Science.gov

Sample records for addressed specific areas

  1. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  2. Addressing the Mathematics-Specific Needs of Beginning Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Beginning mathematics teachers at the secondary level (middle and high school grades) have mathematics-specific needs that induction programs should address more substantially. However, a number of issues in how programs can accomplish this are more complex than often framed in discussions occurring in the induction programs and the field of…

  3. Addressing dual agency: getting specific about the expectations of professionalism.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    Professionalism requires that physicians uphold the best interests of patients while simultaneously insuring just use of health care resources. Current articulations of these obligations like the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation's Physician Charter do not reconcile how these obligations fit together when they conflict. This is the problem of dual agency. The most common ways of dealing with dual agency: "bunkering"--physicians act as though societal cost issues are not their problem; "bailing"--physicians assume that they are merely agents of society and deliver care typically based on a strongly consequentialist public health ethic; or "balancing"--a vaguely specified attempt to uphold both patient welfare and societal need for judicious resource use simultaneously--all fail. Here I propose how the problem of dual agency might begin to be addressed with rigor and consistency. Without dealing with the dual agency problem and getting more specific about how to reconcile its norms when they conflict, the expectations of professionalism risk being written off as cute, nonbinding aphorisms from the medical profession. PMID:25127273

  4. Software programs that address site-specific inventory characteristics issues.

    SciTech Connect

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    The proper characterization of Hazardous, Mixed Low-Level, and Mixed Transuranic waste enhances productivity and safety. Hazardous material criteria that need to be considered include physical and health hazards inherent to the waste stream. Other factors that may influence characterization include: particulate diameter, complexing or chelating agent properties, lead, and mercury content, pressurized containers, and P-listed wastes. To meet these requirements are only a simple matter of generating a database with the proper fields. Manufactures and institutional databases bank huge sources of information, such as, work control documents, substance identification, container types, components of mixtures, physical property data, and regulatory data. In this report, utilization of commercially available software programs to take advantage of these resources in addressing waste characterization issues are presented. The application of user-friendly programs eliminates part of the tediousness associated with the complex requirements of certifying to general waste acceptance criteria with minimal impact on programmatic work. In other words, tapping into manufacturer and institutional database provides a way to take advantage of the combined expertise of these resources in managing a cost effective waste certification program as well as adding a quality assurance element to the program.

  5. Gateway design specification for fiber optic local area networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is a Design Specification for a gateway to interconnect fiber optic local area networks (LAN's). The internetworking protocols for a gateway device that will interconnect multiple local area networks are defined. This specification serves as input for preparation of detailed design specifications for the hardware and software of a gateway device. General characteristics to be incorporated in the gateway such as node address mapping, packet fragmentation, and gateway routing features are described.

  6. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications,...

  7. A differential equation for specific catchment area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, John C.; Hutchinson, Michael F.

    2011-05-01

    Analysis of the behavior of specific catchment area in a stream tube leads to a simple nonlinear differential equation describing the rate of change of specific catchment area along a flow path. The differential equation can be integrated numerically along a flow path to calculate specific catchment area at any point on a digital elevation model without requiring the usual estimates of catchment area and width. The method is more computationally intensive than most grid-based methods for calculating specific catchment area, so its main application is as a reference against which conventional methods can be tested. This is the first method that provides a benchmark for more approximate methods in complex terrain with both convergent and divergent areas, not just on simple surfaces for which analytical solutions are known. Preliminary evaluation of the D8, M8, digital elevation model networks (DEMON), and D∞ methods indicate that the D∞ method is the best of those methods for estimating specific catchment area, but all methods overestimate in divergent terrain.

  8. 27 CFR 19.691 - Change in address without change in location or area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in the location or area of the plant itself, the proprietor must submit a letterhead notice to the... change in location or area. 19.691 Section 19.691 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Spirits for Fuel Use Changes to Permit Information § 19.691 Change in address without change in...

  9. 27 CFR 19.691 - Change in address without change in location or area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in the location or area of the plant itself, the proprietor must submit a letterhead notice to the... change in location or area. 19.691 Section 19.691 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Spirits for Fuel Use Changes to Permit Information § 19.691 Change in address without change in...

  10. 27 CFR 19.691 - Change in address without change in location or area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in the location or area of the plant itself, the proprietor must submit a letterhead notice to the... change in location or area. 19.691 Section 19.691 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Spirits for Fuel Use Changes to Permit Information § 19.691 Change in address without change in...

  11. 27 CFR 19.691 - Change in address without change in location or area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in the location or area of the plant itself, the proprietor must submit a letterhead notice to the... change in location or area. 19.691 Section 19.691 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Spirits for Fuel Use Changes to Permit Information § 19.691 Change in address without change in...

  12. To What Extent Is Criminal Justice Content Specifically Addressed in MSW Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Roberts, Leslie E.; Ivanoff, Andre; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Gilmer, Christy N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which criminal justice content is addressed in all CSWE-accredited MSW programs in the United States ("N"?=?192). Criminal justice content was measured in three areas: (1) dual or joint degree programs, (2) concentrations or specializations, and (3) coursework. Excluding social work and law classes, 22%…

  13. Specific surface area model for foam permeability.

    PubMed

    Pitois, O; Lorenceau, E; Louvet, N; Rouyer, F

    2009-01-01

    Liquid foams were recognized early to be porous materials, as liquid flowed between the gas bubbles. Drainage theories have been established, and foam permeability has been modeled from the microscopic description of the equivalent pores geometry, emphasizing similarities with their solid counterparts. But to what extent can the theoretical work devoted to the permeability of solid porous materials be useful to liquid foams? In this article, the applicability of the Carman-Kozeny model on foam is investigated. We performed measurements of the permeability of foams with nonmobile surfactants, and we show that, in introducing an equivalent specific surface area for the foam, the model accurately describes the experimental data over two orders of magnitude for the foam liquid fraction, without any additional parameters. Finally, it is shown that this model includes the previous permeability models derived for foams in the dry foams limit. PMID:19032030

  14. Event-Specific Prevention: addressing college student drinking during known windows of risk.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T; Lee, Christine M; Vader, Amanda M; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William

    2007-11-01

    The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford [DeJong, W. & Langford, L. M. (2002). A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: Moving toward environmental management strategies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 140-147.] provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut's efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort. PMID:17616260

  15. Event-Specific Prevention: Addressing College Student Drinking During Known Windows of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T.; Lee, Christine M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William

    2007-01-01

    The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut’s efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort. PMID:17616260

  16. Vocal Imitation in Parrots Allows Addressing of Specific Individuals in a Dynamic Communication Network

    PubMed Central

    Balsby, Thorsten J. S.; Momberg, Jane Vestergaard; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Parrots in captivity are known for their ability to vocally imitate humans and recently it has been shown that wild-living orange-fronted conures are able to immediately imitate other individuals’ contact calls. The function of this exceptional ability to imitate remains unclear. However, orange–fronted conures live in fission-fusion flocks where they encounter many different individuals every day, and it is possible that their vocal imitation ability is a flexible means to address a specific individual within a flock. We tested this via playback to short-term captive wild conures. Test birds were placed together in pairs in outdoor aviaries to form simple flocks. To simulate imitation of a specific individual these pairs received playback of contact calls that primarily imitate one of the two birds. Overall, individuals that received simulated vocal imitations of its calls responded more frequently and faster than the other individual. This suggests that orange-fronted conures can use imitations of contact calls to address specific individuals of a flock. In the discussion we argue that the fission-fusion flock dynamics of many parrot species has been an important factor in evolving conures’ and other parrots’ exceptional ability to imitate. PMID:23185424

  17. Vocal imitation in parrots allows addressing of specific individuals in a dynamic communication network.

    PubMed

    Balsby, Thorsten J S; Momberg, Jane Vestergaard; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Parrots in captivity are known for their ability to vocally imitate humans and recently it has been shown that wild-living orange-fronted conures are able to immediately imitate other individuals' contact calls. The function of this exceptional ability to imitate remains unclear. However, orange-fronted conures live in fission-fusion flocks where they encounter many different individuals every day, and it is possible that their vocal imitation ability is a flexible means to address a specific individual within a flock. We tested this via playback to short-term captive wild conures. Test birds were placed together in pairs in outdoor aviaries to form simple flocks. To simulate imitation of a specific individual these pairs received playback of contact calls that primarily imitate one of the two birds. Overall, individuals that received simulated vocal imitations of its calls responded more frequently and faster than the other individual. This suggests that orange-fronted conures can use imitations of contact calls to address specific individuals of a flock. In the discussion we argue that the fission-fusion flock dynamics of many parrot species has been an important factor in evolving conures' and other parrots' exceptional ability to imitate. PMID:23185424

  18. Packaging of large-area individually addressable micromirror arrays for the next generation space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, GuoQuan; Calata, J.; Wen, S.; Dutta, Sanghamitra B.; Zheng, Yun; Stahl, C.; Shu, Peter K.

    2002-04-01

    One of NASA's challenging projects for advancing the exploration of space is the development and deployment of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) for superseding the existing Hubble Space Telescope. The NGST will be equipped with several camera/spectrometer systems including a 0.6 to 5 micron Multi-Object-Spectrometer. To selectively direct light rays from different regions of space into the spectrometer, an option is to use individually addressable micro-electro-mechanical-mirror arrays serving as the slit mask for the spectrometer. The NASA team at Goddard Space Flight Center has designed an integrated micro-mirror array/CMOS driver chip that can meet the system requirements. The fabrication and testing of prototype chips have yielded promising results. To build the entire MEMS- based slit mask, a design requires accurate placement and alignment of four large (at least 9 cm X 9 cm) pieces of the integrated chips in a 2X2 mosaic pattern. In addition, the mask will have to function at temperatures below 40 K. These requirements pose a serious challenge to the packaging of these integrated MEMS chips. In this paper, we discuss a concept for attaching and aligning the large- area MEMS chips into the 2X2 mask and interconnecting it to the rest of the system. The concept makes use of the flip-chip technology to bump-bond the large chips onto a silicon substrate such that the concern for global thermo- mechanical stresses due to mismatched coefficients of thermal expansion between chip and substrate is eliminated. It also makes use of the restoring force of the solder bumps during reflow to self-align the chips. A critical experiment involving the use of 'mechanical' chips with two-dimensional arrays of bonding pads was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of the packaging concept. Preliminary results indicate that the chips can be attached to form a closely packed mosaic pattern with a relative tilt angle between the chips to less than 0.05 degree, which is

  19. Addressing Neuroplastic Changes in Distributed Areas of the Nervous System Associated With Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, René; Higgins, Johanne; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Present interventions utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation are guided, in large part, by a biomedical model where peripheral structural injury is believed to be the sole driver of the disorder. There are, however, neurophysiological changes across different areas of the peripheral and central nervous systems, including peripheral receptors, dorsal horn of the spinal cord, brain stem, sensorimotor cortical areas, and the mesolimbic and prefrontal areas associated with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and tendon injuries. These neurophysiological changes appear not only to be a consequence of peripheral structural injury but also to play a part in the pathophysiology of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Neurophysiological changes are consistent with a biopsychosocial formulation reflecting the underlying mechanisms associated with sensory and motor findings, psychological traits, and perceptual changes associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. These changes, therefore, have important implications in the clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, and treatment of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation professionals have at their disposal tools to address these neuroplastic changes, including top-down cognitive-based interventions (eg, education, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, motor imagery) and bottom-up physical interventions (eg, motor learning, peripheral sensory stimulation, manual therapy) that induce neuroplastic changes across distributed areas of the nervous system and affect outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Furthermore, novel approaches such as the use of transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be utilized to help renormalize neurological function. Comprehensive treatment addressing peripheral structural injury as well as neurophysiological changes occurring across

  20. 77 FR 37402 - Data Specifications for Collecting Study Area Boundaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... percent of an incumbent's study area. In the USF/ICC Transformation FNPRM, 76 FR 78384, December 16, 2011... COMMISSION Data Specifications for Collecting Study Area Boundaries AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... proposes data specifications for collecting study area boundaries for purposes of implementing...

  1. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses for...) The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, in the zone in which the unit is to be built or altered....

  2. Operational Application of the Landsat Timeseries to Address Large Area Landcover Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarth, P.; Armston, J.; Flood, N.; Denham, R.; Collett, L.; Watson, F.; Trevithick, B.; Muir, J.; Goodwin, N.; Tindall, D.; Phinn, S.

    2015-08-01

    State Government agencies in northern and eastern Australia and the University of Queensland, Brisbane, have been collaborating through the Joint Remote Sensing Research Program (JRSRP). This has resulted in a significant acceleration in the development and successful operational application of remote sensing methods for the JRSRP members and the various state and national programs and policies which they support. The JRSRP provides an open and collaborative mechanism and governance structure to successfully bring together a unique combination of expertise in image processing, field data collection, and data integration approaches to deliver accurate, repeatable and robust methods for mapping and monitoring Australia's unique ecosystems. Remote sensing provides spatially- and temporally-comprehensive information about land cover features at a range of scales and often for minimal cost compared to traditional mapping and monitoring approaches. This makes remote sensing a very useful operational mapping and monitoring tool for land managers, particularly in the vast rangelands of Australia. This paper outlines recent developments in remote sensing and modelling products that are being used operationally by JRSRP members to address large area landcover understanding.

  3. Literacy Mash-Up: Discipline-Specific Practices Empower Content-Area Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostal, Hannah; Gabriel, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe a process for building teachers' capacity to identify, develop, and engage in discipline-specific literacy instruction that supports both content and literacy aims. This process uses three questions to frame inquiry and guide discussions. Addressing these three questions can empower content-area teachers to incorporate…

  4. Content Area Specific Technology Integration: A Model for Educating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Sara; Doering, Aaron H.; Riedel, Eric

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present a model of content-area specific technology preparation. This approach was premised on the fact that even if preservice teachers know how to operate technology, they need help to understand how to flexibly incorporate new technology resources into their knowledge of a content area in ways that enhance student learning.…

  5. ADDRESSING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO AIR POLLUTANTS AROUND BUILDINGS IN URBAN AREAS WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models to address challenges for modeling human exposures to air pollutants around urban building microenvironments. There are challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant sour...

  6. 3. "LAUNCH SILOS; AREA PAVING AND GRADING PLAN." Specifications No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. "LAUNCH SILOS; AREA PAVING AND GRADING PLAN." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-59-73; Drawing No. 5841C-11; D.O. SERIES AW-1525/17; Stamped: RECORD DRAWING AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract No. 6601, Date 18 Sep 59. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning to Address Rapid Change: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caves, J. K.; Bodner, G.; Simms, K.; Fisher, L.; Robertson, T.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision-making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We present the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA), a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: 1) shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; 2) mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision-making; 3) efforts to make information increasingly relevant and reliable; and 4) shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. Yet the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control—including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets—with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. While CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: 1) Creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives which may be crucial from those which may hinder a flexible response to climate change, and 2) Incorporating scenario planning into CAM

  8. Education and Training to Address Specific Needs During the Career Progression of Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ajit K; Blair, Patrice Gabler; Lupi, Linda K

    2016-02-01

    Surgeons have specific education and training needs as they enter practice, progress through the core period of active practice, and then as they wind down their clinical work before retirement. These transitions and the career progression process, combined with the dynamic health care environment, present specific opportunities for innovative education and training based on practice-based learning and improvement, and continuous professional development methods. Cutting-edge technologies, blended models, simulation, mentoring, preceptoring, and integrated approaches can play critical roles in supporting surgeons as they provide the best surgical care throughout various phases of their careers. PMID:26612024

  9. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  10. Cortical area size dictates performance at modality-specific behaviors.

    PubMed

    Leingärtner, Axel; Thuret, Sandrine; Kroll, Todd T; Chou, Shen-Ju; Leasure, J Leigh; Gage, Fred H; O'Leary, Dennis D M

    2007-03-01

    The mammalian neocortex is organized into unique areas that serve functions such as sensory perception and modality-specific behaviors. The sizes of primary cortical areas vary across species, and also within a species, raising the question of whether area size dictates behavioral performance. We show that adult mice genetically engineered to overexpress the transcription factor EMX2 in embryonic cortical progenitor cells, resulting in reductions in sizes of somatosensory and motor areas, exhibit significant deficiencies at tactile and motor behaviors. Even increasing the size of sensorimotor areas by decreasing cortical EMX2 levels can lead to diminished sensorimotor behaviors. Genetic crosses that retain ectopic Emx2 transgene expression subcortically but restore cortical Emx2 expression to wild-type levels also restore cortical areas to wild-type sizes and in parallel restore tactile and motor behaviors to wild-type performance. These findings show that area size can dictate performance at modality-specific behaviors and suggest that areas have an optimal size, influenced by parameters of its neural system, for maximum behavioral performance. This study underscores the importance of establishing during embryonic development appropriate levels of regulatory proteins that determine area sizes, thereby influencing behavior later in life. PMID:17360492

  11. Addressing scientific literacy through content area reading and processes of scientific inquiry: What teachers report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Susan J.

    The purpose of this study was to interpret the experiences of secondary science teachers in Florida as they address the scientific literacy of their students through teaching content reading strategies and student inquiry skills. Knowledge of the successful integration of content reading and inquiry skills by experienced classroom teachers would be useful to many educators as they plan instruction to achieve challenging state and national standards for reading as well as science. The problem was investigated using grounded theory methodology. Open-ended questions were asked in three focus groups and six individual interviews that included teachers from various Florida school districts. The constant comparative approach was used to analyze the data. Initial codes were collapsed into categories to determine the conceptual relationships among the data. From this, the five core categories were determined to be Influencers, Issues, Perceptions, Class Routines, and Future Needs. These relate to the central phenomenon, Instructional Modifications, because teachers often described pragmatic and philosophical changes in their teaching as they deliberated to meet state standards in both reading and science. Although Florida's secondary science teachers have been asked to incorporate content reading strategies into their science instruction for the past several years, there was limited evidence of using these strategies to further student understanding of scientific processes. Most teachers saw little connection between reading and inquiry, other than the fact that students must know how to read to follow directions in the lab. Scientific literacy, when it was addressed by teachers, was approached mainly through class discussions, not reading. Teachers realized that students cannot learn secondary science content unless they read science text with comprehension; therefore the focus of reading instruction was on learning science content, not scientific literacy or student

  12. 14. "SITE WORK, CIVIL, SITE PLAN." Test Area 1120. Specifications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. "SITE WORK, CIVIL, SITE PLAN." Test Area 1-120. Specifications No. OC2-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 7 of 148; file no. 1320/58, Rev. C. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338 Rev. C, Date: 16 April 1957. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ENG-OC-1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-6009-15, sheet 53 of 96, D.O. Series No. AF 1394/73, Rev. C. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. C, Date: 19 NOV 59. Drawing includes plan, section, and details of track. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features. PMID:26382005

  15. Estimating global specific leaf area from MODIS leaf area index and model-simulated foliage mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, P. J.; Yasuoka, Y.; Ito, A.; Dye, D.

    2006-12-01

    Specific leaf area (SLA) is an important leaf trait that is universally correlated positively to leaf nitrogen, leaf turnover rates, relative growth rate and most importantly, photosynthetic capacity. Though SLA is genetically encoded, it is often spatially variable within a species and within a single biome due to variable environmental conditions. However, without a global SLA map, global ecosystem models that use SLA, generally fix a single value for a particular biome. In this study, we develop a methodology to estimate global SLA from a remote sensing-derived key ecosystem variable, leaf area index and foliage mass estimated by a terrestrial ecosystem model SimCYCLE. SimCYCLE uses climatic inputs, land-cover data and biomass-allocation to estimate leaf biomass in a process-based scheme. Model-estimated foliage mass and MODIS leaf area index are assumed to represent the most-accurate ground condition to estimate SLA for the entire globe at 0.5 degree resolution. Validation of estimated specific leaf area is done with a published field-sampled global dataset, and additional field-sampled SLA data collected from published literatures. The validation data is also used for rectification of unrealistic values of estimated SLA to produce a global SLA map, which we strongly believe, would be valuable to improve estimates of carbon dynamic across individual biomes upon assimilation with the ecosystem models.

  16. Specification of somatosensory area identity in cortical explants.

    PubMed

    Gitton, Y; Cohen-Tannoudji, M; Wassef, M

    1999-06-15

    The H-2Z1 transgene is restricted to a subset of layer IV neurons in the postnatal mouse cortex and delineates exactly the somatosensory area. Expression of the H-2Z1 transgene was used as an areal marker to determine when the parietal cortex becomes committed to a somatosensory identity. We have shown previously that grafts dissected from embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) H-2Z1 cortex and transplanted into the cortex of nontransgenic newborns express H-2Z1 according to their site of origin. Expression was not modified on heterotopic transplantation (). In the present study, whole cortical explants were isolated at E12.5 from noncortical tissues. The explants developed a regionalized expression of H-2Z1, indicating that regionalization takes place and is maintained in vitro. We used this property and confronted embryonic H-2Z1 cortex with presumptive embryonic sources of regionalizing signals in an in vitro grafting procedure. A great majority of E11.5-E13.5 grafts maintained their presumptive expression of H-2Z1 when grafted heterotopically on nontransgenic E13.5-E15.5 explants. However, a significantly lower proportion of E11.5 parietal grafts expressed H-2Z1 in occipital compared with parietal cortex, indicating that somatosensory identity may be partially plastic at E11.5. Earlier stages could not be tested because the E10.5 grafts failed to develop in vitro. The data suggest that commitment to the expression of a somatosensory area-specific marker coincides with the onset of neurogenesis and occurs well before the birth of the non-GABAergic neurons that express H-2Z1 in vivo. PMID:10366623

  17. Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs)

    PubMed Central

    Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard GH

    2010-01-01

    More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). Hum Mutat 31:–6, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20683926

  18. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  19. Area Specific Self-Esteem, Values, and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Joseph; Young, Michael; Pearson, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.; Hernandez, Aida

    2008-01-01

    The use of illicit and licit drugs continues to be a major public health concern. Many prevention and drug education programs address this issue by attempting to enhance self-esteem. The idea is that increased levels of self-esteem will serve as a protective factor in decreasing the motivation and increasing the resistance to use drugs. This study…

  20. Specific surface area determinations on intact drillcores and evaluation of extrapolation methods for rock matrix surfaces.

    PubMed

    André, M; Malmström, M E; Neretnieks, I

    2009-11-01

    Permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel in crystalline bedrock is investigated in several countries. For this storage scenario, the host rock is the third and final barrier for radionuclide migration. Sorption reactions in the crystalline rock matrix have strong retardative effects on the transport of radionuclides. To assess the barrier properties of the host rock it is important to have sorption data representative of the undisturbed host rock conditions. Sorption data is in the majority of reported cases determined using crushed rock. Crushing has been shown to increase a rock samples sorption capacity by creating additional surfaces. There are several problems with such an extrapolation. In studies where this problem is addressed, simple models relating the specific surface area to the particle size are used to extrapolate experimental data to a value representative of the host rock conditions. In this article, we report and compare surface area data of five size fractions of crushed granite and of 100 mm long drillcores as determined by the Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET)-method using N(2)-gas. Special sample holders that could hold large specimen were developed for the BET measurements. Surface area data on rock samples as large as the drillcore has not previously been published. An analysis of this data show that the extrapolated value for intact rock obtained from measurements on crushed material was larger than the determined specific surface area of the drillcores, in some cases with more than 1000%. Our results show that the use of data from crushed material and current models to extrapolate specific surface areas for host rock conditions can lead to over estimation interpretations of sorption ability. The shortcomings of the extrapolation model are discussed and possible explanations for the deviation from experimental data are proposed. PMID:19781807

  1. Predictors of neighborhood risk for late-stage melanoma: addressing disparities through spatial analysis and area-based measures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shasa; Sherman, Recinda; Arheart, Kristopher; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    Minority populations have disproportionately more advanced stage melanoma and worse survival. To clarify the impact of race and ethnicity on late-stage melanoma diagnosis, we performed spatial analysis of geocoded melanoma cases diagnosed in Florida, 1999-2008, to identify geographic clusters of higher-than-expected incidence of late-stage melanoma and developed predictive models for melanoma cases in high-risk neighborhoods accounting for area-based poverty, race/ethnicity, patient insurance status, age, and gender. In the adjusted model, Hispanic ethnicity and census tract-level poverty are the strongest predictors for clustering of late-stage melanoma. Hispanic whites were 43% more likely to live in neighborhoods with excessive late-stage melanoma (P<0.001) compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW). For every 1% increase in population living in poverty, there is a 2% increase in late-stage melanoma clustering (P<0.001). Census tract-level poverty predicted late-stage melanoma similarly among NHW and Hispanic whites. The impact of insurance coverage varied among populations; the most consistent trend was that Medicaid coverage is associated with higher odds for late-stage melanoma. The finding that Hispanics are most likely to reside in high-risk neighborhoods, independent of poverty and insurance status, underscores the importance of addressing, and overcoming community-level barriers to melanoma care. PMID:24335896

  2. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    with frequent updates as an 80-character digital string sent from the central analysis computer to pagers throughout the Bay Area in less than 2 seconds. We anticipate that the commercial sector will supply numerous and varied warning receiver systems once an EAS is considered operational. We focus on two prototype demonstration systems: (1) a pager-driven closure switch for opening fire station doors and (2) a pager display sign showing an of warning packet information. We will discuss the specific design features alert message and a display of this prototype system.

  3. 78 FR 5750 - Data Specifications for Collecting Study Area Boundaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... implementing various reforms adopted as part of the USF/ICC Transformation Order, 76 FR 73830, November 29... issued the Study Area Boundaries Public Notice, 77 FR 37402, June 21, 2012, which proposed collecting... Transformation FNPRM, 76 FR 78384, December 16, 2011, the Commission sought comment on a process to...

  4. 78 FR 20796 - Data Specifications for Collecting Study Area Boundaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ..., published at 78 FR 5750, January 28, 2013, OMB Control Number 3060-1181, adopting data specifications for... reforms adopted as part of the USF/ICC Transformation Order, 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011. The Study... data collection to the OMB in December 2012, 77 FR 75159-01, and OMB approved the Bureau's request...

  5. The 2011 Leona Tyler Award Address: The Relationship--And Its Relationship to the Common and Specific Factors of Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampold, Bruce E.; Budge, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    A debate exists about whether the common factors or specific ingredients are critical to producing the benefits of psychotherapy. A model of the relationship, based on evolved human characteristics related to healing, is presented that integrates common factors and specific ingredients. After the initial bond is formed, the relationship involves…

  6. Institution-Specific Victimization Surveys: Addressing Legal and Practical Disincentives to Gender-Based Violence Reporting on College Campuses.

    PubMed

    Cantalupo, Nancy Chi

    2014-03-12

    This review brings together both the legal literature and original empirical research regarding the advisability of amending the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act or creating new Department of Education regulations to mandate that all higher education institutions survey their students approximately every 5 years about students' experiences with sexual violence. Legal research conducted regarding the three relevant federal legal regimes show inconsistent incentives for schools to encourage victim reporting and proactively address sexual violence on campus. Moreover, the original research carried out for this article shows that the experience of institutions that have voluntarily conducted such surveys suggests many benefits not only for students, prospective students, parents, and the general public but also for schools themselves. These experiences confirm the practical viability of a mandated survey by the Department of Education. PMID:24626456

  7. Effectively Adapting the Sport Management Curricula: Harnessing Internal and External Resources to Address Industry-Specific Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunstein-Minkove, Jessica R.; DeLuca, Jaime R.

    2015-01-01

    Academic programs must constantly evolve in order to ensure that students are best prepared for success in internships and subsequent post-collegiate endeavors within the dynamic, rapidly changing sport industry. Based upon qualitative research, this work assesses and recommends areas of development in sport management curricula using internal and…

  8. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

  9. Creating a lesson that addresses gender differences in physics testing a specific instructional technique in college level physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, James J.

    Research-based instructional methods are applied in an effort to close the persistent gender gap in physics. Creating a short text on a limited topic using some of these methods could benefit female students specifically. A literature review showed research on the gender gap in physics and updated instructional methods for females. Two female physics students were interviewed and observations were conducted at a high performing all-girls school. A physics lab dialogue between two female physics students was recorded and analyzed, which informed the style and voice of the interactive dialogue lesson. An original written lesson intended to engage female physics students was created and tested on three classes of college-level physics students. The survey data, based on multiple choice and essay responses, measured the students' opinions of the lesson and their current textbook. Results showed the interactive lesson was preferred over the current text, and some students requested similar lessons.

  10. The Effect of 200 MPa Pressure on Specific Surface Area of Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koszela-Marek, Ewa

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory studies of the 200 MPa pressure effect on specific surface area of clay. The original high-pressure investigation stand was used for the pressure tests. Determination of the specific surface area was performed by the methylene blue adsorption method. The results of the specific surface area test were compared for non-pressurized clays and for clays pressured in a high-pressure chamber. It was found that the specific surface area of pressurized soil clearly increased. This shows that some microstructural changes take place in the soil skeleton of clays.

  11. 40 CFR 55.15 - Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas. 55.15 Section 55.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.15 Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas. (a) California....

  12. Retrieval of snow Specific Surface Area (SSA) from MODIS data in mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mary, A.; Dumont, M.; Dedieu, J.-P.; Durand, Y.; Sirguey, P.; Milhem, H.; Mestre, O.; Negi, H. S.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    This study describes a method to retrieve snow specific surface area (SSA) from satellite radiance reasurements in mountainous terrain. It aims at comparing different retrieval methods and at addressing topographic corrections of reflectance, namely slope and aspect of terrain and multiple reflections on neighbouring slopes. We use an iterative algorithm to compute reflectance from radiance of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) with a comprehensive correction of local illumination with regards to topography. The retrieved SSA is compared to the results of the snowpack model Crocus, fed by driving data from the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, over a large domain in the French Alps. We compared SSA retrievals with and without topographic or anisotropy correction, and with a spherical or non-spherical snow reflectance model. The topographic correction enables SSA to be retrieved in better agreement with those from SAFRAN-Crocus. The root mean square deviation is 10.0 m2 kg-1 and the bias is -0.6 m2 kg-1, over 3829 pixels representing seven different dates and snow conditions. The standard deviation of MODIS retrieved data, larger than the one of SAFRAN-Crocus estimates, is responsible for half this RMSD. It is due to the topographic classes used by SAFRAN-Crocus. In addition, MODIS retrieved data show SSA gradients with elevation and solar exposition, physically consistent and in good agreement with SAFRAN-Crocus.

  13. Tuneable ultra high specific surface area Mg/Al-CO3 layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunping; Wangriya, Aunchana; Buffet, Jean-Charles; O'Hare, Dermot

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis of tuneable ultra high specific surface area Aqueous Miscible Organic solvent-Layered Double Hydroxides (AMO-LDHs). We have investigated the effects of different solvent dispersion volumes, dispersion times and the number of re-dispersion cycles specific surface area of AMO-LDHs. In particular, the effects of acetone dispersion on two different morphology AMO-LDHs (Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers and Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates) was investigated. It was found that the amount of acetone used in the dispersion step process can significantly affect the specific surface area of Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers while the dispersion time in acetone is critical factor to obtain high specific surface area Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates. Optimisation of the acetone washing steps enables Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH to have high specific surface area up to 365 m(2) g(-1) for LDH flowers and 263 m(2) g(-1) for LDH plates. In addition, spray drying was found to be an effective and practical drying method to increase the specific surface area by a factor of 1.75. Our findings now form the basis of an effective general strategy to obtain ultrahigh specific surface area LDHs. PMID:26308729

  14. Specific surface area of a crushed welded tuff before and after aqueous dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Claassen, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    Specific surface areas were measured for several reference minerals (anorthoclase, labradorite and augite), welded tuff and stream sediments from Snowshoe Mountain, near Creede, Colorado. Crushed and sieved tuff had an unexpectedly small variation in specific surface area over a range of size fractions. Replicate surface area measurements of the largest and smallest tuff particle size fractions examined (1-0.3 mm and <0.212 mm) were 2.3 ?? 0.2 m2/g for each size fraction. Reference minerals prepared in the same way as the tuff had smaller specific surface areas than that of the tuff of the same size fraction. Higher than expected tuff specific surface areas appear to be due to porous matrix. Tuff, reacted in solutions with pH values from 2 to 6, had little change in specific surface area in comparison with unreacted tuff. Tuff, reacted with solutions having high acid concentrations (0.1 M hydrochloric acid or sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid), exhibited a marked increase in specific surface area compared to unreacted tuff. ?? 1994.

  15. Properties that Influence the Specific Surface Areas of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    BIRCH, M. EILEEN; RUDA-EBERENZ, TONI A.; CHAI, MING; ANDREWS, RONNEE; HATFIELD, RANDAL L.

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available carbon nanotubes and nanofibers were analyzed to examine possible relationships between their Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface areas (SSAs) and their physical and chemical properties. Properties found to influence surface area were number of walls/diameter, impurities, and surface functionalization with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Characterization by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis indicates that SSA can provide insight on carbon nanomaterials properties, which can differ vastly depending on synthesis parameters and post-production treatments. In this study, how different properties may influence surface area is discussed. The materials examined have a wide range of surface areas. The measured surface areas differed from product specifications, to varying degrees, and between similar products. Findings emphasize the multiple factors that influence surface area and mark its utility in carbon nanomaterial characterization, a prerequisite to understanding their potential applications and toxicities. Implications for occupational monitoring are discussed. PMID:24029925

  16. 7 CFR 1755.910 - RUS specification for outside plant housings and serving area interface systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false RUS specification for outside plant housings and serving area interface systems. 1755.910 Section 1755.910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS,...

  17. 40 CFR 55.15 - Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas. 55.15 Section 55.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.15 Specific designation...

  18. 7 CFR 1755.910 - RUS specification for outside plant housings and serving area interface systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS specification for outside plant housings and serving area interface systems. 1755.910 Section 1755.910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS,...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of large specific surface area nanostructured amorphous silica materials.

    PubMed

    Marquez-Linares, Francisco; Roque-Malherbe, Rolando M A

    2006-04-01

    Large specific surface area materials attract wide attention because of their applications in adsorption, catalysis, and nanotechnology. In the present study, we describe the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured amorphous silica materials. These materials were obtained by means of a modification of the Stobe-Fink-Bohn (SFB) method. The morphology and essential features of the synthesized materials have been studied using an automated surface area and pore size analyzer and scanning electron microscopy. The existence of a micro/mesoporous structure in the obtained materials has been established. It was also found that the obtained particle packing materials show large specific surface area up to 1,600 m2/g. (To our best knowledge, there is no any reported amorphous silica material with such a higher specific surface area.) The obtained materials could be useful in the manufacture of adsorbents, catalyst supports, and other nanotechnological applications. PMID:16736774

  20. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    related fields such as nuclear astrophysics, hypernuclear physics, hadron physics, and condensate matter physics so on. In fact, in this workshop, we also discuss the clustering aspects in the related fields. Thus, I expect in this workshop we can grasp the present status of the nuclear cluster physics and demonstrate its perspective in near future. This workshop is sponsored by several institutes and organizations. In particular, I would express our thanks for financial supports to Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Joint Institute for Computational Fundamental Science (JICFuS), and RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator- Based Science. They are cohosting this workshop. I would like also to appreciate my University, Kanto Gakuin University, who offers this nice place for one week and helps us to hold this workshop smoothly and conveniently. Today, the president of my University, Prof. Kuku, is here to present a welcome address. Thank you very much. Finally, with many of the participants leading this field both in theory and in experiment, we wish this workshop offers an opportunity to simulate communications not only during the workshop but also in the future. In addition, we hope you enjoy exploring city of Yokohama and the area around, as well as scientific discussions. Thank you very much for your attention.

  1. Specific bloch wall area of tape wound cores of amorphous and crystalline material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winner, H.; Grosse-Nobis, W.; Reinhardt, M.

    1984-02-01

    At low magnetizing frequencies not the total available domain wall area is instantaneously in motion. A method is presented to separate the simultaneously irreversibly moved domain wall area (specific area Sirr) from that wall area which is elastically attached at pinning centres. For tape wound cores of iron silicon and of metallic glass Sirr was determined as function of the magnetizing frequency by measuring the complex core impedance and applying a simple domain model. At very low magnetizing frequencies fm<10 -2s -1 the quantity Sirr is found to be approximately proportional to f0.8m.

