining scores among participants providing follow-up data revealed a statistically significant improvement in levels of Career Resilience. These results are discussed as they relate to similar training models and national data sets, and recommendations are offered for targeting future educational programs designed to address the long-term care workforce shortage. PMID:17595925

  16. Approach to ecological assessment of power-plant-intake (316b) related issues: the Prairie Island case

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Vaughan, D.S.; Hildebrand, S.G.; Kumar, K.D.

    1981-04-01

    Assessment approaches and strategies useful in addressing important issues in section 316(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act are illustrated in this report through the analysis and evaluation of the Prairie Island Nuclear Station 316(b) data base. The main issues in 316(b) demonstrations, cooling water intake operation and location, involve determining the impacts of entrainment and impingement. Entrainment impacts were addressed by applying the equivalent adult approach and correcting for inherent biases and by determining the through-plant survival of zooplankton. An assessment of impingement impacts was made by comparing for each of various species the number of fish impinged to estimates of population size. Densities of plankton and fish were compared between the intake area and an alternate area to determine if the location of the present intake minimizes impacts. No definitive conclusion relative to the best location of the intake could be made because of high year to year variability in the data and the differential dominance of trophic groups between areas.

  17. Awareness of issues related to torture among medical students in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, A K; Purwar, B; Jeebun, Nilima; Agnihotri, Smriti

    2007-01-01

    Torture in custody is a global problem. Many declarations and conventions by different agencies throughout the world have sought to address this issue. Health professionals are required to detect, treat, and rehabilitate victims of torture. In the last few years, medical personnel have emphasised their stand against the practice of torture. We surveyed 155 second- and third-year medical graduates in Mauritius to assess their knowledge of and attitudes towards torture. A majority of the students have a basic awareness and would like to learn more about torture as a human rights issue. However, more than 37 per cent of students were in favour of beating in custody. Torture could be reduced if the medical profession maintains high standards of practice and ethics. Medical education for the prevention of torture should be included in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

  18. Anticipating issues related to increasing preimplantation genetic diagnosis use: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S; Chung, Wendy; Sauer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Increasing use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) poses numerous clinical, social, psychological, ethical, legal and policy dilemmas, many of which have received little attention. Patients and providers are now considering and using PGD for a widening array of genetic disorders, and patients may increasingly seek 'designer babies.' In the USA, although governmental oversight policies have been discussed, few specific guidelines exist. Hence, increasingly, patients and providers will face challenging ethical and policy questions of when and for whom to use PGD, and how it should be financed. These issues should be better clarified and addressed through collection of data concerning the current use of PGD in the USA, including factors involved in decision making about PGD use, as well as the education of the various communities that are, and should be, involved in its implementation. Improved understanding of these issues will ultimately enhance the development and implementation of future clinical guidelines and policies.

  19. Anticipating issues related to increasing preimplantation genetic diagnosis use: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S; Chung, Wendy; Sauer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Increasing use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) poses numerous clinical, social, psychological, ethical, legal and policy dilemmas, many of which have received little attention. Patients and providers are now considering and using PGD for a widening array of genetic disorders, and patients may increasingly seek 'designer babies.' In the USA, although governmental oversight policies have been discussed, few specific guidelines exist. Hence, increasingly, patients and providers will face challenging ethical and policy questions of when and for whom to use PGD, and how it should be financed. These issues should be better clarified and addressed through collection of data concerning the current use of PGD in the USA, including factors involved in decision making about PGD use, as well as the education of the various communities that are, and should be, involved in its implementation. Improved understanding of these issues will ultimately enhance the development and implementation of future clinical guidelines and policies. PMID:18644221

  20. Recommended Changes to the No Child Left Behind Act to Address Workforce Issues. Submitted to the House Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Linda; Tsoi-A-Fatt, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Center for Law and Social Policy's (CLASP's) recommendations on how No Child Left Behind (NCLB) could better address the workforce challenges faced by this country. CLASP is a nonprofit organization engaged in research, analysis, technical assistance, and advocacy on a range of issues affecting low-income families. The…

  1. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump.

  2. Love versus abuse: crossgenerational sexual relations of minors: a gay rights issue?

    PubMed

    Graupner, H

    1999-01-01

    The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue.

  3. Love versus abuse: crossgenerational sexual relations of minors: a gay rights issue?

    PubMed

    Graupner, H

    1999-01-01

    The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue. PMID:10482330

  4. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  5. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe{sub 2}- based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues.

  6. The Design and Evaluation of a Teaching-Learning Sequence Addressing the Solubility Concept with Turkish Secondary School Students. Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabapinar, Filiz; Leach, John; Scott, Phil

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports upon a study addressing teaching and learning about solubility to Turkish first-year secondary school students (age 14-15). The principal aim of the research was to investigate the impact on students' understanding of solubility, of introducing a simple particle model of matter. A teaching intervention to fit within the existing…

  7. Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the first six issues of a newsletter, which discusses current knowledge about and concerns related to genetics and mental retardation. The second issue addresses the problem of genetic discrimination. The third issue considers genetic testing, screening, and counseling. The fourth issue addresses genetic privacy issues.…

  8. Addressing Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue, extracted from a conversation among some members of the Equity Special Issue Editorial Panel, concerns racism in mathematics education. It raises issues about the use of various terms; about fields of research outside of mathematics education; and about the kinds of racialization processes that occur for students, teachers, and…

  9. The Portability of Computer-Related Educational Resources: An Overview of Issues and Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty A.; De Diana, Italo

    1990-01-01

    Provides an overview of the articles in this special issue, which deals with the portability, or transferability, of educational computer software. Motivations for portable software relating to cost, personnel, and time are discussed, and factors affecting portability are described, including technical factors, educational factors, social/cultural…

  10. 78 FR 9020 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Further Comment on Specific Issues Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ..., 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011 and 76 FR 78384, December 16, 2011, which comprehensively reformed and... accompanying FNPRM, 76 FR 78384, December 16, 2011, the Commission sought comment on various issues relating to... Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998. Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using...

  11. Teacher to Teacher: What Texts Effectively Raise Issues Related to 9/11 for Secondary Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with texts that effectively raise issues related to 9/11 for secondary students, as discussed by several teachers. Kevin J. Collins from St. Thomas Aquinas High School says, "Elephant," Gus Van Sant's exploration of a Columbine-like tragedy, underscores the current generation's attempt to define the meaning of events in…

  12. Telerobotic control issues related to real task applications in the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne

    1990-01-01

    Recent findings concerning the definition of the expected control environment associated with the Space Station are examined. The range of expected near-term and far-term task applications for robotic systems is provided, and the essential control issues related to the application environment are derived. In addition, an approximate control envelope for teleoperated and autonomous robotic systems is established.

  13. Allostatic Load: Single Parents, Stress-Related Health Issues, and Social Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johner, Randy L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible relationships between allostatic load (AL) and stress-related health issues in the low-income single-parent population, using both a population health perspective (PHP) and a biological framework. A PHP identifies associations among such factors as gender, income, employment, and social support and their…

  14. Transition Issues Related to Students with Visual Disabilities. PRO-ED Series on Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erin, Jane N.; Wolffe, Karen E.

    Part of a series that provides practical resources to transition personnel on topics essential to the process of preparing individuals with disabilities for adulthood, this manual focuses on transition issues related to students with visual impairments. Chapter 1 discusses the nature of visual impairment and reactions to visual impairment. Chapter…

  15. Technical Note: Some Issues Related to the Selection of Polymers for Aerospace Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Beeson, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Materials intended for use in aerospace oxygen systems are commonly screened for oxygen compatibility following NASA STD 6001. This standard allows qualification of materials based on results provided by only one test method. Potential issues related to this practice are reviewed and recommendations are proposed that would lead to improved aerospace oxygen systems safety.

  16. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice and request for comments....

  17. Grid related issues for static and dynamic geometry problems using systems of overset structured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Grid related issues of the Chimera overset grid method are discussed in the context of a method of solution and analysis of unsteady three-dimensional viscous flows. The state of maturity of the various pieces of support software required to use the approach is considered. Current limitations of the approach are identified.

  18. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  19. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  20. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  1. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... Torts Branch of DOJ. Such claims arising overseas must be reported to the Command Claims Service with... is not usually feasible because settlement of property damage claims must cover all...

  2. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... Torts Branch of DOJ. Such claims arising overseas must be reported to the Command Claims Service with... is not usually feasible because settlement of property damage claims must cover all...

  3. Issues Relating to the Implementation and Management of an Integrated Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Carl; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Issues discussed relating to the University of Minnesota's Integrated Information Center (IIC) include the impact of the legal environment within which it must operate, its organizational structures, and its funding. In addition, the reactions of key stakeholders at the University of Minnesota to the model IIC are discussed. (two references) ( SD)

  4. Prospective Teachers' Perceptions about the Concept of Sustainable Development and Related Issues in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Al Washahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate, from the Omani's prospective, teachers' perceptions about the concept of sustainable development (SD) and three related issues (cultural diversity, renewable energy and equity). The sample consisted of 159 prospective teachers from Sultan Qaboos University. Data were collected via a questionnaire comprising a list…

  5. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  6. Mediating Effects of Stress, Weight-Related Issues, and Depression on Suicidality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sydney S.; Smith Carter, Jocelyn; Karczewski, Sabrina; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Suffoletto, Shannon; Munin, Art

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Through a holistic health lens, the current study examines the effects of weight-related issues and stress on suicidality while controlling for depressive symptoms in college students. Participants: In total, 872 undergraduate and graduate students at DePaul University completed the American College Health Association-National College…

  7. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  8. Weight-Related Issues and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Lust, Katherine D.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with high body mass index (BMI), negative body image, and unhealthy weight control behaviors may be more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than others. Researchers have not fully investigated these relationships in a sample of college students. The authors collected data regarding several weight-related issues and…

  9. 76 FR 22340 - Further Inquiry Into Tribal Issues Relating to Establishment of a Mobility Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ..., Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 67060, November 1, 2010 (Mobility Fund NPRM), to use reserves... of Proposed Rulemaking, 76 FR 18476, April 4, 2011, proposes a variety of options for Tribal entities... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Further Inquiry Into Tribal Issues Relating to Establishment of a Mobility...