  2. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Yu, Conrad M.; Raley, Norman F.

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  3. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  4. Preparation of activated carbon with large specific surface area from reed black liquor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Zhang, J P; Yang, G; Li, Z H

    2007-05-01

    Activated carbon with large specific surface area and well-developed porosity was prepared from pyrolysis of K2CO3-impregnated lignin precipitated from reed pulp black liquors. The impregnation ratio was 1:1. The effect of activation temperature upon the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore volume of the carbon was closely investigated. Increasing activation temperature led to an opening and widening of the porous structure below 800'C. Above 800'C, the excess widening of pore led to the decrease of BET surface area and micropore volume. The BET surface area and pore volume of the carbon activated at 800 degrees C were 1395 m(2) g(-1) and 0.7702 ml g(-1) , respectively. The potential application of the carbon activated at 800 degrees C for removal of Cr (VI) was also investigated. The experimental results showed that it had good adsorption capacity. PMID:17615958

  5. Spatial variability of specific surface area of arable soils in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, S.; Sokolowska, Z.; Usowicz, B.

    2012-04-01

    Evaluation of soil spatial variability is an important issue in agrophysics and in environmental research. Knowledge of spatial variability of physico-chemical properties enables a better understanding of several processes that take place in soils. In particular, it is well known that mineralogical, organic, as well as particle-size compositions of soils vary in a wide range. Specific surface area of soils is one of the most significant characteristics of soils. It can be not only related to the type of soil, mainly to the content of clay, but also largely determines several physical and chemical properties of soils and is often used as a controlling factor in numerous biological processes. Knowledge of the specific surface area is necessary in calculating certain basic soil characteristics, such as the dielectric permeability of soil, water retention curve, water transport in the soil, cation exchange capacity and pesticide adsorption. The aim of the present study is two-fold. First, we carry out recognition of soil total specific surface area patterns in the territory of Poland and perform the investigation of features of its spatial variability. Next, semivariograms and fractal analysis are used to characterize and compare the spatial variability of soil specific surface area in two soil horizons (A and B). Specific surface area of about 1000 samples was determined by analyzing water vapor adsorption isotherms via the BET method. The collected data of the values of specific surface area of mineral soil representatives for the territory of Poland were then used to describe its spatial variability by employing geostatistical techniques and fractal theory. Using the data calculated for some selected points within the entire territory and along selected directions, the values of semivariance were determined. The slope of the regression line of the log-log plot of semi-variance versus the distance was used to estimate the fractal dimension, D. Specific surface area

  6. Evolution of nanostructure and specific surface area during thermally driven dehydration of Mg(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimminger, H.; Habler, G.; Freiberger, N.; Abart, R.

    2016-01-01

    The thermally induced dehydration of micrometer-sized particles of Mg(OH)2 was investigated experimentally at ambient pressure and temperatures ranging from 350 to 1300 °C. Reaction progress is correlated with the evolution of the specific surface area and of the particle internal nanostructure. The maximum specific surface area of about 320 m2/g corresponding to a 70-fold increase relative to the starting material is obtained after heat treatment at 350 °C for about 2 h. This is due to the formation of a highly porous, particle-internal nanostructure comprised of newly crystallized strictly aligned, cube-shaped and nanometer-sized crystals of MgO and about 50 vol% porosity. Associated with the dehydration, intensive fracturing and defoliation occurs parallel to the (0001) plane of the original Mg(OH)2 or (111) of the topotaxially grown MgO. After heat treatment at increasingly higher temperatures, enhanced coarsening and sintering of the MgO crystals and healing of cracks leads to a successive decrease of the specific surface area. After heat treatment at 1300 °C for 2.5 h, the specific surface area has decreased to 5 m2/g close to the value typical for the original Mg(OH)2.

  7. Specific surface area effect on adsorption of chlorpyrifos and TCP by soils and modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of chlorpyrifos and TCP (3,5,6, trichloro-2-pyridinol) was determined in four soils (Mollisol, Inceptisol, Entisol, Alfisol) having different specific surface areas (19–84 m2/g) but rather similar organic matter content (2.4–3.5%). Adsorption isotherms were derived from batch equilibr...

  8. Racial and Socioeconomic Variations in Preadolescent Area-Specific and General Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Bruce R.

    This study of 210 fifth-grade children attempted to assess whether children of varying race, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex differ in their levels of general and area-specific (school, peer, and home) self-esteem. Also investigated was the question of whether children are capable of maintaining differing levels of esteem across the different…

  9. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  10. Polyaniline nanofibers with a high specific surface area and an improved pore structure for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hailing; Li, Xingwei; Wang, Gengchao

    2015-10-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) with a high specific surface area and an improved pore structure (HSSA-PANI) has been prepared by using a facile method, treating PANI nanofibers with chloroform (CHCl3), and its structure, morphology and pore structure are investigated. The specific surface area and pore volume of HSSA-PANI are 817.3 m2 g-1 and 0.6 cm3 g-1, and those of PANI are 33.6 m2 g-1 and 0.2 cm3 g-1. As electrode materials, a large specific surface area and pore volume can provide high electroactive regions, accelerate the diffusion of ions, and mitigate the electrochemical degradation of active materials. Compared with PANI, the capacity retention rate of HSSA-PANI is 90% with a growth of current density from 5.0 to 30 A g-1, and that of PANI is 29%. At a current density of 30 A g-1, the specific capacitance of HSSA-PANI still reaches 278.3 F g-1, and that of PANI is 86.7 F g-1. At a current density of 5.0 A g-1, the capacitance retention of HSSA-PANI is 53.1% after 2000 cycles, and that of PANI electrode is only 28.1%.

  11. Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

  12. Sensitivity of snow density and specific surface area measured by microtomography to different image processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenmuller, Pascal; Matzl, Margret; Chambon, Guillaume; Schneebeli, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Microtomography can measure the X-ray attenuation coefficient in a 3-D volume of snow with a spatial resolution of a few microns. In order to extract quantitative characteristics of the microstructure, such as the specific surface area (SSA), from these data, the greyscale image first needs to be segmented into a binary image of ice and air. Different numerical algorithms can then be used to compute the surface area of the binary image. In this paper, we report on the effect of commonly used segmentation and surface area computation techniques on the evaluation of density and specific surface area. The evaluation is based on a set of 38 X-ray tomographies of different snow samples without impregnation, scanned with an effective voxel size of 10 and 18 μm. We found that different surface area computation methods can induce relative variations up to 5 % in the density and SSA values. Regarding segmentation, similar results were obtained by sequential and energy-based approaches, provided the associated parameters were correctly chosen. The voxel size also appears to affect the values of density and SSA, but because images with the higher resolution also show the higher noise level, it was not possible to draw a definitive conclusion on this effect of resolution.

  13. Specific surface area of overlapping spheres in the presence of obstructions.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D R

    2013-02-21

    This study considers the random placement of uniform sized spheres, which may overlap, in the presence of another set of randomly placed (hard) spheres, which do not overlap. The overlapping spheres do not intersect the hard spheres. It is shown that the specific surface area of the collection of overlapping spheres is affected by the hard spheres, such that there is a minimum in the specific surface area as a function of the relative size of the two sets of spheres. The occurrence of the minimum is explained in terms of the break-up of pore connectivity. The configuration can be considered to be a simple model of the structure of a porous composite material. In particular, the overlapping particles represent voids while the hard particles represent fillers. Example materials are pervious concrete, metallurgical coke, ice cream, and polymer composites. We also show how the material properties of such composites are affected by the void structure. PMID:23445025

  14. Specific surface area of overlapping spheres in the presence of obstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    This study considers the random placement of uniform sized spheres, which may overlap, in the presence of another set of randomly placed (hard) spheres, which do not overlap. The overlapping spheres do not intersect the hard spheres. It is shown that the specific surface area of the collection of overlapping spheres is affected by the hard spheres, such that there is a minimum in the specific surface area as a function of the relative size of the two sets of spheres. The occurrence of the minimum is explained in terms of the break-up of pore connectivity. The configuration can be considered to be a simple model of the structure of a porous composite material. In particular, the overlapping particles represent voids while the hard particles represent fillers. Example materials are pervious concrete, metallurgical coke, ice cream, and polymer composites. We also show how the material properties of such composites are affected by the void structure.

  15. 28. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '0' AREA." Specifications No. OC15775, Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '0' AREA." Specifications No. OC1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-45-02-19, sheet 3 of 5, D.O. Series No. AF 1439/25, Rev. B. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. B, Date: 11/13/59. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 30. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '50' AREA." Specifications No. ENG043535775, Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '50' AREA." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-57-75, Drawing No. AF-4502-19, sheet 4 of 5, D.O. Series No. AF 1439/26. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296, Date: 10 NOV. 59. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Operational Safety Requirements and Operating Specification Documentation compliance instrumentation matrices: 200 East Area Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Story, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    This document contains information about matrices complied of instrumentation used to comply with the existing Operational Safety Requirements from Safety Analysis Reports and Operating, Specification Documentation requirements for 200 East Area Tank Farms. These matrices contain the primary instrumentation needed to comply with each OSR and/or OSD requirement as well as any backup instrumentation that may be used should the primary device be out of service. The referenced matrices are provided as attachments to this document.

  18. Geographic structure of adelie penguin populations: overlap in colony-specific foraging areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ainley, D.G.; Ribic, C.A.; Ballard, G.; Heath, S.; Gaffney, I.; Karl, B.J.; Barton, K.J.; Wilson, P.R.; Webb, S.

    2004-01-01

    In an investigation of the factors leading to geographic structuring among Ade??lie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) populations, we studied the size and overlap of colony-specific foraging areas within an isolated cluster of colonies. The study area, in the southwestern Ross Sea, included one large and three smaller colonies, ranging in size from 3900 to 135000 nesting pairs, clustered on Ross and Beaufort Islands. We used triangulation of radio signals from transmitters attached to breeding penguins to determine foraging locations and to define colony-specific foraging areas during the chick-provisioning period of four breeding seasons, 1997-2000. Colony populations (nesting pairs) were determined using aerial photography just after egg-laying; reproductive success was estimated by comparing ground counts of chicks fledged to the number of breeding pairs apparent in aerial photos. Foraging-trip duration, meal size, and adult body mass were estimated using RFID (radio frequency identification) tags and an automated reader and weighbridge. Chick growth was assessed by weekly weighing. We related the following variables to colony size: foraging distance, area, and duration; reproductive success; chick meal size and growth rate; and seasonal variation in adult body mass. We found that penguins foraged closest to their respective colonies, particularly at the smaller colonies. However, as the season progressed, foraging distance, duration, and area increased noticeably, especially at the largest colony. The foraging areas of the smaller colonies overlapped broadly, but very little foraging area overlap existed between the large colony and the smaller colonies, even though the foraging area of the large colony was well within range of the smaller colonies. Instead, the foraging areas of the smaller colonies shifted as that of the large colony grew. Colony size was not related to chick meal size, chick growth, or parental body mass. This differed from the year previous to

  19. Inter- and intra-specific scaling of articular surface areas in the hominoid talus

    PubMed Central

    Parr, William C H; Chatterjee, Helen J; Soligo, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of postcranial articular surfaces is expected to reflect their weight-bearing properties, as well as the stability and mobility of the articulations to which they contribute. Previous studies have mainly confirmed earlier predictions of isometric scaling between articular surface areas and body mass; the exception to this is ‘male-type’, convex articular surface areas, which may scale allometrically due to differences in locomotor strategies within the analysed samples. In the present study, we used new surface scanning technology to quantify more accurately articular surface areas and to test those predictions within the talus of hominoid primates, including modern humans. Our results, contrary to predictions, suggest that there are no generalised rules of articular scaling within the talus of hominoids. Instead, we suggest that articular scaling patterns are highly context-specific, depending on the role of each articulation during locomotion, as well as taxon- and sex-specific differences in locomotion and ontogenetic growth trajectories within any given sample. While this may prove problematic for inferring body mass based on articular surface area, it also offers new opportunities of gaining substantial insights into the locomotor patterns of extinct species. PMID:21323919

  20. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  1. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  2. A specific area of olfactory cortex involved in stress hormone responses to predator odours.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Kunio; Lu, Zhonghua; Ye, Xiaolan; Olson, David P; Lowell, Bradford B; Buck, Linda B

    2016-04-01

    Instinctive reactions to danger are critical to the perpetuation of species and are observed throughout the animal kingdom. The scent of predators induces an instinctive fear response in mice that includes behavioural changes, as well as a surge in blood stress hormones that mobilizes multiple body systems to escape impending danger. How the olfactory system routes predator signals detected in the nose to achieve these effects is unknown. Here we identify a specific area of the olfactory cortex in mice that induces stress hormone responses to volatile predator odours. Using monosynaptic and polysynaptic viral tracers, we found that multiple olfactory cortical areas transmit signals to hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, which control stress hormone levels. However, only one minor cortical area, the amygdalo-piriform transition area (AmPir), contained neurons upstream of CRH neurons that were activated by volatile predator odours. Chemogenetic stimulation of AmPir activated CRH neurons and induced an increase in blood stress hormones, mimicking an instinctive fear response. Moreover, chemogenetic silencing of AmPir markedly reduced the stress hormone response to predator odours without affecting a fear behaviour. These findings suggest that AmPir, a small area comprising <5% of the olfactory cortex, plays a key part in the hormonal component of the instinctive fear response to volatile predator scents. PMID:27001694

  3. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  4. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  5. The Effect of Contact Area on the Fluid Flow-Fracture Specific Stiffness Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovitch, C.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Nolte, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    The integrity of subsurface CO2 sequestration sites can be compromised by the presence of mechanical discontinuities such as fractures, joints and faults. The ability to detect, seismically, and determine whether a discontinuity poses a risk, requires an understanding of the interrelationships among the mechanical, hydraulic and seismic properties of fractures rock. We performed a computational study to investigate the effect of fracture geometry on the relationship between fluid flow and fracture specific stiffness. The form of this relationship and the ability to scale it among different sample sizes provides a key link between the hydraulic and seismic response of fractures. In this study, model fracture topologies were simulated using the stratified continuum percolation method. This method constructs a hierarchical aperture distribution with a tunable spatial correlation length. Fractures with correlated and uncorrelated aperture distributions were used. The contact area across the fracture plane ranged from approximately 5% to 40%. The fracture specific stiffness was calculated by deforming each fracture numerically under a normal load and extracting the stiffness from the displacement-stress curves. Single-phase flow was calculated for each increment of stress by modeling the fracture topology as a network of elliptical pipes and solving the corresponding linear system of equations. We analyzed the relationship between fracture displacement and contact area and found that the correlation length associated with the contact area distribution enables a scaling relationship between displacement and contact area. The collapse of the fluid flow - stress relationship required use of standard percolation functional forms that use average aperture (cubic law), the void area fraction, and the correlation length of the contact area clusters. A final scaling relationship between fluid flow and fracture specific was found for the class of correlated fractures while a

  6. Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate Surface Area and Enzymatic Digestibility

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Xiaohui; Grego, Courtnee; Zhang, Xiao

    2013-09-01

    To clarify the specific effect of biomass substrate surface area on its enzymatic digestibility, factors of fiber size reduction and swelling changes were investigated by using poplar substrates with controlled morphological and chemical properties after modified chemical pulping. Results showed that fiber size changes had insignificant influence on enzymatic hydrolysis, although the external surface area increased up to 41% with the reduction of fiber size. Swelling changes caused by increased biomass fiber porosities after PFI refining showed a significant influence on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. It is also found that chemical properties such as xylan and lignin content can influence the swelling effect. Xylan is confirmed to facilitate substrate hydrolysability by swelling, while lignin restricts swelling effect and thus minimizes the enzyme accessibility to substrates.

  7. 4H-SiC UV Photo Detector with Large Area and Very High Specific Detectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Feng; Shahid, Aslam; Franz, David; Xin, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jian H.; Zhao, Yuegang; Winer, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    Pt/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes have been fabricated with the device areas up to 1 sq cm. The I-V characteristics and photo-response spectra have been measured and analyzed. For a 5 mm x 5 mm area device leakage current of 1 x 10(exp 15)A at zero bias and 1.2 x 10(exp 14)A at -IV have been established. The quantum efficiency is over 30% from 240nm to 320nm. The specific detectivity, D(sup *), has been calculated from the directly measured leakage current and quantum efficiency data and are shown to be higher than 10(exp 15) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W from 210nm to 350nm with a peak D(sup *) of 3.6 x 10(exp 15)cmH(sup 1/2)/W at 300nm.

  8. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon with an ultrahigh specific surface area for superior performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Chao; Zhuang, Jianle; Xiao, Yong; Zheng, Mingtao; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Lei, Bingfu; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Yingliang

    2016-04-01

    Owing to its abundant nitrogen content, silk cocoon is a promising precursor for the synthesis of Nitrogen-doped porous carbon (N-PC). Using a simple staged KOH activation, the prepared sample displays particular nanostructure with ultrahigh specific surface area (3841 m2 g-1) and appropriate pore size, providing favorable pathways for transportation and penetration of electrolyte ions. Additionally, the doped nitrogen atoms ensure the samples with pseudocapacitive behavior. Those special characteristics endow N-PCs with high capacity, low resistance, and long-term stability, indicating a wonderful potential for application in energy-storage devices.

  9. [From donor to recipient: transfusion chain specificities in the French ultra-marine areas].

    PubMed

    Richard, P; Ould Amar, K

    2013-05-01

    Besides specific organisational requirements, the transfusional chain in French ultra-marine areas has specificities related to the epidemiology of infectious diseases and to population characteristics. We focus on some of these sociodemographic and medical peculiarities: the challenge of autosufficiency in relation to demographic trends; epidemiologic risks associated to emergent viruses such as dengue and Chikungunya, and the strategies that had been implemented to face last outbreaks; inappropriate selection criteria for eligibility to blood donation (biologic characteristics of Afro-Caribbeans not taken into account for the low hemoglobin deferral threshold; absence of guidelines for the screening of hemoglobinopathies AS/AC, present in 8% of the target population); specific indications for transfusion, such as platelet use in dengue fever or RBC transfusion in sickle cell disease. Due to the high polymorphism of erythrocyte antigens in Afro-Caribbeans, intra-ethnic transfusion facilitates compatibility for common antigens, but is responsible for the emergence of allo-antibodies difficult to identify in the absence of specific antisera or panels; molecular typing of erythrocyte antigens would allow detection of those patients at risk for immunization, expressing variant antigens or lacking high frequency antigens, as well as the characterization of RBC expressing immunogenic so called low frequency antigens. In an era of periodic emergence of new viruses in Europe (dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile virus...) and with the spreading of diseases with high transfusional requirements, such as sickle cell disease, ultra-marine services represent laboratories for the study of future trends and problems in transfusion medicine. PMID:23587617

  10. President's Address

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John

    1928-01-01

    The paper recalls how matters veterinary were regarded forty-six years ago, what has been achieved since, and future progress is reflected. The paper is divided into parts relating respectively to: (a) medicine; (b) surgery (c) teaching and research; (d) administration. Formerly, glanders and farcy, and rabies, though acknowledged as contagious and specific, were also believed to be of spontaneous origin. Experiences with regard to these two diseases, and the mallein test for glanders, are related. The discovery of the Bacillus anthracis led to the development of veterinary research, but for some time confusion existed. Tuberculosis was believed to be endogenous and the result of the absorption of caseous products of a previous inflammation. Treatment of “milk fever” in cows by udder inflation and biochemistry in relation to that disease are considered. The advance in veterinary surgery stands out most prominently; in canine practice, operations are now attempted which were never thought possible in the early days. Allusion is made to the recent formidable operations for the cure of “windsucking” in horses, and for traumatic pericarditis in bovines. The powers of observance of the old practitioners in diagnosing lameness, and some of the old methods of treatment for lameness, are supported. The great progress in veterinary research is referred to, also its advantages from an imperial point of view. The causative agents of those diseases which are at present ultravisible, particularly foot-and-mouth disease, will probably be found, and better methods of prevention result. In training, thorough instruction in animal physiology, animal nutrition and biochemistry is advocated, also affiliation of veterinary colleges to universities, the individuality of such colleges, and the one-portal system of qualification being maintained. PMID:19986709

  11. In-Situ Radiological Surveys to Address Nuclear Criticality Safety Requirements During Remediation Activities at the Shallow Land Disposal Area, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania - 12268

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Phillip; Mihalo, Mark; Eberlin, John; Lambert, Mike; Matthews, Brian

    2012-07-01

    Cabrera Services Inc. (CABRERA) is the remedial contractor for the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site in Armstrong County Pennsylvania, a United States (US) Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) contract. The remediation is being completed under the USACE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) which was established to identify, investigate, and clean up or control sites previously used by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED). As part of the management of the FUSRAP, the USACE is overseeing investigation and remediation of radiological contamination at the SLDA Site in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 US Code (USC), Section 9601 et. seq, as amended and, the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 300.430(f) (2). The objective of this project is to clean up radioactive waste at SLDA. The radioactive waste contains special nuclear material (SNM), primarily U-235, in 10 burial trenches, Cabrera duties include processing, packaging and transporting the waste to an offsite disposal facility in accordance with the selected remedial alternative as defined in the Final Record of Decision (USACE, 2007). Of particular importance during the remediation is the need to address nuclear criticality safety (NCS) controls for the safe exhumation and management of waste containing fissile materials. The partnership between Cabrera Services, Inc. and Measutronics Corporation led to the development of a valuable survey tool and operating procedure that are essential components of the SLDA Criticality Safety and Material Control and Accountability programs. Using proven existing technologies in the design and manufacture of the Mobile Survey Cart, the continued deployment of the Cart will allow for an efficient and reliable methodology to

  12. Solid-phase reaction synthesis of mesostructured tungsten disulfide material with a high specific surface area

    SciTech Connect

    An, Gaojun; Lu, Changbo; Xiong, Chunhua

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} WS{sub 2} material was synthesized through solid-phase reaction. {yields} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}WS{sub 4} as precursor and n-octadecylamine as template. {yields} WS{sub 2} material has high specific surface area (145.9 m{sup 2}/g). {yields} The whole preparation process is simple, convenient, green and clean. -- Abstract: A mesostructured tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) material was prepared through a solid-phase reaction utilizing ammonium tetrathiotungstate as the precursor and n-octadecylamine as the template. The as-synthesized WS{sub 2} material was characterized by X-ray powder Diffraction (XRD), Low-temperature N{sub 2} Adsorption (BET method), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The characterization results indicate that the WS{sub 2} material has the typical mesopore structure (3.7 nm) with a high specific surface area (145.9 m{sup 2}/g), and large pore volume (0.18 cm{sup 3}/g). This approach is novel, green and convenient. The plausible mechanism for the formation of the mesostructured WS{sub 2} material is discussed herein.

  13. Gender-Associated Differential Expression of Cytokines in Specific Areas of the Brain During Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    López-Griego, Lorena; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Tiempos Guzmán, Nelly; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Besedovsky, Hugo O.; Pavón, Lenin; Becerril Villanueva, Luis Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice alters several behaviors, including sexual, aggressive, and cognitive function. Cytokines and their receptors are produced in the central nervous system (CNS) by specific neural cell lineages under physiological and pathological conditions, regulating such processes as neurotransmission. This study is aimed to determine the expression patterns of cytokines in various areas of the brain in normal and T. crassiceps-infected mice in both genders and correlate them with the pathology of the CNS and parasite counts. IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb increased significantly in infected male mice, but IL-6 was downregulated in these regions in female mice. IL-1β expression in the hippocampus was unaffected by infection in either gender. Our novel findings demonstrate a clear gender-associated pattern of cytokine expression in specific areas of the brain in mammals that parasitic infection can alter. Thus, we hypothesize that intraperitoneal infection is sensed by the CNS of the host, wherein cytokines are important messengers in the host–parasite neuroimmunoendocrine network. PMID:25495255

  14. Lithium lengthens circadian period of cultured brain slices in area specific manner.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tomoko; Honma, Sato

    2016-11-01

    Lithium has been used for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). However, the mechanisms how lithium exerts its mood stabilizing effects remain to be studied. The disorder in circadian pacemaking has been suggested as an underlying mechanism of the characteristic mood instability of the BD. Lithium is also known to lengthen the circadian periods. We recently proposed that chronic methamphetamine treatment induced circadian oscillation as a complex oscillator including multiple dopaminergic brain areas, and the complex oscillator regulates behavior rhythm independent from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Sleep-wake pattern of rapid cycling BD exhibits similar rhythm disorganization to methamphetamine treated animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that the dysregulated circadian rhythm in BD patients is caused by desynchronization of sleep-wake rhythms from the central clock in the SCN, and that mood stabilizing effect of lithium is achieved through their resynchronization. In the present experiment, we examined how lithium affects the circadian rhythms of brain areas involved in the complex oscillator as well as the SCN. Here we report that lithium lengthens the circadian periods in the SCN, olfactory bulb, median eminence and substantia nigra with dose and area specific manner. The effective lithium dose was much higher than the plasma levels that are required for lengthening the circadian behavior rhythms as well for therapeutic use. Low dose of lithium did not lengthen the period but enhanced the amplitude of circadian rhythms, which may exert therapeutic effects on BD. PMID:27478137

  15. Effect of Precipitation Conditions on the Specific Surface Area of Neptunium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    HILL, BENJAMINC.

    2004-06-01

    Neptunium oxalate was precipitated under nominal and bounding HB-Line flowsheet conditions. The nominal case represents expected normal HB-Line operation. The bounding case represents process flowsheet extremes that could occur which are anticipated to decrease particle size and increase surface area. The neptunium oxalate produced under bounding conditions was used to validate the effectiveness of HB-Line calcination conditions. The maximum specific surface area of the neptunium oxide (NpO2) used in gas generation testing was 5.34 m2/g. Experiments were conducted to verify that even under bounding precipitation conditions the SSA of NpO2 produced would remain within the range evaluated during gas generation testing. The neptunium oxalate from nominal and bounding precipitation conditions was calcined at 600 degrees Celsius and 625 degrees Celsius, respectively, to form NpO2. Samples from each batch of neptunium oxalate were calcined for one, two, or four hours. Results indicate that the SSA of NpO2 continues to decrease between one and four hours. After two hours of calcination at 625 degrees Celsius, the SSA of NpO2 from the bounding case meets the surface area requirements for limiting moisture uptake.

  16. A simple facile approach to large scale synthesis of high specific surface area silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Epur, Rigved; Minardi, Luke; Datta, Moni K.; Chung, Sung Jae; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2013-12-15

    An inexpensive, facile, and high throughput synthesis of silicon nanoparticles was achieved by the mechano-chemical reduction reaction of magnesium silicide (Mg{sub 2}Si) and silicon monoxide (SiO) using a high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) technique followed by acid leaching. Characterization of the resultant product using X-Ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface area analyses was performed at various stages of the synthesis process. XRD patterns show that the final product formed is single phase silicon and the nanocrystalline nature was confirmed by the shifted transverse optical (TO) band, characteristic of nc-Si determined by Raman analysis. SEM and TEM shows the presence of particles of different sizes in the range of few nanometers to agglomerates of few microns which is consistent with products obtained from mechanical milling. BET measurements show a very high specific surface area (SSA) of ∼190 m{sup 2}/g obtained due to acid leaching which is also validated by the porous nature of the particles confirmed by the SEM images. - Graphical abstract: Schematic showing the large scale production of nanosized silicon and BET surface area of the product formed at various stages.

  17. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications.

    PubMed

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michele; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features. PMID:26814051

  18. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications

    PubMed Central

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michèle; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09531.001 PMID:26814051

  19. A screening on Specific Learning Disorders in an Italian speaking high genetic homogeneity area.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Claudia; Giulivi, Sara; Schilirò, Antonino; Bastiani, Luca; Muzio, Carlo; Meloni, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate the prevalence of Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) in Ogliastra, an area of the island of Sardinia, Italy. Having experienced centuries of isolation, Ogliastra has become a high genetic homogeneity area, and is considered particularly interesting for studies on different kinds of pathologies. Here we are going to describe the results of a screening carried out throughout 2 consecutive years in 49 second grade classes (24 considered in the first year and 25 in the second year of the study) of the Ogliastra region. A total of 610 pupils (average age 7.54 years; 293 female, 317 male) corresponding to 68.69% of all pupils who were attending second grade in the area, took part in the study. The tool used for the screening was "RSR-DSA. Questionnaire for the detection of learning difficulties and disorders", which allowed the identification of 83 subjects at risk (13.61% of the whole sample involved in the study). These subjects took part in an enhancement training program of about 6 months. After the program, pupils underwent assessment for reading, writing and calculation abilities, as well as cognitive assessment. According to the results of the assessment, the prevalence of SLDs is 6.06%. For what concerns dyslexia, 4.75% of the total sample manifested this disorder either in isolation or in comorbidity with other disorders. According to the first national epidemiological investigation carried out in Italy, the prevalence of dyslexia is 3.1-3.2%, which is lower than the prevalence obtained in the present study. Given the genetic basis of SLDs, this result, together with the presence of several cases of SLD in isolation (17.14%) and with a 3:1 ratio of males to females diagnosed with a SLD, was to be expected in a sample coming from a high genetic homogeneity area. PMID:26296080

  20. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  1. Influence of stress, temperature and crystal morphology on isothermal densification and specific surface area decrease of new snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleef, S.; Löwe, H.; Schneebeli, M.

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory-based, experimental data for the microstructural evolution of new snow are scarce, though applications would benefit from a quantitative characterization of the main influences. To this end, we have analyzed the metamorphism and concurrent densification of new snow under isothermal conditions by means of X-ray microtomography and compiled a comprehensive data set of 45 time series. In contrast to previous measurements on isothermal metamorphism on time scales of weeks to months, we analyzed the initial 24-48 h of snow evolution at a high temporal resolution of 3 hours. The data set comprised natural and laboratory-grown snow, and experimental conditions included systematic variations of overburden stress, temperature and crystal habit to address the main influences on specific surface area (SSA) decrease rate and densification rate in a snowpack. For all conditions, we found a linear relation between density and SSA, indicating that metamorphism has an immediate influence for the densification of new snow. The slope of the linear relation, however, depends on the other parameters which were analyzed individually to derive a best-fit parameterization for the SSA decrease rate and densification rate. In the investigated parameter range, we found that the initial value of the SSA constituted the main morphological influence on the SSA decrease rate. In turn, the SSA decrease rate constituted the main influence on the densification rate.

  2. Influence of stress, temperature and crystal habit on isothermal densification and specific surface area decrease of new snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleef, S.; Löwe, H.; Schneebeli, M.

    2014-03-01

    Laboratory-based, experimental data for the microstructural evolution of new snow is scarce, though applications would benefit from a quantitative characterization of the main mechanism underlying the initial microstructural changes. To this end we have analyzed the metamorphism and concurrent densification of new snow under isothermal conditions by means of X-ray microtomography and compiled a comprehensive data set of 45 time series covering the practically relevant short time behavior within the first 24-48 h in high temporal resolution. The data set comprises natural and laboratory grown snow and experimental conditions include systematic variations of overburden stress, temperature and crystal habit to address the main influences on specific surface area (SSA) decrease rate and densification rate in a natural snowpack. For all conditions we find a linear increase of the density with the SSA, indicating that metamorphism has a key influence for the densification of new snow. Corroborated by the analysis of the individual influences of external conditions we derive a best-fit parametrization for the SSA decrease rate and the densification rate as required for applications.

  3. Generation of uniform large-area very high frequency plasmas by launching two specific standing waves simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Liang; Tu, Yen-Cheng; Hsieh, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Deng-Lain; Leou, Keh-Chyang

    2014-09-01

    With the characteristics of higher electron density and lower ion bombardment energy, large-area VHF (very high frequency) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition has become an essential manufacturing equipment to improve the production throughput and efficiency of thin film silicon solar cell. However, the combination of high frequency and large electrodes leads to the so-called standing wave effect causing a serious problem for the deposition uniformity of silicon thin film. In order to address this issue, a technique based on the idea of simultaneously launching two standing waves that possess similar amplitudes and are out of phase by 90° in time and space is proposed in this study. A linear plasma reactor with discharge length of 54 cm is tested with two different frequencies including 60 and 80 MHz. The experimental results show that the proposed technique could effectively improve the non-uniformity of VHF plasmas from >±60% when only one standing wave is applied to <±10% once two specific standing waves are launched at the same time. Moreover, in terms of the reactor configuration adopted in this study, in which the standing wave effect along the much shorter dimension can be ignored, the proposed technique is applicable to different frequencies without the need to alter the number and arrangement of power feeding points.

  4. High specific surface area Mo2C nanoparticles as an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chaoyun; Sun, Aokui; Xu, Yushuai; Wu, Zhuangzhi; Wang, Dezhi

    2015-11-01

    Mo2C nanoparticles with high specific surface area (120 m2 g-1) are successfully synthesized using a typical and low-cost monosaccharide of glucose via a facile calcination and subsequent reduction process. The HER functions of the obtained Mo2C nanoparticles are investigated and the effect of reduction time in hydrogen is also discussed. It is found that η-MoC can be obtained at 800 °C with a reduction time of 10 min, but the formation of β-Mo2C phase requires more than 20 min. Moreover, the β-Mo2C obtained with a reduction time of 20 min exhibits the best HER activity with a small Tafel slope of 55 mV dec-1 and a large current density of 60 mA cm-2 at -200 mV, which is among the best records over Mo2C-based HER catalysts.

  5. General surgery training in Spain: core curriculum and specific areas of training.

    PubMed

    Miguelena Bobadilla, José Ma; Morales-García, Dieter; Iturburu Belmonte, Ignacio; Alcázar Montero, José Antonio; Serra Aracil, Xabier; Docobo Durantez, Fernando; López de Cenarruzabeitia, Ignacio; Sanz Sánchez, Mercedes; Hernández Hernández, Juan Ramón

    2015-03-01

    The royal decree RD 639/2014 has been published, regulating among others, the core curriculum, and specific areas of training (SAT). It is of great interest for the specialty of General and Digestive Surgery (GS and DS). The aim is to expose and clarify the main provisions and reflect on their implications for the practical application of the core curriculum and SAT in the specialty of General and Digestive Surgery, to promote initiatives and regulations. This RD will be a milestone in our specialty that will test the strength of the specialty, if it does not finally culminate in its degradation against the emergence of new surgical specialties. A new stage begins in which the Spanish Association of Surgeons should be involved to define the conceptual basis of GS and DS in the XXI century, and the creation of new SAT to continue to maintain the "essence of our specialty". PMID:25433421

  6. Semantic Segmentation of Aerial Images in Urban Areas with Class-Specific Higher-Order Cliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya-Zegarra, J. A.; Wegner, J. D.; Ladický, L.; Schindler, K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we propose an approach to multi-class semantic segmentation of urban areas in high-resolution aerial images with classspecific object priors for buildings and roads. What makes model design challenging are highly heterogeneous object appearances and shapes that call for priors beyond standard smoothness or co-occurrence assumptions. The data term of our energy function consists of a pixel-wise classifier that learns local co-occurrence patterns in urban environments. To specifically model the structure of roads and buildings, we add high-level shape representations for both classes by sampling large sets of putative object candidates. Buildings are represented by sets of compact polygons, while roads are modeled as a collection of long, narrow segments. To obtain the final pixel-wise labeling, we use a CRF with higher-order potentials that balances the data term with the object candidates. We achieve overall labeling accuracies of > 80%.

  7. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Antony, Jiji; Nutting, Joseph; Baer, Donald R.; Meyer, Daniel; Sharma, Amit; Qiang, You

    2006-01-01

    Nmore » anoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7 ∘ C . Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.« less

  8. Accumulation of waterborne mercury(II) in specific areas of fish brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rouleau, C.; Borg-Neczak, K.; Gottofrey, J.; Tjaelve, H.