  10. African American College Students' Health Behaviors and Perceptions of Related Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Denyce S.; Goode, Carolyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A study of African American college students compared students' health-related behaviors with their perceptions of corresponding health issues. Students had low smoking rates but higher alcohol consumption. Most students did not practice good nutrition or daily physical activity. Over half managed stress well, and three-quarters were sexually…

  11. Issues in Relating Evaluation to Theory, Policy, and Practice in Continuing Education and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W.; Lewis, Frances Marcus

    1981-01-01

    Reviews a number of issues relating to the results of evaluation studies: standards of acceptability; clinical vs. statistical significance; fallacies in the use of theory; and program, theory, measurement, and design failure. (Journal availability: Subscription Manager, MOBIUS, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA 94720.) (SK)

  12. Japanese and American Preservice Teachers' Attitudes Toward Global Issues and Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter; Glenn, Allen; Mizoue, Yasushi; Meriwether, Crystal; Gardner, William

    1997-01-01

    Compared Japanese and U.S. preservice teachers' attitudes about global issues and global relations, surveying preservice elementary teachers at one Japanese and two American universities. Results indicated that the groups were moderately worldminded overall, and they differed significantly in their levels of worldmindedness. Four out of ten survey…

  13. Early Childhood Education: Status, Trends, and Issues Related to Electronic Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Donna

    As part of a broad investigation of the role of large-scale, satellite-based, educational telecommunication systems, the trends and issues in early childhood education in relation to electronic delivery are discussed in some detail. The population and numbers currently served by pre-primary programs, and school setting by type of control (public…

  14. How Do Learners in Developed and Developing Countries Relate to Environmental Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the framework of earlier research on environmental education for sustainability, using data collected in the ROSE Project. Attention was focused mainly on students' responses to sections and items related to environmental issues, regarding their countries' degree of development. The research questions dealt…

  15. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    related fields such as nuclear astrophysics, hypernuclear physics, hadron physics, and condensate matter physics so on. In fact, in this workshop, we also discuss the clustering aspects in the related fields. Thus, I expect in this workshop we can grasp the present status of the nuclear cluster physics and demonstrate its perspective in near future. This workshop is sponsored by several institutes and organizations. In particular, I would express our thanks for financial supports to Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Joint Institute for Computational Fundamental Science (JICFuS), and RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator- Based Science. They are cohosting this workshop. I would like also to appreciate my University, Kanto Gakuin University, who offers this nice place for one week and helps us to hold this workshop smoothly and conveniently. Today, the president of my University, Prof. Kuku, is here to present a welcome address. Thank you very much. Finally, with many of the participants leading this field both in theory and in experiment, we wish this workshop offers an opportunity to simulate communications not only during the workshop but also in the future. In addition, we hope you enjoy exploring city of Yokohama and the area around, as well as scientific discussions. Thank you very much for your attention.

  16. Project 10 Handbook: Addressing Lesbian and Gay Issues in Our Schools. A Resource Directory for Teachers, Guidance Counselors, Parents and School-Based Adolescent Care Providers. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friends of Project 10, Inc.

    This handbook was developed by Project 10, an on-campus counseling program within the Los Angeles (California) Unified School District. The handbook covers many of the issues and problems that arise for homosexual high school students. Introductory material includes a history of the informal beginnings of Project 10. The first chapter describes…

  17. Looking beyond first-world problems: an emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality.

  18. Environmental health and hazardous waste issues related to the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, D E; Peña, C; Varady, R; Suk, W A

    1996-01-01

    Environmental health and environmental quality issues along the U.S.-Mexico border have been of concern for several years. The enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the presence of the maquiladoras (foreign-owned industries using imported raw materials) have intensified those concerns recently. Efforts to assess these issues are complicated by the fact that many of the issues affecting the border region are within federal jurisdiction, but the problems are regional and local in nature. Thus, state and local governments become involved with public concerns about real and potential problems. One major problem is that environmental health data from this region are lacking, particularly from Mexico. Some new agencies such as the Border Environment Cooperation Commission, the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission, and the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation have joined several existing agencies at the federal and state level to address environmental quality and health. Several studies have been initiated to determine air and water quality, but little is being done in the areas of hazardous waste and health assessment. Several problems are anticipated in the generation of such data, such as its format and accessibility. Data gaps and research needs are discussed. PMID:8793340

  19. Roadmapping - A Tool for Resolving Science and Technology Issues Related to Processing, Packaging, and Shipping Nuclear Materials and Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, Dale Elden; Dixon, Brent Wayne; Murphy, James Anthony

    2002-06-01

    Roadmapping is an effective methodology to identify and link technology development and deployment efforts to a program's or project's needs and requirements. Roadmapping focuses on needed technical support to the baselines (and to alternatives to the baselines) where the probability of success is low (high uncertainty) and the consequences of failure are relatively high (high programmatic risk, higher cost, longer schedule, or higher ES&H risk). The roadmap identifies where emphasis is needed, i.e., areas where investments are large, the return on investment is high, or the timing is crucial. The development of a roadmap typically involves problem definition (current state versus the desired state) and major steps (functions) needed to reach the desired state. For Nuclear Materials (NM), the functions could include processing, packaging, storage, shipping, and/or final disposition of the material. Each function is examined to determine what technical development would be needed to make the function perform as desired. This requires a good understanding of the current state of technology and technology development and validation activities to ensure the viability of each step. In NM disposition projects, timing is crucial! Technology must be deployed within the project window to be of value. Roadmaps set the stage to keep the technology development and deployment focused on project milestones and ensure that the technologies are sufficiently mature when needed to mitigate project risk and meet project commitments. A recent roadmapping activity involved a 'cross-program' effort, which included NM programs, to address an area of significant concern to the Department of Energy (DOE) related to gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen. The roadmap that was developed defined major gas generation issues within the DOE complex and research that has been and is being conducted to address gas generation concerns. The roadmap also provided the basis for sharing ''lessons

  20. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S; Fan, Jung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research. PMID:27375358

  1. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S; Fan, Jung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research.

  2. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S.; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S.; Fan, Jung-wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research. PMID:27375358

  3. Perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an intractable disease

    PubMed Central

    Imahashi, Kumiko; Fukatsu, Reiko; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Ito, Tateo; Horigome, Mariko; Haruna, Yuichiro; Noda, Tatsuya; Itoyama, Yasuto

    2016-01-01

    Summary A number of persons with an intractable disease (ID) experience work-related problems that could lead to job loss. The aim of this study was to ascertain perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an ID. Potential participants were people ages 15 to 64 with one of the 130 intractable chronic diseases designated in the Act to Comprehensively Support the Daily and Social Activities of Persons with Disabilities (Comprehensive Support for the Disabled Act). Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. With the assistance of patients' organizations, 3,000 questionnaires were mailed to potential participants. Questions included demographic characteristics, family concerns, employment/supported employment, work accommodations, and other aspects of life. Responses were received from 889 (29.6%) participants, and respondents had 57 IDs. Forty-six-point-seven percent of respondents reported being unemployed due to fatigue and/or long-term treatment. Nearly half of the unemployed respondents reported that they had been unable to work despite their willingness to do so. Common requests for accommodation included flexible work hours, working at home, and job/workplace modifications. Only 30% of respondents knew about job training programs and supported work available for persons with disabilities. The results of the study are relevant for employees, employers, and occupational health/human resource professionals. The issue of reasonable accommodations for persons with an ID needs to be addressed in future research in order to promote continued work by those persons.

  4. Perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an intractable disease.

    PubMed

    Imahashi, Kumiko; Fukatsu, Reiko; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Ito, Tateo; Horigome, Mariko; Haruna, Yuichiro; Noda, Tatsuya; Itoyama, Yasuto

    2016-08-01

    A number of persons with an intractable disease (ID) experience work-related problems that could lead to job loss. The aim of this study was to ascertain perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an ID. Potential participants were people ages 15 to 64 with one of the 130 intractable chronic diseases designated in the Act to Comprehensively Support the Daily and Social Activities of Persons with Disabilities (Comprehensive Support for the Disabled Act). Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. With the assistance of patients' organizations, 3,000 questionnaires were mailed to potential participants. Questions included demographic characteristics, family concerns, employment/supported employment, work accommodations, and other aspects of life. Responses were received from 889 (29.6%) participants, and respondents had 57 IDs. Forty-six-point-seven percent of respondents reported being unemployed due to fatigue and/or long-term treatment. Nearly half of the unemployed respondents reported that they had been unable to work despite their willingness to do so. Common requests for accommodation included flexible work hours, working at home, and job/workplace modifications. Only 30% of respondents knew about job training programs and supported work available for persons with disabilities. The results of the study are relevant for employees, employers, and occupational health/human resource professionals. The issue of reasonable accommodations for persons with an ID needs to be addressed in future research in order to promote continued work by those persons. PMID:27672543

  5. On the issues related to compliance assessment of ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Valerio; Chen, Xi Lin

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses technical issues related to compliance assessment of ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions. Several difficulties are identified in this study when assessing the spatial average and 99th percentile value of the electric field. These issues are mainly attributed to the lack of clarity in the guideline specifications, which leads to inadequate or irreproducible results. Effects on compliance results due to such ambiguous procedures are hereby investigated, with particular focus on technical issues rather than biological ones. Examples spanning from simple canonical test cases to realistic applications have been selected to highlight the strong variability in dosimetry results. Based on our findings, revisiting the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines is strongly recommended, and proposed alternative solutions are outlined. PMID:24705441

  6. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  7. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  8. Safety-related issues associated with implementing wireless systems in nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldenbach, B. J.; Ewing, P. D.; Moore, M. R.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C. E.; Govan, T. V.

    2006-07-01

    Currently, wireless technology is not used as an integral element of safety-related systems in nuclear facilities. The most prevalent introductory uses of wireless technology are for in-facility communications among personnel and for supplemental information transmission. However, further system upgrades and implementations at new facilities might introduce wireless communications into safety-significant applications. This paper documents the deployment issues and implementation considerations that can contribute to the technical basis for guidance on wireless systems. (authors)

  9. On the Conceptual Issues Surrounding the Notion of Relational Bohmian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassallo, Antonio; Ip, Pui Him

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a program to construct a non-relativistic relational Bohmian theory, that is, a theory of N moving point-like particles that dispenses with space and time as fundamental background structures. The relational program proposed is based on the best-matching framework originally developed by Julian Barbour. In particular, the paper focuses on the conceptual problems that arise when trying to implement such a program. It is argued that pursuing a relational strategy in the Bohmian context leads to a more parsimonious ontology than that of standard Bohmian mechanics without betraying the original motivations for adopting a primitive ontology approach to quantum physics. It is also shown how a relational Bohmian approach might clarify the issue of the timelessness of the dynamics resulting from the quantization of a classical relational system of particles.

  10. Measurement issues related to data collection on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Ora L; Moloney, Margaret F; Dietrich, Alexa S; Myerburg, Stuart; Cotsonis, George A; Johnson, Robert V

    2003-01-01

    As the World Wide Web has become more prominent as a mode of communication, it has opened up new possibilities for research data collection. This article identifies measurement issues that occur with Internet data collection that are relevant to qualitative and quantitative research approaches as they occurred in a triangulated Internet study of perimenopausal women with migraine headaches. Issues associated with quantitative data collection over the Internet include (a) selecting and designing Internet data collection protocols that adequately address study aims while also taking advantage of the Internet, (b) ensuring the reliability and validity of Internet data collected, (c) adapting quantitative paper-and-pencil data collection protocols for the Internet, (d) making Internet data collection practical for respondents and researchers, and (e) ensuring the quality of quantitative data collected. Qualitative data collection over the Internet needs to remain true to the philosophical stance of the qualitative approach selected. Researcher expertise in qualitative data collection must be combined with expertise in computer technology and information services if data are to be of ultimate quality The advantages and limitations of collecting qualitative data in real time or at a later time are explored, as well as approaches to enhance qualitative data collection over the Internet. It was concluded that like any research approach or method, Internet data collection requires considerable creativity, expertise, and planning to take advantage of the technology for the collection of reliable and valid research data.

  11. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  12. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal-Human-Ecosystem Interface.

    PubMed

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Meisser, Andrea; Thomas, Christopher James

    2015-07-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions' research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of "transmitters" using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines.

  13. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  14. Relative efficacy of drugs: an emerging issue between regulatory agencies and third-party payers.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Hans-Georg; Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte; Abadie, Eric; Barnett, David; König, Franz; Pearson, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Drug regulatory agencies have traditionally assessed the quality, safety and efficacy of drugs, and the current paradigm dictates that a new drug should be licensed when the benefits outweigh the risks. By contrast, third-party payers base their reimbursement decisions predominantly on the health benefits of the drug relative to existing treatment options (termed relative efficacy; RE). Over the past decade, the role of payers has become more prominent, and time-to-market no longer means time-to-licensing but time-to-reimbursement. Companies now have to satisfy the sometimes divergent needs of both regulators and payers, and to address RE during the pre-marketing stages. This article describes the current political background to the RE debate and presents the scientific and methodological challenges as they relate to RE assessment. In addition, we explain the impact of RE on drug development, and speculate on future developments and actions that are likely to be required from key players.

  15. Paternalism in nursing and healthcare: central issues and their relation to theory.

    PubMed

    Cody, William K

    2003-10-01

    Paternalistic practices, wherein providers confer a treatment or service upon a person or persons without their consent, ostensibly by reason of their limited autonomy or diminished capacity, are widespread in healthcare and in societies around the world. In the United States, paternalism in health and human services is widespread and probably increasing with newly emergent forms. Numerous issues surround paternalistic practices. In this column, the author examines these issues in relation to theory development in healthcare and nursing as well as theory as a guide to practice. It is suggested that scientific and ethical knowing are not separate but must be united in theoretical structures that include both in unity, along with an appreciation of the infinite complexity of life as it is humanly lived. It is also suggested that nursing's unique theory base of frameworks that honor human dignity and focus on human experience offers an opportunity for leadership in further developing theoretical frameworks that transcend paternalistic practices.

  16. Review of Technical Issues Related to Predicting Isotopic Compositions and Source Terms for High-Burnup LWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I. C.; Parks, C. V.

    2000-12-11

    This report has been prepared to review the technical issues important to the prediction of isotopic compositions and source terms for high-burnup, light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel as utilized in the licensing of spent fuel transport and storage systems. The current trend towards higher initial 235U enrichments, more complex assembly designs, and more efficient fuel management schemes has resulted in higher spent fuel burnups than seen in the past. This trend has led to a situation where high-burnup assemblies from operating LWRs now extend beyond the area where available experimental data can be used to validate the computational methods employed to calculate spent fuel inventories and source terms. This report provides a brief review of currently available validation data, including isotopic assays, decay heat measurements, and shielded dose-rate measurements. Potential new sources of experimental data available in the near term are identified. A review of the background issues important to isotopic predictions and some of the perceived technical challenges that high-burnup fuel presents to the current computational methods are discussed. Based on the review, the phenomena that need to be investigated further and the technical issues that require resolution are presented. The methods and data development that may be required to address the possible shortcomings of physics and depletion methods in the high-burnup and high-enrichment regime are also discussed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis methodology is presented. This methodology is currently being investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a computational tool to better understand the changing relative significance of the underlying nuclear data in the different enrichment and burnup regimes and to identify the processes that are dominant in the high-burnup regime. The potential application of the sensitivity analysis methodology to help establish a range of applicability for experimental

  17. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  18. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  19. Google and Women’s Health-Related Issues: What Does the Search Engine Data Reveal?

    PubMed Central

    Baazeem, Mazin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Identifying the gaps in public knowledge of women’s health related issues has always been difficult. With the increasing number of Internet users in the United States, we sought to use the Internet as a tool to help us identify such gaps and to estimate women’s most prevalent health concerns by examining commonly searched health-related keywords in Google search engine. Methods We collected a large pool of possible search keywords from two independent practicing obstetrician/gynecologists and classified them into five main categories (obstetrics, gynecology, infertility, urogynecology/menopause and oncology), and measured the monthly average search volume within the United States for each keyword with all its possible combinations using Google AdWords tool. Results We found that pregnancy related keywords were less frequently searched in general compared to other categories with an average of 145,400 hits per month for the top twenty keywords. Among the most common pregnancy-related keywords was “pregnancy and sex’ while pregnancy-related diseases were uncommonly searched. HPV alone was searched 305,400 times per month. Of the cancers affecting women, breast cancer was the most commonly searched with an average of 247,190 times per month, followed by cervical cancer then ovarian cancer. Conclusion The commonly searched keywords are often issues that are not discussed in our daily practice as well as in public health messages. The search volume is relatively related to disease prevalence with the exception of ovarian cancer which could signify a public fear. PMID:25422723

  20. Chemical Issues Addressing the Construction of the Distal Ni[Cysteine-Glycine-Cysteine]2- Site of Acetyl CoA Synthase: Why Not Copper?

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kayla. N.; Brothers, Scott M.; Lee, Boram; Darensbourg, Marcetta. Y.; Rockcliffe, David. A.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of the Ni(Cysteine-Glycine-Cysteine)2-, Ni(CGC)2-, in the A-cluster active site of Acetyl CoA Synthase has prompted the synthesis of many small molecule models which employ M(N2S2) complexes as metalloligands. In vitro studies have shown that nickel incorporates into the N2S2 binding pocket even when copper is in the enzyme growth medium, while copper is preferentially taken up in the proximal site, displacing the catalytically active nickel. (Darnault, C.; Volbeda, A.; Kim, E.J.; Legrand, P.; Vernede, X.; Lindahl, P.A.; Fontecilla-Camps, J.C. Nat. Struct. Biol. 2003, 10, 271-279.) The work herein has been designed to address the chemical viability of copper(II) within the tripeptide N2S2 ligand set. To this end, a series of CuN2S2 2- complexes, the resin-bound, O-Cu(CGC)2- (A) and free Cu(CGC)2- (B) complexes, as well as Cu(ema)2- (C) and Cu(emi)2- (D) dianions, have been characterized by UV-vis, EPR, and ESI-MS spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and, where appropriate, x-ray diffraction studies, and compared to the NiII congeners. EPR spectroscopic results have indicated that, in frozen DMF solution, the copper complexes are distorted square planar structures with nitrogen and sulfur donors. This is consistent with X-ray diffraction measurements which also show copper(II) in a distorted square planar environment that is bereft of CuN2S2 2- intermolecular interactions. DFT calculations resulted in optimized structures that are consistent with crystallographic data and indicated HOMO-SOMO gaps of 5.01 eV and 4.68 eV for C and D as respectively. Optimized structures of Ni(ema)2- and Ni(emi)2- share the same basic characteristics as for the copper(II) congeners. Electrochemical characterization of C and D resulted in a reversible CuIII/II couple at -1.20 V and - 1.40 V, respectively. Reactivity studies with Rh(CO)2+ show similar donor capabilities for complexes A-D. Analysis of A shows that transmetallation does not occur. From competitive metal

  1. Research funding for addressing tobacco-related disease: an analysis of UK investment between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Mary; Bogdanovica, Ilze; Britton, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the UK. However, research spending on tobacco-related disease, and particularly smoking prevention, is thought to be low. We therefore aimed to assess the relation between tobacco-related research investment and disease burden from 2008 to 2012. Methods We used the Health Research Classification System to classify UK government and charitable research funding by broad health category and then by tobacco prevention research and 18 WHO defined tobacco-related diseases. We used UK mortality figures to calculate disease-specific tobacco attributable deaths and then compared disease specific and tobacco prevention research investment with all cause and tobacco attributable mortality over the 5-year period and as annual averages. Results 12 922 research grants were identified with a total value of £6.69bn, an annual average of £1.34bn. Annually an average of 110 000 people die from tobacco-related disease, approximately 20% of total deaths. £130m is invested in researching tobacco-related disease each year and £5m on tobacco prevention, 10.8% and 0.42% of total annual research funding, respectively. Prevention research equated to an annual average of £46 per tobacco attributable death or one pound for every £29 spent on tobacco-related disease. Funding varied widely for diseases with different numbers of deaths (eg, lung cancer £68 per all cause death, cervical cancer £2500), similar numbers of deaths (leukaemia £983 per death, stomach cancer £43) or similar numbers of tobacco attributable deaths (eg, colorectal cancer £5k, pancreatic cancer £670, bladder cancer £340). Conclusions Tobacco-related research funding is not related to burden of disease or level of risk. As a result certain diseases receive a disproportionately low level of research funding and disease prevention funding is even lower. PMID:27377637

  2. Addressing Global Change Issues Using Atmospheric Chemistry Observations from Space: Providing Measurements for the Recovery of the Ozone Layer, Climate, and Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, J.