    1999-10-01

    The authors used whole-body autoradiography to study the distribution of {sup 203}Hg(II) in the central nervous system of brown (Salmo trutta) and rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout. Fish were either exposed to waterborne Hg(II) for 7 and 21 d or they received an intravenous injection of the metal and were sacrificed 1 and 21 d later. Mercury did not accumulate in the brain after intravenous injection, indicating that the blood-brain barrier is impervious to Hg in plasma. In contrast, Hg was accumulated in specific areas of the grain and spinal cord following water exposure. The specificity of the accumulation sites strongly suggests that waterborne Hg was taken up by water-exposed receptor cells of sensory nerves and subsequently transferred toward the brain by axonal transport, a normal physiological process for the transport of organelles and dissolved neuronal constituents along nerve axons. Accumulation of Hg in ventral horn ganglis is probably the result of leaching of metal from blood into muscle followed by uptake in motor plates. Axonal transport allows waterborne inorganic Hg, and possibly other xenobiotics, to circumvent the blood-brain barrier. Considering the importance of complex behavior in the life of fish, and the well-known deleterious effects of mercury on the nervous system, the toxicological significance of this uptake route needs to be assessed.

  9. Preparing Special Educators in Eastern North Carolina To Use Assistive Technology: A Multimedia Approach to Addressing Training Needs Unique to Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Melissa; And Others

    This paper describes a project addressing the assistive technology training needs of teachers of children with disabilities in rural eastern North Carolina, through development of a multimedia software tutorial service. The project utilized both a special education/assistive technology professional and an instructional technology professional to…

  10. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity. PMID:27217528

  11. Specific Leaf Area and Dry Matter Content Estimate Thickness in Laminar Leaves

    PubMed Central

    VILE, DENIS; GARNIER, ÉRIC; SHIPLEY, BILL; LAURENT, GÉRARD; NAVAS, MARIE-LAURE; ROUMET, CATHERINE; LAVOREL, SANDRA; DÍAZ, SANDRA; HODGSON, JOHN G.; LLORET, FRANCISCO; MIDGLEY, GUY F.; POORTER, HENDRIK; RUTHERFORD, MIKE C.; WILSON, PETER J.; WRIGHT, IAN J.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Leaf thickness plays an important role in leaf and plant functioning, and relates to a species' strategy of resource acquisition and use. As such, it has been widely used for screening purposes in crop science and community ecology. However, since its measurement is not straightforward, a number of estimates have been proposed. Here, the validity of the (SLA × LDMC)−1 product is tested to estimate leaf thickness, where SLA is the specific leaf area (leaf area/dry mass) and LDMC is the leaf dry matter content (leaf dry mass/fresh mass). SLA and LDMC are two leaf traits that are both more easily measurable and often reported in the literature. • Methods The relationship between leaf thickness (LT) and (SLA × LDMC)−1 was tested in two analyses of covariance using 11 datasets (three original and eight published) for a total number of 1039 data points, corresponding to a wide range of growth forms growing in contrasted environments in four continents. • Key Results and Conclusions The overall slope and intercept of the relationship were not significantly different from one and zero, respectively, and the residual standard error was 0·11. Only two of the eight datasets displayed a significant difference in the intercepts, and the only significant difference among the most represented growth forms was for trees. LT can therefore be estimated by (SLA × LDMC)−1, allowing leaf thickness to be derived from easily and widely measured leaf traits. PMID:16159941

  12. Prospect inversion for indirect estimation of leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.-K.; Duren, I.-V.; Heiden, U.; Heurich, M.

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of vegetation properties plays an indispensable role in assessments of ecosystem function with leaf dry mater content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA) being two important vegetation properties. Methods for fast, reliable and accurate measurement of LDMC and SLA are still lacking. In this study, the inversion of the PROSPECT radiative transfer model was used to estimate these two leaf parameters. Inversion of PROSPECT traditionally aims at quantifying its direct input parameters rather than identifying the parameters which can be derived indirectly from the input parameters. The technique has been tested here to indirectly model these parameters for the first time. Biophysical parameters such as leaf area, as well as fresh and dry weights of 137 leaf samples were measured during a field campaign in July 2013 in the mixed mountain forests of the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Reflectance and transmittance of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD field spec III equipped with an integrating sphere. The PROSPECT model was inverted using a look-up table (LUT) approach for the NIR/SWIR region of the spectrum. The retrieved parameters were evaluated using their calculated R2 and normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) values with the field measurements. Among the retrieved variables the lowest nRMSE (0.0899) was observed for LDMC. For both traits higher R2 values (0.83 for LDMC and 0.89 for SLA) were discovered. The results indicate that the leaf traits studied can be quantified as accurately as the direct input parameters of PROSPECT. The strong correlation between the estimated traits and the NIR/SWIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum suggests that these leaf traits could be assessed at canopy and in the landscape by using hyperspectral remote sensing data.

  13. Selected School Laws and Standards. A Summary Containing Specific School Laws Relating to Area Schools, Standards for Area Community Colleges and Area Vocational Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines. Area Schools and Career Education Branch.

    This document provides a selected summary of school laws relating to area schools and standards for area community colleges and vocational schools in Iowa. Area schools are authorized to offer the first two years of college work, pre-professional education, vocational and technical training, inservice training and retraining of workers, programs…

  14. Probing region-specific microstructure of human cortical areas using high angular and spatial resolution diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Manisha; Nauen, David W.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Mori, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Regional heterogeneity in cortical cyto- and myeloarchitecture forms the structural basis of mapping of cortical areas in the human brain. In this study, we investigate the potential of diffusion MRI to probe the microstructure of cortical gray matter and its region-specific heterogeneity across cortical areas in the fixed human brain. High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data at an isotropic resolution of 92-μm and 30 diffusion-encoding directions were acquired using a 3D diffusion-weighted gradient-and-spin-echo sequence, from the prefrontal (Brodmann area 9), primary motor (area 4), primary somatosensory (area 3b), and primary visual (area 17) cortical specimens (n = 3 each) from three human subjects. Further, the diffusion MR findings in these cortical areas were compared with histological silver impregnation of the same specimens, in order to investigate the underlying architectonic features that constitute the microstructural basis of diffusion-driven contrasts in cortical gray matter. Our data reveal distinct and region-specific diffusion MR contrasts across the studied areas, allowing delineation of intracortical bands of tangential fibers in specific layers layer I, layer VI, and the inner and outer bands of Baillarger. The findings of this work demonstrate unique sensitivity of diffusion MRI to differentiate region-specific cortical microstructure in the human brain, and will be useful for myeloarchitectonic mapping of cortical areas as well as to achieve an understanding of the basis of diffusion NMR contrasts in cortical gray matter. PMID:25449747

  15. Ecological strategies in california chaparral: Interacting effects of soils, climate, and fire on specific leaf area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anacker, B.; Rajakaruna, N.; Ackerly, D.; Harrison, S.; Keeley, J.; Vasey, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: High values of specific leaf area (SLA) are generally associated with high maximal growth rates in resource-rich conditions, such as mesic climates and fertile soils. However, fire may complicate this relationship since its frequency varies with both climate and soil fertility, and fire frequency selects for regeneration strategies (resprouting versus seeding) that are not independent of resource-acquisition strategies. Shared ancestry is also expected to affect the distribution of resource-use and regeneration traits. Aims: We examined climate, soil, and fire as drivers of community-level variation in a key functional trait, SLA, in chaparral in California. Methods: We quantified the phylogenetic, functional, and environmental non-independence of key traits for 87 species in 115 plots. Results: Among species, SLA was higher in resprouters than seeders, although not after phylogeny correction. Among communities, mean SLA was lower in harsh interior climates, but in these climates it was higher on more fertile soils and on more recently burned sites; in mesic coastal climates, mean SLA was uniformly high despite variation in soil fertility and fire history. Conclusions: We conclude that because important correlations exist among both species traits and environmental filters, interpreting the functional and phylogenetic structure of communities may require an understanding of complex interactive effects. ?? 2011 Botanical Society of Scotland and Taylor & Francis.

  16. Monitoring Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 Borehole Logging at 200 East Area Specific Retention Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, D.G.

    1999-07-12

    The Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project's vadose zone monitoring effort for fiscal year (FY) 1999 involves monitoring 30 boreholes for moisture content and gamma-ray emitting radionuclides. The boreholes are associated with specific retention trenches and cribs in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The facilities to be monitored are the 216-A-2, -4, and -7 cribs, the 216-A-18 trench, the 216-B-14 through -19 cribs, the 216-B-20 through -34, -53A, and -58 trenches, the 216-B-35 through -42 trenches, and the 216-C-5 crib. This monitoring plan describes the facilities and the vadose zone at the cribs and trenches to be monitored; the field activities to be accomplished; the constituents of interest and the monitoring methods, including calibration issues; and the quality assurance and quality control requirements governing the monitoring effort. The results from the FY 1999 monitoring will show the current configuration of subsurface contamination and will be compared with past monitoring results to determine whether changes in contaminant distribution have occurred since the last monitoring effort.

  17. Evaluation of the first year of the Oxpal Medlink: A web-based partnership designed to address specific challenges facing medical education in the occupied Palestinian territories

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad A; Ali, Adam M; Patel, Ishita; MacGregor, Thomas; Shankar, Sushma; Cahill, Thomas J; Finlayson, Alexander ET; Mahmud, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To (1) evaluate educational needs of clinical students at Al-Quds University Medical School in the West Bank; (2) address these needs where possible using synchronous distance learning, with clinicians in Oxford providing case-based tutorials to undergraduates in the West Bank via an online platform (WizIQ) and (3) assess the impact of this education. Design Review of online OxPal Medlink database for tutorials held between March 2012 and April 2013. Needs assessment and evaluation of student and tutor experiences through online questionnaires, focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Setting Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, UK, and Al-Quds University Medical School, Abu Dies, Palestine. Participants Doctors at Oxford University Hospitals and fourth-, fifth- and sixth-year medical students and faculty members at Al-Quds Medical School. Main outcome measures Number of tutorials, student participation, student-rated satisfaction and qualitative feedback from tutors and students. Results Students demonstrated strong theoretical knowledge but struggled to apply this in presentation-based scenarios. Between March 2012 and April 2013, 90 tutorials were delivered to 60 students. Feedback: >95% respondents rated tutorials as ‘Excellent’ or ‘Good’ and ‘Very’ or ‘Fairly’ relevant to their future practice in Palestine. Students reported the programme had modified their approach to patients but requested better synchronization with concurrent attachments and clarification of learning outcomes. Conclusions OxPal Medlink is a novel, web-based distance-learning partnership designed to overcome some of the challenges to local medical education in the occupied Palestinian territories. Evaluation of the first year indicates teaching is relevant to local practice and of high quality. This approach may have the potential to strengthen local capacity for medical education. PMID:25057373

  18. Addressing the Question of Disorder-Specific Risk Factors of Internet Addiction: A Comparison of Personality Traits in Patients with Addictive Behaviors and Comorbid Internet Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Müller, K. W.; Koch, A.; Dickenhorst, U.; Beutel, M. E.; Duven, E.; Wölfling, K.

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction. PMID:23865056

  19. Measuring the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses: effects of formation process, morphology, and particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Papelis, Charalambos; Um, Wooyong; Russel, Charles E.; Chapman, Jenny B.

    2003-03-28

    The specific surface area of natural and manmade solid materials is a key parameter controlling important interfacial processes in natural environments and engineered systems, including dissolution reactions and sorption processes at solid-fluid interfaces. To improve our ability to quantify the release of trace elements trapped in natural glasses, the release of hazardous compounds trapped in manmade glasses, or the release of radionuclides from nuclear melt glass, we measured the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses as a function of particle size, morphology, and composition. Volcanic ash, volcanic tuff, tektites, obsidian glass, and in situ vitrified rock were analyzed. Specific surface area estimates were obtained using krypton as gas adsorbent and the BET model. The range of surface areas measured exceeded three orders of magnitude. A tektite sample had the highest surface area (1.65 m2/g), while one of the samples of in situ vitrified rock had the lowest surf ace area (0.0016 m2/g). The specific surface area of the samples was a function of particle size, decreasing with increasing particle size. Different types of materials, however, showed variable dependence on particle size, and could be assigned to one of three distinct groups: (1) samples with low surface area dependence on particle size and surface areas approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the surface area of smooth spheres of equivalent size. The specific surface area of these materials was attributed mostly to internal porosity and surface roughness. (2) samples that showed a trend of decreasing surface area dependence on particle size as the particle size increased. The minimum specific surface area of these materials was between 0.1 and 0.01 m2/g and was also attributed to internal porosity and surface roughness. (3) samples whose surface area showed a monotonic decrease with increasing particle size, never reaching an ultimate surface area limit within the particle

  20. 50 CFR Table 50 to Part 679 - Maximum Number of Groundfish Licenses and the Regulatory Area Specification of Groundfish...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum Number of Groundfish Licenses and the Regulatory Area Specification of Groundfish Licenses That May Be Granted to CQEs Representing Specific GOA Communities 50 Table 50 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  1. 50 CFR Table 50 to Part 679 - Maximum Number of Groundfish Licenses and the Regulatory Area Specification of Groundfish...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum Number of Groundfish Licenses and the Regulatory Area Specification of Groundfish Licenses That May Be Granted to CQEs Representing Specific GOA Communities 50 Table 50 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  2. Characterization of synthetic nanocrystalline mackinawite: crystal structure, particle size, and specific surface area

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hoon Y.; Lee, Jun H.; Hayes, Kim F.

    2010-01-01

    Iron sulfide was synthesized by reacting aqueous solutions of sodium sulfide and ferrous chloride for 3 days. By X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), the resultant phase was determined to be primarily nanocrystalline mackinawite (space group: P4/nmm) with unit cell parameters a = b = 3.67 Å and c = 5.20 Å. Iron K-edge XAS analysis also indicated the dominance of mackinawite. Lattice expansion of synthetic mackinawite was observed along the c-axis relative to well-crystalline mackinawite. Compared with relatively short-aged phase, the mackinawite prepared here was composed of larger crystallites with less elongated lattice spacings. The direct observation of lattice fringes by HR-TEM verified the applicability of Bragg diffraction in determining the lattice parameters of nanocrystalline mackinawite from XRPD patterns. Estimated particle size and external specific surface area (SSAext) of nanocrystalline mackinawite varied significantly with the methods used. The use of Scherrer equation for measuring crystallite size based on XRPD patterns is limited by uncertainty of the Scherrer constant (K) due to the presence of polydisperse particles. The presence of polycrystalline particles may also lead to inaccurate particle size estimation by Scherrer equation, given that crystallite and particle sizes are not equivalent. The TEM observation yielded the smallest SSAext of 103 m2/g. This measurement was not representative of dispersed particles due to particle aggregation from drying during sample preparation. In contrast, EGME method and PCS measurement yielded higher SSAext (276–345 m2/g by EGME and 424 ± 130 m2/g by PCS). These were in reasonable agreement with those previously measured by the methods insensitive to particle aggregation. PMID:21085620

  3. LITERATURE REVIEW OF PUO2 CALCINATION TIME AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, G.

    2012-03-06

    The literature has been reviewed in December 2011 for calcination data of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from plutonium oxalate Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} precipitation with respect to the PuO{sub 2} specific surface area (SSA). A summary of the literature is presented for what are believed to be the dominant factors influencing SSA, the calcination temperature and time. The PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} calcination data from this review has been regressed to better understand the influence of calcination temperature and time on SSA. Based on this literature review data set, calcination temperature has a bigger impact on SSA versus time. However, there is still some variance in this data set that may be reflecting differences in the plutonium oxalate preparation or different calcination techniques. It is evident from this review that additional calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} needs to be collected and evaluated to better define the relationship. The existing data set has a lot of calcination times that are about 2 hours and therefore may be underestimating the impact of heating time on SSA. SRNL recommends that more calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} be collected and this literature review data set be augmented to better refine the relationship between PuO{sub 2} SSA and its calcination parameters.

  4. Addressing the Professional Development Needs of Teachers Working in the Area of Special Education/Inclusion in Mainstream Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gorman, Elizabeth; Drudy, Sheelagh

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an account of one aspect of a recent research project that explored dimensions of inclusion in mainstream schools in Ireland. In particular, the working lives of teachers who have specific responsibility for students with disabilities and/or special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream schools were explored. In Ireland, such…

  5. Vertical profiles of the specific surface area of the snow at Dome C, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, J.-C.; Domine, F.; Arnaud, L.; Picard, G.; Savarino, J.

    2010-09-01

    The specific surface area (SSA) of snow determines in Part the albedo of snow surfaces and the capacity of the snow to adsorb chemical species and catalyze reactions. Despite these crucial roles, almost no value of snow SSA are available for the largest permanent snow expanse on Earth, the Antarctic. We have measured the first vertical profiles of snow SSA near Dome C (DC: 75°06´ S, 123°20´ E, 3233 m a.s.l.) on the Antarctic plateau, and at seven sites during the logistical traverse between Dome C and the French coastal base Dumont D'Urville (DDU: 66°40´ S, 140°01´ E) during the Austral summer 2008-2009. We used the DUFISSS system, which measures the IR reflectance of snow at 1310 nm with an integrating sphere. At DC, the mean SSA of the snow in the top 1 cm is 38 m2 kg-1, decreasing monotonically to 14 m2 kg-1 at a depth of 15 cm. Along the traverse, the snow SSA profile is similar to that at DC in the first 600 km from DC. Closer to DDU, the SSA of the top 5 cm is 23 m2 kg-1, decreasing to 19 m2 kg-1 at 50 cm depth. This is attributed to wind, which causes a rapid decrease of surface snow SSA, but forms hard windpacks whose SSA decrease more slowly with time. Since light-absorbing impurities are not concentrated enough to affect albedo, the vertical profiles of SSA and density were used to calculate the spectral albedo of the snow for several realistic illumination conditions, using the DISORT radiative transfer model. A preliminary comparison with MODIS data is presented for use in energy balance calculations and for comparison with other satellite retrievals. These calculated albedos are compared to the few existing measurements on the Antarctic plateau. The interest of postulating a submillimetric, high-SSA layer at the snow surface to explain measured albedos is discussed.

  6. Summertime evolution of snow specific surface area close to the surface on the Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libois, Q.; Picard, G.; Arnaud, L.; Dumont, M.; Lafaysse, M.; Morin, S.; Lefebvre, E.

    2015-08-01

    On the Antarctic Plateau, snow specific surface area (SSA) close to the surface shows complex variations at daily to seasonal scales which affect the surface albedo and in turn the surface energy budget of the ice sheet. While snow metamorphism, precipitation and strong wind events are known to drive SSA variations, usually in opposite ways, their relative contributions remain unclear. Here, a comprehensive set of SSA observations at Dome C is analysed with respect to meteorological conditions to assess the respective roles of these factors. The results show an average two-to-three-fold SSA decrease from October to February in the topmost 10 cm, in response to the increase of air temperature and absorption of solar radiation in the snowpack during spring and summer. Surface SSA is also characterised by significant daily to weekly variations, due to the deposition of small crystals with SSA up to 100 m2 kg-1 onto the surface during snowfall and blowing snow events. To complement these field observations, the detailed snowpack model Crocus is used to simulate SSA, with the intent to further investigate the previously found correlation between inter-annual variability of summer SSA decrease and summer precipitation amount. To this end, Crocus parameterizations have been adapted to Dome C conditions, and the model was forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis. It successfully matches the observations at daily to seasonal time scales, except for few cases when snowfalls are not captured by the reanalysis. On the contrary, the inter-annual variability of summer SSA decrease is poorly simulated when compared to 14 years of microwave satellite data sensititve to the near surface SSA. A simulation with disabled summer precipitation confirms the weak influence in the model of the precipitation on metamorphism, with only 6 % enhancement. However we found that disabling strong wind events in the model is sufficient to reconciliate the simulations with the observations. This suggests

  7. Area-Specific Marginal Costing for Electric Utilities: a Case Study of Transmission and Distribution Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orans, Ren

    1990-10-01

    Existing procedures used to develop marginal costs for electric utilities were not designed for applications in an increasingly competitive market for electric power. The utility's value of receiving power, or the costs of selling power, however, depend on the exact location of the buyer or seller, the magnitude of the power and the period of time over which the power is used. Yet no electric utility in the United States has disaggregate marginal costs that reflect differences in costs due to the time, size or location of the load associated with their power or energy transactions. The existing marginal costing methods used by electric utilities were developed in response to the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) in 1978. The "ratemaking standards" (Title 1) established by PURPA were primarily concerned with the appropriate segmentation of total revenues to various classes-of-service, designing time-of-use rating periods, and the promotion of efficient long-term resource planning. By design, the methods were very simple and inexpensive to implement. Now, more than a decade later, the costing issues facing electric utilities are becoming increasingly complex, and the benefits of developing more specific marginal costs will outweigh the costs of developing this information in many cases. This research develops a framework for estimating total marginal costs that vary by the size, timing, and the location of changes in loads within an electric distribution system. To complement the existing work at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) on estimating disaggregate generation and transmission capacity costs, this dissertation focuses on the estimation of distribution capacity costs. While the costing procedure is suitable for the estimation of total (generation, transmission and distribution) marginal costs, the empirical work focuses on the geographic disaggregation of marginal costs related to electric

  8. Summertime evolution of snow specific surface area close to the surface on the Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libois, Q.; Picard, G.; Arnaud, L.; Dumont, M.; Lafaysse, M.; Morin, S.; Lefebvre, E.

    2015-12-01

    On the Antarctic Plateau, snow specific surface area (SSA) close to the surface shows complex variations at daily to seasonal scales which affect the surface albedo and in turn the surface energy budget of the ice sheet. While snow metamorphism, precipitation and strong wind events are known to drive SSA variations, usually in opposite ways, their relative contributions remain unclear. Here, a comprehensive set of SSA observations at Dome C is analysed with respect to meteorological conditions to assess the respective roles of these factors. The results show an average 2-to-3-fold SSA decrease from October to February in the topmost 10 cm in response to the increase of air temperature and absorption of solar radiation in the snowpack during spring and summer. Surface SSA is also characterized by significant daily to weekly variations due to the deposition of small crystals with SSA up to 100 m2 kg-1 onto the surface during snowfall and blowing snow events. To complement these field observations, the detailed snowpack model Crocus is used to simulate SSA, with the intent to further investigate the previously found correlation between interannual variability of summer SSA decrease and summer precipitation amount. To this end, some Crocus parameterizations have been adapted to Dome C conditions, and the model was forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis. It successfully matches the observations at daily to seasonal timescales, except for the few cases when snowfalls are not captured by the reanalysis. On the contrary, the interannual variability of summer SSA decrease is poorly simulated when compared to 14 years of microwave satellite data sensitive to the near-surface SSA. A simulation with disabled summer precipitation confirms the weak influence in the model of the precipitation on metamorphism, with only 6 % enhancement. However, we found that disabling strong wind events in the model is sufficient to reconciliate the simulations with the observations. This suggests that

  9. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area, then the agency must give first consideration...

  10. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area, then the agency must give first consideration...

  11. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area, then the agency must give first consideration...

  12. MATC Machine Shop '84: Specific Skill Needs Assessment for Machine Shops in the Milwaukee Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Keith J.

    Building on previous research on the future skill needs of workers in southeastern Wisconsin, a study was conducted at Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC) to gather information on the machine tool industry in the Milwaukee area. Interviews were conducted by MATC Machine Shop and Tool and Die faculty with representatives from 135 machine shops,…

  13. 43 CFR 6304.20 - Other uses addressed in special provisions of the Wilderness Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the Wilderness Act. 6304.20 Section 6304.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Other Uses Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.20 Other uses addressed in...

  14. 43 CFR 6304.20 - Other uses addressed in special provisions of the Wilderness Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the Wilderness Act. 6304.20 Section 6304.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Other Uses Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.20 Other uses addressed in...

  15. 43 CFR 6304.20 - Other uses addressed in special provisions of the Wilderness Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the Wilderness Act. 6304.20 Section 6304.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Other Uses Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.20 Other uses addressed in...

  16. 43 CFR 6304.20 - Other uses addressed in special provisions of the Wilderness Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of the Wilderness Act. 6304.20 Section 6304.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Other Uses Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.20 Other uses addressed in...

  17. A direct SAXS approach for the determination of specific surface area of clay in polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Marega, Carla; Causin, Valerio; Saini, Roberta; Marigo, Antonio; Meera, A P; Thomas, Sabu; Devi, K S Usha

    2012-06-28

    The interfacial area between the matrix and the filler is a key parameter which shapes the performance of polymer-based composites and nanocomposites, even though it is difficult to quantify. A very easy SAXS method, based on the Porod equation, is proposed for measuring the specific surface area of nanofillers embedded in a polymer matrix. In order to assess its reliability, this approach was applied to natural rubber- or styrene butadiene-based samples containing different types of montmorillonite clay. A wide range of specific surfaces was detected. SAXS data were compared to complementary X-ray diffraction and TEM information, obtaining a good agreement. Interpretation of the tensile properties by theoretical models and comparison with the literature corroborated the validity of the specific surface area measurement. The possibility to quantify this feature of composites allows the rational design of such materials to be improved. PMID:22646223

  18. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  19. Site-specific characterization of Castromil Brownfield area related to gold mining activities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Serrano Pinto, Luís; Patinha, Carla; Cardoso Fonseca, Edmundo

    2004-03-01

    Castromil is one of the gold mining areas in Portugal that has been abandoned since 1940. This area, which was first mined in Roman times, is located within a Hercynian granite body near the contact with Silurian metasediments. Gold is essentially disseminated along veins in the silicified granite, running NW-SE, related with a shear zone and frequently associated with sulphides (arsenopyrite and basically pyrite). In paragenetic terms, three stages of mineralization are considered: ferro-arseniferous (quartz + arsenopyrite I + pyrite I + pyrrhotite + bismuth), zinciferous (sphalerite + chalcopyrite), and remobilization (arsenopyrite II + galena + gold). Due to the lack of laws and environmental education, Castromil is today a gold mining heritage site where we can detect the consequences of an incautious exploration (tailings, wells and adits located in the old explored zone) and where a residential area is located. In order to characterize the actual state of the old mining area the trace metal contamination of soils and waters by mining activities was investigated. In the studied area 106 soil samples, 15 waters and 20 plants were sampled and analysed. The soil samples were analysed for 32 elements by ICP-AES. Waters were analysed by ionic chromatography and ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Plants were analysed for As, Fe and Pb by AAS. The results are discussed taking into account the risk-based standards for soils and groundwater's (target and intervention values) proposed by Swartjes (1999). The results show elevated concentration of As and Pb which were found in soils collected from agricultural areas. Foodstuff plants species collected in the Castromil agricultural area show high concentrations of As in the leaves (cabbage and lettuce) and in the tubers (potatoes). Groundwaters in the mining area contain high concentrations of As that exceeds the intervention values. The area must to be subject to a remediation process, considering the actual risks to

  20. Impact of alternative solid state forms and specific surface area of high-dose, hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredients on tabletability.

    PubMed

    Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2013-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of using different solid state forms and specific surface area (TBET) of active pharmaceutical ingredients on tabletability and dissolution performance, the mono- and dihydrated crystalline forms of chlorothiazide sodium and chlorothiazide potassium (CTZK) salts were compared to alternative anhydrous and amorphous forms, as well as to amorphous microparticles of chlorothiazide sodium and potassium which were produced by spray drying and had a large specific surface area. The tablet hardness and tensile strength, porosity, and specific surface area of single-component, convex tablets prepared at different compression pressures were characterized. Results confirmed the complexity of the compressibility mechanisms. In general it may be concluded that factors such as solid-state form (crystalline vs amorphous), type of hydration (presence of interstitial molecules of water, dehydrates), or specific surface area of the material have a direct impact on the tabletability of the powder. It was observed that, for powders of the same solid state form, those with a larger specific surface area compacted well, and better than powders of a lower surface area, even at relatively low compression pressures. Compacts prepared at lower compression pressures from high surface area porous microparticles presented the shortest times to dissolve, when compared with compacts made of equivalent materials, which had to be compressed at higher compression pressures in order to obtain satisfactory compacts. Therefore, materials composed of nanoparticulate microparticles (NPMPs) may be considered as suitable for direct compaction and possibly for inclusion in tablet formulations as bulking agents, APIs, carriers, or binders due to their good compactibility performance. PMID:23961942

  1. Area-Specific Cell Stimulation via Surface-Mediated Gene Transfer Using Apatite-Based Composite Layers

    PubMed Central

    Yazaki, Yushin; Oyane, Ayako; Sogo, Yu; Ito, Atsuo; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Tsurushima, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Surface-mediated gene transfer systems using biocompatible calcium phosphate (CaP)-based composite layers have attracted attention as a tool for controlling cell behaviors. In the present study we aimed to demonstrate the potential of CaP-based composite layers to mediate area-specific dual gene transfer and to stimulate cells on an area-by-area basis in the same well. For this purpose we prepared two pairs of DNA–fibronectin–apatite composite (DF-Ap) layers using a pair of reporter genes and pair of differentiation factor genes. The results of the area-specific dual gene transfer successfully demonstrated that the cells cultured on a pair of DF-Ap layers that were adjacently placed in the same well showed specific gene expression patterns depending on the gene that was immobilized in theunderlying layer. Moreover, preliminary real-time PCR results indicated that multipotential C3H10T1/2 cells may have a potential to change into different types of cells depending on the differentiation factor gene that was immobilized in the underlying layer, even in the same well. Because DF-Ap layers have a potential to mediate area-specific cell stimulation on their surfaces, they could be useful in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25874757

  2. A comparison of specific surface area and crystallization kinetics in compact and porous amorphous solid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, V. J.; Mate, B.; Roriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Galvez, O.; Moreno, M. A.; Escribano, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    In astronomical ices, both compact and porous morphologies can be expected depending on the particular ice history [1]. These different morphologies might be relevant for the interpretation of astronomical observations as demonstrated in recent works [2], where the characteristic ν4 band of NH4+ at 6.85 μm, used in tentative identifications of this ion in astronomical observations, was shown to broaden and virtually disappear, when embedded in compact ice samples. In this work we present a more detailed characterization of the compact ices used in ref. [2], which are produced in the laboratory through the sudden freezing of water droplets on a cold substrate, a procedure similar to that reported by Loerting et al. [3] for the generation of hyperquenched (HQ) glassy water. The present study is based on infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy measurements of the solids. The compactness, specific surface area (SSA), and crystallization kinetics of the HQ samples is compared to that of vapour deposited (VD) ices. SSA values are estimated from the isothermal adsorption of CH4 and CO2 at 40 and 90 K. The rates of crystallization are determined at several temperatures up to 150 K by monitoring the position and width of the OD stretching band of isolated HDO molecules in ice samples with a 4% HDO content (see ref. [4] for a previous application of the method). From these experiments we derive the conclusions that follow. The much higher porosity of the VD samples is immediately evidenced by the IR absorption peak of uncoordinated OH dangling bonds, which is practically absent in the HQ ices. The SSA values for the HQ ices are about one order of magnitude lower than those for VD ices, and likewise, the rates of crystallization, are also found to be lower in HQ than in VD ices. These results, and their likely astrophysical implications, will be discussed at the conference. This work has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science under Grants FIS2007-61686 and FIS2010

  3. Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protected areas are the most common and important instrument for the conservation of biological diversity and are called for under the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. Growing human population densities, intensified land-use, invasive species and increasing habitat fragmentation threaten ecosystems worldwide and protected areas are often the only refuge for endangered species. Climate change is posing an additional threat that may also impact ecosystems currently under protection. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to include the potential impact of climate change when designing future nature conservation strategies and implementing protected area management. This approach would go beyond reactive crisis management and, by necessity, would include anticipatory risk assessments. One avenue for doing so is being provided by simulation models that take advantage of the increase in computing capacity and performance that has occurred over the last two decades. Here we review the literature to determine the state-of-the-art in modeling terrestrial protected areas under climate change, with the aim of evaluating and detecting trends and gaps in the current approaches being employed, as well as to provide a useful overview and guidelines for future research. Results Most studies apply statistical, bioclimatic envelope models and focus primarily on plant species as compared to other taxa. Very few studies utilize a mechanistic, process-based approach and none examine biotic interactions like predation and competition. Important factors like land-use, habitat fragmentation, invasion and dispersal are rarely incorporated, restricting the informative value of the resulting predictions considerably. Conclusion The general impression that emerges is that biodiversity conservation in protected areas could benefit from the application of modern modeling approaches to a greater extent than is currently reflected in the scientific literature. It is

  4. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  5. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  6. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  7. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  8. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  9. Auditory imagery modulates frequency-specific areas in the human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jihoon; Kwon, Jae Hyung; Yang, Po Song; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2013-02-01

    Neural responses in early sensory areas are influenced by top-down processing. In the visual system, early visual areas have been shown to actively participate in top-down processing based on their topographical properties. Although it has been suggested that the auditory cortex is involved in top-down control, functional evidence of topographic modulation is still lacking. Here, we show that mental auditory imagery for familiar melodies induces significant activation in the frequency-responsive areas of the primary auditory cortex (PAC). This activation is related to the characteristics of the imagery: when subjects were asked to imagine high-frequency melodies, we observed increased activation in the high- versus low-frequency response area; when the subjects were asked to imagine low-frequency melodies, the opposite was observed. Furthermore, we found that A1 is more closely related to the observed frequency-related modulation than R in tonotopic subfields of the PAC. Our findings suggest that top-down processing in the auditory cortex relies on a mechanism similar to that used in the perception of external auditory stimuli, which is comparable to early visual systems. PMID:22905820

  10. Analyzing Student Performance in Specific Subject Area Indicators on the ETS Major Field Test in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settlage, Daniel Murray; Wollscheid, Jim R.

    2015-01-01

    The Major Field Test is a commonly used assessment instrument, but little emphasis has been put on analyzing student-level subject area indicator scores. The Educational Testing Service recently made these data available to institutions, and it is analyzed here. This analysis builds on previous work by incorporating demographic and programmatic…

  11. Chlorine-Induced In Situ Regulation to Synthesize Graphene Frameworks with Large Specific Area for Excellent Supercapacitor Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanyan; Cui, Huijuan; Meng, Xin; Zheng, Jianfeng; Yang, Pengju; Li, Li; Wang, Zhijian; Jia, Suping; Zhu, Zhenping

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) graphene frameworks are usually limited by a complicated preparation process and a low specific surface area. This paper presents a facile suitable approach to effectively synthesize 3D graphene frameworks (GFs) with large specific surface area (up to 1018 m(2) g(-1)) through quick thermal decomposition from sodium chloroacetate, which are considerably larger than those of sodium acetate reported in our recent study. The chlorine element in sodium chloroacetate may possess a strong capability to induce in situ activation and regulate graphene formation during pyrolysis in one step. These GFs can be applied as excellent electrode materials for supercapacitors and can achieve an enhanced supercapacitor performance with a specific capacitance of 266 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1). PMID:26902453

  12. Optimization of orbital assignment and specification of service areas in satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Cou-Way; Levis, Curt A.; Buyukdura, O. Merih

    1987-01-01

    The mathematical nature of the orbital and frequency assignment problem for communications satellites is explored, and it is shown that choosing the correct permutations of the orbit locations and frequency assignments is an important step in arriving at values which satisfy the signal-quality requirements. Two methods are proposed to achieve better spectrum/orbit utilization. The first, called the delta S concept, leads to orbital assignment solutions via either mixed-integer or restricted basis entry linear programming techniques; the method guarantees good single-entry carrier-to-interference ratio results. In the second, a basis for specifying service areas is proposed for the Fixed Satellite Service. It is suggested that service areas should be specified according to the communications-demand density in conjunction with the delta S concept in order to enable the system planner to specify more satellites and provide more communications supply.

  13. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  14. Ecoclimatic indicators to study climate suitability of areas for the cultivation of specific crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caubel, J.; Garcia de Cortazar Atauri, I.; Cufi, J.; Huard, F.; Launay, M.; Ripoche, D.; Graux, A.; deNoblet, N.