    2008-05-01

    As we enter the second decade of the 21st century, there is a trilogy of major issues around which satellite observations of trace gases and aerosols can be classified. The first large-scale problem focuses on the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer, where satellites have a multi-decadal heritage of making important contributions to understanding the chemistry and dynamics of stratospheric ozone. The second aspect of this trilogy is the long-term build up of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols that affect climate, where relevant measurements include methane and the precursors to tropospheric ozone formation, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. Satellite observations during the past decade have provided new insight into both trends and interannual variability of key tropospheric trace gases. However, the last and the most challenging aspect of this trilogy deals with the capability to use space observations to observe and hopefully help mitigate the detrimental aspects of air pollution that result in widespread harm to human health and other biological systems. The recently released "Decadal Survey" by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) concurs with this philosophy and strongly encourages the use of satellite measurements for societal benefits. The NRC emphasized that if Earth scientists are to foster applications and extend the societal benefits of their work, they must also understand that satellite measurements need to be transformed into useful information that is understandable and meets the needs of being a tool for those who make decisions regarding air quality and policy-makers as well as for scientists, the traditional users of such measurements. Specifically, with respect to future atmospheric chemistry missions, the NRC (2007) recommended that a mission dedicated to the measurement of tropospheric trace gases from a geostationary satellite should be launched in the 2013-2016 timeframe (GEO-CAPE, Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution

  3. Special Issue of Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Education (Washington D.C.), 1986

    1986-01-01

    This special issue contains teaching strategies and suggestions for health-related activities at all educational levels. A few of the topics addressed by the 21 articles are heart disease, testicular cancer, hospital stress, family life, and sexual responsibility. (MT)

  4. Work-related stress and bullying: gender differences and forensic medicine issues in the diagnostic procedure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV). Results After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service), the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder). Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females) suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65%) of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders. Conclusions At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors) than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work. PMID:22088163

  5. Hospital Malnutrition Related to Fasting and Underfeeding: Is It an Ethical Issue?

    PubMed

    Arenas Moya, Diego; Plascencia Gaitán, Alejandra; Ornelas Camacho, Denisse; Arenas Márquez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a relevant clinical issue present in about 50% of patients that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Because of the relation of malnutrition with chronic and acute inflammatory processes secondary to disease, nutrition therapy is considered an important medical treatment. However, there is little discussion about the impact of another critical issue related to hospital malnutrition, that is, lack of appropriate food or nutrition therapy given to the patients. Unnecessary fasting practices and the use of inappropriate nutrition prescriptions result in underfeeding that can be a related or direct cause of hospital malnutrition, independent of disease or inflammatory state. Suboptimal prescription of oral, enteral, and parenteral nutrition should be analyzed and discussed from an ethical perspective since this practice has the potential to harm patients. In addition, absence or inadequate provision of nutrition may present barriers for improved patient outcomes and could be prevented by simply recognizing lack of knowledge, skills, or experience in nutrition and entrusting nutrition prescription to interdisciplinary teams with clinicians well prepared in nutrition sciences. This article reviews potential barriers to the prevention or treatment of hospital malnutrition and proposes specific actions that can help clinicians to overcome and implement optimal nutrition not just as medical therapy but also as a basic comfort care that may help patients nutritionally, clinically, physically, and emotionally. PMID:27208012

  6. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  7. Experiences and Issues Related to the Format of Bilingual Tests: Dual Language Test Booklets versus Two Different Test Booklets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    This report, requested by the Massachusetts Department of Education, addresses the issue of the format of native language assessments of students' educational achievement. There are two basic options when administering a translation or adaptation of a test in another language: one is to produce test booklets in both languages and then determine…

  8. Some critical issues and concerns related to research advances on toxicology of chemical mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, R S

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the issues and concerns on research advances on the toxicology of chemical mixtures. Emphases will be selectively given to the following questions and answers: Can mechanistic studies be conducted on chemical mixtures? The fact that any studies, including mechanistic studies, of single chemicals are really the study of the parent chemical plus its metabolites underscores the relevance of mechanistic studies on chemical mixtures. Can predictions be made on the health effects of chemical mixtures? Some successes are already evident in the literature on simpler chemical mixtures. For more complex mixtures, it is possible and we propose an approach here. What can we learn from other disciplines (the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration)? Two aspects, the knowledge and methodologies available in clinical pharmacology and the latest advances in structure-oriented lumping in chemical engineering, are discussed in detail. Unrepeatable results: The possibility of magnification of biologic variability because of low-level exposures to chemical mixtures is suggested with special reference to some known examples, including the controversial study on synergistic interactions of endocrine disruptors. Is the driving force for scientific investigations on chemical mixtures the legislative and regulatory atmosphere? Two laws with chemical mixtures specifically in the language are quoted and discussed. Their implications regarding research funding and activities are described. What are the pitfalls of applying for research funding on investigating chemical mixtures? The dilemma at least one investigator faces in pursuing research funding is elaborated. The questions and issues listed above are not all inclusive, but they represent some of the aspects that need to be brought into the open in the scientific community for discussion and/or debate. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to provide some momentum for the beginning of a fruitful

  9. Environmental, health and safety issues related to commercializing CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowtiz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    Photovoltaics technology is rapidly evolving towards a new generation of low-cost thin film technologies. One of the most promising materials in this new generation is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental, health and safety issues, including consideration of the sources, usage, and end-of-product-life disposal and/or recycling of the constituent materials. This work focuses on three specific environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to CIS PV: (1) economics are analyzed to determine their impact on materials use and re-use; (2) Federal and California State environmental disposal and waste handling regulations are analyzed to evaluate their impact on PV module manufacturing and end-of-life module handling; and (3) the logistics and economics of product recycling and waste disposal by industries with comparable EH and S issues are examined to quantify the corresponding options available for handling, disposing of and/or recycling manufacturing by-products and end-of-life modules.

  10. Time-related degradation, a key issue in nuclear plant safety evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Bustard, L.D.; Clough, R.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a number of programs under NRC sponsorship which deal with safety-related equipment qualification issues, including the important aspect of aging. Among these is the Qualification Testing Evaluation (QTE) program which was probably the first to devote significant effort towards aging research and was one of the primary motivators leading to the Workshop. The thrust of the QTE aging efforts has been on elastomeric materials, typically used in electrical cables, seals, gaskets, and the like; currently, efforts are being pursued on plant ambient environments measurements, aging of electronics, and aging of motors. A brief status report is presented in this paper.

  11. Economic and demographic issues related to deployment of the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Hill, L. G.; Santini, D. J.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Growth in energy consumption stimulated interest in exploitation of renewable sources of electric energy. One technology that was proposed is the Satellite Power System (SPS). Before committing the U.S. to such a large program, the Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are jointly participating in an SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This white paper on industrial and population relocation is part of the FY 78 preliminary evaluation of related socio-economic issues. Results of four preliminary assessment activities are documented.

  12. Addressing Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

  13. Perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an intractable disease

    PubMed Central

    Imahashi, Kumiko; Fukatsu, Reiko; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Ito, Tateo; Horigome, Mariko; Haruna, Yuichiro; Noda, Tatsuya; Itoyama, Yasuto

    2016-01-01

    Summary A number of persons with an intractable disease (ID) experience work-related problems that could lead to job loss. The aim of this study was to ascertain perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an ID. Potential participants were people ages 15 to 64 with one of the 130 intractable chronic diseases designated in the Act to Comprehensively Support the Daily and Social Activities of Persons with Disabilities (Comprehensive Support for the Disabled Act). Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. With the assistance of patients' organizations, 3,000 questionnaires were mailed to potential participants. Questions included demographic characteristics, family concerns, employment/supported employment, work accommodations, and other aspects of life. Responses were received from 889 (29.6%) participants, and respondents had 57 IDs. Forty-six-point-seven percent of respondents reported being unemployed due to fatigue and/or long-term treatment. Nearly half of the unemployed respondents reported that they had been unable to work despite their willingness to do so. Common requests for accommodation included flexible work hours, working at home, and job/workplace modifications. Only 30% of respondents knew about job training programs and supported work available for persons with disabilities. The results of the study are relevant for employees, employers, and occupational health/human resource professionals. The issue of reasonable accommodations for persons with an ID needs to be addressed in future research in order to promote continued work by those persons. PMID:27672543

  14. Risk assessment related to veterinary biologicals: specific issues in developing nations.

    PubMed

    Ward, D E

    1995-12-01

    The author reviews both technical and socio-economic issues in developing nations, in relation to veterinary biologicals. Health risk assessment is a specific process to estimate the likelihood that animals, humans or ecological systems will be affected adversely by a chemical or physical agent, or biological product, under a specific set of conditions. Some technical issues (quality assurance, good manufacturing practice, education of end-users, field monitoring) apply equally well in developed, industrialised and in developing, pre-industrialised nations. Many regions have documented unique diseases (trypanosomosis, tick diseases, theileriosis) or high disease prevalence which may influence risk assessment results. This emphasises the need for scientifically-valid risk assessment methodologies in developing nations. Developing nations also have various socio-economic concerns, which may not be based on scientific fact but, nonetheless, affect trade in, and use of, veterinary biologicals. These non-scientific but perceived problems and issues are briefly discussed, and possible solutions are presented. The way in which countries deal with such perceived problems and issues in a context of internationally harmonised norms for risk assessment impinges on livestock farmers in developing nations. Finally, the author presents possible ways to correct the potentially widening cost gap between conventional, proven veterinary biologicals and newly-developed products. The results of risk assessment of veterinary biologicals influence risk management in both developed and less-developed nations. It is important to agree upon scientifically-based risk management guidelines which may be applied in all countries. The effect of the agreements of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on trade in veterinary biologicals in developing nations is reviewed.

  15. 75 FR 62514 - Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies AGENCY... Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE discusses existing trends, consensus, and potential best practices emerging as States use or adapt existing legal regimes...

  16. 17 CFR 230.488 - Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business combination transactions. 230.488 Section... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Investment Companies; Business Development Companies § 230.488 Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business...

  17. Addressing Pre-Service Teachers' Understandings and Difficulties with Some Core Concepts in the Special Theory of Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and…

  18. Sociology, Music Education, and Social Change: The Prospect of Addressing Their Relations by Attending to Some Central, Expanded Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Studies on sociology and music education are important because they can enlighten how music education relates to social change. By studying how music education changes and is changed by society we enable ourselves to describe how it can contribute to the understanding of social change generally. This may lay the ground for us in contributing to…

  19. Conformational analysis of a polyconjugated protein-binding ligand by joint quantum chemistry and polarizable molecular mechanics. Addressing the issues of anisotropy, conjugation, polarization, and multipole transferability.

    PubMed

    Goldwaser, Elodie; de Courcy, Benoit; Demange, Luc; Garbay, Christiane; Raynaud, Françoise; Hadj-Slimane, Reda; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Gresh, Nohad

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the conformational properties of a potent inhibitor of neuropilin-1, a protein involved in cancer processes and macular degeneration. This inhibitor consists of four aromatic/conjugated fragments: a benzimidazole, a methylbenzene, a carboxythiourea, and a benzene-linker dioxane, and these fragments are all linked together by conjugated bonds. The calculations use the SIBFA polarizable molecular mechanics procedure. Prior to docking simulations, it is essential to ensure that variations in the ligand conformational energy upon rotations around its six main-chain torsional bonds are correctly represented (as compared to high-level ab initio quantum chemistry, QC). This is done in two successive calibration stages and one validation stage. In the latter, the minima identified following independent stepwise variations of each of the six main-chain torsion angles are used as starting points for energy minimization of all the torsion angles simultaneously. Single-point QC calculations of the minimized structures are then done to compare their relative energies ΔE conf to the SIBFA ones. We compare three different methods of deriving the multipoles and polarizabilities of the central, most critical moiety of the inhibitor: carboxythiourea (CTU). The representation that gives the best agreement with QC is the one that includes the effects of the mutual polarization energy E pol between the amide and thioamide moieties. This again highlights the critical role of this contribution. The implications and perspectives of these findings are discussed.