    2013-12-01

    Climatic conditions play a fundamental role in the suitability of geographical areas for cropping. In the context of climate change, we could expect changes in overall climatic conditions and so, on the suitability for cropping. Therefore, assessing the future climate suitability of areas for cropping is decisive for anticipating agriculture in a given area. Moreover, it is crucial to have access to the split up information concerning the effect of climate on the achievement of the main ecophysiological processes and cultural practices taking place during the crop cycle. In this way, stakeholders can envisage land use adaptations under climate change conditions, such as changes in cultural practices or development of new varieties for example. We proposed an aggregation tool of ecoclimatic indicators to design evaluation trees of climate suitability of areas for cropping, GETARI (Generic Evaluation Tool of Ecoclimatic Indicators). It calculates an overall climate suitability index at the annual scale, from a designed evaluation tree. This aggregation tool allows to characterize climate suitability according to crop ecophysiology, grain/fruit quality or crop management. GETARI proposes the major ecophysiological processes and cultural practices taking place during phenological periods, together with the climatic effects that are known to affect their achievement. The climatic effects on the ecophysiological processes (or cultural practices) during phenological periods are captured by the ecoclimatic indicators, which are agroclimatic indicators calculated over phenological periods. They give information about crop response to climate through ecophysiological or agronomic thresholds. Those indices of suitability are normalized and aggregated according to aggregation rules in order to compute an overall climate index. In order to illustrate how GETARI can be used, we designed evaluation trees in order to study the climate suitability for maize cropping regarding

  15. Training of binocular rivalry suppression suggests stimulus-specific plasticity in monocular and binocular visual areas

    PubMed Central

    Vergeer, Mark; Wagemans, Johan; van Ee, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The plasticity of the human brain, as shown in perceptual learning, is generally reflected by improved task performance after training. Here, we show that perceptual suppression can be increased through training. In the first experiment, binocular rivalry suppression of a specific orientation was trained, leading to a relative reduction in sensitivity to the trained orientation. In a second experiment, two orthogonal orientations were suppressed in alternating training blocks, in the left and right eye, respectively. This double-training procedure lead to reduced sensitivity for the orientation that was suppression-trained in each specific eye, implying that training of feature suppression is specific for the eye in which the oriented grating was presented during training. Results of a control experiment indicate that the obtained effects are indeed due to suppression during training, instead of being merely due to the repetitive presentation of the oriented gratings. Visual plasticity is essential for a person’s visual development. The finding that plasticity can result in increased perceptual suppression reported here may prove to be significant in understanding human visual development. It emphasizes that for stable vision, not only the enhancement of relevant signals is crucial, but also the reliable and stable suppression of (task) irrelevant signals. PMID:27160838

  16. Training of binocular rivalry suppression suggests stimulus-specific plasticity in monocular and binocular visual areas.

    PubMed

    Vergeer, Mark; Wagemans, Johan; van Ee, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The plasticity of the human brain, as shown in perceptual learning, is generally reflected by improved task performance after training. Here, we show that perceptual suppression can be increased through training. In the first experiment, binocular rivalry suppression of a specific orientation was trained, leading to a relative reduction in sensitivity to the trained orientation. In a second experiment, two orthogonal orientations were suppressed in alternating training blocks, in the left and right eye, respectively. This double-training procedure lead to reduced sensitivity for the orientation that was suppression-trained in each specific eye, implying that training of feature suppression is specific for the eye in which the oriented grating was presented during training. Results of a control experiment indicate that the obtained effects are indeed due to suppression during training, instead of being merely due to the repetitive presentation of the oriented gratings. Visual plasticity is essential for a person's visual development. The finding that plasticity can result in increased perceptual suppression reported here may prove to be significant in understanding human visual development. It emphasizes that for stable vision, not only the enhancement of relevant signals is crucial, but also the reliable and stable suppression of (task) irrelevant signals. PMID:27160838

  17. Memory performance and area-specific self-regulation of slow cortical potentials: dual-task interference.

    PubMed

    Lutzenberger, W; Roberts, L E; Birbaumer, N

    1993-11-01

    We examined the effect of area-specific feedback for slow potentials on sensorimotor and memory performance under single and dual-task conditions. Subjects observed a memory set for 400 ms and then determined 5 s later whether a target letter had been contained in the original presentation (Sternberg task). After one session of Sternberg-only training, feedback training was added for production of negative and positive slow potentials area-specifically at Fz, Cz or Pz during the 5-s interval separating the memory set and target probes. Addition of the feedback task resulted in an increase in Sternberg response latency and errors which was followed by gradual recovery over five dual-task sessions (recovery not complete for the error measure). Subjects successfully regulated their slow potentials, but only in an area-nonspecific fashion, even though area-specific control was observed in an earlier study under a feedback-only condition. Sternberg performance did not depend on whether slow potential negativity or positivity was produced. These findings indicate that competition between tasks was a more important determinant of performance than was modulation of dendritic polarization by feedback-induced slow potentials. PMID:8119840

  18. Layer- and area-specific actions of norepinephrine on cortical synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Humberto; Treviño, Mario; Atzori, Marco

    2016-06-15

    The cerebral cortex is a critical target of the central noradrenergic system. The importance of norepinephrine (NE) in the regulation of cortical activity is underscored by clinical findings that involve this catecholamine and its receptor subtypes in the regulation of a large number of emotional and cognitive functions and illnesses. In this review, we highlight diverse effects of the LC/NE system in the mammalian cortex. Indeed, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral studies in the last few decades reveal that NE elicits a mixed repertoire of excitatory, inhibitory, and biphasic effects on the firing activity and transmitter release of cortical neurons. At the intrinsic cellular level, NE can produce a series of effects similar to those elicited by other monoamines or acetylcholine, associated with systemic arousal. At the synaptic level, NE induces numerous acute changes in synaptic function, and ׳gates' the induction of long-term plasticity of glutamatergic synapses, consisting in an enhancement of engaged and relevant cortical synapses and/or depression of unengaged synapses. Equally important in shaping cortical function, in many cortical areas NE promotes a characteristic, most often reversible, increase in the gain of local inhibitory synapses, whose extent and temporal properties vary between different areas and sometimes even between cortical layers of the same area. While we are still a long way from a comprehensive theory of the function of the LC/NE system, its cellular, synaptic, and plastic effects are consistent with the hypothesis that noradrenergic modulation is critical in coordinating the activity of cortical and subcortical circuits for the integration of sensory activity and working memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26820639

  19. Synthesis of rose-like boron nitride particles with a high specific surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hongming; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Wen, Guangwu; Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Hongwei

    2010-08-15

    Novel rose-like BN nanostructures were synthesized on a large scale via a two-step procedure. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and nitrogen porosimetry. The results show that the obtained rose-like nanostructures are composed of a large amount of h-BN crystalline flakes and have a surface area of 90.31 m{sup 2}/g. A mechanism was proposed to explain the formation process of the rose-like BN nanostructures.

  20. Jazz drummers recruit language-specific areas for the processing of rhythmic structure.

    PubMed

    Herdener, Marcus; Humbel, Thierry; Esposito, Fabrizio; Habermeyer, Benedikt; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja; Seifritz, Erich

    2014-03-01

    Rhythm is a central characteristic of music and speech, the most important domains of human communication using acoustic signals. Here, we investigated how rhythmical patterns in music are processed in the human brain, and, in addition, evaluated the impact of musical training on rhythm processing. Using fMRI, we found that deviations from a rule-based regular rhythmic structure activated the left planum temporale together with Broca's area and its right-hemispheric homolog across subjects, that is, a network also crucially involved in the processing of harmonic structure in music and the syntactic analysis of language. Comparing the BOLD responses to rhythmic variations between professional jazz drummers and musical laypersons, we found that only highly trained rhythmic experts show additional activity in left-hemispheric supramarginal gyrus, a higher-order region involved in processing of linguistic syntax. This suggests an additional functional recruitment of brain areas usually dedicated to complex linguistic syntax processing for the analysis of rhythmical patterns only in professional jazz drummers, who are especially trained to use rhythmical cues for communication. PMID:23183709

  1. Region-Specific Summation Patterns Inform the Role of Cortical Areas in Selecting Motor Plans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Steve W C; Calton, Jeffrey L; Lawrence, Bonnie M; Dickinson, Anthony R; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2016-05-01

    Given an instruction regarding which effector to move and what location to move to, simply adding the effector and spatial signals together will not lead to movement selection. For this, a nonlinearity is required. Thresholds, for example, can be used to select a particular response and reject others. Here we consider another useful nonlinearity, a supralinear multiplicative interaction. To help select a motor plan, spatial and effector signals could multiply and thereby amplify each other. Such an amplification could constitute one step within a distributed network involved in response selection, effectively boosting one response while suppressing others. We therefore asked whether effector and spatial signals sum supralinearly for planning eye versus arm movements from the parietal reach region (PRR), the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), the frontal eye field (FEF), and a portion of area 5 (A5) lying just anterior to PRR. Unlike LIP neurons, PRR, FEF, and, to a lesser extent, A5 neurons show a supralinear interaction. Our results suggest that selecting visually guided eye versus arm movements is likely to be mediated by PRR and FEF but not LIP. PMID:25778345

  2. Pressure load on specific body areas of gestating sows lying on rubber mats with different softness.

    PubMed

    Schubbert, A; Hartung, E; Schrader, L

    2014-08-01

    Rubber mats offer a possibility to increase lying comfort for sows with positive effects on sow lying behavior and health. However, until now, no information has been reported about the relationship between the softness of rubber mats and the pressure load on certain body areas of sows. We used a total of 68 (40 multiparous, 28 primiparous) German Landrace × German Landrace sows with a BW within the range of 90 to 330 kg (divided in 3 weight classes) to measure peak force and distribution of pressure during lying in the sternal and half recumbent position. Measures were done in an experimental pen that was equipped with a pressure sensor map system (5400 NTL; Tekscan Inc., Boston, MA). Three rubber mats differing in softness (penetration depth: hard mat, 4.0 mm [HM]; soft mat, 14.6 mm [SM]; very soft mat, 43.0 mm [VSM]) were tested and compared to concrete floor (CF) as a reference. Pressure load was analyzed in the sternal position for the sternum, belly, and ham body regions and also in the half recumbent position for the shoulder. For each lying position we determined the body region with the highest pressure load and analyzed the peak force (PF) and the contact area (CA) using a mixed model ANOVA (MIXED procedure of SAS Enterprise, version 4.3., SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) with floor type, weight class of sows, and their interaction as fixed factors. Overall, the highest values for PF in the sternal position were found on the sternum (median: 1.62 N/cm(2)) and in the half recumbent position on the shoulder (median: 2.72 N/cm(2)). In the sternal position PF on the sternum was lower on VSM compared to CF (P = 0.001). In the half-recumbent position PF on the shoulder was lower on VSM compared to CF (P = 0.013) and compared to HM (P = 0.011). The weight of the sows affected PF on the sternum in the sternal position, with lower values in weight class 1 compared to weight class 2 (P = 0.001) and weight class 3 (P = 0.002). Contact area under the sternum was larger on

  3. Subject-specific computational modeling of DBS in the PPTg area

    PubMed Central

    Zitella, Laura M.; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Yager, Paul; Hudson, Heather M.; Brintz, Katelynn; Duchin, Yuval; Harel, Noam; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Baker, Kenneth B.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) has been proposed to alleviate medically intractable gait difficulties associated with Parkinson's disease. Clinical trials have shown somewhat variable outcomes, stemming in part from surgical targeting variability, modulating fiber pathways implicated in side effects, and a general lack of mechanistic understanding of DBS in this brain region. Subject-specific computational models of DBS are a promising tool to investigate the underlying therapy and side effects. In this study, a parkinsonian rhesus macaque was implanted unilaterally with an 8-contact DBS lead in the PPTg region. Fiber tracts adjacent to PPTg, including the oculomotor nerve, central tegmental tract, and superior cerebellar peduncle, were reconstructed from a combination of pre-implant 7T MRI, post-implant CT, and post-mortem histology. These structures were populated with axon models and coupled with a finite element model simulating the voltage distribution in the surrounding neural tissue during stimulation. This study introduces two empirical approaches to evaluate model parameters. First, incremental monopolar cathodic stimulation (20 Hz, 90 μs pulse width) was evaluated for each electrode, during which a right eyelid flutter was observed at the proximal four contacts (−1.0 to −1.4 mA). These current amplitudes followed closely with model predicted activation of the oculomotor nerve when assuming an anisotropic conduction medium. Second, PET imaging was collected OFF-DBS and twice during DBS (two different contacts), which supported the model predicted activation of the central tegmental tract and superior cerebellar peduncle. Together, subject-specific models provide a framework to more precisely predict pathways modulated by DBS. PMID:26236229

  4. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  5. Specific conductance and dissolved chloride concentrations of freshwater aquifers and streams in petroleum producing areas in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Specific conductance and dissolved chloride reconnasissance sampling was conducted in six oil-producing areas of Mississippi during periods of low streamflow in 1980 and 1981. Water samples were collected at 224 ground-water and 190 suface-water sites. Samples from 55 surface-water and 17 ground-water sites contained dissolved chloride concentrations in excess of 100 milligrams per liter. All data collected are presented in tables without interpretation. (USGS)

  6. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  7. Layer-specific potentiation of network GABAergic inhibition in the CA1 area of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Colavita, Michelangelo; Terral, Geoffrey; Lemercier, Clement E.; Drago, Filippo; Marsicano, Giovanni; Massa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important functions of GABAergic inhibition in cortical regions is the tight control of spatiotemporal activity of principal neuronal ensembles. However, electrophysiological recordings do not provide sufficient spatial information to determine the spatiotemporal properties of inhibitory plasticity. Using Voltage Sensitive Dye Imaging (VSDI) in mouse hippocampal slices, we demonstrate that GABAA-mediated field inhibitory postsynaptic potentials undergo layer-specific potentiation upon activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu). VSDI recordings allowed detection of pharmacologically isolated GABAA-dependent hyperpolarization signals. Bath-application of the selective group-I mGlu receptor agonist, (S)-3,5-Dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), induces an enhancement of the GABAergic VSDI-recorded signal, which is more or less pronounced in different hippocampal layers. This potentiation is mediated by mGlu5 and downstream activation of IP3 receptors. Our results depict network GABAergic activity in the hippocampal CA1 region and its sub-layers, showing also a novel form of inhibitory synaptic plasticity tightly coupled to glutamatergic activity. PMID:27345695

  8. DC conductivity, cationic exchange capacity, and specific surface area related to chemical composition of pore lining chlorites.

    PubMed

    Henn, François; Durand, Claudine; Cerepi, Adrian; Brosse, Etienne; Giuntini, J C

    2007-07-15

    Low resistivity in argillaceous sandstone reservoirs may be attributed either to the effect of microporosity, or to specific effects due to intrinsic clays' conducting properties or to other conducting minerals. In order to distinguish these effects, cation exchange capacity, specific surface areas, and dc conductivity of various pore lining chlorite-bearing sandstones from different hydrocarbon reservoir measurements are investigated. Cation exchange capacity and specific surface area are measured on whole rocks as well as on size-separated fractions. Both sets of values are low, in agreement with the structural and textural observations. The conductivity of these chlorites, measured in air conditions and after dehydration, is investigated by means of complex impedance spectroscopy on size-separated fractions as a function of temperature and compared to that of reference clays. The results show a large influence of moisture, applied electric field frequency, and temperature on the electrical properties. The magnitude of the dehydrated clays' conductivity is such that its influence on the conductivity of argillaceous sandstone is lower than that related to the presence of water or brine by several orders of magnitude. The dc conductivity and the related activation energy of the dehydrated samples appear to be related to the chemical composition of the clays. More specifically, a clear correlation occurs with the electrical charges of the clay network, that is to say with the location, i.e., tetrahedral or octahedral sites, of the substituting trivalent elements. PMID:17433348

  9. Site-specific landslide assessment in Alpine area using a reliable integrated monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Saverio; Di Matteo, Lucio; Kieffer, Daniel Scott

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are one of major cause of landslide fatalities around the world. The present work discusses the reliability of integrated monitoring of displacements in a rockfall within the Alpine region (Salzburg Land - Austria), taking into account also the effect of the ongoing climate change. Due to the unpredictability of the frequency and magnitude, that threatens human lives and infrastructure, frequently it is necessary to implement an efficient monitoring system. For this reason, during the last decades, integrated monitoring systems of unstable slopes were widely developed and used (e.g., extensometers, cameras, remote sensing, etc.). In this framework, Remote Sensing techniques, such as GBInSAR technique (Groung-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar), have emerged as efficient and powerful tools for deformation monitoring. GBInSAR measurements can be useful to achieve an early warning system using surface deformation parameters as ground displacement or inverse velocity (for semi-empirical forecasting methods). In order to check the reliability of GBInSAR and to monitor the evolution of landslide, it is very important to integrate different techniques. Indeed, a multi-instrumental approach is essential to investigate movements both in surface and in depth and the use of different monitoring techniques allows to perform a cross analysis of the data and to minimize errors, to check the data quality and to improve the monitoring system. During 2013, an intense and complete monitoring campaign has been conducted on the Ingelsberg landslide. By analyzing both historical temperature series (HISTALP) recorded during the last century and those from local weather stations, temperature values (Autumn-Winter, Winter and Spring) are clearly increased in Bad Hofgastein area as well as in Alpine region. As consequence, in the last decades the rockfall events have been shifted from spring to summer due to warmer winters. It is interesting to point out that

  10. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  11. Enhancing the available specific surface area of carbon supports to boost the electroactivity of nanostructured Pt catalysts.

    PubMed

    Holade, Yaovi; Morais, Claudia; Servat, Karine; Napporn, Teko W; Kokoh, K Boniface

    2014-12-14

    We report increasing improvements in the available specific surface area of the commonly used Vulcan XC 72R and Ketjenblack EC-600JD carbons by simple thermal pre-treatment. The treated Vulcan and Ketjenblack substrates have a specific surface area of 322 and 1631 m(2) g(-1), respectively, instead of 262 and 1102 m(2) g(-1) for the as-received materials, which is a 23 and 48% improvement. Subsequently, when used as platinum nanoparticle (3 nm) supports, the electrochemical active surface area is enhanced by factors of 2.2 and 1.2 for treated Vulcan and Ketjenblack carbons, respectively. Furthermore, electrochemical investigations have highlighted a surprisingly improved catalytic activity for the pre-treated Vulcan XC 72R and Ketjenblack EC-600JD supported Pt nanoparticles. In fact, the synthesized nanostructures from the so-called "Bromide Anion Exchange" method exhibit good catalytic activity toward glucose electrooxidation, both in the alkaline medium and the phosphate buffered solution at pH 7.4. More importantly, the present catalysts are four times more active than those in the literature prepared under similar conditions for glucose dehydrogenation at low potential (0.27 V vs. Reversible Hydrogen Electrode). Consequently, these remarkable trends uncovered herein provide ample new strategic routes for the pre-treatment of Vulcan XC 72R and Ketjenblack carbons for widespread uses. PMID:25351933

  12. Awake vs. anesthetized: layer-specific sensory processing in visual cortex and functional connectivity between cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Kristin K.; Bennett, Davis V.; Hutt, Axel; Williams, James H.

    2015-01-01

    During general anesthesia, global brain activity and behavioral state are profoundly altered. Yet it remains mostly unknown how anesthetics alter sensory processing across cortical layers and modulate functional cortico-cortical connectivity. To address this gap in knowledge of the micro- and mesoscale effects of anesthetics on sensory processing in the cortical microcircuit, we recorded multiunit activity and local field potential in awake and anesthetized ferrets (Mustela putoris furo) during sensory stimulation. To understand how anesthetics alter sensory processing in a primary sensory area and the representation of sensory input in higher-order association areas, we studied the local sensory responses and long-range functional connectivity of primary visual cortex (V1) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Isoflurane combined with xylazine provided general anesthesia for all anesthetized recordings. We found that anesthetics altered the duration of sensory-evoked responses, disrupted the response dynamics across cortical layers, suppressed both multimodal interactions in V1 and sensory responses in PFC, and reduced functional cortico-cortical connectivity between V1 and PFC. Together, the present findings demonstrate altered sensory responses and impaired functional network connectivity during anesthesia at the level of multiunit activity and local field potential across cortical layers. PMID:25833839

  13. Awake vs. anesthetized: layer-specific sensory processing in visual cortex and functional connectivity between cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Kristin K; Bennett, Davis V; Hutt, Axel; Williams, James H; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    During general anesthesia, global brain activity and behavioral state are profoundly altered. Yet it remains mostly unknown how anesthetics alter sensory processing across cortical layers and modulate functional cortico-cortical connectivity. To address this gap in knowledge of the micro- and mesoscale effects of anesthetics on sensory processing in the cortical microcircuit, we recorded multiunit activity and local field potential in awake and anesthetized ferrets (Mustela putoris furo) during sensory stimulation. To understand how anesthetics alter sensory processing in a primary sensory area and the representation of sensory input in higher-order association areas, we studied the local sensory responses and long-range functional connectivity of primary visual cortex (V1) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Isoflurane combined with xylazine provided general anesthesia for all anesthetized recordings. We found that anesthetics altered the duration of sensory-evoked responses, disrupted the response dynamics across cortical layers, suppressed both multimodal interactions in V1 and sensory responses in PFC, and reduced functional cortico-cortical connectivity between V1 and PFC. Together, the present findings demonstrate altered sensory responses and impaired functional network connectivity during anesthesia at the level of multiunit activity and local field potential across cortical layers. PMID:25833839

  14. Relationship between Maximum Leaf Photosynthesis, Nitrogen Content and Specific Leaf Area in Balearic Endemic and Non‐endemic Mediterranean Species

    PubMed Central

    GULÍAS, JAVIER; FLEXAS, JAUME; MUS, MAURICI; CIFRE, JOSEP; LEFI, ELKADRI; MEDRANO, HIPÓLITO

    2003-01-01

    Gas exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen content and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured in situ on 73 C3 and five C4 plant species in Mallorca, west Mediterranean, to test whether species endemic to the Balearic Islands differed from widespread, non‐endemic Mediterranean species and crops in their leaf traits and trait inter‐relationships. Endemic species differed significantly from widespread species and crops in several parameters; in particular, photosynthetic capacity, on an area basis (A), was 20 % less in endemics than in non‐endemics. Similar differences between endemics and non‐endemics were found in parameters such as SLA and leaf nitrogen content per area (Na). Nevertheless, most of the observed differences were found only within the herbaceous deciduous species. These could be due to the fact that most of the non‐endemic species within this group have adapted to ruderal areas, while none of the endemics occupies this kind of habitat. All the species—including the crops—showed a positive, highly significant correlation between photosynthetic capacity on a mass basis (Am), leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis (Nm) and SLA. However, endemic species had a lower Am for any given SLA and Nm. Hypotheses are presented to explain these differences, and their possible role in reducing the distribution of many endemic Balearic species is discussed. PMID:12805082

  15. "False" cytotoxicity of ions-adsorbing hydroxyapatite - Corrected method of cytotoxicity evaluation for ceramics of high specific surface area.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Katarzyna; Belcarz, Anna; Pazik, Robert; Sobierajska, Paulina; Han, Tomasz; Wiglusz, Rafal J; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2016-08-01

    An assessment of biomaterial cytotoxicity is a prerequisite for evaluation of its clinical potential. A material is considered toxic while the cell viability decreases under 70% of the control. However, extracts of certain materials are likely to reduce the cell viability due to the intense ions adsorption from culture medium (e.g. highly bioactive ceramics of high surface area). Thus, the standard ISO 10993-5 procedure is inappropriate for cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramics of high specific surface area because biomaterial extract obtained in this method (ions-depleted medium) is not optimal for cell cultures per se. Therefore, a simple test was designed as an alternative to ISO 10993-5 standard for cytotoxicity evaluation of the biomaterials of high surface area and high ions absorption capacity. The method, presented in this paper, included the evaluation of ceramics extract prepared according to corrected procedure. The corrected extract was found not cytotoxic (cell viability above 70%), suggesting that modified method for cytotoxicity evaluation of ions-adsorbing ceramics is more appropriate than ISO 10993-5 standard. For such biomaterials, the term "false" cytotoxicity is more suitable. Moreover, it was noted that NRU assay and microscopic observations should be recommended for cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramics of high surface area. PMID:27157729

  16. Spatial and temporal variations in leaf area index, specific leaf area and leaf nitrogen of two co-occurring savanna tree species.

    PubMed

    Simioni, Guillaume; Gignoux, Jacques; Le Roux, Xavier; Appé, Raphaëlle; Benest, Daniele

    2004-02-01

    Foliage growth, mass- and area-based leaf nitrogen concentrations (Nm and N a) and specific leaf area (SLA) were surveyed during a complete vegetation cycle for two co-occurring savanna tree species: Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel. ex G. Don) Benth. and Cussonia arborea A. Rich. The study was conducted in the natural reserve of Lamto, Ivory Coast, on isolated and clumped trees. Leaf flush occurred before the beginning of the rainy season. Maximum leaf area index (LAI), computed on a projected canopy basis for individual trees, was similar (mean of about 4) for both species. Seasonal courses of the ratio of actual to maximum LAI were similar for individuals of the same species, but differed between species. For C. febrifuga, clumped trees reached their maximum LAI before isolated trees. The LAI of C. arborea trees did not differ between clumped and isolated individuals, but maximum LAI was reached about 2 months later than for C. febrifuga. Leaf fall was associated with decreasing soil water content for C. arborea. For C. febrifuga, leaf fall started before the end of the rainy period and was independent of changes in soil water content. These features lead to a partial niche separation in time for light resource acquisition between the two species. Although Nm, N a and SLA decreased with time, SLA and N a decreased later in the vegetation cycle for C. arborea than for C. febrifuga. For both species, N a decreased and SLA increased with decreasing leaf irradiance within the canopy, although effects of light on leaf characteristics did not differ between isolated and clumped trees. Given relationships between N a and photosynthetic capacities previously reported for these species, our results show that C. arborea exhibits higher photosynthetic capacity than C. febrifuga during most of the vegetation cycle and at all irradiances. PMID:14676036

  17. Expression of area-specific M2-macrophage phenotype by recruited rat monocytes in duct-ligation pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Enqiao; Goto, Mataro; Ueta, Hisashi; Kitazawa, Yusuke; Sawanobori, Yasushi; Kariya, Taro; Sasaki, Masaru; Matsuno, Kenjiro

    2016-06-01

    Acute pancreatitis remains a disease of uncertain pathogenesis and no established specific therapy. Previously, we found a predominant increase and active proliferation of macrophages in the inflamed tissues of a rat duct-ligation pancreatitis model. To analyze the origin and possible role of these macrophages, we investigated their in situ cellular kinetics in a rat model of duct-ligation pancreatitis using a recently established method of multicolor immunostaining for macrophage markers and for proliferating cells with ethynyl deoxyuridine. To detect monocyte-derived macrophages, green fluorescent protein-transgenic (GFP(+)) leukocytes were transferred to monocyte-depleted recipients. In the inflamed pancreas, infiltrating macrophages were mainly two phenotypes, CD68(+)CD163(-) round cells and CD68(+)CD163(+) large polygonal cells, both of which showed active proliferation. In the interlobular area, the proportions of CD68(+)CD163(low) and CD68(+)CD163(high) cells increased over time. Most expressed the M2-macrophage markers CD206 and arginase 1. In contrast, in the interacinar area, CD68(+) cells did not upregulate CD163 and CD206, but ~30 % of them expressed the M1 marker nitric oxide synthase 2 on day 4. GFP(+)-recruited cells were primarily CD68(+)CD163(-) monocytes on day 1 and showed phenotypic changes similar to those of the monocyte non-depleted groups. In conclusion, infiltrating macrophages mostly formed two distinct subpopulations in different areas: monocyte-derived macrophages with the M2 phenotype in the interlobular area or non-M2 phenotype in the interacinar area. Involvement of resident macrophages might be minor in this model. These results are the first demonstration of an upregulated M2 phenotype in rat inflammatory monocytes, which may promote tissue repair. PMID:26860866

  18. Biotemplated synthesis of high specific surface area copper-doped hollow spherical titania and its photocatalytic research for degradating chlorotetracycline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Dan; Zhuang, Huisheng

    2013-01-01

    Copper-doped titania (Cu/TiO2) hollow microspheres were fabricated using the rape pollen as biotemplates via an improved sol-gel method and a followed calcinations process. In the fabricated process, a titanium(IV)-isopropoxide-based sol directly coated onto the surface of rape pollen. Subsequently, after calcinations, rape pollen was removed by high temperature and the hollow microsphere structure was retained. The average diameter of as-obtained hollow microspheres is 15-20 μm and the thickness of shell is approximately 0.6 μm. Knowing from XRD results, the main crystal phase of microspheres is anatase, coupled with rutile. The specific surface area varied between 141.80 m2/g and 172.51 m2/g. This hollow sphere photocatalysts with high specific surface area exhibited stronger absorption ability and higher photoactivity, stimulated by visible light. The degradation process of chlortetracycline (CTC) solution had been studied. The degradated results indicate that CTC could be effective degradated by fabricated hollow spherical materials. And the intermediate products formed in the photocatalytic process had been identified.

  19. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  20. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  1. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  2. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  3. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  4. Determination of the specific alpha activity of thick sources with a large area ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Djurasević, M; Vukanac, I; Kandić, A; Nadderd, L; Milosević, Z; Radenković, M

    2007-01-01

    A method for determining the specific alpha activity of thick sources using a large area ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector is presented. In this method a quadratic relationship between the detector response and window thickness is assumed. This method provides a quick estimation of alpha activity in the sample, so it is an indicative method. The aim of this experimental work is to approve theoretical assumption and to develop a standard routine method for absolute alpha measurements of thick contaminated environmental sources. For this purpose reference material U(3)O(8) and spiked standards of soil were used. Measurements of contaminated soil samples from south Serbia showed the practical application of this method. PMID:17383779

  5. Brandon mathematical model describing the effect of calcination and reduction parameters on specific surface area of UO2 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Nguyen Trong; Thuan, Le Ba; Van Khoai, Do; Lee, Jin-Young; Jyothi, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) powder has been widely used to prepare fuel pellets for commercial light water nuclear reactors. Among typical characteristics of the powder, specific surface area (SSA) is one of the most important parameter that determines the sintering ability of UO2 powder. This paper built up a mathematical model describing the effect of the fabrication parameters on SSA of UO2 powders. To the best of our knowledge, the Brandon model is used for the first time to describe the relationship between the essential fabrication parameters [reduction temperature (TR), calcination temperature (TC), calcination time (tC) and reduction time (tR)] and SSA of the obtained UO2 powder product. The proposed model was tested with Wilcoxon's rank sum test, showing a good agreement with the experimental parameters. The proposed model can be used to predict and control the SSA of UO2 powder.

  6. Site specific isolated nanostructure array formation on a large area by broad ion beam without any mask and resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Prasanta; Satpati, Biswarup

    2014-06-01

    We report the formation of isolated nanostructure arrays on a large area via broad ion beam implantation without the aid of any mask or resist. Desired ions have been implanted at specific locations of the prefabricated silicon ripple or triangular structures by exploiting the variation of local ion impact angles. We have shown that the implantation of Fe ions on an O+ ions induced pre fabricated triangular shaped patterned Si surface results in a self-organized periodic array of striped magnetic nanostructures having several micron length and about 50 nm width arranged with a spacial separation of ˜200 nm. The morphology, composition, crystalline structure, and magnetic property of these nanopatterns have been analyzed using high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. A geometrical model has been proposed to explain the fundamental features of such ion-induced nanopattern structures.

  7. Variation with thermal cycling in microstructure and area specific resistance of a ferritic stainless steel having rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Myoung Youp; Mumm, Daniel R.; Song, Jiunn

    2013-03-01

    Crofer22 APU specimens were prepared by grinding with grit 120 and 400 SiC grinding papers, and were then thermally cycled. The variation in oxidation behavior with thermal cycling was then investigated. Observation of microstructures, measurement of area-specific resistance (ASR), analysis of the atomic percentages of the elements by EDX, and XRD analysis were performed. XRD patterns showed that the (Cr, Mn)3O4 spinel phase grew on the surface of the Crofer22 APU samples ground using grit 120. For the samples ground with grit 400, ASR increased as the number of thermal cycles ( n) increased. Plots of ln (ASR/T) vs. 1/ T for the samples ground with grit 400 after n = 4, 20, and 40 exhibited good linearity, and the apparent activation energies were between 73.4 kJ/mole and 82.5 kJ/mole.

  8. Partial replication of UV-irradiated T4 bacteriophage DNA results in amplification of specific genetic areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, S.; Vogelbacker, H.H.; Restifo, L.L.; Mattson, T.; Kozinski, A.W.

    1981-11-01

    Upon infection of Escherichia coli with bormodeoxyuridine-labeled T4 phage that had received 10 lethal hits of UV irradiation, a sizable amount of phage DNA was synthesized (approximately 36 phage equivalent units of DNA per infected bacterium), although very little multiplicity reactivation occurs. This progeny DNA was isolated and analyzed. This DNA was biased in its genetic representation, as shown by hybridization to cloned segments of the T4 genome immobilized on nitrocellulose filters. Preferentially amplified areas corresponded to regions containing origins of T4 DNA replication. The size of the progeny DNA increased with time after infection, possibly due to recombination between partial replicas and nonreplicated subunits or due to the gradual overcoming of the UV damage. As the size of the progeny DNA increased, all of the genes were more equally represented, resulting in a decrease in the genetic bias. Amplification of specific genetic areas was also observed upon infection with UV-irradiated, non-bromo-deoxyuridine-substituted (light) phage. However, the genetic bias observed in this case was not as great as that observed with bromodeoxyuridine-substituted phage. This is most likely due to the higher efficiency of multiplicity reactivation of the light phage.