  20. Combat veterans, mental health issues, and the death penalty: addressing the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Giardino, Anthony E

    2009-05-01

    More than 1.5 million Americans have participated in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past seven years. Some of these veterans have subsequently committed capital crimes and found themselves in our nation's criminal justice system. This Essay argues that combat veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury at the time of their offenses should not be subject to the death penalty.Offering mitigating evidence regarding military training, post-traumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury presents one means that combat veterans may use to argue for their lives during the sentencing phase of their trials. Alternatively, Atkins v. Virginia and Roper v. Simmons offer a framework for establishing a legislatively or judicially created categorical exclusion for these offenders, exempting them from the death penalty as a matter of law. By understanding how combat service and service-related injuries affect the personal culpability of these offenders, the legal system can avoid the consequences of sentencing to death America's mentally wounded warriors, ensuring that only the worst offenders are subject to the ultimate punishment.

  1. Information and issues related to the quantification of environmental externalities for new powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Callaway, J.M.; Glantz, C.S.; Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.

    1990-10-01

    This report provides background information for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its efforts to quantify the environmental externalities associated with new electricity resources. A more detailed companion document has been provided to Bonneville for internal use. This report defines what is meant by externalities, particularly in the context of electricity resources. It outlines the economics issues associated with assigning an economic value, such as cents per kilowatt hour, to the residual environmental impacts of electricity powerplants. It examines two generic theoretical approaches for estimating such values and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The report also addresses the need to include relevant stages in the fuel cycle in estimating the costs of externalities. The fuel-cycle concept is defined and its importance is discussed. The approaches used by several states to quantify externalities are described. A review of the valuation efforts of various states and utilities indicates that three states have actually developed methodologies for assigning economic values to externalities. Information that Bonneville may need to request from resource developers to quantify externalities is discussed, and an appendix presents suggested forms for obtaining the required information. Summary information also is presented on models for analyzing the dispersion of powerplant plumes for the purpose of estimating environmental externality costs. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Shock tube investigation of hydrodynamic issues related to inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. H.; Puranik, B. P.; Oakley, J. G.; Brooks, P. W.; Bonazza, R.

    A shock tube investigation of two hydrodynamic issues related to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is undertaken. ICF is a promising source of energy for the future. There has been a considerable increase in the interest in ICF with the development of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). However, much remains to be investigated before a useful yield is obtained from a fusion reaction for power generation. The physics involved in carrying out a fusion reaction combines hydrodynamics, plasma physics and radiation effects superimposed on each other, at extremely small scales, making the problem very complex. One such phenomenon occurring in the deuterium-tritium pellet implosion is the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occuring at each layer of the fuel which results in the mixing of the ablator with the fuel. This causes dilution of the fuel and reduces the yield of the reaction. Another issue is the impulsive loading of ICF reactor cooling tubes due to the shock wave produced as a result of the fusion reaction. These tubes must withstand the impulse of the shock wave. A shock tube provides an ideal environment to study these issues at large geometric scales with the isolation of hydrodynamics from other effects. A new vertical, square shock tube has been designed specifically for the purpose of studying these fluid flow phenomena from a fundamental point of view. The shock tube is vertical, with a large square inner cross-section and is designed to allow for the release of a M=5 shock into air at atmospheric pressure. In this paper, we describe the new shock tube and related instrumentation in detail and present a few preliminary results on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and shock-cylinder interactions.

  3. Quantitative transporter proteomics by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: addressing methodologic issues of plasma membrane isolation and expression-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vineet; Prasad, Bhagwat; Patilea, Gabriela; Gupta, Anshul; Salphati, Laurent; Evers, Raymond; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2015-02-01

    To predict transporter-mediated drug disposition using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, one approach is to measure transport activity and relate it to protein expression levels in cell lines (overexpressing the transporter) and then scale these to via in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE). This approach makes two major assumptions. First, that the expression of the transporter is predominantly in the plasma membrane. Second, that there is a linear correlation between expression level and activity of the transporter protein. The present study was conducted to test these two assumptions. We evaluated two commercially available kits that claimed to separate plasma membrane from other cell membranes. The Qiagen Qproteome kit yielded very little protein in the fraction purported to be the plasma membrane. The Abcam Phase Separation kit enriched the plasma membrane but did not separate it from other intracellular membranes. For the Abcam method, the expression level of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1/2B1 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) proteins in all subcellular fractions isolated from cells or human liver tissue tracked that of Na⁺-K⁺ ATPase. Assuming that Na⁺-K⁺ ATPase is predominantly located in the plasma membrane, these data suggest that the transporters measured are also primarily located in the plasma membrane. Using short hairpin RNA, we created clones of cell lines with varying degrees of OATP1B1 or BCRP expression level. In these clones, transport activity of OATP1B1 or BCRP was highly correlated with protein expression level (r² > 0.9). These data support the use of transporter expression level data and activity data from transporter overexpressing cell lines for IVIVE of transporter-mediated disposition of drugs.

  4. African American college students' health behaviors and perceptions of related health issues.

    PubMed

    Ford, D S; Goode, C R

    1994-03-01

    The authors identify specific health-related behaviors of African American college students and compare them with the students' perceptions of corresponding health issues. Among students surveyed, the rate of cigarette smoking (4%) was very low compared with smoking rates found in a national survey (14%); but alcohol consumption was relatively high (63%), although lower than the national average of 91%. More men than women smoked, but more women than men reported they drank alcoholic beverages. Most students (90.2%) said they did not usually eat breakfast, 73.6% reported that their diets were not nutritionally balanced, and the majority (55.4%) were not involved in daily physical activity. More than half (63%) of the students reported satisfactorily handling stress, and 74.1% indicated that they were sexually active. Respondents perceived the most important health issues facing college students as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), birth control, date rape, stress management, suicide, and alcohol and other drugs. PMID:8201133

  5. Issues related to the use of blood in food and animal feed.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Jack A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2014-01-01

    Blood has traditionally been used as a high protein ingredient in both human food and animal feed, with resulting economic, environmental and nutritional benefits. However, potentially serious health and safety issues related to blood consumption, particularly the risk of pathogenic or harmful metabolic materials, the infectivity of prion diseases, and the presence of identified allergens such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), are causing many consumers to shy away from any product containing either animal blood or ingredients derived from animal blood. Thus, despite the significant volumes of blood produced by slaughterhouses, blood is currently underutilized as a food ingredient. This article reviews the use of animal blood as an ingredient in food intended for human consumption or for animal feed and discusses the related consumer concerns.

  6. The Alcohol Improvement Programme: Evaluation of an Initiative to Address Alcohol-Related Health Harm in England

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Betsy; MacGregor, Susanne; Godfrey, Christine; Herring, Rachel; Lloyd, Charlie; Tchilingirian, Jordan; Toner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The evaluation aimed to assess the impact of The Alcohol Improvement Programme (AIP). This was a UK Department of Health initiative (April 2008–March 2011) aiming to contribute to the reduction of alcohol-related harm as measured by a reduction in the rate of increase in alcohol-related hospital admissions (ARHAs). Methods: The evaluation (March 2010–September 2011) used a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the impact of the AIP on ARHAs, to describe and assess the process of implementation, and to identify elements of the programme which might serve as a ‘legacy’ for the future. Results: There was no evidence that the AIP had an impact on reducing the rise in the rate of ARHAs. The AIP was successfully delivered, increased the priority given to alcohol-related harm on local policy agendas and strengthened the infrastructure for the delivery of interventions. Conclusion: Although there was no measurable short-term impact on the rise in the rate of ARHAs, the AIP helped to set up a strategic response and a delivery infrastructure as a first, necessary step in working towards that goal. There are a number of valuable elements in the AIP which should be retained and repackaged to fit into new policy contexts. PMID:23729674

  7. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Gore, M S

    1997-07-01

    In India, data from the decennial censuses have been the catalyst that has led researchers to identify social policy needs and craft programs to lower overall mortality rates, infant mortality rates, and fertility rates. A new demographic phenomenon that is being exposed by the data is the increase in life expectancy that will see large numbers of individuals surviving 15-20 years beyond age 60. This increased life expectancy will lead to an increased old age dependency ratio and will require reexamination of the issue of resources to meet the needs of the elderly. These needs are social and psychological as well as physical. Research is needed to predict the initial consequences of population aging within different states. International comparisons within the Asian region will also foster identification of effective policies. Research is also needed to identify whether longevity is tied to higher educational and socioeconomic status in order to improve life expectancy among low-income groups. Another aspect that requires consideration is that most elderly women will likely survive their husbands. This means that they will be available to care for their husbands but will have to depend upon their children to care for them. The possible demographic diversity in the experience of aging among various states and classes and between the genders may be of special interest to researchers. PMID:12293130

  8. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    PubMed

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health. PMID:24479235

  9. Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance

  10. Grade, Pubertal Status, and Gender-Related Variations in Conflictual Issues among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Junior and senior high school students (N=279) completed measures of pubertal status, demographics, and Issues Checklist. Intensity of School Issues and Household Behavior Issues was greater among seventh and ninth graders than among eleventh graders. Self-Responsibility Issues were most intense among transpubertal adolescents. Boys perceived more…

  11. A meta-analysis of asbestos-related cancer risk that addresses fiber size and mineral type.

    PubMed

    Berman, D Wayne; Crump, Kenny S

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of the risk of lung cancer or mesothelioma in humans from asbestos exposure made by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) make use of estimates of potency factors based on phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) and obtained from cohorts exposed to asbestos in different occupational environments. These potency factors exhibit substantial variability. The most likely reasons for this variability appear to be differences among environments in fiber size and mineralogy not accounted for by PCM. In this article, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) models for asbestos-related lung cancer and mesothelioma are expanded to allow the potency of fibers to depend upon their mineralogical types and sizes. This is accomplished by positing exposure metrics composed of nonoverlapping fiber categories and assigning each category its own unique potency. These category-specific potencies are estimated in a meta-analysis that fits the expanded models to potencies for lung cancer (KL's) or mesothelioma (KM's) based on PCM that were calculated for multiple epidemiological studies in our previous paper (Berman and Crump, 2008). Epidemiological study-specific estimates of exposures to fibers in the different fiber size categories of an exposure metric are estimated using distributions for fiber size based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) obtained from the literature and matched to the individual epidemiological studies. The fraction of total asbestos exposure in a given environment respectively represented by chrysotile and amphibole asbestos is also estimated from information in the literature for that environment. Adequate information was found to allow KL's from 15 epidemiological studies and KM's from 11 studies to be included in the meta-analysis. Since the range of exposure metrics that could be considered was severely restricted by limitations in the published TEM fiber size distributions, it was decided to focus attention on four

  12. Uncovering Clinical Principles and Techniques to Address Minority Stress, Mental Health, and Related Health Risks Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men disproportionately experience depression, anxiety, and related health risks at least partially because of their exposure to sexual minority stress. This paper describes the adaptation of an evidence-based intervention capable of targeting the psychosocial pathways through which minority stress operates. Interviews with key stakeholders, including gay and bisexual men with depression and anxiety and expert providers, suggested intervention principles and techniques for improving minority stress coping. These principles and techniques are consistent with general cognitive behavioral therapy approaches, the empirical tenets of minority stress theory, and professional guidelines for LGB-affirmative mental health practice. If found to be efficacious, the psychosocial intervention described here would be one of the first to improve the mental health of gay and bisexual men by targeting minority stress. PMID:25554721