  9. Designing Area Optimized Application-Specific Network-On-Chip Architectures while Providing Hard QoS Guarantees

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Sajid Gul; Mushtaq, Mian Hamza; Khan, Shoab A.; Akram, M. Usman; Jamal, Habib ullah

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of transistors' density, popularity of System on Chip (SoC) has increased exponentially. As a communication module for SoC, Network on Chip (NoC) framework has been adapted as its backbone. In this paper, we propose a methodology for designing area-optimized application specific NoC while providing hard Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees for real time flows. The novelty of the proposed system lies in derivation of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model which is then used to generate a resource optimal Network on Chip (NoC) topology and architecture while considering traffic and QoS requirements. We also present the micro-architectural design features used for enabling traffic and latency guarantees and discuss how the solution adapts for dynamic variations in the application traffic. The paper highlights the effectiveness of proposed method by generating resource efficient NoC solutions for both industrial and benchmark applications. The area-optimized results are generated in few seconds by proposed technique, without resorting to heuristics, even for an application with 48 traffic flows. PMID:25898016

  10. Pathogen-Specific Epitopes as Epidemiological Tools for Defining the Magnitude of Mycobacterium leprae Transmission in Areas Endemic for Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John S.; Hacker, Mariana A. V. B.; Costa, Luciana S.; Carvalho, Fernanda M.; Geluk, Annemieke; van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J.; Pontes, Maria A. A.; Gonçalves, Heitor S.; de Morais, Janvier P.; Bandeira, Tereza J. P. G.; Pessolani, Maria C. V.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Pereira, Geraldo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    During recent years, comparative genomic analysis has allowed the identification of Mycobacterium leprae-specific genes with potential application for the diagnosis of leprosy. In a previous study, 58 synthetic peptides derived from these sequences were tested for their ability to induce production of IFN-γ in PBMC from endemic controls (EC) with unknown exposure to M. leprae, household contacts of leprosy patients and patients, indicating the potential of these synthetic peptides for the diagnosis of sub- or preclinical forms of leprosy. In the present study, the patterns of IFN-γ release of the individuals exposed or non-exposed to M. leprae were compared using an Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and the most promising M. leprae peptides for the identification of exposed people were selected. This subset of M. leprae-specific peptides allowed the differentiation of groups of individuals from sites hyperendemic for leprosy versus those from areas with lower level detection rates. A progressive reduction in the IFN-γ levels in response to the peptides was seen when contacts of multibacillary (MB) patients were compared to other less exposed groups, suggesting a down modulation of IFN-γ production with an increase in bacillary load or exposure to M. leprae. The data generated indicate that an IFN-γ assay based on these peptides applied individually or as a pool can be used as a new tool for predicting the magnitude of M. leprae transmission in a given population. PMID:22545169

  11. Pathogen-specific epitopes as epidemiological tools for defining the magnitude of Mycobacterium leprae transmission in areas endemic for leprosy.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marcia V S B; Guimarães, Marjorie M da S; Spencer, John S; Hacker, Mariana A V B; Costa, Luciana S; Carvalho, Fernanda M; Geluk, Annemieke; van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J; Pontes, Maria A A; Gonçalves, Heitor S; de Morais, Janvier P; Bandeira, Tereza J P G; Pessolani, Maria C V; Brennan, Patrick J; Pereira, Geraldo M B

    2012-01-01

    During recent years, comparative genomic analysis has allowed the identification of Mycobacterium leprae-specific genes with potential application for the diagnosis of leprosy. In a previous study, 58 synthetic peptides derived from these sequences were tested for their ability to induce production of IFN-γ in PBMC from endemic controls (EC) with unknown exposure to M. leprae, household contacts of leprosy patients and patients, indicating the potential of these synthetic peptides for the diagnosis of sub- or preclinical forms of leprosy. In the present study, the patterns of IFN-γ release of the individuals exposed or non-exposed to M. leprae were compared using an Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and the most promising M. leprae peptides for the identification of exposed people were selected. This subset of M. leprae-specific peptides allowed the differentiation of groups of individuals from sites hyperendemic for leprosy versus those from areas with lower level detection rates. A progressive reduction in the IFN-γ levels in response to the peptides was seen when contacts of multibacillary (MB) patients were compared to other less exposed groups, suggesting a down modulation of IFN-γ production with an increase in bacillary load or exposure to M. leprae. The data generated indicate that an IFN-γ assay based on these peptides applied individually or as a pool can be used as a new tool for predicting the magnitude of M. leprae transmission in a given population. PMID:22545169

  12. Area-specific analysis of the distribution of hypothalamic neurons projecting to the rat ventral tegmental area, with special reference to the GABAergic and glutamatergic efferents

    PubMed Central

    Kalló, Imre; Molnár, Csilla S.; Szöke, Sarolta; Fekete, Csaba; Hrabovszky, Erik; Liposits, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a main regulator of reward and integrates a wide scale of hormonal and neuronal information. Feeding-, energy expenditure-, stress, adaptation- and reproduction-related hypothalamic signals are processed in the VTA and influence the reward processes. However, the neuroanatomical origin and chemical phenotype of neurons mediating these signals to the VTA have not been fully characterized. In this study we have systematically mapped hypothalamic neurons that project to the VTA using the retrograde tracer Choleratoxin B subunit (CTB) and analyzed their putative gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and/or glutamate character with in situ hybridization in male rats. 23.93 ± 3.91% of hypothalamic neurons projecting to the VTA was found in preoptic and 76.27 ± 4.88% in anterior, tuberal and mammillary hypothalamic regions. Nearly half of the retrogradely-labeled neurons in the preoptic, and more than one third in the anterior, tuberal and mammillary hypothalamus appeared in medially located regions. The analyses of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) and glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) mRNA expression revealed both amino acid markers in different subsets of retrogradely-labeled hypothalamic neurons, typically with the predominance of the glutamatergic marker VGLUT2. About one tenth of CTB-IR neurons were GAD65-positive even in hypothalamic nuclei expressing primarily VGLUT2. Some regions were populated mostly by GAD65 mRNA-containing retrogradely-labeled neurons. These included the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus where 58.63 ± 19.04% of CTB-IR neurons were GABAergic. These results indicate that both the medial and lateral nuclear compartments of the hypothalamus provide substantial input to the VTA. Furthermore, colocalization studies revealed that these projections not only use glutamate but also GABA for neurotransmission. These GABAergic afferents may underlie important inhibitory mechanism to fine-tune the

  13. Area-specific analysis of the distribution of hypothalamic neurons projecting to the rat ventral tegmental area, with special reference to the GABAergic and glutamatergic efferents.

    PubMed

    Kalló, Imre; Molnár, Csilla S; Szöke, Sarolta; Fekete, Csaba; Hrabovszky, Erik; Liposits, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a main regulator of reward and integrates a wide scale of hormonal and neuronal information. Feeding-, energy expenditure-, stress, adaptation- and reproduction-related hypothalamic signals are processed in the VTA and influence the reward processes. However, the neuroanatomical origin and chemical phenotype of neurons mediating these signals to the VTA have not been fully characterized. In this study we have systematically mapped hypothalamic neurons that project to the VTA using the retrograde tracer Choleratoxin B subunit (CTB) and analyzed their putative gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and/or glutamate character with in situ hybridization in male rats. 23.93 ± 3.91% of hypothalamic neurons projecting to the VTA was found in preoptic and 76.27 ± 4.88% in anterior, tuberal and mammillary hypothalamic regions. Nearly half of the retrogradely-labeled neurons in the preoptic, and more than one third in the anterior, tuberal and mammillary hypothalamus appeared in medially located regions. The analyses of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) and glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) mRNA expression revealed both amino acid markers in different subsets of retrogradely-labeled hypothalamic neurons, typically with the predominance of the glutamatergic marker VGLUT2. About one tenth of CTB-IR neurons were GAD65-positive even in hypothalamic nuclei expressing primarily VGLUT2. Some regions were populated mostly by GAD65 mRNA-containing retrogradely-labeled neurons. These included the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus where 58.63 ± 19.04% of CTB-IR neurons were GABAergic. These results indicate that both the medial and lateral nuclear compartments of the hypothalamus provide substantial input to the VTA. Furthermore, colocalization studies revealed that these projections not only use glutamate but also GABA for neurotransmission. These GABAergic afferents may underlie important inhibitory mechanism to fine-tune the

  14. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6)

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Antonio J.; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F.; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  15. IPv6 addressing proxy: mapping native addressing from legacy technologies and devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6).

    PubMed

    Jara, Antonio J; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  16. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  17. State-dependent pattern of Fos protein expression in regionally-specific sites within the preoptic area of the cat.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Benedetto, Luciana; Lagos, Patricia; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2009-04-24

    Clinical and experimental data have shown that the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) is involved in the generation and maintenance of NREM sleep. However, the activity of specific populations of POA neurons during REM sleep, NREM sleep and different waking conditions is still not firmly established. Consequently, we performed a quantitative, regionally-specific analysis of the Fos immunoreactivity of neurons in the POA of the cat during NREM sleep and REM sleep induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis (REMc), as well as during quiet and alert wakefulness. We observed that while the total number of Fos immunoreactive neurons in the POA did not change as a function of these behavioral states, state-specific differences in neuronal activity were detected in restricted regions of the POA. An increase in the number of Fos+ neurons was observed in the rostral tip of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) during NREM (83.4+/-25.6) compared to quiet wakefulness (5.1+/-1.3, p<0.05) but not with the other behavioral states. In the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN), the number of Fos immunoreactive neurons was greater during NREM sleep (39.5+/-6.1) compared with quiet wakefulness (13.5+/-1.4, p<0.05) and REMc (16.2+/-2.0, p<0.05). State-specific Fos immunoreactive neurons were not observed in the ventro-lateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Finally, there was no significant increase in the number of Fos+ neurons during REMc in any of the subregions of the POA. In conclusion, within the POA, a selective neuronal activation during NREM sleep was found only in the MnPN. In addition, our data suggest a potential role of the SCN in NREM sleep. Finally, based on the distribution of Fos+ neurons in the entire POA, we conclude that the neuronal network involved in the regulation of NREM sleep is dispersed and intermingled with waking-related neurons. PMID:19269274

  18. Veteran-specific suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    York, Janet A; Lamis, Dorian A; Pope, Charlene A; Egede, Leonard E

    2013-06-01

    Suicide rates have been increasing in some subgroups of Veteran populations, such as those who have experienced combat. Several initiatives are addressing this critical need and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has been recognized for its leadership. This integrative review adopts the Research Impact Framework (RIM) to address suicide-specific prevention activities targeting Veterans. The RIM is a standardized approach for developing issue narratives using four broad areas: societal-related impacts, research-related impacts, policy-related impacts, and service-related impacts. The questions addressed in this review are: (1) What are the major initiatives in Veteran-specific suicide prevention in four areas of impact-society, research, policy, and services? (2) Are there gaps related in each impact area? and (3) What are the implications of this narrative for other strategies to address suicide prevention targeting Veterans? Systematic application of the RIM identifies exemplars, milestones, gaps, and health disparity issues. PMID:23011459

  19. Preparation of Fe3O4 with high specific surface area and improved capacitance as a supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Ji, Hongmei; Wang, Shasha; Kong, Lijuan; Jiang, Xuefan; Yang, Gang

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report for the first time a facile ultrasonic synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using FeCl3 and the organic solvent ethanolamine (ETA). The intermediate of the ETA-Fe(ii) complex produces Fe3O4 after hydrolysis and hydrothermal treatment. The moderate reduction of ETA and ultrasound play an important role in the synthesis of superfine Fe3O4 particles with a very high specific surface area (165.05 m2 g-1). The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). Fe3O4 as an electrode material was fabricated into a supercapacitor and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The as-synthesized Fe3O4 exhibits remarkable pseudocapacitive activities including high specific capacitance (207.7 F g-1 at 0.4 A g-1), good rate capability (90.4 F g-1 at 10 A g-1), and excellent cycling stability (retention 100% after 2000 cycles). This novel synthetic route towards Fe3O4 is a convenient and potential way of producing a secondary energy material which is expected to be applicable in the synthesis of other metal oxide nanoparticles.Here, we report for the first time a facile ultrasonic synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using FeCl3 and the organic solvent ethanolamine (ETA). The intermediate of the ETA-Fe(ii) complex produces Fe3O4 after hydrolysis and hydrothermal treatment. The moderate reduction of ETA and ultrasound play an important role in the synthesis of superfine Fe3O4 particles with a very high specific surface area (165.05 m2 g-1). The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). Fe3O4

  20. Effect of the specific surface area on thermodynamic and kinetic properties of nanoparticle anatase TiO2 in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madej, Edyta; Klink, Stefan; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Ventosa, Edgar; La Mantia, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with a specific surface area of 100 m2 g-1 and 300 m2 g-1 have been investigated as negative insertion electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Galvanostatic intermittent titration (GITT) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to investigate the effect of the specific surface area on the performance of the material. GITT was performed at C/10 rate, followed by an EIS measurement after each relaxation step. Separation of kinetic and thermodynamic contributions to the overpotential of the phase transformation on Li+ (de-)insertion allowed revealing a dependency of both terms on the specific surface area. The material with higher surface area undergoes intrinsic transformation during the initial cycles affecting the thermodynamics of (de-)insertion while the sample with lower surface area shows large and asymmetric kinetic hindrances. For the material with 15 nm particles, Li+ de-insertion appears to have a higher resistance than lithium insertion.

  1. Clarifying the role of theory of mind areas during visual perspective taking: Issues of spontaneity and domain-specificity.

    PubMed

    Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Weissengruber, Sebastian; Surtees, Andrew; Samson, Dana; Perner, Josef

    2015-08-15

    Visual perspective taking is a fundamental feature of the human social brain. Previous research has mainly focused on explicit visual perspective taking and contrasted brain activation for other- versus self-perspective judgements. This produced a conceptual gap to theory of mind studies, where researchers mainly compared activation for taking another's mental perspective to non-mental control conditions. We compared brain activation for visual perspective taking to activation for non-mental control conditions where the avatar was replaced by directional (arrow, lamp) or non-directional (brick-wall) objects. We found domain-specific activation linked to the avatar's visual perspective in right TPJ, ventral mPFC and ventral precuneus. Interestingly, we found that these areas are spontaneously processing information linked to the other's perspective during self-perspective judgements. Based on a review of the visual perspective taking literature, we discuss how these findings can explain some of the inconsistent/negative results found in previous studies comparing other- versus self-perspective judgements. PMID:25907759

  2. The effects of gaps between bridge foils and PETN as a function of PETN density and specific surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D; Roeske, F; Burnham, A

    2007-06-26

    X-ray computer tomography scans of artificially aged PETN seem to indicate shrinkage of material and, by extension, an increased high explosive density, resulting in potential separation of the HE from the header/bridge foil. We have investigated these phenomena by mimicking this shrinkage of material (load density). Thus, we have evaluated various induced gaps between the exploding bridge foil and the PETN in our custom detonators by changing both specific surface area - recognizing crystal morphology changes - and load density. Analyses for these data include absolute function time relative to bridge burst and careful evaluation of the detonation wave breakout curvature, using an electronic streak camera for wave capture, in cases where the bridge foil (exploding bridge wire - EBW style) initiation successfully traverses the gap (a 'go' condition). In addition, a fireset with subnanosecond trigger jitter was used for these tests allowing easy comparison of relative 'go' function times. Using the same test matrix and fine-tuning the induced gap, a second, smaller subset of these experiments were performed to provide additional insight as to what conditions we might expect detonator anomalies/failure.

  3. Snow specific surface area simulation using the one-layer snow model in the Canadian LAnd Surface Scheme (CLASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, A.; Royer, A.; Montpetit, B.; Bartlett, P. A.; Langlois, A.

    2012-12-01

    Snow grain size is a key parameter for modeling microwave snow emission properties and the surface energy balance because of its influence on the snow albedo, thermal conductivity and diffusivity. A model of the specific surface area (SSA) of snow was implemented in the one-layer snow model in the Canadian LAnd Surface Scheme (CLASS) version 3.4. This offline multilayer model (CLASS-SSA) simulates the decrease of SSA based on snow age, snow temperature and the temperature gradient under dry snow conditions, whereas it considers the liquid water content for wet snow metamorphism. We compare the model with ground-based measurements from several sites (alpine, Arctic and sub-Arctic) with different types of snow. The model provides simulated SSA in good agreement with measurements with an overall point-to-point comparison RMSE of 8.1 m2 kg-1, and a RMSE of 4.9 m2 kg-1 for the snowpack average SSA. The model, however, is limited under wet conditions due to the single-layer nature of the CLASS model, leading to a single liquid water content value for the whole snowpack. The SSA simulations are of great interest for satellite passive microwave brightness temperature assimilations, snow mass balance retrievals and surface energy balance calculations with associated climate feedbacks.

  4. Distinguishing the race-specific effects of income inequality and mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; Williams, T; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, the association between income inequality and mortality has been fairly consistent. However, few studies have explicitly examined the impact of race. Studies that have either stratified outcomes by race or conducted analyses within race-specific groups suggest that the income inequality/mortality relation may differ for blacks and whites. The factors explaining the association may also differ for the two groups. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis was used to examine associations between study variables. We used three measures of income inequality to examine the association between income inequality and age-adjusted all-cause mortality among blacks and whites separately. We also examined the role of racial residential segregation and concentrated poverty in explaining associations among groups. Metropolitan areas were included if they had a population of at least 100,000 and were at least 10 percent black. There was a positive income inequality/mortality association among blacks and an inverse association among whites. Racial residential segregation completely attenuated the income inequality/mortality relationship for blacks, but was not significant among whites. Concentrated poverty was a significant predictor of mortality rates in both groups but did not confound associations. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25618984

  5. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  6. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  7. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  8. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  9. 50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart C—2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

  10. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart C—2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

  11. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart G—2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link...

  12. 50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart G—2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link...

  13. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if an...-83.120 Section 102-83.120 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  14. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What happens if an...-83.120 Section 102-83.120 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  15. Transportation Problems in Special Education Programs in Rural Areas - A Specific Solution and Some Suggestions for Delivery System Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Z. H.

    The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…

  16. Application specific Tester-On-a-Resident-Chip (TORCH{trademark}) - innovation in the area of semiconductor testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, M.; Peterson, T.; Savignon, D.; Campbell, D.

    1997-12-01

    Manufacturers widely recognize testing as a major factor in the cost, producability, and delivery of product in the $100 billion integrated circuit business: {open_quotes}The rapid development of VLSI using sub-micron CMOS technology has suddenly exposed traditional test techniques as a major cost factor that could restrict the development of VLSI devices exceeding 512 pins an operating frequencies above 200 MHz.{close_quotes} -- 1994 Semiconductor Industry Association Roadmap, Design and Test, Summary, pg. 43. This problem increases dramatically for stockpile electronics, where small production quantities make it difficult to amortize the cost of increasingly expensive testers. Application of multiple ICs in Multi-Chip Modules (MCM) greatly multiplies testing problems for commercial and defense users alike. By traditional test methods, each new design requires custom test hardware and software and often dedicated testing equipment costing millions of dollars. Also, physical properties of traditional test systems often dedicated testing equipment costing millions of dollars. Also, physical properties of traditional test systems limit capabilities in testing at-speed (>200 MHz), high-impedance, and high-accuracy analog signals. This project proposed a revolutionary approach to these problems: replace the multi-million dollar external test system with an inexpensive test system integrated onto the product wafer. Such a methodology enables testing functions otherwise unachievable by conventional means, particularly in the areas of high-frequency, at-speed testing, high impedance analog circuits, and known good die assessment. The techniques apply specifically to low volume applications, typical of Defense Programs, where testing costs represent an unusually high proportional of product costs, not easily amortized.

  17. Single housing during early adolescence causes time-, area- and peptide-specific alterations in endogenous opioids of rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, L; Roman, E; Nylander, I

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A number of experimental procedures require single housing to assess individual behaviour and physiological responses to pharmacological treatments. The endogenous opioids are closely linked to social interaction, especially early in life, and disturbance in the social environment may affect opioid peptides and thereby confound experimental outcome. The aim of the present study was to examine time-dependent effects of single housing on opioid peptides in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Early adolescent Sprague Dawley rats (post-natal day 22) were subjected to either prolonged (7 days) or short (30 min) single housing. Several brain regions were dissected and immunoreactive levels of Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP), dynorphin B and nociception/orphanin FQ, as well as serum corticosterone were measured using RIA. KEY RESULTS Prolonged single housing reduced immunoreactive MEAP in hypothalamus, cortical regions, amygdala, substantia nigra and periaqueductal grey. Short single housing resulted in an acute stress response as indicated by high levels of corticosterone, accompanied by elevated immunoreactive nociceptin/orphanin FQ in medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Neither short nor prolonged single housing affected dynorphin B. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Disruption in social environmental conditions of rats, through single housing during early adolescence, resulted in time-, area- and peptide-specific alterations in endogenous opioids in the brain. These results provide further evidence for an association between early life social environment and opioids. Furthermore, the results have implications for experimental design; in any pharmacological study involving opioid peptides, it is important to distinguish between effects induced by housing and treatment. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http

  18. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  19. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  20. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  1. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  2. Low-temperature leaf photosynthesis of a Miscanthus germplasm collection correlates positively to shoot growth rate and specific leaf area

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xiurong; Kørup, Kirsten; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Petersen, Karen Koefoed; Prade, Thomas; Jeżowski, Stanisław; Ornatowski, Szymon; Górynowicz, Barbara; Spitz, Idan; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The C4 perennial grass miscanthus has been found to be less sensitive to cold than most other C4 species, but still emerges later in spring than C3 species. Genotypic differences in miscanthus were investigated to identify genotypes with a high cold tolerance at low temperatures and quick recovery upon rising temperatures to enable them to exploit the early growing season in maritime cold climates. Suitable methods for field screening of cold tolerance in miscanthus were also identified. Methods Fourteen genotypes of M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, M. tinctorius and M. × giganteus were selected and grown under warm (24 °C) and cold (14 °C) conditions in a controlled environment. Dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence, specific leaf area (SLA) and net photosynthetic rate at a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 1000 μmol m–2 s–1 (A1000) were measured. Photosynthetic light and CO2 response curves were obtained from 11 of the genotypes, and shoot growth rate was measured under field conditions. Key Results A positive linear relationship was found between SLA and light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) across genotypes, and also between shoot growth rate under cool field conditions and A1000 at 14 °C in a climate chamber. When lowering the temperature from 24 to 14 °C, one M. sacchariflorus exhibited significantly higher Asat and maximum photosynthetic rate in the CO2 response curve (Vmax) than other genotypes at 14 °C, except M. × giganteus ‘Hornum’. Several genotypes returned to their pre-chilling A1000 values when the temperature was increased to 24 °C after 24 d growth at 14 °C. Conclusions One M. sacchariflorus genotype had similar or higher photosynthetic capacity than M. × giganteus, and may be used for cultivation together with M. × giganteus or for breeding new interspecies hybrids with improved traits for temperate climates. Two easily measured variables, SLA and shoot growth rate, may be useful for

  3. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  4. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  5. Delegate Assembly Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry A.

    1976-01-01

    The report on proposed reorganization of the American Occupational Therapy Association details historical developments, demands for change, and a general rationale for reorganization, as well as specific recommendations for action. (GW)

  6. Addressing the water budget with SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; AlBitar, A.; Tomer, S. K.; Merlin, O.; Pellarin, T.

    2012-12-01

    SMOS, a L Band radiometer using aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution, was successfully launched on November 2, 2009. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent enabling to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS as been now acquiring data for almost 2 years. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and of China. However, many different international teams are now addressing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. In parallel different teams are now starting addressing data use in various fields including hydrology. It requires coupling with other models and or disaggregation to address soil moisture distribution over watersheds. Significant new results were obtained for floods and drought events, together with new potential applications in terms of precipitation monitoring This paper thus gives an overview of the science goals of the SMOS mission, a description of its main elements, and a taste of the first results including

  7. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  8. Mesoporous carbon-supported Pd nanoparticles with high specific surface area for cyclohexene hydrogenation: Outstanding catalytic activity of NaOH-treated catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskás, R.; Varga, T.; Grósz, A.; Sápi, A.; Oszkó, A.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Extremely high specific surface area mesoporous carbon-supported Pd nanoparticle catalysts were prepared with both impregnation and polyol-based sol methods. The silica template used for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon was removed by both NaOH and HF etching. Pd/mesoporous carbon catalysts synthesized with the impregnation method has as high specific surface area as 2250 m2/g. In case of NaOH-etched impregnated samples, the turnover frequency of cyclohexene hydrogenation to cyclohexane at 313 K was obtained ~ 14 molecules • site- 1 • s- 1. The specific surface area of HF-etched samples was higher compared to NaOH-etched samples. However, catalytic activity was ~ 3-6 times higher on NaOH-etched samples compared to HF-etched samples, which can be attributed to the presence of sodium and surface hydroxylgroups of the catalysts etched with NaOH solution.

  9. Origin attribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediment and soil from a Japanese freshwater lake area through congener-specific data analysis.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, T; Suzuki, N; Masunaga, S; Nakanishi, J

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in sediment and soil from a freshwater lake area were congener-specifically determined. The obtained data were examined to estimate the major origins of these compounds, with the aid of principal component analysis (PCA). Four major principal components (PCs) were obtained, and three of them were attributed to PCDDs/PCDFs in the atmosphere, in a diphenyl ether herbicide and in pentachlorophenol, based on congener-specific comparisons with references. One PC remained unattributed. These four were interpreted as the major origins of PCDDs/PCDFs in the area. The relative influence of the origins was also investigated. PMID:9828338

  10. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  11. Area- and site-specific geothermal leasing/permitting profiles; updated geothermal leasing/permitting performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Beeland, G.V.; Schumann, E.; Wieland, M.

    1982-02-01

    Sufficient discussion of the elements of the leasing and permitting programs is included to place the information developed in proper context. A table and process flow diagram developed previously which outline the steps in the non-competitive leasing process, is reprinted. Computer printout profiles are presented on 195 identifiable areas in the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Sufficient information on the boundaries of these areas is contained in the report to permit identification of their general location on any map of the appropriate state which shows township and range locations.

  12. SELECTED SCHOOL LAWS AND STANDARDS--A SUMMARY CONTAINING SPECIFIC SCHOOL LAWS RELATING TO AREA SCHOOLS AND PUBLIC COMMUNITY AND JUNIOR COLLEGES AND STANDARDS FOR AREA VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS AND AREA COMMUNITY COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YEAGER, ROBERT

    SECTION 280A.1 OF THE CODE OF IOWA DECLARES A STATE POLICY TO ESTABLISH 17 AREAS, IN EACH OF WHICH AN AREA VOCATIONAL SCHOOL OR AN AREA COMMUNITY COLLEGE MAY BE ESTABLISHED TO OFFER, TO THE GREATEST EXTENT POSSIBLE, THE FOLLOWING SERVICES--(1) THE FIRST TWO YEARS OF COLLEGE WORK, INCLUDING PREPROFESSIONAL EDUCATION, (2) VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL…

  13. The specific reactive surface area of granular zero-valent iron in metal contaminant removal: Column experiments and modelling.

    PubMed

    Statham, Tom M; Mason, Lachlan R; Mumford, Kathryn A; Stevens, Geoffrey W

    2015-06-15

    A series of dynamic-flow kinetic experiments were conducted to assess the removal rates of aqueous Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions by zero-valent iron (ZVI), a promising material for inclusion in cold-climate remediation applications. The influence of experimental parameters on contaminant removal rates, including aqueous flow rate, operating temperature, and the concentrations of ZVI, salt and dissolved oxygen, was investigated. A mass transport model has been developed that accounts (i) aqueous-phase dispersion processes, (ii) film diffusion of contaminant ions to the reactive ZVI surface and (iii) the reactive removal mechanism itself. Regression to the experimental data indicated that when oxygen is present in the solution feed Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) removal processes were limited by film diffusion. In de-aerated solutions film diffusion still controls Cu(2+) removal but a first-order surface reaction provides a better model for Zn(2+) kinetics. Using air as the equilibrium feed gas, the reactive proportion of the total surface area for contaminant removal was calculated to be 97% and 64% of the active spherically-assumed geometric area associated with ZVI media for Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively. Relative to a gas absorption area, determined in previous studies, the reactive proportion is less than 0.41% of the unreacted ZVI total surface area. These findings suggest that only part of the iron oxyhydroxide surface is reacting during ZVI based metal contaminant removal. PMID:25839833

  14. Reduction on NOx emissions on urban areas by changing specific vehicle fleets: effects on NO2 and O3 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, M.; Jimenez, P.; Baldasano, J.

    2007-12-01

    The largest amount of NOx emissions in urban areas comes from on-road traffic, which is the largest contributor to urban air pollution (Colvile et al., 2001). Currently different strategies are being tested in order to reduce its effects; many of them oriented to the reduction of the unitary vehicles emissions, by alternative fuels use (such as biofuels, natural gas or hydrogen) or introduction of new technologies (such as hybrid electric vehicles or fuel cells). Atmospheric modelling permits to predict their consequences on tropospheric chemistry (Vautard et al., 2007). Hence, this work assesses the changes on NO2 and O3 concentrations when substituting a 10 per cent of the urban private cars fleets by petrol hybrid electric cars (HEC) or by natural gas cars (NGC) in Madrid and Barcelona urban areas (Spain). These two cities are selected in order to highlight the different patterns of pollutants transport (inland vs. coastal city) and the different responses to emissions reductions. The results focus on a typical summertime episode of air pollution, by means of the Eulerian air quality model ARW- WRF/HERMES/CMAQ, applied with high resolution (1-hr, 1km2) since of the complexity of both areas under study. The detailed emissions scenarios are implemented in the HERMES traffic emissions module, based on the Copert III-EEA/EMEP-CORINAIR (Nztiachristos and Samaras, 2000) methodology. The HEC introduction reduces NOx emissions from on-road traffic in a 10.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent; and the NGC introduction in a 10.3 per cent and 7.8 per cent, for Madrid and Barcelona areas, respectively. The scenarios also affect the NMVOCs reduction (ranging from -3.1 to -6.9 per cent), influencing the tropospheric photochemistry through the NOx/NMVOCs ratio. The abatement of the NO photooxidation but also to the reduction on primary NO2 involves a decrease on NO2 levels centred on urban areas. For example, the NO2 24-hr average concentration in downtown areas reduces up to 8 per

  15. Online Speaking Strategy Assessment for Improving Speaking Ability in the Area of Language for Specific Purposes: The Case of Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…

  16. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  17. Efficient and equitable design of marine protected areas in Fiji through inclusion of stakeholder-specific objectives in conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Jupiter, Stacy; Adams, Vanessa M

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of protected areas varies, partly because socioeconomic factors are not sufficiently considered in planning and management. Although integrating socioeconomic factors into systematic conservation planning is increasingly advocated, research is needed to progress from recognition of these factors to incorporating them effectively in spatial prioritization of protected areas. We evaluated 2 key aspects of incorporating socioeconomic factors into spatial prioritization: treatment of socioeconomic factors as costs or objectives and treatment of stakeholders as a single group or multiple groups. Using as a case study the design of a system of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) in Kubulau, Fiji, we assessed how these aspects affected the configuration of no-take MPAs in terms of trade-offs between biodiversity objectives, fisheries objectives, and equity in catch losses among fisher stakeholder groups. The achievement of fisheries objectives and equity tended to trade-off concavely with increasing biodiversity objectives, indicating that it is possible to achieve low to mid-range biodiversity objectives with relatively small losses to fisheries and equity. Importantly, the extent of trade-offs depended on the method used to incorporate socioeconomic data and was least severe when objectives were set for each fisher stakeholder group explicitly. We found that using different methods to incorporate socioeconomic factors that require similar data and expertise can result in plans with very different impacts on local stakeholders. PMID:25916976

  18. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Hyo Young; Cha, Seung Ha; Ryu, Hyun; Jang, Wooyoung; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Caffeine produces a variety of behavioral effects including increased alertness, reduced food intake, anxiogenic effects, and dependence upon repeated exposure. Although many of the effects of caffeine are mediated by its ability to block adenosine receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that repeated caffeine administration increases CART in the mouse striatum. However, it is not clear whether acute caffeine administration alters CART in other areas of the brain. To explore this possibility, we investigated the dose- and time-dependent changes in CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) after a single dose of caffeine in mice. We found that a high dose of caffeine (100 mg/kg) significantly increased CART-IR 2 h after administration in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), and locus coeruleus (LC), and returned to control levels after 8 h. But this increase was not observed in other brain areas. In addition, caffeine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg appears to produce dose-dependent increases in CART-IR in these brain areas; however, the magnitude of increase in CART-IR observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg was similar or greater than that observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. This result suggests that CART-IR in AcbSh, dBNST, CeA, PVN, Arc, and LC is selectively affected by caffeine administration. PMID:25820086

  19. Synthesis of murdochite-type Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} with variable specific surface areas and the application in methane oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Hideki; Tahara, Shohei; Okumura, Mikoto; Hirota, Ken

    2014-07-01

    To synthesize a murdochite-type Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} with variable specific surface areas, an oxalate precursor was calcined at 350–500 °C in flowing argon, and the calcined sample was heated to 600 °C in air. The lattice constant of the Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} did not depend on the calcination temperature of the precursor, while the specific surface area decreased from 8.4 m{sup 2}/g to 2.6 m{sup 2}/g when increasing the calcination temperature of the precursor. The methane (CH{sub 4}) oxidation data indicated that the temperature corresponding to the 50% conversion (T{sub 50%}) of Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} calcined at 350 °C or 400 °C was lower than that of all other Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} specimens. However, the intrinsic conversion of Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} calcined at 350 °C, which is defined as conversion per specific surface area, was half of that of all other Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} specimens. The degree of crystallinity and catalytic performance of the Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} calcined at 400 °C were high. - Graphical abstract: The conversion of CH{sub 4} into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O on Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8}, which was heated at 600 °C in air after the calcination of the precursor at 350 °C, 400 °C, 450 °C, or 500 °C in flowing argon, was measured. Since the specific surface area was strongly affected by the calcination temperature of the precursor, intrinsic conversion (IC) was defined as conversion per the specific surface area. For comparison, the IC value on Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} synthesized by the direct calcination of the precursor at 600 °C in air is plotted. - Highlights: • The oxalate precursor was calcined at 350–500 °C in flowing argon. • Murdochite-type Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} was obtained by heating the calcined sample in air. • The specific surface area of Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} varied with the calcination temperature. • The degree of crystallinity and catalysis of Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} calcined at 400 °C were high.

  20. Inverse gas chromatography for natural fibre characterisation: Identification of the critical parameters to determine the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area.

    PubMed

    Legras, A; Kondor, A; Heitzmann, M T; Truss, R W

    2015-12-18

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is an alternative technique to determine the specific surface area of natural fibres. Natural fibres have a complex surface chemistry and unique microstructure that challenge the current capabilities to perform surface characterisation. This study investigated the influence of multiple parameters on the measured Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area for samples of flax, kenaf and BioMid(®) cellulose fibres using IGC. The BET surface area of kenaf and flax differed with 0.51m(2)g(-1) and 1.35m(2)g(-1) respectively, the former being similar to the cellulose fibres (0.54m(2)g(-1)). The data was calculated under conditions where the BET equation showed good linearity (R(2)⩾0.995). Repeatability was excellent so that two runs sufficed to obtain representative BET surface area values. The findings showed the choice of solvent was important for all specimens to avoid any misleading data comparison due to molecular orientation effects that impact the adsorbent-adsorbate interactions. The higher surface area of the flax sample, and its higher variability, was correlated with a higher surface roughness observed under optical microscopy. Packing the chromatography column with long or chopped fibres produced results that were statistically insignificant. PMID:26627590

  1. Are Sport-Specific Profiles of Tendon Stiffness and Cross-Sectional Area Determined by Structural or Functional Integrity?

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Kösters, Alexander; Müller, Erich; Seynnes, Olivier R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether distinct sets of tendon properties are seen in athletes engaged in sports with contrasting requirements for tendon function and structural integrity. Patellar and Achilles tendon morphology and force-deformation relation were measured by combining ultrasonography, electromyography and dynamometry in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players and sedentary individuals. Tendon cross-sectional area normalized to body mass2/3 was smaller in water polo players than in other athletes (patellar and Achilles tendon; -28 to -24%) or controls (patellar tendon only; -9%). In contrast, the normalized cross-sectional area was larger in runners (patellar tendon only; +26%) and ski jumpers (patellar and Achilles tendon; +21% and +13%, respectively) than in controls. Tendon stiffness normalized to body mass2/3 only differed in ski jumpers, compared to controls (patellar and Achilles tendon; +11% and +27%, respectively) and to water polo players (Achilles tendon only; +23%). Tendon size appears as an adjusting variable to changes in loading volume and/or intensity, possibly to preserve ultimate strength or fatigue resistance. However, uncoupled morphological and mechanical properties indicate that functional requirements may also influence tendon adaptations. PMID:27362657

  2. Case Studies on Using Strengths and Interests to Address the Needs of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanou, Aaron; Hough, Lauren; Powell, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Students on the autism spectrum present with difficulties in a variety of areas, including social understanding, emotional regulation, academics, and behavior. Professionals working in the field of autism must identify and address these areas of need given each individual child's specific cognitive profiles. In this article the authors highlight…

  3. Effect of variation of average pore size and specific surface area of ZnO electrode (WE) on efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m2/g which was 5.54 m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J-V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments. PMID:25339855

  4. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  5. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  6. Mesoporous Cd1-xZnxS microspheres with tunable bandgap and high specific surface areas for enhanced visible-light-driven hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yannan; Wang, Yonggang; Wen, Ting; Zhang, Suoying; Chang, Binbin; Guo, Yanzhen; Yang, Baocheng

    2016-04-01

    Visible-light-driven splitting of water using semiconductor photocatalysts is an excellent example of sustainable chemistry. The fabrication of mesoporous photocatalysts with a narrow bandgap into the sunlight region and a high specific surface area is crucial for efficient hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation. Herein, we describe a facile one-pot hydrothermal approach toward uniform mesoporous microspheres of Cd1-xZnxS by adopting diethylenetriamine (DETA) as the structure-directing agent. The method is facile, reproducible and allows simultaneously control of the morphology, particle size, bandgaps, as well as the specific surface area of the mesoporous microspheres Cd1-xZnxS. The photocatalytic activity on H2 production through the splitting of water without noble metal loadingis highly enhanced by the mesoporous structure feature of the products. The optimized Cd0.2Zn0.8S mesoporous microspheres exhibit a specific surface area up to 98.09m(2)/g and a H2 production rate of 3.43mmol/hg (about 7.62 times higher than that of pure CdS powers) under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, apparent quantum efficiency (QE) of 16.2% was achieved in the as-fabricated Cd0.2Zn0.8S mesoporous microspheres under irradiation at 420nm. This study provides an effective route toward mesoporous microspheres photocatalysts for further investigations and practical applications. PMID:26775239

  7. Characterization of the specific solid-water interfacial area-water saturation relationship and its import to reactive transport

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Kanaka P.; Freedman, Vicky L.; McGrail, B. Peter; Meyer, Philip D.

    2006-05-01

    A modified rate equation for the dissolution of minerals in the unsaturated zone was proposed using a solid-water interfacial area (asw) varying as a function of water saturation (Sw). Vadose zone phenomena, such as infiltration, were discussed as example scenarios where such re-formulation may be useful. A constitutive relationship for the asw - Sw was derived, and used to formulate an approximate model of the proposed rate equation. Implementation of this new model in the reactive transport code CRUNCH was used to evaluate the influence of a changing asw on reactive transport behavior of silica in the vadose zone. These simulations clearly demonstrate that a changing asw can have a significant impact on the silica distribution profiles in the vadose zone. This is to be expected because changes in asw are substantial in the dry Sw range, whereas they are only moderate in the relatively wet region. These findings have significant implications for contaminant transport in the vadose zone, especially in arid regions. Ignoring the effect of a changing asw is likely to result in an overestimation of the net contaminant fluxes in these cases, which leads to highly conservative risk assessments. In case of nutrient flux calculations coupled with dissolution phenomena, it may lead to an overestimation of nutrient availability. Additional theoretical and experimental verification of the proposed models would be valuable.

  8. Leaching of metal(loid)s from a construction material: influence of the particle size, specific surface area and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Schmukat, A; Duester, L; Ecker, D; Schmid, H; Heil, C; Heininger, P; Ternes, T A

    2012-08-15

    Construction materials are tested worldwide for a potential release of dangerous substances to prevent adverse effects on humans and biota. It is crucial to identify and understand the processes which are decisive for the release of hazardous substances. The current study compares the results of different test methods. Taking copper slag as model material, the influence of material particle size, eluant composition and ionic strength was tested. Ionic strength and salinity significantly influenced the release of metal(loid)s in the water phase. Furthermore, it was elucidated that colloids can cause methodological artefacts. The available specific surface area exhibited a positive correlation with the release of hazardous substances. The specific surface areas of materials were determined by the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller model (BET) and four other methods. The aluminium foil method showed the best results with regard to the statistical uncertainty, compared to a 3D laser scanning method. With help of the roughness factor λ it is possible to compare the results from surface area measurements with different material particle sizes (0-250 mm). This comparability offers the potential to match the release of metal(loid)s from laboratory studies with field applications and catchment area calculations/modelling, based on the release per m(2). PMID:22683212

  9. Strategic Science to Address Current and Future Space Weather Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Schwadron, N.; Antiochos, S. K.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kamalabadi, F.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Tobiska, W. K.; Weimer, D. R.; Withers, P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program has contributed a wealth of scientific knowledge that is relevant to space weather and user needs. A targeted approach to science questions has resulted in leveraging new scientific knowledge to improve not only our understanding of the Heliophysics domain, but also to develop predictive capabilities in key areas of LWS science. This fascinating interplay between science and applications promises to benefit both domains. Scientists providing feedback to the LWS program are now discussing an evolution of the targeted approach that explicitly considers how new science improves, or enables, predictive capability directly. Long-term program goals are termed "Strategic Science Areas" (SSAs) that address predictive capabilities in six specific areas: geomagnetically induced currents, satellite drag, solar energetic particles, ionospheric total electron content, radio frequency scintillation induced by the ionosphere, and the radiation environment. SSAs are organized around user needs and the impacts of space weather on society. Scientists involved in the LWS program identify targeted areas of research that reference (or bear upon) societal needs. Such targeted science leads to new discoveries and is one of the valid forms of exploration. In this talk we describe the benefits of targeted science, and how addressing societal impacts in an appropriate way maintains the strong science focus of LWS, while also leading to its broader impacts.

  10. A highly specific q-RT-PCR assay to address the relevance of the JAK2WT and JAK2V617F expression levels and control genes in Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Francesca; Di Capua, Emma Nora; Cenfra, Natalia; Pessina, Gloria; Mecarocci, Sergio; Rago, Angela; Cotroneo, Ettore; Busanello, Anna; Equitani, Francesco; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Nervi, Clara; Cimino, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    In Ph- myeloproliferative neoplasms, the quantification of the JAK2V617F transcripts may provide some advantages over the DNA allele burden determination. We developed a q-RT-PCR to assess the JAK2WT and JAK2V617F mRNA expression in 105 cases (23 donors, 13 secondary polycythemia, 22 polycythemia vera (PV), 38 essential thrombocythemia (ET), and 9 primary myelofibrosis (PMF)). Compared with the standard allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO)-PCR technique, our assay showed a 100 % concordance rate detecting the JAK2V617F mutation in 22/22 PV (100 %), 29/38 (76.3 %) ET, and 5/9 (55.5 %) PMF cases, respectively. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.01 %. Comparing DNA and RNA samples, we found that the JAK2V617F mutational ratios were significantly higher at the RNA level both in PV (p = 0.005) and ET (p = 0.001) samples. In PV patients, JAK2WT expression levels positively correlated with the platelets (PLTs) (p = 0.003) whereas a trend to negative correlation was observed with the Hb levels (p = 0.051). JAK2V617F-positive cases showed the lowest JAK2WT and ABL1 mRNA expression levels. In all the samples, the expression pattern of beta-glucoronidase (GUSB) was more homogeneous than that of ABL1 or β2 microglobulin (B2M). Using GUSB as normalizator gene, a significant increase of the JAK2V617F mRNA levels was seen in two ET patients at time of progression to PV. In conclusion, the proposed q-RT-PCR is a sensitive and accurate method to quantify the JAK2 mutational status that can also show clinical correlations suggesting the impact of the residual amount of the JAK2WT allele on the Ph- MPN disease phenotype. Our observations also preclude the use of ABL1 as a housekeeping gene for these neoplasms. PMID:24173087

  11. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    eruptions, earthquakes and the associated tsunamis can lead to destruction of seafloor structures potentially capable of releasing hydrocarbon pollutants into Mediterranean waters, and damage to a dense telecommunication cables net that would cause severe economic loss. However, the most devastating effect would be that of earthquake or landslide-induced tsunamis. When compared to other basins, the Mediterranean has larger vulnerability due to its small dimensions, resulting in close proximity to tsunami sources and impact areas. Recent examples include the 1979 Nice airport submarine landslide and tsunami and the 2002 Stromboli volcano landslide and tsunami. Future international scientific drilling must include submarine geohazards among priority scientific objectives. The science advisory structure must be prepared to receive and evaluate proposal specifically addressing submarine geohazards. The implementing organizations need to be prepared for the technological needs of drilling proposals addressing geohazards. Among the most relevant: geotechnical sampling, down-hole logging at shallow depths below the seafloor, in situ geotechnical and physical measurements, capability of deployment of long-term in situ observatories. Pre-site surveys will often aim at the highest possible resolution, three dimensional imaging of the seafloor ant its sub-surface. Drilling for submarine geohazards is seen as an opportunity of multiplatform drilling, and for Mission Specific drilling in particular. Rather than turning the scientific investigation in a purely engineering exercise, proposals addressing submarine geohazards should offer an opportunity to scientists and engineers to work together to unravel the details of basic geological processes that may turn into catastrophic events.

  12. 2014 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  13. 2013 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  14. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  15. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  16. Address Terms among University Students in Ghana: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afful, Joseph Benjamin Archibald

    2006-01-01

    An important feature of the interface between language and society is the use of address terms. Following Brown and Gilman (1960), research studies of address terms have been extended to several cultural settings. This study contributes to this fertile area of sociolinguistic studies by describing the address terms used among undergraduates in an…

  17. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  18. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Alter, George C.

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this “uncharted territory,” as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  19. Growth of porous anodized alumina on the sputtered aluminum films with 2D-3D morphology for high specific surface area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M. W.; Chung, C. K.

    2014-08-01

    The porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with high-aspect-ratio pore channels is widely used as a template for fabricating nanowires or other one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. The high specific surface area of AAO can also be applied to the super capacitor and the supporting substrate for catalysis. The rough surface could be helpful to enhance specific surface area but it generally results in electrical field concentration even to ruin AAO. In this article, the aluminum (Al) films with the varied 2D-3D morphology on Si substrates were prepared using magnetron sputtering at a power of 50 W-185 W for 1 h at a working pressure of 2.5 × 10-1 Pa. Then, AAO was fabricated from the different Al films by means of one-step hybrid pulse anodizing (HPA) between the positive 40 V and the negative -2 V (1 s:1 s) for 3 min in 0.3 M oxalic acid at a room temperature. The microstructure and morphology of Al films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope, respectively. Some hillocks formed at the high target power could be attributed to the grain texture growth in the normal orientation of Al(1 1 1). The 3D porous AAO structure which is different from the conventional 2D planar one has been successfully demonstrated using HPA on the film with greatly rough hillock-surface formed at the highest power of 185 W. It offers a potential application of the new 3D AAO to high specific surface area devices.

  20. 21 CFR 20.119 - Lists of names and addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lists of names and addresses. 20.119 Section 20... PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.119 Lists of names and addresses. Names and addresses of individuals in Food and Drug Administration records shall not be sold or...

  1. 21 CFR 20.119 - Lists of names and addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lists of names and addresses. 20.119 Section 20... PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.119 Lists of names and addresses. Names and addresses of individuals in Food and Drug Administration records shall not be sold or...

  2. 21 CFR 20.119 - Lists of names and addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lists of names and addresses. 20.119 Section 20... PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.119 Lists of names and addresses. Names and addresses of individuals in Food and Drug Administration records shall not be sold or...

  3. Addressing the Moral Agency of Culturally Specific Care Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chrystal S.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), as a culturally sensitive framework, realises the totality of caring in context. Few, if any, investigations into caring have articulated CHAT as a feasible mode of inquiry for inserting the cultural perspectives of both the researcher and the researched. This article elucidates CHAT as an intelligible…

  4. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  5. Specific Surface versus Electrochemically Active Area of the Carbon/Polypyrrole Capacitor: Correlation of Ion Dynamics Studied by an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with BET Surface.

    PubMed

    Mosch, Heike L K S; Akintola, Oluseun; Plass, Winfried; Höppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S; Ignaszak, Anna

    2016-05-10

    Carbon/polypyrrole (PPy) composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage applications such as lightweight capacitors. Although these materials are composed of relatively inexpensive components, there is a gap of knowledge regarding the correlation between surface, porosity, ion exchange dynamics, and the interplay of the double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance. In this work we evaluate the specific surface area analyzed by the BET method and the area accessible for ions using electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance (EQCM) for SWCNT/PPy and carbon black Vulcan XC72-R/PPy composites. The study revealed that the polymer has significant influence on the pore size of the composites. Although the BET surface is low for the polypyrrole, the electrode mass change and thus the electrochemical area are large for the polymer-containing electrodes. This indicates that multiple redox active centers in the charged polymer chain are good ion scavengers. Also, for the composite electrodes, the effective charge storage occurs at the polypyrrole-carbon junctions, which are easy to design/multiply by a proper carbon-to-polymer weight ratio. The specific BET surface and electrochemically accessible surface area are both important parameters in calculation of the electrode capacitance. SWCNTs/PPy showed the highest capacitances normalized to the BET and electrochemical surface as compared to the polymer-carbon black. TEM imaging revealed very homogeneous distribution of the nanosized polymer particles onto the CNTs, which facilitates the synergistic effect of the double layer capacitance (CNTs) and pseudocapacitance (polymer). The trend in the electrode mass change in correlation with the capacitance suggest additional effects such as a solvent co-insertion into the polymer and the contribution of the charge associated with the redox activity of oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon surface. PMID:27082127

  6. Mined area detection overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Ian A.; Deas, Robert M.; Port, Daniel M.

    2002-08-01

    An overview of the progress on the UK MOD Applied Research Program for Land Mine Detection. The Defense Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) carries out and manages the whole of the UK MOD's Mined Area Detection Applied Research Program both within its own laboratories and in partnership with industrial and academic research organizations. This paper will address two specific areas of Applied Research: hand held mine detection and vehicle mounted mine detection in support of the Mine Detection Neutralization and Route Marking System which started in April 1997. Both are multi-sensor systems, incorporating between them metal detection, ground penetrating radar, nuclear quadrupole resonance, ultra-wideband radar, and polarized thermal imaging.

  7. Photosensitive biosensor array system using optical addressing without an addressing circuit on array biochips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Chang-Geun; Ah, Chil Seong; Kim, Tae-Youb; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Jong-Heon; Kim, Ansoon; Sung, Gun Yong

    2010-09-01

    This paper introduces a photosensitive biosensor array system with a simple photodiode array that detects photocurrent changes caused by reactions between probe and target molecules. Using optical addressing, the addressing circuit on the array chip is removed for low-cost application, and real cell addressing is achieved using an externally located computer-controllable light-emitting diode array module. The fabricated biosensor array chip shows a good dynamic range of 1-100 ng/mL under prostate-specific antigen detection, with an on-chip resolution of roughly 1 ng/mL.

  8. MOF-templated synthesis of porous Co(3)O(4) concave nanocubes with high specific surface area and their gas sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Lü, Yinyun; Zhan, Wenwen; He, Yue; Wang, Yiting; Kong, Xiangjian; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Zheng, Lansun

    2014-03-26

    Porous metal oxides nanomaterials with controlled morphology have received great attention because of their promising applications in catalysis, energy storage and conversion, gas sensing, etc. In this paper, porous Co3O4 concave nanocubes with extremely high specific surface area (120.9 m(2)·g(-1)) were synthesized simply by calcining Co-based metal-organic framework (Co-MOF, ZIF-67) templates at the optimized temperature (300 °C), and the formation mechanism of such highly porous structures as well as the influence of the calcination temperature are well explained by taking into account thermal behavior and intrinsic structural features of the Co-MOF precursors. The gas-sensing properties of the as-synthesized porous Co3O4 concave nanocubes were systematically tested towards volatile organic compounds including ethanol, acetone, toluene, and benzene. Experimental results reveal that the porous Co3O4 concave nanocubes present the highest sensitivity to ethanol with fast response/recovery time (< 10 s) and a low detection limit (at least 10 ppm). Such outstanding gas sensing performance of the porous Co3O4 concave nanocubes benefits from their high porosity, large specific surface area, and remarkable capabilities of surface-adsorbed oxygen. PMID:24559195

  9. A Food Photograph Series for Identifying Portion Sizes of Culturally Specific Dishes in Rural Areas with High Incidence of Oesophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Martani; Steyn, Nelia; Burger, Hester-Mari; Charlton, Karen; Senekal, Marjanne

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas of the Eastern Cape (EC) Province, South Africa have a high incidence of squamous cell oesophageal cancer (OC) and exposure to mycotoxin fumonisin has been associated with increased OC risk. However, to assess exposure to fumonisin in Xhosas—having maize as a staple food—it is necessary to determine the amount of maize consumed per day. A maize-specific food frequency questionnaire (M-FFQ) has recently been developed. This study developed a food photograph (FP) series to improve portion size estimation of maize dishes. Two sets of photographs were developed to be used alongside the validated M-FFQ. The photographs were designed to assist quantification of intakes (portion size photographs) and to facilitate estimation of maize amounts in various combined dishes (ratio photographs) using data from 24 h recalls (n = 159), dishing-up sessions (n = 35), focus group discussions (FGD) (n = 56) and published literature. Five villages in two rural isiXhosa-speaking areas of the EC Province, known to have a high incidence of OC, were randomly selected. Women between the ages of 18–55 years were recruited by snowball sampling and invited to participate. The FP series comprised three portion size photographs (S, M, L) of 21 maize dishes and three ratio photographs of nine combined maize-based dishes. A culturally specific FP series was designed to improve portion size estimation when reporting dietary intake using a newly developed M-FFQ. PMID:23925043

  10. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valotassiou, V.; Papatriantafyllou, J.; Sifakis, N.; Karageorgiou, C.; Tsougos, I.; Tzavara, C.; Zerva, C.; Georgoulias, P.

    2009-05-01

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76±6.51 years, education 11.81±4.25 years, MMSE 16.69±9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25±10.48 years, education 10±4.6 years, MMSE 12.5±3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (p<0.0001), 11R, 20L, 20R, 32L, 38L, 38R, 44L (p<0.001), 32R, 36L, 36R, 45L, 45R, 47R (p<0.01), 9L, 21L, 39R, 44R, 46R, 47L (p<0.05). On the contrary, AD patients presented significant (p<0.05) hypoperfusion in 7R and 39R Br areas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  11. Requirements for performance characterization of C double-layer supercapacitors: Applications to a high specific-area C-cloth material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jianjun; Pell, Wendy G.; Conway, Brian E.

    Electrochemical capacitors, based on the double-layer capacitance of high specific-area C materials, are attracting major fundamental and technological interest as highly reversible, electrical charge-storage and delivery devices, capable of being operated at high power-densities. A variety of applications have been described in the literature, e.g. for cold-start vehicle assist, in hybrid load-leveling configurations with batteries, fuel-cells, as well as directly with internal combustion engines. Additionally, high capacitance C electrodes have been usefully employed as anodes coupled with battery-type cathodes, e.g. Pb/PbO 2, in so-called "asymmetric" capacitor cells. On account of these perceived various applications, requirements for performance evaluation must be developed in systematic and complementary ways. In the present paper, we examine experimentally the following test procedures as exemplified by application to an high specific-area (ca. 2500 m 2 g -1) woven C-cloth capacitor electrode material: (i) evaluation of the specific capacitances as a function of charge/discharge rates employing cyclic-voltammetry and dc charging curves; (ii) as in (i), examination of reversibility and energy-efficiency as a function of electrolyte (H 2SO 4) concentration, i.e. conductivity; (iii) interpretation of effects in (i) and (ii) in terms of distributed resistance and capacitance in the porous C matrix according to the de Levie model; (iv) interpretation of data obtained in (i) in terms of Ragone plots which, for capacitor devices, require special treatment owing to the fundamental dependence of electrode- (or device) potential on state of discharge; (v) interpretation of self-discharge (SD) kinetics in terms of porous-electrode structure. Performance data for the C-electrode are given for capacitative charging up to high "C-rates", extension of operational voltage windows and for SD behaviour.

  12. Role of specific interfacial area in controlling properties of immiscible blends of biodegradable polylactide and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate].

    PubMed

    Ojijo, Vincent; Sinha Ray, Suprakas; Sadiku, Rotimi

    2012-12-01

    Binary blends of two biodegradable polymers: polylactide (PLA), which has high modulus and strength but is brittle, and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA), which is flexible and tough, were prepared through batch melt mixing. The PLA/PBSA compositions were 100/0, 90/10, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 10/90, and 0/100. Fourier-transform infrared measurements revealed the absence of any chemical interaction between the two polymers, resulting in a phase-separated morphology as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs showed that PLA-rich blends had smaller droplet sizes when compared to the PBSA-rich blends, which got smaller with the reduction in PBSA content due to the differences in their melt viscosities. The interfacial area of PBSA droplets per unit volume of the blend reached a maximum in the 70PLA/30PBSA blend. Thermal stability and mechanical properties were not only affected by the composition of the blend, but also by the interfacial area between the two polymers. Through differential scanning calorimetry, it was shown that molten PBSA enhanced crystallization of PLA while the stiff PLA hindered cold crystallization of PBSA. Optimal synergies of properties between the two polymers were found in the 70PLA/30PBSA blend because of the maximum specific interfacial area of the PBSA droplets. PMID:23148691

  13. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A series of interdisciplinary modeling and analysis techniques that were specialized to address three specific hot section components are presented. These techniques will incorporate data as well as theoretical methods from many diverse areas including cycle and performance analysis, heat transfer analysis, linear and nonlinear stress analysis, and mission analysis. Building on the proven techniques already available in these fields, the new methods developed will be integrated into computer codes to provide an accurate, and unified approach to analyzing combustor burner liners, hollow air cooled turbine blades, and air cooled turbine vanes. For these components, the methods developed will predict temperature, deformation, stress and strain histories throughout a complete flight mission.

  14. Synthesis of porous graphene/activated carbon composite with high packing density and large specific surface area for supercapacitor electrode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chao; Zhou, Xufeng; Cao, Hailiang; Wang, Guohua; Liu, Zhaoping

    2014-07-01

    A simple method has been developed to prepare graphene/activated carbon (AC) nanosheet composite as high-performance electrode material for supercapacitor. Glucose solution containing dispersed graphite oxide (GO) sheets is hydrothermally carbonized to form a brown char-like intermediate product, and finally converts to porous nanosheet composite by two-step chemical activation using KOH. In this composite, a layer of porous AC coats on graphene to from wrinkled nanosheet structure, with length of several micrometers and thickness of tens of nanometer. The composite has a relatively high packing density of ˜0.3 g cm-3 and large specific surface area of 2106 m2 g-1, as well as containing plenty of mesopores. It exhibits specific capacitance up to 210 F g-1 in aqueous electrolyte and 103 F g-1 in organic electrolyte, respectively, and the specific capacitance decreases by only 5.3% after 5000 cycles. These results indicate that the porous graphene/AC nanosheet composite prepared by hydrothermal carbonization and chemical activation can be applied for high performance supercapacitors.

  15. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits - V cmax and J max - to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-08-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (J max). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between V cmax and J max and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between V cmax and J max and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of V cmax and J max with leaf N, P, and SLA. V cmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of V cmax to leaf N. J max was strongly related to V cmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm(-2)), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm(-2) nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of J max to V cmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting. PMID:25473475

  16. The particle size distribution, density, and specific surface area of welding fumes from SMAW and GMAW mild and stainless steel consumables.

    PubMed

    Hewett, P

    1995-02-01

    Particle size distributions were measured for fumes from mild steel (MS) and stainless steel (SS); shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) consumables. Up to six samples of each type of fume were collected in a test chamber using a micro-orifice uniform deposit (cascade) impactor. Bulk samples were collected for bulk fume density and specific surface area analysis. Additional impactor samples were collected using polycarbonate substrates and analyzed for elemental content. The parameters of the underlying mass distributions were estimated using a nonlinear least squares analysis method that fits a smooth curve to the mass fraction distribution histograms of all samples for each type of fume. The mass distributions for all four consumables were unimodal and well described by a lognormal distribution; with the exception of the GMAW-MS and GMAW-SS comparison, they were statistically different. The estimated mass distribution geometric means for the SMAW-MS and SMAW-SS consumables were 0.59 and 0.46 micron aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED), respectively, and 0.25 micron AED for both the GMAW-MS and GMAW-SS consumables. The bulk fume densities and specific surface areas were similar for the SMAW-MS and SMAW-SS consumables and for the GMAW-MS and GMAW-SS consumables, but differed between SMAW and GMAW. The distribution of metals was similar to the mass distributions. Particle size distributions and physical properties of the fumes were considerably different when categorized by welding method. Within each welding method there was little difference between MS and SS fumes. PMID:7856513

  17. Area-Specific Information Processing in Prefrontal Cortex during a Probabilistic Inference Task: A Multivariate fMRI BOLD Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Demanuele, Charmaine; Kirsch, Peter; Esslinger, Christine; Zink, Mathias; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Discriminating spatiotemporal stages of information processing involved in complex cognitive processes remains a challenge for neuroscience. This is especially so in prefrontal cortex whose subregions, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), anterior cingulate (ACC) and orbitofrontal (OFC) cortices are known to have differentiable roles in cognition. Yet it is much less clear how these subregions contribute to different cognitive processes required by a given task. To investigate this, we use functional MRI data recorded from a group of healthy adults during a “Jumping to Conclusions” probabilistic reasoning task. Methods We used a novel approach combining multivariate test statistics with bootstrap-based procedures to discriminate between different task stages reflected in the fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent signal pattern and to unravel differences in task-related information encoded by these regions. Furthermore, we implemented a new feature extraction algorithm that selects voxels from any set of brain regions that are jointly maximally predictive about specific task stages. Results Using both the multivariate statistics approach and the algorithm that searches for maximally informative voxels we show that during the Jumping to Conclusions task, the DLPFC and ACC contribute more to the decision making phase comprising the accumulation of evidence and probabilistic reasoning, while the OFC is more involved in choice evaluation and uncertainty feedback. Moreover, we show that in presumably non-task-related regions (temporal cortices) all information there was about task processing could be extracted from just one voxel (indicating the unspecific nature of that information), while for prefrontal areas a wider multivariate pattern of activity was maximally informative. Conclusions/Significance We present a new approach to reveal the different roles of brain regions during the processing of one task from multivariate activity patterns

  18. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits – Vcmax and Jmax – to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-01-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between Vcmax and Jmax and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between Vcmax and Jmax and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of Vcmax and Jmax with leaf N, P, and SLA. Vcmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of Vcmax to leaf N. Jmax was strongly related to Vcmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm−2), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm−2 nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of Jmax to Vcmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting. PMID:25473475

  19. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of equine antibodies specific to a recombinant Fasciola hepatica surface antigen in an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Arias, María Sol; Piñeiro, Pablo; Hillyer, George V; Francisco, Iván; Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana Filipa; Suárez, José Luis; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Paz-Silva, Adolfo

    2012-02-01

    The utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine the sensitization against the trematode Fasciola hepatica in horses from an endemic area (NW Spain) was assessed. Blood samples were collected from 536 horses and tested against a 2.9-kDa recombinant surface protein (FhrAPS) to estimate the presence of IgG antibodies. Data were analysed regarding several intrinsic (age, gender and breed) and extrinsic factors (aptitude and housing). The farm size (number of horses/farm) was also considered. Sixty percent (95% CI 56, 64) of the horses were positive to the FhrAPS-ELISA, with a significantly higher seroprevalence in the mares (67%). Foals reached the lowest percentage of sensitization against the trematode (12%), and a significant positive correlation between the seroprevalence of fasciolosis and the age of the horses was established. When considering all the factors together, the seroprevalence of fasciolosis was initially classified into two groups (nodes) regarding the age of the horses. The node composed of the horses older than 1 year was then divided into two other clusters according to their gender. The mares were finally classified and grouped into two nodes regarding their breed. We concluded that the FhrAPS-ELISA is very useful for the demonstration of specific equine IgG antibodies against F. hepatica. An elevated risk of exposition to this trematode in horses maintained in endemic areas was proven. The possible role of horses as reservoirs for F. hepatica infections is discussed. PMID:21847600

  20. Performance in an escape task induces fos-like immunoreactivity in a specific area of the motor cortex of the rat.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alamancos, M A; Borrell, J; García-Segura, L M

    1992-07-01

    The expression of the c-fos proto-oncogene was studied in two different areas of the motor cortex and in the hippocampus of the rat after performance in an escape task in a Skinner box. Performance in this task caused an increase in the number of cells showing fos-like immunoreactivity in layers V and VI of the forelimb motor-sensory cortex with respect to yoked animals which had received the same amount, frequency and duration of aversive stimulation and manipulation as the trained animals. Therefore, this increase is the specific effect of performing the behavioral task. In the hindlimb motor-sensory cortex there were no differences between the trained and the yoked animals in any of the cortical layers. No differences were observed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus between trained and yoked animals, while the control animals showed a much lower fos-like immunoreactivity. In conclusion, infragranular layers in the forelimb representation of the primary motor cortex become activated with respect to the expression of fos-like immunoreactivity after performance in an escape task in a Skinner box. This result is consistent with the idea that even in complex structures such as the cerebral cortex, specific trace systems become activated for the performance of complex behavioral tasks. PMID:1407543

  1. Relationship between specific surface area and the dry end of the water retention curve for soils with varying clay and organic carbon contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resurreccion, Augustus C.; Moldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus; Ferré, T. P. A.; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2011-06-01

    Accurate description of the soil water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics and biochemical vadose zone processes in arid environments. Soil water retention data corresponding to matric potentials of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate over capillary forces, have also been used to estimate soil specific surface area (SA). In the present study, the dry end of the SWRC was measured with a chilled-mirror dew point psychrometer for 41 Danish soils covering a wide range of clay (CL) and organic carbon (OC) contents. The 41 soils were classified into four groups on the basis of the Dexter number (n = CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing water film thickness at a given matric potential (<-10 MPa) was evaluated. The SA estimated from the dry end of the SWRC (SA_SWRC) was in good agreement with the SA measured with ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME) only for organic soils with n > 10. A strong correlation between the ratio of the two surface area estimates and the Dexter number was observed and applied as an additional scaling function in the TO model to rescale the soil water retention curve at low water contents. However, the TO model still overestimated water film thickness at potentials approaching ovendry condition (about -800 MPa). The semi-log linear Campbell-Shiozawa-Rossi-Nimmo (CSRN) model showed better fits for all investigated soils from -10 to -800 MPa and yielded high correlations with CL and SA. It is therefore recommended to apply the empirical CSRN model for predicting the dry part of the water retention curve (-10 to -800 MPa) from measured soil texture or surface area. Further research should aim to modify the more physically based TO model to obtain better descriptions of the SWRC in the very dry range (-300 to -800 MPa).

  2. Acute and chronic cocaine differentially alter the subcellular distribution of AMPA GluR1 subunits in region-specific neurons within the mouse ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    Lane, D.A.; Jaferi, A.; Kreek, M.J.; Pickel, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine administration increases AMPA GluR1 expression and receptor-mediated activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Functionality is determined, however, by surface availability of these receptors in transmitter- and VTA-region-specific neurons, which may also be affected by cocaine. To test this hypothesis, we used electron microscopic immunolabeling of AMPA GluR1 subunits and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the enzyme needed for dopamine synthesis), in the cortical-associated parabrachial (PB) and in the limbic-associated paranigral (PN) VTA of adult male C57BL/6 mice receiving either a single injection (acute) or repeated escalating-doses for 14 days (chronic) of cocaine. Acute cocaine resulted in opposing VTA-region-specific changes in TH-containing dopaminergic dendrites. TH-labeled dendrites within the PB VTA showed increased cytoplasmic GluR1 immunogold particle density consistent with decreased AMPA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission. Conversely, TH-labeled dendrites within the PN VTA showed greater surface expression of GluR1 with increases in both synaptic and plasmalemmal GluR1 immunogold density after a single injection of cocaine. These changes diminished in both VTA subregions after chronic cocaine administration. In contrast, non-TH-containing (presumably GABAergic) dendrites showed VTA-region-specific changes only after repeated cocaine administration such that synaptic GluR1 decreased in the PB, but increased in the PN VTA. Taken together, these findings provide ultrastructural evidence suggesting that chronic cocaine not only reverses the respective depression and facilitation of mesocortical (PB) and mesolimbic (PN) dopaminergic neurons elicited by acute cocaine, but also differentially affects synaptic availability of these receptors in non-dopaminergic neurons of each region. These adaptations may contribute to increased cocaine seeking/relapse and decreased reward that is reported with chronic cocaine use. PMID:20553819

  3. Results of 1999 Spectral Gamma-Ray and Neutron Moisture Monitoring of Boreholes at Specific Retention Facilities in the 200 East Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DG Horton; RR Randall

    2000-01-18

    Twenty-eight wells and boreholes in the 200 East Are% Hanford Site, Washington were monitored in 1999. The monitored facilities were past-practice liquid waste disposal facilities and consisted of six cribs and nineteen ''specific retention'' cribs and trenches. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray and neutron moisture logging. All data are included in Appendix B. The isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on spectral gamma logs from boreholes monitoring the PUREX specific retention facilities; the isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on the logs from boreholes at the BC Controlled Area cribs and trenches; and {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 125}Sb were, identified on the logs from boreholes at the BX specific retention trenches. Three boreholes in the BC Controlled Area and one at the BX trenches had previous spectral gamma logs available for comparison with 1999 logs. Two of those logs showed that changes in the subsurface distribution of {sup 137}CS and/or {sup 60}Co had occurred since 1992. Although the changes are not great, they do point to continued movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. The logs obtained in 1999 create a larger baseline for comparison with future logs. Numerous historical gross gamma logs exist from most of the boreholes logged. Qualitative comparison of those logs with the 1999 logs show many substantial changes, most of which reflect the decay of deeper short-lived isotopes, such as {sup 106}Ru and {sup 125}Sb, and the much slower decay of shallower and longer-lived isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs. The radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co have moved in two boreholes since 1992. Given the amount of movement and the half-lives of the isotopes, it is expected that they will decay to insignificant amounts before reaching groundwater. However, gamma ray logging cannot detect many of the contaminants of interest such as {sup 99}Tc, NO

  4. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  5. Chemical Address Tags of Fluorescent Bioimaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    Shedden, Kerby; Rosania, Gus R.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical address tags can be defined as specific structural features shared by a set of bioimaging probes having a predictable influence on cell-associated visual signals obtained from these probes. Here, using a large image dataset acquired with a high content screening instrument, machine vision and cheminformatics analysis have been applied to reveal chemical address tags. With a combinatorial library of fluorescent molecules, fluorescence signal intensity, spectral, and spatial features characterizing each one of the probes' visual signals were extracted from images acquired with the three different excitation and emission channels of the imaging instrument. With multivariate regression, the additive contribution from each one of the different building blocks of the bioimaging probes towards each measured, cell-associated image-based feature was calculated. In this manner, variations in the chemical features of the molecules were associated with the resulting staining patterns, facilitating quantitative, objective analysis of chemical address tags. Hierarchical clustering and paired image-cheminformatics analysis revealed key structure-property relationships amongst many building blocks of the fluorescent molecules. The results point to different chemical modifications of the bioimaging probes that can exert similar (or different) effects on the probes' visual signals. Inspection of the clustered structures suggests intramolecular charge migration or partial charge distribution as potential mechanistic determinants of chemical address tag behavior. PMID:20104576

  6. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  7. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  8. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  9. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  10. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  11. A Limousin specific myostatin allele affects longissimus muscle area and fatty acid profiles in a Wagyu-Limousin F2 population.

    PubMed

    Alexander, L J; Kuehn, L A; Smith, T P L; Matukumalli, L K; Mote, B; Koltes, J E; Reecy, J; Geary, T W; Rule, D C; Macneil, M D

    2009-05-01

    A microsatellite-based genome scan of a Wagyu x Limousin F(2) cross population previously demonstrated QTL affecting LM area and fatty acid composition were present in regions near the centromere of BTA2. In this study, we used 70 SNP markers to examine the centromeric 24 megabases (Mb) of BTA2, including the Limousin-specific F94L myostatin allele (AB076403.1; 415C > A) located at approximately 6 Mb on the draft genome sequence of BTA2. A significant effect of the F94L marker was observed (F = 60.17) for LM area, which indicated that myostatin is most likely responsible for the effect. This is consistent with previous reports that the substitution of Leu for Phe at AA 94 of myostatin (caused by the 415C > A transversion) is associated with increased muscle growth. Surprisingly, several fatty acid trait QTL, which affected the amount of unsaturated fats, also mapped to or very near the myostatin marker, including the ratio of C16:1 MUFA to C16:0 saturated fat (F = 16.72), C18:1 to C18:0 (F = 18.88), and total content of MUFA (F = 17.12). In addition, QTL for extent of marbling (F = 14.73) approached significance (P = 0.05), and CLA concentration (F = 9.22) was marginally significant (P = 0.18). We also observed associations of SNP located at 16.3 Mb with KPH (F = 15.00) and for the amount of SFA (F = 12.01). These results provide insight into genetic differences between the Wagyu and Limousin breeds and may lead to a better tasting and healthier product for consumers through improved selection for lipid content of beef. PMID:19213716

  12. Photoperiodic Condition Is Associated with Region-Specific Expression of GNRH1 mRNA in the Preoptic Area of the Male Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)1

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Tyler J.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2009-01-01

    Many seasonally breeding avian species exhibit marked changes in hypothalamic content of gonadotropin-releasing vhormone 1 (GNRH1) protein that are reflective of breeding condition. We recently cloned the GNRH1 cDNA in European starlings and demonstrated that changes in GNRH1 mRNA levels occur with a time course similar to what has been observed with GNRH1 protein. However, we did not previously resolve whether these differences were attributable to changes in the number of cells expressing the gene. Herein, we investigated photoperiod-induced changes in the number and distribution of GNRH1 mRNA-expressing cells in the preoptic area of male starlings. GNRH1 mRNA-expressing cell number was significantly greater in breeding birds than in nonbreeding birds. Starlings maintained in short nonstimulatory day length (i.e., prebreeding) showed intermediate cell numbers. Detailed analysis of the rostrocaudal and mediolateral distribution revealed that breeding birds had greater numbers of cells expressing GNRH1 mRNA in the medial intermediate, mediocaudal, and lateral intermediate preoptic area compared with prebreeding and nonbreeding birds. These data demonstrate that photoperiodic changes in reproductive state in starlings are associated with region-specific alterations in the number of cells expressing the GNRH1 gene. It remains to be determined whether these changes reflect quantitative differences in gene expression among an otherwise stable population of cells or a phenotypic switch in which cells gain or lose the ability to make GNRH1 mRNA in response to environmental cues. PMID:19516022

  13. Vertical profiles of specific surface area, thermal conductivity and density of mid-latitude, Arctic and Antarctic snow: relationships between snow physics and climat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domine, F.; Arnaud, L.; Bock, J.; Carmagnola, C.; Champollion, N.; Gallet, J.; Lesaffre, B.; Morin, S.; Picard, G.