  13. Health-related quality of life in mucopolysaccharidosis: looking beyond biomedical issues.

    PubMed

    Hendriksz, Christian J; Berger, Kenneth I; Lampe, Christina; Kircher, Susanne G; Orchard, Paul J; Southall, Rebecca; Long, Sarah; Sande, Stephen; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2016-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) comprise a heterogeneous family of rare, genetic lysosomal storage disorders that result in severe morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Emerging treatments for several of these disorders have triggered the search for clinically relevant biomarkers and clinical markers associated with treatment efficacy in populations and individuals. However, biomedical measures do not tell the whole story when characterizing a complex chronic disorder such as MPS. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) tools that utilize patient reported outcomes to address patient parameters such as symptoms (pain, fatigue, psychological health), functioning (activity and limitations), or quality of life, have been used to supplement traditional biomedical endpoints. Many of these HRQoL tools have demonstrated that quality of life is negatively impacted in patients with MPS. There is both the opportunity and need to formally standardize and validate HRQoL tools for the different MPS disorders. PMID:27561270

  14. Proliferation resistance for fast reactors and related fuel cycles: issues and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power may depend to a significant degree on the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen proliferation resistance and nuclear materials accountability. The challenges for fast reactors and related fuel cycles are especially critical. They are being explored in the Generation IV Tnternational Forum (GIF) and the Tnternational Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) initiative, as well as by many states that are looking to these systems for the efficient lise of uranium resources and long-term energy security. How do any proliferation risks they may pose compare to other reactors, both existing and under development, and their fuel cycles? Can they be designed with intrinsic (technological) features to make these systems more proliferation resistant? What roles can extrinsic (institutional) features play in proliferation resistance? What are the anticipated safeguards requirements, and will new technologies and approaches need to be developed? How can safeguards be facilitated by the design process? These and other questions require a rethinking of proliferation resistance and the prospects for new technologies and other intrinsic and extrinsic features being developed that are responsive to specific issues for fast reactors and related fuel cycles and to the broader threat environment in which these systems will have to operate. There are no technologies that can wholly eliminate the risk of proliferation by a determined state, but technology and design can playa role in reducing state threats and perhaps in eliminating non-state threats. There will be a significant role for extrinsic factors, especially the various measures - from safeguards and physical protection to export controls - embodied in the international nuclear nonproliferation regime. This paper will offer

  15. Addressing Cyberbullying as a Media Literacy Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Christine Suniti; Chang, Shih-Hua; Linscott, Jamie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Asian region accounts for the highest number of internet and mobile cell phones consumers among the regions of the world. As the use of information and communications technology becomes more and more widespread, the misuse of such technology becomes a concern. Cyberbullying, or bullying using information and communications…

  16. Team Packs: Addressing Human Sexuality Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. for Child Health Policy.

    This kit provides materials that teach about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy using group instructional methodology to actively engage students in the learning process. Using cooperative learning materials and videotape recordings, the program stresses…

  17. Scientific Issues Addressed by the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourcki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Lissauer, J. J.; Jenkins, J. M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Kepler Mission uses a wide field-of-view telescope to photometrically monitor 100,000 main-sequence stars for evidence of planetary transits. Because of the large number of stars monitored and because the mission is designed with a precision (0.002%) sufficient to readily recognize Earth-size planets transiting solar-like stars, several hundred Earth-size planets should be found. Based on the the Dopper velocity observations that find 2% of the main-sequence stars have Jupiter-size planets in short-period orbits, the Kepler mission is also expected to detect about 2000 giant planets. Several questions about the association of planet types and stellar characteristics can be investigated. For example; Are small planets found when Jupiter-mass planets are also present in inner orbits? What is the frequency of small planets compared to Jupiter-mass planets? What is the frequency and distribution of planets intermediate in size and mass to that of Earth and Jupiter? What correlations exist between planet size, distribution, and frequency with the characteristics of the stars they orbit? A comparison between model predictions and observation should be a useful step in evolving better models of planetary system formation and help put the formation of our Solar System in perspective.

  18. Addressing endotoxin issues in bioengineered heparin.

    PubMed

    Suwan, Jiraporn; Torelli, Amanda; Onishi, Akihiro; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Heparin is a widely used clinical anticoagulant that is prepared from pig intestine. A contamination of heparin in 2008 has led to a reexamination of animal-derived pharmaceuticals. A bioengineered heparin prepared by bacterial fermentation and chemical and enzymatic processing is currently under development. This study examines the challenges of reducing or removing endotoxins associated with this process that are necessary to proceed with preclinical in vivo evaluation of bioengineered heparin. The current process is assessed for endotoxin levels, and strategies are examined for endotoxin removal from polysaccharides and enzymes involved in this process. PMID:23586950

  19. Review of cross-cultural issues related to quality of life after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, Denise; Forchheimer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population.

  20. Review of Cross-Cultural Issues Related to Quality of Life After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population. PMID:25484564

  1. Health-related biotechnology in Africa: managing the legislative and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Andanda, A P

    2007-01-01

    The challenges that most African countries face in an attempt to join the ongoing quest for the development and transfer of the products derived from health biotechnology are threefold: High research costs, inadequate regulatory capacity and unfavourable intellectual property arrangements. It is argued in this paper that these challenges are representative of the legislative and regulatory issues that require proper management in order to enable African countries to focus on the key research areas that are related to the burden of diseases that are prevalent in the region and to harness the products of such research for the benefit of the region. This paper discusses the challenges involved in managing the legislative and regulatory issues in health biotechnology and proposes specific ideas on the way forward for Africa. The methodology used is a review of the manner in which three African countries, Cameroon, Kenya and Nigeria, have encountered and dealt with such regulatory challenges. The review is carried out from policy and legal analysis perspectives.

  2. Review of cross-cultural issues related to quality of life after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, Denise; Forchheimer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population. PMID:25484564

  3. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety

    PubMed Central

    Ekor, Martins

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

  4. Social Security and Undergraduates with Disabilities: An Analysis of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey. Addressing Trends in Development in Secondary Education and Transition. Information Brief. Vol. 3, Issue 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Hugh; Conway, Megan A.; Change, Kelly B.T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this brief is to describe the characteristics of undergraduate students receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Social Security Administration (SSI) benefits as they relate to issues of participation in postsecondary education and employment. This brief describes results from the National Postsecondary Student Aid…

  5. Metallomics integrated with proteomics in deciphering metal-related environmental issues.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Macarena; García-Barrera, Tamara; Arias-Borrego, Ana; Jurado, Juan; Pueyo, Carmen; López-Barea, Juan; Gómez-Ariza, Jose L

    2009-10-01

    The present work shows the possibilities of metallomics to characterize metal-linking proteins in Mus Musculus that could be used in environmental assessment. The laboratory mouse M. musculus is used as reference of gene/protein sequence databases to address methodological approaches based on changes in transcripts regulation, proteins expression and metalloproteins profiles in the environmental bioindicator Mus spretus that has been demonstrated to be genetically homologous to M. Musculus. A metallomic approach using size exclusion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detection (SEC-ICP-MS) was applied to cytosolic extracts from different M. musculus organs: lung, liver, spleen, kidney, brain, testicle, hearth and muscle. The resulting profiles of metallobiomolecules revealed the presence of a Cu-binding fraction in the 7-10 kDa range which was not present in the other tissues, can be associated to low molecular mass metallothionein-like proteins. The application of reverse phase chromatography with ICP-MS detection to this fraction gives two peaks that have been isolated for later identification by tandem mass spectrometry. The mass balance of copper evaluated by ICP-MS analysis of the digested brain fractions isolated by SEC and RP chromatography reveals good recoveries of the separations. The application of 2-DE to both crude brain extract and SEC fraction (7-10 kDa) reveals the considerably reduction of the number of proteins confirming that a good purification has been attained by SEC. This integration of metallomics with proteomics and transcriptomics can be useful in further studies involving the free-living mouse M. spretus for assessment of environmental issues.

  6. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits. PMID:19197587

  7. Approach and issues relating to shield material design to protect astronauts from space radiation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Cucinotta, F A; Miller, J; Shinn, J L; Thibeault, S A; Singleterry, R C; Simonsen, L C; Kim, M H

    2001-10-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human spaceflight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle (SEP) events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since the missions are of long duration and the accumulated exposures can be high. Since aluminum (traditionally used in spacecraft to avoid potential radiation risks) leads to prohibitively expensive mission launch costs, alternative materials need to be explored. An overview of the materials related issues and their impact on human space exploration will be given. PMID:12194183

  8. Approach and Issues Relating to Shield Material Design to Protect Astronauts from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Miller, J.; Shinn, J. L.; Thibeault, S. A.; Singleterry, R. C.; Simonsen, L. C.; Kim, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human spaceflight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle (SEP) events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since the missions are of long duration and the accumulated exposures can be high. Since aluminum (traditionally used in spacecraft to avoid potential radiation risks) leads to prohibitively expensive mission launch costs, alternative materials need to be explored. An overview of the materials related issues and their impact on human space exploration will be given.

  9. Introduction to the special issue on ''relations between gambling and alcohol use''.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sherry H; Kushner, Matt G

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that gambling is an activity that is often combined with alcohol intake. Not only do the behaviors of drinking and gambling frequently co-occur, alcohol use disorders and pathological gambling are also commonly co-morbid conditions in both clinical and non-clinical samples. This article introduces a special issue of the Journal of Gambling Studies focusing on cutting edge findings on the relations between gambling and alcohol use behaviors and their associated disorders. We set the stage for the following series of six novel empirical papers and integrative commentary by reviewing the theoretical pathways through which alcohol use and gambling disorders may be linked. We conclude by describing some of the novel contributions of each of the empirical studies from within the context of these theoretical models.

  10. Issues related to symptomatic and disease-modifying treatments affecting cognitive and neuropsychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Kayal, Amy R; Bath, Kevin G; Berg, Anne T; Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Holmes, Gregory L; Jensen, Frances E; Kanner, Andres M; O'Brien, Terence J; Whittemore, Vicky H; Winawer, Melodie R; Patel, Manisha; Scharfman, Helen E

    2013-08-01

    Many symptoms of neurologic or psychiatric illness--such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, attention deficits, and migraine--occur more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population. These diverse comorbidities present an underappreciated problem for people with epilepsy and their caregivers because they decrease quality of life, complicate treatment, and increase mortality. In fact, it has been suggested that comorbidities can have a greater effect on quality of life in people with epilepsy than the seizures themselves. There is increasing recognition of the frequency and impact of cognitive and behavioral comorbidities of epilepsy, highlighted in the 2012 Institute of Medicine report on epilepsy. Comorbidities have also been acknowledged, as a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Benchmark area for research in epilepsy. However, relatively little progress has been made in developing new therapies directed specifically at comorbidities. On the other hand, there have been many advances in understanding underlying mechanisms. These advances have made it possible to identify novel targets for therapy and prevention. As part of the International League Against Epilepsy/American Epilepsy Society workshop on preclinical therapy development for epilepsy, our working group considered the current state of understanding related to terminology, models, and strategies for therapy development for the comorbidities of epilepsy. Herein we summarize our findings and suggest ways to accelerate development of new therapies. We also consider important issues to improve research including those related to methodology, nonpharmacologic therapies, biomarkers, and infrastructure.