    2011-12-01

    We have measured vertical profiles of specific surface area (SSA), thermal conductivity (TC) and density in snow from 12 different climatic regions featuring seasonal snowpacks of maritime, Alpine, taiga and tundra types, on Arctic sea ice, and from ice caps in Greenland and Antarctica. We attempt to relate snow physical properties to climatic variables including precipitation, temperature and its yearly variation, wind speed and its short scale temporal variations. As expected, temperature is a key variable that determines snow properties, mostly by determining the metamorphic regime (temperature gradient or equi-temperature) in conjunction with precipitation. However, wind speed and wind speed distribution also seem to have an at least as important role. For example high wind speeds determine the formation of windpacks of high SSA and high TC instead of depth hoar with lower values of these variables. The distribution of wind speed also strongly affects properties, as for example frequent moderate winds result in frequent snow remobilization, producing snow with higher SSA and lower TC than regions with the same average wind speeds, but with less frequent and more intense wind episodes. These strong effects of climate on snow properties imply that climate change will greatly modify snow properties, which in turn will affect climate, as for example changes in snow SSA modify albedo and changes in TC affect permafrost and the release of greenhouse gases from thawing permafrost. Some of these climate-snow feedbacks will be discussed.

  14. Specific surface area of snow samples determined by CH4 adsorption at 77 K and estimated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dominé, F; Cabanes, A; Taillandier, A S; Legagneux, L

    2001-02-15

    Snow is a divided medium that can adsorb atmospheric trace gases. Evaluating the impact of the snow cover on atmospheric chemistry therefore requires the knowledge of the specific surface area (SSA) of snow. This paper compares the results of three methods used to measure or estimate the SSA of four snow samples: CH4 adsorption at 77 K, optical microscopy (OM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, used only on two samples). Within error bars, CH4 adsorption and OM yield similar results on three of the four snow samples. Values for the 4th sample are within a factor of 2. For both samples where CH4 adsorption, OM, and SEM are used, all three methods yield similar results, but CH4 adsorption always has a better accuracy and a much better precision. Thus, despite its ease of use, estimates from OM images are often not accurate enough to monitor the evolution of snow SSA. The main sources of error in the OM method are the difficulty to determine snow crystal thicknesses and to take into account the topography of the snow crystal surface. The combination of CH4 adsorption and OM or SEM can provide useful information on the evolution of both the SSA and the shape of snow crystals. This will be useful to evaluate the respective contributions of adsorption/desorption and sublimation/condensation processes to the impact of the snow cover on atmospheric chemistry. PMID:11349291

  15. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  16. Difference in responses of two coastal species to fluctuating salinities and temperatures: Potential modification of specific distribution areas in the context of global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trancart, Thomas; Feunteun, Eric; Lefrançois, Christel; Acou, Anthony; Boinet, Christophe; Carpentier, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    In the past several years, all numerical models have forecasted an increase in extreme climatic events linked to global change. Estuarine waters at the interface of marine and freshwater bodies are among the most volatile ecosystems, particularly for aquatic species, and will be strongly influenced by the temperature with extreme flooding events. This study aimed to quantify the acclimation capacity of coastal fish species to estuarine plume modifications. The thicklip mullet (Chelon labrosus) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were selected as representative species of estuarine ecological guilds. These fish were subjected to an experiment mimicking a brief freshwater intrusion (35-5). These experiments were conducted at two different temperatures that these two species would encounter during their incursion from the sea through estuarine waters to freshwater habitats. The experimental results confirmed the high capacity for acclimation of both species to changes in salinity and temperature. Interspecific differences were observed. For example, the salinity has a greater effect on the metabolism of the seabass than on that of the mullets. Meanwhile, the temperature has a greater effect on the mullets. These differences in metabolic responses to fluctuating salinities and temperatures may modify the use of estuarine waters by these species and should be considered when predicting future specific distribution areas in the context of global change.

  17. The (Im)possibility of the Project: Radford Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In this address, the author engages both with the possibility "and" the impossibility of the educational project--and suggests something of what it means to say this. His presentation is specifically addressed to the theme of the (im)possibility of the educational project. He draws from philosophy, literature, psychoanalysis and history, as well…

  18. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  19. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  20. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  1. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  2. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  3. Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Yagmur Meltem; Yaman, Baris; Koca, Husnu; Dasdemir, Okan; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Odabasi, Mustafa; Elbir, Tolga

    2014-08-15

    Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO2) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 μmol/m(2)s PAR and 30 °C temperature for isoprene and 30 °C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 μg/gh was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 μg/gh. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and beta

  4. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  5. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    SciTech Connect

    Welcome, Michael L.; Bell, Christian S.

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address space languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.

  6. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address spacemore » languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.« less

  7. Estimating leaf functional traits by inversion of PROSPECT: Assessing leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area in mixed mountainous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Abebe Mohammed; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Duren, Iris van; Heiden, Uta; Heurich, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Assessments of ecosystem functioning rely heavily on quantification of vegetation properties. The search is on for methods that produce reliable and accurate baseline information on plant functional traits. In this study, the inversion of the PROSPECT radiative transfer model was used to estimate two functional leaf traits: leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA). Inversion of PROSPECT usually aims at quantifying its direct input parameters. This is the first time the technique has been used to indirectly model LDMC and SLA. Biophysical parameters of 137 leaf samples were measured in July 2013 in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Spectra of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD FieldSpec3 equipped with an integrating sphere. PROSPECT was inverted using a look-up table (LUT) approach. The LUTs were generated with and without using prior information. The effect of incorporating prior information on the retrieval accuracy was studied before and after stratifying the samples into broadleaf and conifer categories. The estimated values were evaluated using R2 and normalized root mean square error (nRMSE). Among the retrieved variables the lowest nRMSE (0.0899) was observed for LDMC. For both traits higher R2 values (0.83 for LDMC and 0.89 for SLA) were discovered in the pooled samples. The use of prior information improved accuracy of the retrieved traits. The strong correlation between the estimated traits and the NIR/SWIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum suggests that these leaf traits could be assessed at canopy level by using remotely sensed data.

  8. Effects of Prepubertal or Adult Site-Specific Knockdown of Estrogen Receptor β in the Medial Preoptic Area and Medial Amygdala on Social Behaviors in Male Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Mariko; Sano, Kazuhiro; Musatov, Sergei; Sakamoto, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Testosterone, after being converted to estradiol in the brain, acts on estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) and controls the expression of male-type social behavior. Previous studies in male mice have revealed that ERα expressed in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and medial amygdala (MeA) are differently involved in the regulation of sexual and aggressive behaviors by testosterone action at the time of testing in adult and/or on brain masculinization process during pubertal period. However, a role played by ERβ in these brain regions still remains unclear. Here we examined the effects of site-specific knockdown of ERβ (βERKD) in the MPOA and MeA on male social behaviors with the use of adeno-associated viral mediated RNA interference methods in ICR/Jcl mice. Prepubertal βERKD in the MPOA revealed that continuous suppression of ERβ gene expression throughout the pubertal period and adulthood decreased aggressive but not sexual behavior tested as adults. Because βERKD in the MPOA only in adulthood did not affect either sexual or aggressive behaviors, it was concluded that pubertal ERβ in the MPOA might have an essential role for the full expression of aggressive behavior in adulthood. On the other hand, although neither prepubertal nor adult βERKD in the MeA had any effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, βERKD in adulthood disrupted sexual preference of receptive females over nonreceptive females. Collectively, these results suggest that ERβ in the MPOA and MeA are involved in the regulation of male sexual and aggressive behavior in a manner substantially different from that of ERα. PMID:27066533

  9. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  10. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  12. Name-Based Address Mapping for Virtual Private Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surányi, Péter; Shinjo, Yasushi; Kato, Kazuhiko

    IPv4 private addresses are commonly used in local area networks (LANs). With the increasing popularity of virtual private networks (VPNs), it has become common that a user connects to multiple LANs at the same time. However, private address ranges for LANs frequently overlap. In such cases, existing systems do not allow the user to access the resources on all LANs at the same time. In this paper, we propose name-based address mapping for VPNs, a novel method that allows connecting to hosts through multiple VPNs at the same time, even when the address ranges of the VPNs overlap. In name-based address mapping, rather than using the IP addresses used on the LANs (the real addresses), we assign a unique virtual address to each remote host based on its domain name. The local host uses the virtual addresses to communicate with remote hosts. We have implemented name-based address mapping for layer 3 OpenVPN connections on Linux and measured its performance. The communication overhead of our system is less than 1.5% for throughput and less than 0.2ms for each name resolution.

  13. Reduced uncertainty of regional scale CLM predictions of net carbon fluxes and leaf area indices with estimated plant-specific parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Hanna; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Han, Xujun; Baatz, Roland; Montzka, Carsten; Schmidt, Marius; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Reliable estimates of carbon fluxes and states at regional scales are required to reduce uncertainties in regional carbon balance estimates and to support decision making in environmental politics. In this work the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5-BGC) was applied at a high spatial resolution (1 km2) for the Rur catchment in western Germany. In order to improve the model-data consistency of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and leaf area index (LAI) for this study area, five plant functional type (PFT)-specific CLM4.5-BGC parameters were estimated with time series of half-hourly NEE data for one year in 2011/2012, using the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The parameters were estimated separately for four different plant functional types (needleleaf evergreen temperate tree, broadleaf deciduous temperate tree, C3-grass and C3-crop) at four different sites. The four sites are located inside or close to the Rur catchment. We evaluated modeled NEE for one year in 2012/2013 with NEE measured at seven eddy covariance sites in the catchment, including the four parameter estimation sites. Modeled LAI was evaluated by means of LAI derived from remotely sensed RapidEye images of about 18 days in 2011/2012. Performance indices were based on a comparison between measurements and (i) a reference run with CLM default parameters, and (ii) a 60 instance CLM ensemble with parameters sampled from the DREAM posterior probability density functions (pdfs). The difference between the observed and simulated NEE sum reduced 23% if estimated parameters instead of default parameters were used as input. The mean absolute difference between modeled and measured LAI was reduced by 59% on average. Simulated LAI was not only improved in terms of the absolute value but in some cases also in terms of the timing (beginning of vegetation onset), which was directly related to a substantial improvement of the NEE estimates in

  14. Survey of women׳s experiences of care in a new freestanding midwifery unit in an inner city area of London, England: 2. Specific aspects of care

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Alison J.; Rocca-Ihenacho, Lucia; Turner, Lyle R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective to describe and compare women׳s experiences of specific aspects of maternity care before and after the opening of the Barkantine Birth Centre, a new freestanding midwifery unit in an inner city area. Design telephone surveys undertaken in late pregnancy and about six weeks after birth. Two separate waves of interviews were conducted, Phase 1 before the birth centre opened and Phase 2 after it had opened. Setting Tower Hamlets, a deprived inner city borough in east London, 2007–2010. Participants 620 women who were resident in Tower Hamlets and who satisfied the Barts and the London Trust’s eligibility criteria for using the birth centre. Of these, 259 women were recruited to Phase 1 and 361 to Phase 2. Measurements and findings the replies women gave show marked differences between the model of care in the birth centre and that at the obstetric unit at the Royal London Hospital with respect to experiences of care and specific practices. Women who initially booked for birth centre care were more likely to attend antenatal classes and find them useful and were less likely to be induced. Women who started labour care at the birth centre in spontaneous labour were more likely to use non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, most notably water and less likely to use pethidine than women who started care at the hospital. They were more likely to be able to move around in labour and less likely to have their membranes ruptured or have continuous CTG. They were more likely to be told to push spontaneously when they needed to rather than under directed pushing and more likely to report that they had been able to choose their position for birth and deliver in places other than the bed, in contrast to the situation at the hospital. The majority of women who had a spontaneous onset of labour delivered vaginally, with 28.6 per cent of women at the birth centre but no one at the hospital delivering in water. Primiparous women who delivered at the birth centre

  15. Compound class specific {sup 14}C analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with PM10 and PM1.1 aerosols from residential areas of suburban Tokyo

    SciTech Connect

    Hidetoshi Kumata; Masao Uchida; Eisuke Sakuma; Tatsuya Uchida; Kitao Fujiwara; Mikio Tsuzuki; Minoru Yoneda; Yasuyuki Shibata

    2006-06-01

    Compound class specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) was performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with airborne particulate matter (APM) with diameter {lt}10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) and {lt}1.1 {mu}m (PM{sub 1.1}) collected from a residential area of suburban Tokyo, Japan, and seasonal and particle-size radiocarbon variations were investigated. Source diagnostic isomer pair ratios indicated mixed contributions from petroleum combustion and from biomass and coal combustion to the PAHs in APM. The {Delta}{sup 14}C-PAHs in APM, ranging from -787 to -514{per_thousand}, indicated dominance of fossil fuel combustion. The {Delta}{sup 14}C of 5-6 rings (HMW) PAHs were higher than the 3-4 rings (LMW) species in both PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 1.1} samples. The {Delta}{sup 14}C of HMW-PAHs indicated greater biomass-burning contributions in summer than in winter and no apparent particle-size variation. Conversely, the {Delta}{sup 14}C of LMW species showed a greater contribution from fossil sources in summer and in larger particles (PM10). This finding could be tentatively attributed to the recondensation of fossil-PAHs vaporized from petroleum sources. A {Delta}{sup 14}C isotopic mass balance approach estimated that biomass burning contributes 17-45% of the PAH burden in suburban Tokyo, and that the increase in the biomass-PAH accounts for approximately 27% and 22% of winter-time elevation of LMW- and HMW-PAHs, respectively. These are far exceeding what is expected from the emission statistics for CO{sub 2} and combusted materials in Japan and emphasizing the importance of biomass-burning as a source of PAHs; which, in turn, demonstrates the utility and the significance of field-based source assessment by using CCSRA for an effective regulation of atmospheric pollution by PAHs. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Addressing Educational Needs of Children with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Hendrina; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews medical and neuropsychological effects of HIV/AIDS in children and relates these findings specifically to educational difficulties. It then proposes an instructional delivery framework for these children that stresses the importance of addressing their educational needs and includes specific suggestions for reading instruction,…

  17. Addressing the Needs of Students with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ellenburg, Jennifer S.; Acton, Olivia M.; Torrey, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses symptoms of students with Rett Syndrome, a disability in females characterized by the development of multiple specific deficits following a period of normal functioning after birth. Specific interventions for students with Rett syndrome are provided and address communication, stereotypic movements, self-injurious behaviors,…

  18. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  19. Addressing Extremes within the WCRP - GEWEX Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oevelen, P. J.; Stewart, R.; Detemmerman, V.

    2008-12-01

    For large international coordination programs such as the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) as part of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) it is difficult to strike a good balance between enabling as much international involvement as is possible and desirable and the achievability of the objectives. WCRP has decided that "Extremes Research" is one of several areas where it would like to see its efforts strengthened and scientific research pushed forward. The foci that are being selected should be phrased such that they are practical and achievable within a time span of 1 to 3 years. Preferably these foci build upon the expertise from cross WCRP activities and are not restricted to single core project activities. In this presentation an overview will be given of the various activities within GEWEX that are related to extremes and which ones would be most ideal to be addressed as WCRP foci from a GEWEX perspective. The rationale and context of extreme research will be presented as well links to other national and international programs. "Extremes Research" as a topic is attractive since it has a high societal relevance and impact. However, numerous definitions of extremes exist and they are being used in widely varying contexts making it not always clear of what exactly is being addressed. This presentation will give an outlook on what can be expected research wise in the near future based upon the outcomes of the Extremes Workshop organised last June in Vancouver in the context of the Coordinated Energy and water cycle Observations Project (CEOP) as part of GEWEX. In particular it will be shown how these activities, which will only address certain types of extremes, can be linked to adaptation and mitigation efforts taking place in other organisations and by national and international bodies.

  20. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  1. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A series of interdisciplinary modeling and analysis techniques that were specialized to address three specific hot section components are presented. These techniques will incorporate data as well as theoretical methods from many diverse areas including cycle and performance analysis, heat transfer analysis, linear and nonlinear stress analysis, and mission analysis. Building on the proven techniques already available in these fields, the new methods developed will be integrated into computer codes to provide an accurate, efficient and unified approach to analyzing combustor burner liners, hollow air-cooled turbine blades and air-cooled turbine vanes. For these components, the methods developed will predict temperature, deformation, stress and strain histories throughout a complete flight mission.

  2. Low-to-moderate temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada: Area specific studies, final report for the period June 1, 1980-August 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, Dennis T.; Koeing, Brian A.; Flynn, Thomas; Bruce, James L.; Ghusn, George Jr.

    1981-08-30

    The Hawthorne study area is located in Mineral County, Nevada and surrounds the municipality of the same name. It encompasses an area of approximately 310 sq. km (120 sq. mi), and most of the land belongs to the US Army Ammunition Plant. The energy needs of the military combined with those of the area population (over 5,000 residents) are substantial. The area is classified as having a high potential for direct applications using the evaluation scheme described in Trexler and others (1979). A variety of scientific techniques was employed during area-wide resource assessment. General geologic studies demonstrate the lithologic diversity in the area; these studies also indicate possible sources for dissolved fluid constituents. Geophysical investigations include aeromagnetic and gravity surveys which aid in defining the nature of regional, and to a lesser extent, local variations in subsurface configurations. Surface and near-surface structural features are determined using various types of photo imagery including low sun-angle photography. An extensive shallow depth temperature probe survey indicates two zones of elevated temperature on opposite sides of the Walker Lake basin. Temperature-depth profiles from several wells in the study area indicate significant thermal fluid-bearing aquifers. Fluid chemical studies suggest a wide spatial distribution for the resource, and also suggest a meteoric recharge source in the Wassuk Range. Finally, a soil-mercury survey was not a useful technique in this study area. Two test holes were drilled to conclude the area resource assessment, and thermal fluids were encountered in both wells. The western well has measured temperatures as high as 90 C (194 F) within 150 meters (500 ft) of the surface. Temperature profiles in this well indicate a negative temperature gradient below 180 meters (590 ft). The eastern hole had a bottom hole temperature of 61 C (142 F) at a depth of only 120 meters (395 ft). A positive gradient is observed

  3. Remediation tradeoffs addressed with simulated annealing optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L. L., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    Escalation of groundwater remediation costs has encouraged both advances in optimization techniques to balance remediation objectives and economics and development of innovative technologies to expedite source region clean-ups. We present an optimization application building on a pump-and-treat model, yet assuming a prior removal of different portions of the source area to address the evolving management issue of more aggressive source remediation. Separate economic estimates of in-situ thermal remediation are combined with the economic estimates of the subsequent optimal pump-and-treat remediation to observe tradeoff relationships of cost vs. highest remaining contamination levels (hot spot). The simulated annealing algorithm calls the flow and transport model to evaluate the success of a proposed remediation scenario at a U.S.A. Superfund site contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  4. MAMODE: A Routing Scheme Using Mixed Address Mode for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jeongho; Byun, Tae-Young

    As deployment of sensor networks are recently spread, a variety of services based on sensor network have been introduced. Nevertheless, prolonging of battery life becomes primary challenges to overcome for deploying sensor networks in various fields. Problems such as network bandwidth reduction, collision occurrence and performance deterioration due to broadcasting of message in large scale networks have become primary challenges. In this paper, we presented a new routing algorithm based on data-centric routing and address-based routing schemes, which is that query messages are delivered to specific area by using address-based routing scheme in unicast scheme, and then, broadcast scheme is used in specific area by inserting additional information of neighbor nodes to broadcast into the message payload. This method prevents severe broadcast storm caused by broadcast message, and also provides data reliability at reasonable level by utilizing address information in message. By computer simulation, our proposed scheme significantly reduces energy consumption caused by broadcasting of messages as well as it improves appropriate data reliability in wireless sensor networks.

  5. Low-to-moderate temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada, area specific studies. Final report, June 1, 1980-August 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Koenig, B.A.; Flynn, T.; Bruce, J.L.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Hawthorne study area is located in Mineral County, Nevada and surrounds the municipality of the same name. It encompasses an area of approximately 310 sq. km (120 sq. mi), and most of the land belongs to the US Army Ammunition Plant. The energy needs of the military combined with those of the area population (over 5,000 residents) are substantial. The area is classified as having a high potential for direct applications using the evaluation scheme described in Texler and others (1979). A variety of scientific techniques was employed during area-wide resource assessment. General geologic studies demonstrate the lithologic diversity in the area; these studies also indicate possible sources for dissolved fluid constituents. Geophysical investigations include aero-magnetic and gravity surveys which aid in defining the nature of regional, and to a lesser extent, local variations in subsurface configurations. Surface and near-surface structural features are determined using various types of photo imagery including low sun-angle photography. An extensive shallow depth temperature probe survey indicates two zones of elevated temperature on opposite sides of the Walker Lake basin. Temperature-depth profiles from several wells in the study area indicate significant thermal fluid-bearing aquifers. Fluid chemical studies suggest a wide spatial distribution for the resource, and also suggest a meteoric recharge source in the Wassuk Range. Finally, a soil-mercury survey was not a useful technique in this study area. Two test holes were drilled to conclude the area resource assessment, and thermal fluids were encountered in both wells. The western well has measured temperatures as high as 90 C (194 F) within 150 meters (500 ft) of the surface. Temperature profiles in this well indicate a negative temperature gradient below 180 meters (590 ft). The eastern hole had a bottom hole temperature of 61 C (142 F) at a depth of only 120 meters (395 ft). A positive gradient is observed

  6. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  7. Addressable-Matrix Integrated-Circuit Test Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayah, Hoshyar R.; Buehler, Martin G.

    1991-01-01

    Method of quality control based on use of row- and column-addressable test structure speeds collection of data on widths of resistor lines and coverage of steps in integrated circuits. By use of straightforward mathematical model, line widths and step coverages deduced from measurements of electrical resistances in each of various combinations of lines, steps, and bridges addressable in test structure. Intended for use in evaluating processes and equipment used in manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits.

  8. Intercomparison of retrieval algorithms for the specific surface area of snow from near-infrared satellite data in mountainous terrain, and comparison with the output of a semi-distributed snowpack model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mary, A.; Dumont, M.; Dedieu, J.-P.; Durand, Y.; Sirguey, P.; Milhem, H.; Mestre, O.; Negi, H. S.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Lafaysse, M.; Morin, S.

    2013-04-01

    This study compares different methods to retrieve the specific surface area (SSA) of snow from satellite radiance measurements in mountainous terrain. It aims at addressing the effect on the retrieval of topographic corrections of reflectance, namely slope and aspect of terrain, multiple reflections on neighbouring slopes and accounting (or not) for the anisotropy of snow reflectance. Using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data for six different clear sky scenes spanning a wide range of snow conditions during the winter season 2008-2009 over a domain of 46 × 50 km in the French Alps, we compared SSA retrievals with and without topographic correction, with a spherical or non-spherical snow reflectance model and, in spherical case, with or without anisotropy corrections. The retrieved SSA values were compared to field measurements and to the results of the detailed snowpack model Crocus, fed by driving data from the SAFRAN meteorological analysis. It was found that the difference in terms of surface SSA between retrieved values and SAFRAN-Crocus output was minimal when the topographic correction was taken into account, when using a retrieval method assuming disconnected spherical snow grains. In this case, the root mean square deviation was 9.4 m2 kg-1 and the mean difference was 0.1 m2 kg-1, based on 3170 pairs of observation and simulated values. The added-value of the anisotropy correction was not significant in our case, which may be explained by the presence of mixed pixels and surface roughness. MODIS retrieved data show SSA variations with elevation and aspect which are physically consistent and in good agreement with SAFRAN-Crocus outputs. The variability of the MODIS retrieved SSA within the topographic classes of the model was found to be relatively small (3.9 m2 kg-1). This indicates that semi-distributed snowpack simulations in mountainous terrain with a sufficiently large number of classes provides a representation of the snowpack

  9. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  10. Drilling Specifications: Well Installations in the 300 Area to Support PNNL’s Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2008-01-21

    Part of the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) will be installation of a network of high density borings and wells to monitor migration of fluids and contaminants (uranium), both in groundwater and vadose zone, away from an surface infiltration plot (Figure A-1). The infiltration plot will be located over an area of suspected contamination at the former 300 Area South Process Pond (SPP). The SPP is located in the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site, within the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with the support of FH shall stake the well locations prior to the start of drilling. Final locations will be based on accessibility and will avoid any surface or underground structures or hazards as well as surface contamination.

  11. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. PMID:21664679

  12. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  13. Addressing terrain masking in orbital reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sharad; Cico, Luke

    2012-06-01

    During aerial orbital reconnaissance, a sensor system is mounted on an airborne platform for imaging a region on the ground. The latency between the image acquisition and delivery of information to the end-user is critical and must be minimized. Due to fine ground pixel resolution and a large field-of-view for wide-area surveillance applications, a massive volume of data is gathered and imagery products are formed using a real-time multi-processor system. The images are taken at oblique angles, stabilized and ortho-rectified. The line-of-sight of the sensor to the ground is often interrupted by terrain features such as mountains or tall structures as depicted in Figure1. The ortho-rectification process renders the areas hidden from the line-of sight of the sensor with spurious information. This paper discusses an approach for addressing terrain masking in size, weight, and power (SWaP) and memory-restricted onboard processing systems.

  14. A European framework to address psychosocial hazards.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Kortum, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decades, emphasis has been placed on the changing nature of work and new forms of risk that could negatively affect employee health and safety. These are mainly associated with new types of occupational hazards that have been termed psychosocial. Issues such as work-related stress, bullying and harassment are now receiving attention on a global basis and efforts have been made to address them at the workplace level. However, it has been acknowledged that despite developments of policy in this area, there still appear to be a broad science-policy gap and an even broader one between policy and practice. The WHO Network of Collaborating Centers in Occupational Health has, since the late 1990s, been supporting a dedicated program of work on psychosocial factors and work-related stress. Part of the Network's work is currently focusing on the translation of existing knowledge into practice in the area of psychosocial risk management. This program has identified that the optimum way forward lies in the development of a European framework for psychosocial risk management. This framework will serve as the basis for coordination of research activities and preventive action with an emphasis on evidence based interventions and best practice on an international basis. PMID:18408344

  15. Addressing Health Disparities through Multi-institutional, Multidisciplinary Collaboratories

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Erik S.; Perkins, James; Easa, David; Conde, José G.; Baker, Richard S.; Southerland, William M.; Dottin, Robert; Benabe, Julio E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Bond, Vincent C.; McClure, Shelia A.; Sayre, Michael H.; Beanan, Maureen J.; Norris, Keith C.

    2009-01-01

    The national research leadership has recently become aware of the tremendous potential of translational research as an approach to address health disparities. The Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) is a research network that supports multi-institutional, multidisciplinary collaboration with a focus on key diseases and conditions for which disproportionately adverse racial and ethnic health disparities exist. The RTRN is designed to facilitate the movement of scientific advances across the translational research spectrum by providing researchers at different institutions with the infrastructure and tools necessary to collaborate on interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research projects relating to specific health outcomes for which major racial/ethnic disparities exist. In the past, the difficulty of overcoming the restrictions imposed by time and space have made it difficult to carry out this type of large-scale, multilevel collaboration efficiently. To address this formidable challenge, the RTRN will deploy a translational research cluster system that uses “cyber workspaces” to bring researchers with similar interests together by using online collaboratory technology. These virtual meeting environments will provide a number of tools, including videoconferences (seminars, works in progress, meetings); project management tools (WebCT, Microsoft Share Point); and posting areas for projects, concepts, and other research and educational activities. This technology will help enhance access to resources across institutions with a common mission, minimize many of the logistical hurdles that impede intellectual exchange, streamline the planning and implementation of innovative interdisciplinary research, and assess the use of protocols and practices to assist researchers in interacting across and within cyber workspaces. PMID:18646341

  16. Light-addressable bacteriorhodopsin photocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei W.; Knopf, George K.; Bassi, Amarjeet S.

    2004-09-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) thin films have been investigated in recent years as a viable biomaterial for constructing micro- or nanoscale optical devices. During illumination, the bR molecules in the thin film undergo a photocycle that is followed by a proton transport from the cytoplasmatic side to the extracellular side of the cell membrane. The photoelectric response induced by the charge displacement can be influenced by both the wavelength and intensity of the impinging light sources. A photocell based on the photoelectric properties of a thin bR film is described in this paper. The bR-based photocell is built as a sandwich-structural device with an ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) electrode/bR film/ITO electrode configuration. The photocell is fabricated by depositing the oriented bR film onto the grounded ITO electrode. The cytoplasmic side of the bR membrane is attached to the ITO conductive surface and the extracelluar side is placed in contact with the second ITO electrode that provides the signal input to the instrumentation circuit. A polyester thin film was used as the spacer separating the two ITO electrodes. The size of the active area of the photocell is about 10×10 mm. A HeNe laser coupled with an acoustic-optical scanning system is used as the light source. Experimental results confirm that the photoelectric response generated by the bR-photocell prototype is durable, stable, and highly sensitive to changes in light intensity. The sensitivity of the proposed signal transducer is 10.25mV/mW. The wavelength dependence of the photoelectric responses is similar to the optical absorption spectrum of bR membrane.

  17. A Limousin specific myostatin allele affects longissimus muscle area and fatty acid profiles in a Wagyu-Limousin F*2* population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microsatellite-based genome scan of a Wagyu x Limousin F2 cross population previously demonstrated QTL affecting longissimus muscle area (LMA) and fatty acid composition were present in regions near the centromere of BTA 2. In this study we used 70 SNP markers to examine the centromeric 20 megabas...

  18. Vaccine hesitancy: understanding better to address better.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dewesh; Chandra, Rahul; Mathur, Medha; Samdariya, Saurabh; Kapoor, Neelesh

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy is an emerging term in the socio-medical literature which describes an approach to vaccine decision making. It recognizes that there is a continuum between full acceptance and outright refusal of some or all vaccines and challenges the previous understanding of individuals or groups, as being either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The behaviours responsible for vaccine hesitancy can be related to confidence, convenience and complacency. The causes of vaccine hesitancy can be described by the epidemiological triad i.e. the complex interaction of environmental- (i.e. external), agent- (i.e. vaccine) and host (or parent)- specific factors. Vaccine hesitancy is a complex and dynamic issue; future vaccination programs need to reflect and address these context-specific factors in both their design and evaluation. Many experts are of the view that it is best to counter vaccine hesitancy at the population level. They believe that it can be done by introducing more transparency into policy decision-making before immunization programs, providing up-to-date information to the public and health providers about the rigorous procedures undertaken before introduction of new vaccines, and through diversified post-marketing surveillance of vaccine-related events. PMID:26839681

  19. A Blueprint to Address Research Gaps in the Development of Biomarkers for Pediatric Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Mark Patrick; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Browning, Renee; Click, Eleanor S; Cuevas, Luis E; Detjen, Anne; Graham, Steve M; Levin, Michael; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Nahid, Payam; Perez-Velez, Carlos M; Reither, Klaus; Song, Rinn; Spiegel, Hans M L; Worrell, Carol; Zar, Heather J; Walzl, Gerhard

    2015-10-15

    Childhood tuberculosis contributes significantly to the global tuberculosis disease burden but remains challenging to diagnose due to inadequate methods of pathogen detection in paucibacillary pediatric samples and lack of a child-specific host biomarker to identify disease. Accurately diagnosing tuberculosis in children is required to improve case detection, surveillance, healthcare delivery, and effective advocacy. In May 2014, the National Institutes of Health convened a workshop including researchers in the field to delineate priorities to address this research gap. This blueprint describes the consensus from the workshop, identifies critical research steps to advance this field, and aims to catalyze efforts toward harmonization and collaboration in this area. PMID:26409279

  20. Immunization in urban areas: issues and strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, S. J.; Cheyne, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the past, immunization programmes have focused primarily on rural areas. However, with the recognition of the increasing numbers of urban poor, it is timely to review urban immunization activities. This update addresses two questions: Is there any need to be concerned about urban immunization and, if so, is more of the same kind of rural EPI activity needed or are there specific urban issues that need specific urban strategies? Vaccine-preventable diseases have specific urban patterns that require efficacious vaccines for younger children, higher target coverage levels, and particular focus to ensure national and global eradication of poliomyelitis. Although aggregate coverage levels are higher in urban than rural areas, gaps are masked since capital cities are better covered than other urban areas and the coverage in the poorest slum and periurban areas within cities is as bad as or worse than that in rural areas. Difficult access to immunization services in terms of distance, costs, and time can still be the main barrier in some parts of the city. Mobilization and motivation strategies in urban areas should make use of the mass media and workplace networks as well as the traditional word-of-mouth strategies. Use of community health workers has been successful in some urban settings. Management issues concern integration of the needs of the poor into a coherent city health plan, coordination of different health providers, and clear lines of responsibility for addressing the needs of new, urbanizing areas. PMID:8205637

  1. Influence of specific surface area of pyrogenic silicas on their heat of immersion in water and on their surface properties assessed using inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Donnet, Jean-Baptiste; Balard, Henri; Nedjari, Nabila; Hamdi, Boualem; Barthel, Herbert; Gottschalk-Gaudig, Torsten

    2008-12-01

    The heat of immersion and the surface properties of pyrogenic silicas were examined using microcalorimetry and inverse gas chromatography at finite concentration (FC-IGC). The microcalorimetric measurements showed a regular decrease of the heat of immersion, in water, per area unit with an increase in the surface areas. The desorption isotherms were established using FC-IGC. It is observed that BET constant value goes through a minimum, whereas the shapes of distribution function of the adsorption energies of isopropanol are changing. All results could be interpreted using a model of formation of the pyrogenic silica in the flame, which explains the change of surface functionality and geometry occurring around 200 m2/g. PMID:18829045

  2. Metals and Rare Earth Elements in polar aerosol as specific markers of natural and anthropogenic aerosol sources areas and atmospheric transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardi, Fabio; Becagli, Silvia; Caiazzo, Laura; Cappelletti, David; Grotti, Marco; Malandrino, Mery; Salzano, Roberto; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Metals and Rare Earth Elements (REEs) in the aerosol have conservative properties from the formation to the deposition and can be useful to identify and quantify their natural and anthropic sources and to study the atmospheric transport processes. In spite of their importance relatively little is known about metals and especially REEs in the Artic atmosphere due to their low concentration in such environment. The present work reports the first attempt to determine and interpret the behaviour of metals and REEs in polar aerosol at high temporal resolution. Daily PM10 samples of arctic atmospheric particulate were collected on Teflon filters, during six spring-summer campaigns, since 2010, in the laboratory of Gruvebadet in Ny Ålesund (78°56' N, 11°56' E, Svalbard Islands, Norway). Chemical analyses were carried out through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer provided with a desolvation nebulizer inlet system, allowing to reduce isobaric interferences and thus to quantify trace and ultra-trace metals in very low concentration in the Arctic aerosol samples. The results are useful in order to study sources areas, transport processes and depositional effects of natural and anthropic atmospheric particulate reaching the Arctic from southern industrialized areas; moreover, the observed seasonal trends give information about the different impact of natural and anthropic emissions driven by phenomena such as the Arctic Haze and the melting of the snow. In particular Rare Earth Elements (often in the ppt range) can be considered as soil's fingerprints of the particulate source areas and their determination, together with air-mass backtrajectory analysis, allow to identify dust source areas for the arctic mineral aerosol.