  11. A system dynamic modeling approach for evaluating municipal solid waste generation, landfill capacity and related cost management issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng Huan; Yu Danlin

    2010-11-15

    As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework for Newark urban region in the US, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-processes that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity of the state, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by different waste processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.

  12. Information for Developing Countries: Definitions, Institutions and Issues. A Contribution towards Forming an Understanding of the Potential for Consultancy, Marketing and Training Related Activities. Kingston Polytechnic School of Information Systems Research Report 87-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, John

    This paper reports on the emerging market in information on development-related activities in terms of the European capacity in databases and information networking. The first of its two parts addresses issues that are emerging consequent to the introduction of information technology in developing countries. Problems of definition and interest in…

  13. Welcome address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    Mr Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen. It is a great honour to have the opportunity to say a few words before starting this symposium. First of all, on behalf of all members of the Advanced Science Research Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, I would like to express our great pleasure in welcoming all of you and in hosting the Third International Symposium on Advanced Science Research. The Advanced Science Research Center was established in 1993. Since then one of the most important functions assigned to this centre has been to promote and initiate basic research activities in atomic energy and related fields, in collaboration with scientists throughout our country as well as abroad. In view of the rapidly advancing frontiers of science and technology, and the increasing importance of international collaboration, I strongly felt that our centre should play a leading role in promoting scientific activities in a worldwide form. This is not only a give-and-take information exchange with the outside world but also we intend to promote harmony between different scientific cultures through the establishment of new programmes at our centre. As one action for the global promotion of our research activities, we have decided to host a series of international symposia on advances in various topics in fields of our interest. This we call the ‘Advance series of symposia’. The first such symposium was held on the subject of ‘neutron scattering research’ and the second, held in November 2001, on ‘heavy element research’, with great success. The present symposium is the third of this series. The size and format of each symposium will be chosen flexibly considering the nature of its topic. However, in all cases, in addition to promoting exchange of expert insights, we would like to encourage particularly young scientists to present papers in each symposium on their new results from the frontiers of science and technology, and to help them to get an

  14. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  15. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized.

  16. Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Historical, Ethical, and Legal Issues Associated With Prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Faiman, Beth; Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai Chandran; Benghiac, Ana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of many drugs are unknown. Established risks are communicated to patients who participate in clinical trials during the informed consent process. However, unknown and unanticipated side effects of medications may occur years after treatment. Patients with metastatic bone cancer experience an imbalance between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Increased cytokine release, osteoclastic activity, and uncoupled osteoblastic activity lead to weakened bone structure and osteolytic lesions. The bisphosphonates are a class of drugs available in IV and oral formulations to treat and prevent bone loss and decrease the risk of skeletal-related events. Intravenous bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid and pamidronate disodium are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bone pain and hypercalcemia of malignancy and the prevention of painful bone fractures in patients with metastatic bone cancer. Oral bisphosphonates such as alendronate, risedronate, and etidronate are used to reduce the risk of skeletal fractures in patients with osteoporosis and in breast cancer. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare but painful complication of treatment characterized by infection, exposed bone, and poor wound healing. In this article, we discuss BRONJ and identify past, present, and future ethical and legal issues surrounding bisphosphonate administration. PMID:25031978

  17. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized. PMID:27573502

  18. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  19. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  20. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  1. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  2. Quality and safety issues related to traditional animal medicine: role of taurine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calculus Bovis (:C.Bovis) is one of the most precious and commonly-used medicinal materials in Japan and China. As the natural occurrence is very rare, a source of supply for C. Bovis is far behind the actual need and great efforts have been taken for some substitutes of natural C. Bovis. Unfortunately, very little information is available on the quality and/or clinical efficacy of medication based on C. Bovis. To ensure sustainable use of traditional therapeutic agents derived from C. Bovis, we felt that several issues needed to be addressed: 1) the source of the C. Bovis materials and quality control; 2) the role of taurine in the efficacy of C. Bovis. Methods Nine samples of natural C. Bovis and its substitutes were collected. ICP-MS was used for elemental analysis and the characterization was performed by principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) as multivariate approaches. The efficacy of C. Bovis was evaluated for morphology, viability and beating pattern on cultured cardiac myocytes and/or fibroblasts. Results PCA and multi-elemental focus was effective in discriminating C. Bovis samples derived from different habitats. A satisfactory classification using SIMCA was obtained among Australia C. Bovis, other habitats and the substitutes. Australian samples had better batch uniformity than other habitats and were composed of fewer elements. We have used Australian C. Bovis for assessment on its bioactive compounds. Rat cardiac cells incubated with C. Bovis extract (0.01-0.1mg/ml) maintained normal morphology, viability and beating pattern. Cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts treated for 48 h with CA (0.5mM) or DCA (0.1mM) caused cell injury, as reflected by changes in appearance and a reduction of viability detected by the MTS assay. In cardiomyocytes, 0.5 h exposure of CA (0.5mM) markedly decreased the velocity ratio of beating, whereas the simultaneous addition of 1 mM taurine largely prevented the

  3. Vocational technical and adult education: Status, trends and issues related to electronic delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, D.

    1973-01-01

    Data are analyzed, and trends and issues are discussed to provide information useful to the systems designer who wishes to identify and assess the opportunities for large scale electronic delivery in vocational/technical and adult education. Issues connected with vocational/technical education are investigated, with emphasis on those issues in the current spotlight which are relevant to the possibilities of electronic delivery. The current role of media is examined in vocational/technical instruction.

  4. ADDRESSES ADAPTED FROM THE 24TH ANNUAL INSTITUTE OF RACE RELATIONS (FISK UNIVERSITY, AMISTAD RESEARCH CENTER AND RACE RELATIONS DEPARTMENT, NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHERRY, P.H., ED.

    THIS JOURNAL CONTAINS SPEECHES ON RACE RELATIONS AND THE NEGRO'S STRUGGLE FOR POLITICAL POWER. WHITNEY YOUNG DISCUSSES "THE SEARCH FOR LIBERALS" WHO WILL NOT BACK DOWN WHEN CONFRONTED BY ANGRY NEGRO DEMANDS FOR INDEPENDENCE AND EQUALITY. BAYARD RUSTIN ANALYZES TRENDS IN THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT AND CONCLUDES THAT THE MOVEMENT'S CURRENT FOCUS IS…

  5. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Zweibel, K. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Xylitol: a review on bioproduction, application, health benefits, and related safety issues.

    PubMed

    Ur-Rehman, Salim; Mushtaq, Zarina; Zahoor, Tahir; Jamil, Amir; Murtaza, Mian Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Xylitol is a pentahydroxy sugar-alcohol which exists in a very low quantity in fruits and vegetables (plums, strawberries, cauliflower, and pumpkin). On commercial scale, xylitol can be produced by chemical and biotechnological processes. Chemical production is costly and extensive in purification steps. However, biotechnological method utilizes agricultural and forestry wastes which offer the possibilities of economic production of xylitol by reducing required energy. The precursor xylose is produced from agricultural biomass by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and can be converted to xylitol primarily by yeast strain. Hydrolysis under acidic condition is the more commonly used practice influenced by various process parameters. Various fermentation process inhibitors are produced during chemical hydrolysis that reduce xylitol production, a detoxification step is, therefore, necessary. Biotechnological xylitol production is an integral process of microbial species belonging to Candida genus which is influenced by various process parameters such as pH, temperature, time, nitrogen source, and yeast extract level. Xylitol has application and potential for food and pharmaceutical industries. It is a functional sweetener as it has prebiotic effects which can reduce blood glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol level. This review describes recent research developments related to bioproduction of xylitol from agricultural wastes, application, health, and safety issues.

  7. Efficacy of combining interview techniques in detecting deception related to bio-threat issues.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Charles A; Rabinowitz, Yaron; Leidy, Robert; Coric, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess the detecting deception efficacy of three well-validated "detecting deception" methods - i.e., forced choice testing (FCT), modified cognitive interviewing (MCI) and autobiographical implicit association testing (aIAT) - when applied to the issue of bio-threat. The detecting deception accuracies of FCT and MCI were 81% and 75%, respectively. Although the aIAT mean response times in block 5 differed significantly between deceptive and truthful persons, the classification accuracy was low. FCT alone reduced the group of 64 persons to 11 and detected 50% of the liars; the false positive rate was 9%. MCI alone reduced the group of 64 to 24 and detected 92% of the liars; the false positive rate was 54%. When FCT was paired with MCI, 75% of liars were detected and the false positive rate was 13%. Forced choice testing and MCI show promise as methods for detecting deception related to bio-threat under low-base-rate conditions. These methods took little time, enhanced the odds of detecting deceptive individuals and exhibited high positive likelihood ratios, suggesting that they have merit as screening tools. The aIAT required more time and was less accurate but may still serve as a useful screening tool. PMID:24549687

  8. Dietary acculturation and health-related issues of Indian immigrant families in Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Sujja; Moore-Orr, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Traditional Indian diets are high in grains, vegetables and fruits, and in this respect are substantially in accord with Canada s Food Guide to Healthy Eating. Adopting North American eating patterns carries potential health risks. In this study we explored migration-associated changes in eating patterns, lifestyle practices, and health-related issues of Indian immigrants and their families in Newfoundland. A cross-sectional survey employing a self-administered mailed questionnaire was conducted. A random sample of 132 subjects aged ten to 65+ took part. Participants were well established in Newfoundland and almost all were fluent in English. They were somewhat acculturated to foods commonly eaten in Canada. The majority reported that they were very or somewhat likely to engage in healthy lifestyle practices, and most (73%) wanted more relevant nutrition information. Consumption of grains, vegetables, and fruits was not in accordance with Canada s Food Guide to Healthy Eating. Sixty-five percent of participants reported that traditional Indian foods were not readily available, and 72% indicated a change in food-preparation methods. Studies of diverse ethnic groups are needed to guide effective nutrition education programs. University curricula and dietetic training programs should include cross-cultural courses to increase awareness of immigrants unique needs.

  9. Human factors in firefighting: ergonomic-, cardiopulmonary-, and psychogenic stress-related issues.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, T L

    1992-01-01

    There are many issues in firefighting that involve human factors and cardiopulmonary conditioning. Population-based mortality and disability surveillance studies suggest a relatively small but significant excess of disability but not mortality from nonmalignant cardiovascular disease for firefighters. More targeted cohort and case-control studies do not support such an excess and instead suggest a strong healthy worker effect. Pulmonary function among firefighters has been extensively studied, with contradictory findings. Extreme exposures and long-term exposure in combination with cigarette smoking may be risk factors for respiratory disorders and accelerated decline in airflow. It appears likely that individual firefighters who show early signs of illness are often selectively transferred out of active firefighting positions. Despite exposure to substances such as carbon monoxide that may predispose to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, excesses are not consistently shown in mortality studies. Clinical studies of individual firefighters do suggest an elevated risk for myocardial ischemia. The ergonomic demands of firefighting are extreme at peak activity because of high energy costs for activities such as climbing aerial ladders, the positive heat balance from endogenous and absorbed environmental heat, and encumbrance by bulky but necessary protective equipment. The psychological stresses of firefighting include long periods of relative inactivity punctuated by highly stressful alarms and extremely stressful situations such as rescues, as reflected in physiological and biochemical indicators. Firefighters are at risk for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, although morale overall is generally much higher than in comparable occupations. Women firefighter candidates as a group perform less well on selection test simulating the demands of active firefighting, but some individual women perform very well.

  10. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject. PMID:15504704

  11. Some issues relating to the use of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) samples as reference standards.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Gilles; Chittim, Brock; McAlees, Alan; McCrindle, Robert; Riddell, Nicole; Yeo, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Samples of potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOSK) from three suppliers were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS for purity and by LC-ESI-MS for the percentage of linear isomer present. Our data indicated that the purity ranged from 80% to 98% and the percentages of linear isomer from 67% to 79%. The proportion of branched isomers present in the samples was also estimated using (19)F NMR. These results agreed quite closely with those found by LC-ESI-MS indicating that there is essentially no difference in overall SIM response factor for the branched isomers vs. that of the linear isomer. Several further observations relevant to the use of standards when analyzing for PFOS were encountered during this study. It appears unlikely that matrix effects attributable to the cation (sodium or potassium) present in PFOSNa or PFOSK internal standards is an issue. In seeking potential matrix effects, it was found that the chromatography was improved substantially when the standard was injected as a solution in 80:20 methanol/water rather than 100% methanol. Notably, in concert with the improvement in chromatography, an increase of about 10% in response was observed. In some closely related studies, when (18)O(2) mass-labeled perfluorohexanesulfonate was used as an internal standard, the actual and theoretical concentration ratios matched closely those for related native sulfonates as long as they did not co-elute. However, when they did co-elute, the peak intensities of the native species were enhanced by about 5%, while those of the labeled compound were suppressed by a similar amount. If this effect were not taken into account, the concentration of the native would be inflated by 10%.

  12. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject.

  13. The importance for the MDG4 and MDG5 of addressing reproductive health issues during the second decade of life: review and analysis from times series data of 51 African countries.

    PubMed

    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate

    2011-06-01

    Addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health issues are central to efforts for reducing childhood and maternal mortality embedded in MDG4 and MDG5. This paper reviews these issues in Africa and uses statistical methods for measuring changes to analyze recent and comparable time series data from 51 African countries. The contribution of adolescent fertility to total fertility and mortality remains quite high. Delayed marriage is occurring concomitantly with postponement of sexual debut among unmarried adolescents. Six African countries are likely to achieve the MGD4 and five are likely to reach the target for the MDG5; the majority of sub-Saharan African countries will fall short of achieving these goals, not even by 2100 for many at current rates of change in progress indicators. Implementing ground-breaking nationally owned mortality-reduction schemes covering preconceptional and interconceptional periods and well-functioning comprehensive health-care system secured by sustained commitments and financial investments in health and social services are urgently needed, in order to repeal trends of further undoing successes achieved so far or slowing recent progress, thus hastening the pace of child and maternal mortality decline. PMID:22590890

  14. Current Issues Related to Associate Degree Nursing: Their Impact on Directors, Faculty, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavenar, Mary G.

    Perceptions of students, faculty members, and associate degree nursing (ADN) program directors/coordinators concerning seven issues affecting ADN programs were obtained in 1982. The issues, which were identified through a review of the literature, were: entry into practice, professional and technical nurses, developing competency statements,…

  15. What some African development plans say on population related issues in development.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This discussion reviews what development plans say about population related issues in development in the countries of Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Senegal, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia Democratic Republic, Sudan, The United Republic of Cameroon, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Botswana's 1970-73 development plan recognized the need to have fewer children who would be better fed, well clothed, properly housed, and better educated. The government set a target of population growth not to exceed 2.5% for the 1970-80 period. The government of Kenya has expressed much concern about population growth and is devoted to continuing and strengthening the official family planning program instituted in 1967. Lesotho's 1980-81 to 1984-85 development plan emphasizes the need to enhance the well-being of the rural population. The orientation of the health sector strategy is towards primary health care, health education, family planning, water supply, sanitation, and nutrition. Nigeria's 1975-80 plan indicates that demographic factors do not appear as yet to constitute a significant or serious obstacle to domestic economic progress. The objective of the Ivory Coast's 1976-80 plan for economic, social, and cultural development is to increase population since the Ivory Coast still seems to be an underpopulated country. The 1979-83 National Development Plan of Seychelles includes the following objectives: to remedy the housing problem, to achieve full employment, and to introduce responsible family planning. Sierra Leone's development plan for 1974-75 to 1978-79 did not indicate a need to decrease population growth. Population variables in relation to development are not well articulated in the plan of the Somalia Democratic Republic. Like many other developing countries, Sudan's plan has objectives to improve all aspects of the standard of living. It recognizes the serious problem of absorbing a larger population in urban areas. In Tanzania family planning is

  16. Optically Addressable Silicon Vacancy-Related Spin Centers in Rhombic Silicon Carbide with High Breakdown Characteristics and ENDOR Evidence of Their Structure.

    PubMed

    Soltamov, V A; Yavkin, B V; Tolmachev, D O; Babunts, R A; Badalyan, A G; Davydov, V Yu; Mokhov, E N; Proskuryakov, I I; Orlinskii, S B; Baranov, P G

    2015-12-11

    We discovered a family of uniaxially oriented silicon vacancy-related centers with S=3/2 in a rhombic 15R-SiC crystalline matrix. We demonstrate that these centers exhibit unique characteristics such as optical spin alignment up to the temperatures of 250°C. Thus, the range of robust optically addressable vacancy-related spin centers is extended to the wide class of rhombic SiC polytypes. To use these centers for quantum applications it is essential to know their structure. Using high frequency electron nuclear double resonance, we show that the centers are formed by negatively charged silicon vacancies V_{Si}^{-} in the paramagnetic state with S=3/2 that is noncovalently bonded to the neutral carbon vacancy V_{C}^{0} in the nonparamagnetic state, located on the adjacent site along the SiC symmetry c axis. PMID:26705655

  17. Optically Addressable Silicon Vacancy-Related Spin Centers in Rhombic Silicon Carbide with High Breakdown Characteristics and ENDOR Evidence of Their Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltamov, V. A.; Yavkin, B. V.; Tolmachev, D. O.; Babunts, R. A.; Badalyan, A. G.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Mokhov, E. N.; Proskuryakov, I. I.; Orlinskii, S. B.; Baranov, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    We discovered a family of uniaxially oriented silicon vacancy-related centers with S =3 /2 in a rhombic 15 R -SiC crystalline matrix. We demonstrate that these centers exhibit unique characteristics such as optical spin alignment up to the temperatures of 250 °C . Thus, the range of robust optically addressable vacancy-related spin centers is extended to the wide class of rhombic SiC polytypes. To use these centers for quantum applications it is essential to know their structure. Using high frequency electron nuclear double resonance, we show that the centers are formed by negatively charged silicon vacancies VSi- in the paramagnetic state with S =3 /2 that is noncovalently bonded to the neutral carbon vacancy VC0 in the nonparamagnetic state, located on the adjacent site along the SiC symmetry c axis.

  18. An Issue Hiding in Plain Sight: When Are Speech-Language Pathologists Special Educators Rather than Related Services Providers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.; Prelock, Patricia A.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; as amended, 2004), speech-language pathology services may be either special education or a related service. Given the absence of guidance documents or research on this issue, the purposes of this clinical exchange are to (a) present and analyze the IDEA definitions related to…

  19. Ethical issues relating to the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes beyond the mere utilization of human tissues for the purpose of treatment. This tissue is also used in research studies: genetic studies, studies to evaluate the effectiveness of new antibiotics, studies to identify new proteins, etc. Meanwhile, others claim that the law and other norms for the functioning of cord banks are not consistent and are poorly defined. Some of these critics point out that the confidentiality of donor information is handled differently in different places. The fact that private cord banks offer their services as "biological insurance" in order to obtain informed consent by promising the parents that the tissue that will be stored insures the health of their child in the future raises the issue of whether the consent is freely given or given under coercion. Another consideration that must be made in relation to privately owned cord banks has to do with the ownership of the stored umbilical cord. Summary Conflicts between moral principles and economic interests (non-moral principles) cause dilemmas in the clinical practice of umbilical cord blood storage and use especially in privately owned banks. This article presents a reflection and some of the guidelines that must be followed by umbilical cord banks in order to deal with these conflicts. This reflection is based on the fundamental notions of ethics and public health and seeks to be a contribution towards the improvement of umbilical cord banks' performance. PMID:19678958

  20. Statistical issues related to dietary intake as the response variable in intervention trials

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Raymond J.; Tooze, Janet A.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Freedman, Laurence S.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is dietary intervention trials. We explore the statistical issues involved when the response variable, intake of a food or nutrient, is based on self‐report data that are subject to inherent measurement error. There has been little work on handling error in this context. A particular feature of self‐reported dietary intake data is that the error may be differential by intervention group. Measurement error methods require information on the nature of the errors in the self‐report data. We assume that there is a calibration sub‐study in which unbiased biomarker data are available. We outline methods for handling measurement error in this setting and use theory and simulations to investigate how self‐report and biomarker data may be combined to estimate the intervention effect. Methods are illustrated using data from the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Intervention in the Elderly, in which the intervention was a sodium‐lowering diet and the response was sodium intake. Simulations are used to investigate the methods under differential error, differing reliability of self‐reports relative to biomarkers and different proportions of individuals in the calibration sub‐study. When the reliability of self‐report measurements is comparable with that of the biomarker, it is advantageous to use the self‐report data in addition to the biomarker to estimate the intervention effect. If, however, the reliability of the self‐report data is low compared with that in the biomarker, then, there is little to be gained by using the self‐report data. Our findings have important implications for the design of dietary intervention trials. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27324170