  3. Individual and area socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific unintentional injury mortality: 11-year follow-up study of 2.7 million Canadians.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Stephanie; Auger, Nathalie; Gamache, Philippe; Hamel, Denis

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the association between individual and area socioeconomic status (SES) and leading causes of unintentional injury mortality in Canadian adults. Using the 1991-2001 Canadian Census Mortality Follow-up Study cohort (N=2,735,152), Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause unintentional injury, motor vehicle collision (MVC), fall, poisoning, suffocation, fire/burn, and drowning deaths. Results indicated that associations with SES differed by cause of injury, and were generally more pronounced for males. Low education was associated with an elevated risk of mortality from all-cause unintentional injury and MVC (males only) and poisoning and drowning (both sexes). Low income was strongly associated with most causes of injury mortality, particularly fire/burn and poisoning. Having no occupation or low occupational status was associated with higher risks of all-cause injury, fall, poisoning and suffocation (both sexes) and MVC deaths among men. Associations with area deprivation were weak, and only areas with high deprivation had elevated risk of all-cause injury, MVC (males only), poisoning and drowning (both sexes). This study reveals the importance of examining SES differentials by cause of death from a multilevel perspective. Future research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these differences to implement equity-oriented approaches for reducing differential exposures, vulnerability or consequences of injury mortality. PMID:22269490

  4. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    in which health literacy needs were addressed. Conclusion Lower health literacy affects key decision-making outcomes, but few existing PtDAs have addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. The specific effects of PtDAs designed to mitigate the influence of low health literacy are unknown. More attention to the needs of patients with lower health literacy is indicated, to ensure that PtDAs are appropriate for lower as well as higher health literacy patients. PMID:24624970

  5. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  6. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  7. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  8. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  9. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  10. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  11. Low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada: area specific studies, Pumpernickel Valley, Carlin and Moana. Final report June 1, 1981-July 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Koenig, B.A.; Bell, E.J.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys were used in conjunction with temperature gradient hole drilling to assess the geothermal resources in Pumpernickel Valley and Carlin, Nevada. This program is based on a statewide assessment of geothermal resources that was completed in 1979. The exploration techniques are based on previous federally-funded assessment programs that were completed in six other areas in Nevada and include: literature search and compilation of existing data, geologic reconnaissance, chemical sampling of thermal and non-thermal fluids, interpretation of satellite imagery, interpretation of low-sun angle aerial photographs, two-meter depth temperature probe survey, gravity survey, seismic survey, soil-mercury survey, and temperature gradient drilling.

  12. Chemical composition of drinking water as a possible environment-specific factor modifying the thyroid risk in the areas subjected to radioiodine contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Korobova, Elena; Ryzhenko, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Water is one of the main natural agents providing chemical elements' migration in the environment and food chains. In our opinion a study of spatial variation of the essential trace elements in local drinking water is worth considering as the factor that may contribute to variation of the health risk in areas contaminated by radionuclides and radioiodine in particular. Radioiodine was proved to increase the risk of thyroid cancer among children who lived in areas contaminated during the Chernobyl accident. It was also shown that low stable iodine status of the contaminated area and population also contributed to the risk of this disease in case of radionuclide contamination. The goal of the study was to investigate chemical composition of the drinking water in rural settlements of the Bryansk oblast' subjected to radioiodine contamination and to evaluate speciation of stable I and Se on the basis of their total concentration and chemical composition of the real water samples with the help of thermodynamic modelling. Water samples were collected from different aquifers discharging at different depths (dug wells, local private bore holes and water pipes) in rural settlements located in areas with contrasting soil iodine status. Thermodynamic modelling was performed using original software (HCh code of Y.Shvarov, Moscow State University, RUSSIA) incorporating the measured pH, Corg and elements' concentration values. Performed modelling showed possibility of formation of complex CaI+ ion in aqueous phase, I sorption by goethite and transfer of Se to solid phase as FeSe in the observed pH-Eh conditions. It helped to identify environmental conditions providing high I and Se mobility and their depletion from natural waters. Both the experimental data and modeling showed that I and Se migration and deficiency in natural water is closely connected to pH, Eh conditions and the concentration of typomorphic chemical elements (Ca, Mg, Fe) defining the class of water migration

  13. An addressable cell array for a platform of biosensor chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungkyoung; Choi, Soo-hee; Jung, Moon Youn; Song, Kibong; Park, Jeong Won

    2013-05-01

    In order to detect interested matters in fields, various lab-on-a-chips where chemical, physical, or biological sensors are loaded have been developed. eNOSE can be a representative example among them. Because animals can sense 300~1000 different chemicals by olfactory system - smell -, the olfactory system has been spotlighted as new materials in the field of sensing. Those investigations, however, are usually focused on how to detect signals from the olfactory neurons or receptors loaded on chips and enhance sensing efficacy of chips. Therefore, almost of those chips are designed for only one material sensing. Multi-sensing using multi-channels will be needed when the olfactory systems are adopted well on chips. For multiple sensing, we developed an addressable cell array. The chip has 38 cell-chambers arranged in a circle shape and different cell types of thirty eight can be allocated with specific addresses on the chip without any complex valve system. In order to confirm the cell addressing, we loaded EGFP-transfected and empty vector-transfected HEK293a cells into inlets of the cell array in a planned address and those cells were positioned into each chamber by brief aspiration. The arrayed cells were confirmed as a specific pattern through EGFP and nuclei staining. This cell array which can generate address of sensor materials like cells with their own specification is expected to be applied to a platform for a biosensor chip at various sensing fields.

  14. Duplicate Address Detection Table in IPv6 Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alisherov, Farkhod; Kim, Taihoon

    In IP networks, each computer or communication equipment needs an IP address. To supply enough IP addresses, the new Internet protocol IPv6 is used in next generatoion mobile communication. Although IPv6 improves the existing IPv4 Internet protocol, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) mechanism may consume resources and suffer from long delay. DAD is used to ensure whether the IP address is unique or not. When a mobile node performs an inter-domain handoff, it will first generate a new IP and perform a DAD procedure. The DAD procedure not only wastes time but also increases the signaling load on Internet. In this paper, the author proposes a new DAD mechanism to speed up the DAD procedure. A DAD table is created in access or mobility routers in IP networks and record all IP addresses of the area. When a new IP address needs to perform DAD, it can just search in the DAD table to confirm the uniqueness of the address.

  15. Sensitivity and Specificity of an Operon Immunochromatographic Test in Serum and Whole-Blood Samples for the Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Spain, an Area of Nonendemicity

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Chavez, María; Cruz, Israel; Nieto, Javier; Gárate, Teresa; Navarro, Miriam; Pérez-Ayala, Ana; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection is an imported parasitic disease in Spain, and the majority of infected individuals are in the chronic phase of the disease. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the Operon immunochromatographic test (ICT-Operon; Simple Stick Chagas and Simple Chagas WB [whole blood]; Operon S.A., Spain) for different biological samples. Well-characterized serum samples were obtained from chagasic patients (n = 63), nonchagasic individuals (n = 95), visceral leishmaniasis patients (n = 38), and malaria patients (n = 55). Noncharacterized specimens were obtained from Latin American immigrants and individuals at risk with a clinical and/or epidemiological background: these specimens were recovered serum or plasma samples (n = 450), whole peripheral blood (n = 94), and capillary blood (n = 282). The concordance of the results by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence test was considered to be the “gold standard” for diagnosis. Serum and plasma samples were analyzed by Stick Chagas, and whole blood was analyzed by Simple Chagas WB. The sensitivity and specificity of the ICT-Operon in well-characterized samples were 100% and 97.9%, respectively. No cross-reactivity was found with samples obtained from visceral leishmaniasis patients. In contrast, a false-positive result was obtained in 27.3% of samples from malaria patients. The sensitivities of the rapid test in noncharacterized serum or plasma, peripheral blood, and capillary blood samples were 100%, 92.1%, and 86.4%, respectively, while the specificities were 91.6%, 93.6%, and 95% in each case. ICT-Operon showed variable sensitivity, depending on the kind of sample, performing better when serum or plasma samples were used. It could therefore be used for serological screening combined with any other conventional test. PMID:22761296

  16. Connectivity planning to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Tristan A; Lawler, Joshua J; McRae, Brad H; Pierce, D John; Krosby, Meade B; Kavanagh, Darren M; Singleton, Peter H; Tewksbury, Joshua J

    2013-04-01

    As the climate changes, human land use may impede species from tracking areas with suitable climates. Maintaining connectivity between areas of different temperatures could allow organisms to move along temperature gradients and allow species to continue to occupy the same temperature space as the climate warms. We used a coarse-filter approach to identify broad corridors for movement between areas where human influence is low while simultaneously routing the corridors along present-day spatial gradients of temperature. We modified a cost-distance algorithm to model these corridors and tested the model with data on current land-use and climate patterns in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The resulting maps identified a network of patches and corridors across which species may move as climates change. The corridors are likely to be robust to uncertainty in the magnitude and direction of future climate change because they are derived from gradients and land-use patterns. The assumptions we applied in our model simplified the stability of temperature gradients and species responses to climate change and land use, but the model is flexible enough to be tailored to specific regions by incorporating other climate variables or movement costs. When used at appropriate resolutions, our approach may be of value to local, regional, and continental conservation initiatives seeking to promote species movements in a changing climate. Planificación de Conectividad para Atender el Cambio Climático. PMID:23410037

  17. Orexin and neuropeptide Y: tissue specific expression and immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus and preoptic area of the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Pérez Sirkin, D I; Suzuki, H; Cánepa, M M; Vissio, P G

    2013-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin are neuropeptides involved in the regulation of feeding in vertebrates. In this study we determined the NPY and orexin mRNA tissue expression and their immunoreactivity distribution in both preoptic area and hypothalamus, regions involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. Both peptides presented a wide expression in all tissues examined. The NPY-immunoreactive (ir) cells were localized in the ventral nucleus posterioris periventricularis (NPPv) and numerous ir-NPY fibers were found in the nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT), the nucleus recess lateralis (NRL) and the neurohypophysis. Ir-orexin cells were observed in the NPPv, dorsal NLT, ventral NLT, lateral NLT (NLTl) and the lateral NRL. Ir-orexin fibers were widespread distributed along all the hypothalamus, especially in the NLTl. Additionally, we observed the presence of ir-orexin immunostaining in adenohypophyseal cells, especially in somatotroph cells and the presence of a few ir-orexin-A fibers in the neurohypophysis. In conclusion, both peptides have an ubiquitous mRNA tissue expression and are similarly distributed in the hypothalamus and preoptic area of Cichlasoma dimerus. The presence of ir-orexin in adenohypohyseal cells and the presence of ir-orexin and NPY fibers in the neurohypophysis suggest that both peptides may play an important neuroendocrine role in anterior pituitary. PMID:24138942

  18. Addressing Heart Failure Challenges through Illness-Informed Social Work.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Camp, Jessica K; Perry, Tam E

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the role of social workers in addressing the needs of people with heart failure. Although previous studies have explored the role of social workers in health care settings, few studies have addressed the challenges of specific chronic diseases such as heart failure. To address this gap in the literature, this study used qualitative interviews with health care social workers (n = 8) to obtain in-depth information about activities and challenges related to heart failure care. Findings suggest that health care social workers perceive heart failure as characterized by an uncertain illness trajectory, frequent hospitalizations, and difficulties accessing formal and informal care. These findings suggest the importance of what we term illness-informed social work, a practice that combines heart failure knowledge with social work competencies to address the complex psychosocial issues in heart failure care. PMID:26285359

  19. Adult Education Periodicals; A List of Addresses. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Adult Education Div.

    Over 100 titles are listed in the revised UNESCO adult education periodicals list. Each entry includes the title, complete address, the name of the publishing organization, the editor's name, frequency of issue, and language. Based on information on hand in the UNESCO Secretariat the listings are classified by area: (1) Africa, (2) Asia and the…

  20. How Rhetorical Theories of Genre Address Common Core Writing Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a review of the forms of writing promoted in the Common Core State Standards. Across content areas, Common Core encourages teachers to attune students' writing to rhetorical concerns of audience, purpose, task, and disciplinary thinking. To address these concerns, teachers might take a rhetorical approach to the study…

  1. Political Reflections on AIDS and Developmental Disabilities: Conference Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmorland, Timothy M.

    1989-01-01

    The keynote address of a November, 1988, symposium on developmental disabilities and the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) examines four basic areas of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) concern in Congress: research, education, testing and discrimination protection, and health care services. (DB)

  2. National Conference on Outdoor Leadership. 2008 Keynote Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louv, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In this keynote address, Richard Louv laments that today's children lack direct connection to nature. Over the past 15 years, he interviewed families across the country about the changes in their lives, including their relationship with nature. With few exceptions, even in rural areas, parents say the same thing: Most children aren't playing…

  3. Teacher Education's Responsibility to Address Diversity Issues: Enhancing Institutional Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Susan L.; Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    1998-01-01

    Preservice teachers must be prepared to address substantial student diversity and to educate all students to higher levels of understanding and competence. Many teacher educators are not competent to prepare new teachers in this area. Several approaches to handling institutional aspects of teacher education for diversity are discussed, noting…

  4. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    multi-platform drilling of the Nankai seismogenic zone. Scientific initiatives are flourishing to drive IODP towards the study of submarine geohazards. In the last three years international workshops, were held to address the topic: ESF-ECORD sponsored a Magellan Workshop focussed on submarine landslides (Barcelona, Spain, 2006); IODP sponsored a world-wide Geohazard Workshop (Portland, Oregon, 2007); ESF-ECORD sponsored another Magellan Workshop focussed on Mediterranean submarine geohazards (Luleå, Sweden, 2008). In addition, following the ECORD-Net Conference on the Deep Sea Frontier (Naples, Italy, 2006), the history, monitoring and prediction of geohazards was identified as one of the 6 major areas for a European science plan to integrate Ocean Drilling, Ocean Margin, and Seabed research. More than 200 scientists and private companies representatives have been mobilized world-wide to attend these meetings, from where it emerged that Ocean Drilling will play a key role in the future to answer the following basic open questions on submarine geohazards: - What is the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of geohazard events? - Do precursory phenomena exist and can they be recognized? - What are the physical and mechanical properties of materials prone to failure? - What are the roles of preconditioning vs. triggering in rapid seafloor deformation? - Can the tsunamigenic potential of past and future events be assessed? Within the global-ocean geohazards, worth of note is the attention given in this preparatory phase to submarine geohazards in the Mediterranean basin, a miniature ocean often called a "natural laboratory" because of the diversity of geological environments it contains. The coastline is very densely-populated, totalling 160 million inhabitants sharing 46,000 km of coastline. The Mediterranean is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving an average of 135 million visitors annually. Submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapses, volcanic island

  5. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis. PMID:25121647

  6. Using Short Stories to Address Eating Disturbances in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lone, Jeffrey S.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.; Coughlin, Janelle W.

    2002-01-01

    Short stories can be an effective group-level intervention for addressing disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. This technique may be used in eating-disorder themed groups or in any group in which members present with eating problems. The authors provide specific guidelines for the use of short stories in group work. An example is provided to…

  7. Racism and the Conspiracy of Silence: Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2005-01-01

    This presidential address focuses on a specific and daunting assumption about racism that many find disturbing--a belief that no one born and raised in the United States is free from inheriting the racial biases of their forebears. It states explicitly that it is impossible for anyone to not to have racist, sexist, and homophobic attitudes,…

  8. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  9. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  10. Assessing what to address in science communication

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  11. Novel Psbnd O codoped g-C3N4 with large specific surface area: Hydrothermal synthesis assisted by dissolution-precipitation process and their visible light activity under anoxic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Huiqiang; Li, Yang; Li, Shuang; Liu, Na

    2015-12-01

    Novel Psbnd O codoped g-C3N4 with large specific surface area is hydrothermal synthesized assisted by dissolution-precipitation process. The XRD, UV-vis, SEM and PL results indicate that the introduction of phosphorus and oxygen enhances the specific surface area of graphitic carbon nitride (from 12.8 to 92.5 m2 g-1), restrains the crystal growth, decreases the band gap energy (from 2.68 to 2.51 eV) and increases the separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes, which increases the anoxic photocatalytic RhB degradation constants by approximately 27 times under visible light. Oxygen doping not only promotes the adsorption ability of reactant but also captures the photogenerated electrons to produce photogenerated holes for RhB degradation under anoxic condition. This study provides new insight into the design and fabrication of oxygen-free photocatalysts.

  12. Addressable Inverter Matrix Tests Integrated-Circuit Wafer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.

    1988-01-01

    Addressing elements indirectly through shift register reduces number of test probes. With aid of new technique, complex test structure on silicon wafer tested with relatively small number of test probes. Conserves silicon area by reduction of area devoted to pads. Allows thorough evaluation of test structure characteristics and of manufacturing process parameters. Test structure consists of shift register and matrix of inverter/transmission-gate cells connected to two-by-ten array of probe pads. Entire pattern contained in square area having only 1.6-millimeter sides. Shift register is conventional static CMOS device using inverters and transmission gates in master/slave D flip-flop configuration.

  13. Genotyping of Trypanosoma cruzi Sublineage in Human Samples from a North-East Argentina Area by Hybridization with DNA Probes and Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Cristina; Lorenz, Virginia; Ortiz, Silvia; Gonzalez, Verónica; Racca, Andrea; Bontempi, Iván; Manattini, Silvia; Solari, Aldo; Marcipar, Iván

    2010-01-01

    We have evaluated blood samples of chronic and congenital Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients from the city of Reconquista located in the northeast of Argentina where no information was previously obtained about the genotype of infecting parasites. Fourteen samples of congenital and 19 chronical patients were analyzed by hybridization with DNA probes of minicircle hypervariable regions (mHVR). In congenital patients, 50% had single infections with TcIId, 7% single infections with TcIIe, 29% mixed infections with TcIId/e, and 7% had mixed infections with TcIId/b and 7% TcIId/b, respectively. In Chronical patients, 52% had single infections with TcIId, 11% single infections with TcIIe, 26% had mixed infections with TcIId/e, and 11% had non-identified genotypes. With these samples, we evaluated the minicircle lineage-specific polymerase chain reaction assay (MLS-PCR), which involves a nested PCR to HVR minicircle sequences and we found a correlation with hybridization probes of 96.4% for TcIId and 54.8% for TcIIe. PMID:20064998

  14. Identifying gender specific risk/need areas for male and female juvenile offenders: Factor analyses with the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY).

    PubMed

    Hilterman, Ed L B; Bongers, Ilja; Nicholls, Tonia L; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2016-02-01

    By constructing risk assessment tools in which the individual items are organized in the same way for male and female juvenile offenders it is assumed that these items and subscales have similar relevance across males and females. The identification of criminogenic needs that vary in relevance for 1 of the genders, could contribute to more meaningful risk assessments, especially for female juvenile offenders. In this study, exploratory factor analyses (EFA) on a construction sample of male (n = 3,130) and female (n = 466) juvenile offenders were used to aggregate the 30 items of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) into empirically based risk/need factors and explore differences between genders. The factor models were cross-validated through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) on a validation sample of male (n = 2,076) and female (n = 357) juvenile offenders. In both the construction sample and the validation sample, 5 factors were identified: (a) Antisocial behavior; (b) Family functioning; (c) Personality traits; (d) Social support; and (e) Treatability. The male and female models were significantly different and the internal consistency of the factors was good, both in the construction sample and the validation sample. Clustering risk/need items for male and female juvenile offenders into meaningful factors may guide clinicians in the identification of gender-specific treatment interventions. PMID:26390056

  15. Symbiotic specificity, association patterns, and function determine community responses to global changes: defining critical research areas for coral-Symbiodinium symbioses.

    PubMed

    Fabina, Nicholas S; Putnam, Hollie M; Franklin, Erik C; Stat, Michael; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-11-01

    Climate change-driven stressors threaten the persistence of coral reefs worldwide. Symbiotic relationships between scleractinian corals and photosynthetic endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium) are the foundation of reef ecosystems, and these associations are differentially impacted by stress. Here, we couple empirical data from the coral reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia, and a network theoretic modeling approach to evaluate how patterns in coral-Symbiodinium associations influence community stability under climate change. To introduce the effect of climate perturbations, we simulate local 'extinctions' that represent either the loss of coral species or the ability to engage in symbiotic interactions. Community stability is measured by determining the duration and number of species that persist through the simulated extinctions. Our results suggest that four factors greatly increase coral-Symbiodinium community stability in response to global changes: (i) the survival of generalist hosts and symbionts maximizes potential symbiotic unions; (ii) elevated symbiont diversity provides redundant or complementary symbiotic functions; (iii) compatible symbiotic assemblages create the potential for local recolonization; and (iv) the persistence of certain traits associate with symbiotic diversity and redundancy. Symbiodinium may facilitate coral persistence through novel environmental regimes, but this capacity is mediated by symbiotic specificity, association patterns, and the functional performance of the symbionts. Our model-based approach identifies general trends and testable hypotheses in coral-Symbiodinium community responses. Future studies should consider similar methods when community size and/or environmental complexity preclude experimental approaches. PMID:23847174

  16. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  17. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  18. Antibody specificities of children living in a malaria endemic area to inhibitory and blocking epitopes on MSP-1 19 of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Omosun, Y O; Adoro, S; Anumudu, C I; Odaibo, A B; Uthiapibull, C; Holder, A A; Nwagwu, M; Nwuba, R I

    2009-03-01

    Merozoite surface protein-1(19) (MSP-1(19)) specific antibodies which include processing inhibitory, blocking and neutral antibodies have been identified in individuals exposed to Plasmodium falciparum. Here we intend to look at the effect of single and multiple amino acid substitutions of MSP-1(19) on the recognition by polyclonal antibodies from children living in Igbo-Ora, Nigeria. This would provide us with information on the possibility of eliciting mainly processing inhibitory antibodies with a recombinant MSP-1(19) vaccine. Blood was collected from children in the rainy season and binding of anti-MSP-1(19) antibodies to modified mutants of MSP-1(19) was analysed by ELISA. The MSP-1(19) mutant proteins with single substitutions at positions 22 (Leu-->Arg), 43 (Glu-->Leu) and 53 (Asn-->Arg) and the MSP-1(19) mutant protein with multiple substitutions at positions 27+31+34+43 (Glu-->Tyr, Leu-->Arg, Tyr-->Ser, Glu-->Leu); which had inhibitory epitopes; had the highest recognition. Children recognised both sets of mutants with different age groups having different recognition levels. The percentage of malaria positive individuals (32-80%) with antibodies that bound to the mutants MSP-1(19) containing epitopes that recognise only processing inhibitory and not blocking antibodies, were significantly different from those with antibodies that did not bind to these mutants (21-28%). The amino acid substitutions that abolished the binding of blocking antibodies without affecting the binding of inhibitory antibodies are of particular interest in the design of MSP-1(19) based malaria vaccines. Although these MSP-1(19) mutants have not been found in natural population, their recognition by polyclonal antibodies from humans naturally infected with malaria is very promising for the future use of MSP-1(19) mutants in the design of a malaria vaccine. PMID:19081386

  19. African American and European American Therapists' Experiences of Addressing Race in Cross-Racial Psychotherapy Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Sarah; Burkard, Alan W.; Johnson, Adanna J.; Suzuki, Lisa A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    2003-01-01

    Using Consensual Qualitative Research, 12 licensed psychologists' overall experiences addressing race in psychotherapy were investigated, as were their experiences addressing race in a specific cross-racial therapy dyad. Results indicated that only African American psychologists reported routinely addressing race with clients of color or when race…

  20. Compound Specific Radiocarbon Analysis (CSRA) Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs) in Fine Organic Aerosols From Residential Area Of Suburb Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumata, H.; Uchida, M.; Sakuma, E.; Fujiwara, K.; Yoneda, M.; Shibata, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originate mostly from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. Amongst atmospheric contaminants, PAHs account for most (35-82 percent) of the total mutagenic activity of ambient aerosols. Hence, reduction of air pollution by PAHs is essential for an effective air quality control, which requires reliable source apportionment. Recently developed preparative capillary GC system and microscale 14C analysis made CSRA applicable to environmental samples. The 5730 yr half-life of 14C makes it an ideal tracer for identifying combustion products derived from fossil fuels (14C-free) vs. those from modern biomass (contemporary 14C). In the present study we performed radiocarbon analysis of PAHs in fine particulate aerosols (PM10 and PM1.1) from a residential area in suburb Tokyo, to apportion their origin between fossil and biomass combustion. Acquisition of source information for size segregated aerosols (i.e., PM1.1) from 14C measurement was of special interest as particles with diameter of 1μm or less are known to be able to remain suspended in air for weeks and penetrate into the deepest part of the respiratory system. Total PAHs concentrations (sum of 38 compounds with 3-6 aromatic rings) ranged 0.94-3.25 ng/m3 for PM10 and 0.69-2.68 ng/m3 for PM1.1 samples. Observation of relatively small amount of retene (0.2-0.4 percent of total PAHs) indicates some contribution from wood (Gymnosperm) combustion. Diagnostic isomer pair ratios of PAHs (i.e., 1,7-/2,6-dimethylphenanthrene, fluoranthene/pyrene and indeno [1,2,3-cd]pyrene/benzo[ghi]perylene) indicated mixed contributions both from petroleum and wood/coal combustion sources. Also the ratios implied that the latter source become relatively important in winter than the rest of the year for both PM10 and PM1.1 samples, which coincides with seasonal trend of retene proportion. The source information obtained from 14C analyses will be compared and discussed against that

  1. A Pilot Study of Areas of Parent and Child Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshaber, Susan

    Addressing areas of conflict between parents and young children, this study reports the results of interviews with parents about parent/child conflict that occurs in such natural settings as the home, the supermarket, and during visits to grandparents. Specifically, the investigation is concerned with three broad issues: (1) the identification of…

  2. Content addressable systolic array for sparse matrix computation

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, O.

    1983-01-01

    A systolic array is proposed which is specifically designed to solve a system of sparse linear equations. The array consists of a number of processing elements connected in a ring. Each processing element has its own content addressable memory where the nonzero elements of the sparse matrix are stored. Matrix elements to which elementary operations are applied are extracted from the memory by content addressing. The system of equations is solved in a systolic fashion and the solution is obtained in nz+5n-2 steps where nz is the number of nonzero elements along and below the diagonal and n is the number of equations. 13 references.

  3. Bottlenose dolphins can use learned vocal labels to address each other

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephanie L.; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    In animal communication research, vocal labeling refers to incidents in which an animal consistently uses a specific acoustic signal when presented with a specific object or class of objects. Labeling with learned signals is a foundation of human language but is notably rare in nonhuman communication systems. In natural animal systems, labeling often occurs with signals that are not influenced by learning, such as in alarm and food calling. There is a suggestion, however, that some species use learned signals to label conspecific individuals in their own communication system when mimicking individually distinctive calls. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are a promising animal for exploration in this area because they are capable of vocal production learning and can learn to use arbitrary signals to report the presence or absence of objects. Bottlenose dolphins develop their own unique identity signal, the signature whistle. This whistle encodes individual identity independently of voice features. The copying of signature whistles may therefore allow animals to label or address one another. Here, we show that wild bottlenose dolphins respond to hearing a copy of their own signature whistle by calling back. Animals did not respond to whistles that were not their own signature. This study provides compelling evidence that a dolphin’s learned identity signal is used as a label when addressing conspecifics. Bottlenose dolphins therefore appear to be unique as nonhuman mammals to use learned signals as individually specific labels for different social companions in their own natural communication system. PMID:23878217

  4. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to...

  5. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  6. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and...

  7. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  8. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 80.174 Section 80.174... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample required under § 80.161(b)(2) shall be sent to: Manager, Fuels and Technical Analysis Group,...

  9. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain forms referred to in this part...

  10. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  11. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  12. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  13. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  14. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  15. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  16. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  17. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  18. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  19. Tradition and Change in Swedish Address Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Stephen A.

    In most European languages, choice of address form classifies the relation between speakers. The first theoretical framework for analyzing address form usage was established by Brown and Gilman (1960) in their investigation of the semantics of pronoun use in a wide variety of Indo-European languages, which concluded that Europeans use the informal…

  20. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  1. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  2. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  3. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  4. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  5. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  6. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  7. Strategies intended to address vaccine hesitancy: Review of published reviews.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-08-14

    When faced with vaccine hesitancy, public health authorities are looking for effective strategies to address this issue. In this paper, the findings of 15 published literature reviews or meta-analysis that have examined the effectiveness of different interventions to reduce vaccine hesitancy and/or to enhance vaccine acceptance are presented and discussed. From the literature, there is no strong evidence to recommend any specific intervention to address vaccine hesitancy/refusal. The reviewed studies included interventions with diverse content and approaches that were implemented in different settings and targeted various populations. Few interventions were directly targeted to vaccine hesitant individuals. Given the paucity of information on effective strategies to address vaccine hesitancy, when interventions are implemented, planning a rigorous evaluation of their impact on vaccine hesitancy/vaccine acceptance will be essential. PMID:25896385

  8. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  9. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  10. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  11. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  12. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  13. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  14. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  15. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  16. Addressing Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Mining Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Mining companies deal with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) issues on their sites in two ways, avoidance and management. Avoidance simply means that to the extent practical, new mines are located in areas where NOA is unlikely to occur. Where mines are located in areas where NOA may be present, mines implement management procedures to identify and control potential sources of NOA. Management practices may include procedures set forth in regulations such as California's Air Toxicity Control Measure that deals with surface mining, voluntary procedures, or a combination of both. The mining industry generally recognizes that addressing NOA issues is a cost of doing business.;

  17. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  18. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  19. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  20. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  1. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  2. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  3. Data specifications for INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portele, Clemens; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    In Europe a major recent development has been the entering in force of the INSPIRE Directive in May 2007, establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe to support Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment. INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the 27 Member States of the European Union. The Directive addresses 34 spatial data themes needed for environmental applications, with key components specified through technical implementing rules. This makes INSPIRE a unique example of a legislative "regional" approach. One of the requirements of the INSPIRE Directive is to make existing spatial data sets with relevance for one of the spatial data themes available in an interoperable way, i.e. where the spatial data from different sources in Europe can be combined to a coherent result. Since INSPIRE covers a wide range of spatial data themes, the first step has been the development of a modelling framework that provides a common foundation for all themes. This framework is largely based on the ISO 19100 series of standards. The use of common generic spatial modelling concepts across all themes is an important enabler for interoperability. As a second step, data specifications for the first set of themes has been developed based on the modelling framework. The themes include addresses, transport networks, protected sites, hydrography, administrative areas and others. The data specifications were developed by selected experts nominated by stakeholders from all over Europe. For each theme a working group was established in early 2008 working on their specific theme and collaborating with the other working groups on cross-theme issues. After a public review of the draft specifications starting in December 2008, an open testing process and thorough comment resolution process, the draft technical implementing rules for these themes have been

  4. Age-Dependent Specific Changes in Area CA2 of the Hippocampus and Social Memory Deficit in a Mouse Model of the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piskorowski, Rebecca A; Nasrallah, Kaoutsar; Diamantopoulou, Anastasia; Mukai, Jun; Hassan, Sami I; Siegelbaum, Steven A; Gogos, Joseph A; Chevaleyre, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    Several neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with cognitive and social dysfunction. Postmortem studies of patients with schizophrenia have revealed specific changes in area CA2, a long-overlooked region of the hippocampus recently found to be critical for social memory formation. To examine how area CA2 is altered in psychiatric illness, we used the Df(16)A(+/-) mouse model of the 22q11.2 microdeletion, a genetic risk factor for developing several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. We report several age-dependent CA2 alterations: a decrease in the density of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons, a reduction in the amount of feedforward inhibition, and a change in CA2 pyramidal-neuron intrinsic properties. Furthermore, we found that area CA2 is less plastic in Df(16)A(+/-) mice, making it nearly impossible to evoke action potential firing in CA2 pyramidal neurons. Finally, we show that Df(16)A(+/-) mice display impaired social cognition, providing a potential mechanism and a neural substrate for this impairment in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26748091

  5. Facilities Specifications Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athletic Business, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides line drawings of indoor and outdoor sporting fields reflecting the specifications and dimensional standards of each, including where additional information can be found. Sporting events from badminton, baseball, and basketball to lacrosse, swimming/diving, and volleyball are addressed. (GR)

  6. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  7. Initiative Addresses Subsurface Energy and Environment Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Majer, Ernest L.; Wang, Joseph S. Y.; Colwell, Frederick; Redden, George

    2006-01-01

    Members of the geoscience community are cooperating in conceptualizing fundamental, crosscutting research to address major obstacles to solving energy and environmental problems related to the subsurface, through the SECUREarth initiative, which began in 2004. Addressing problems, such as reliable nuclear waste storage and safe carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, are critical to maintaining an economical and safe energy supply and clean environment. A recent workshop in Golden, Colo., helped to further the development of the SECUREarth (Scientific Energy/Environmental Crosscutting Underground Research for Urgent Solutions to Secure the Earth's Future) initiative by identifying the key scientific challenges in the geosciences, as well as to target possible approaches for overcoming roadblocks.

  8. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  9. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  10. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  11. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  12. Latitude and Longitude. AIR Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    This speech addresses the problem of higher education's response to the forces of change and argues for a reinventing of higher education rather than repeatedly amending core teaching and research activities to fit new social and economic situations. Three higher education organizational dynamics (recruitment, budgeting, and handling outside…

  13. Violence Goes to School. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Increased juvenile violence in schools has led to suggested solutions that are politically expedient but fail to address what makes violence so appealing. Instead of school uniforms, conflict resolution programs, or media rating systems, a grass roots approach of alternative programs, parental involvement, and youth support systems could repair…

  14. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  15. Addressing Gender Differences in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Deborah A.; Manning, M. Lee

    The current interest in identifying gender differences in young adolescents suggests a need to focus on how gender differences affect teaching and learning situations and on how middle level school educators can address these differences. This book explains what gender differences are, how gender differences affect learning, how both girls and…

  16. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  17. 76 FR 80903 - Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... of the Secretary Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION... Declassification Review requests may be sent. This notice benefits the public in advising them where to send such requests for declassification review. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Robert Storer, (571)...

  18. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  19. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  20. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  1. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  2. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  3. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  4. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  5. EMAIL -- E-mail address searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bly, M. J.; Mellor, G. R.

    One of the most common activities on networked computers is the sending and receiving of personal electronic mail (email). Starlink nodes are connected to the worldwide Internet network. This document describes how to find email addresses to communicate with other astronomers and astronomy groups in the UK and the rest of the world.

  6. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  7. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  8. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  9. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... Administrator, Region VII, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 726 Minnesota Avenue, Kansas City, KS...

  10. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... Administrator, Region VII, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 726 Minnesota Avenue, Kansas City, KS...

  11. Opening Address of Chairman Michael Pertschuk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pertschuk, Michael

    Presented to a symposium sponsored by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to consider some of the issues involved in the continuing growth of a few large companies in the field of communication, this address cites statements of concern, made by the Supreme Court and by some periodicals, that excessive concentrations of power threaten First…

  12. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  13. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  14. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  15. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  16. The Conversational Frame in Public Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James; Pearce, W. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Explores the diverse forms and motives of the conversational frame in public address. Argues that, by framing their remarks and transactions with their listeners as conversational, orators may attempt to reconstruct or seem to reconstruct speaker-audience relationships and to position themselves and their audiences within networks of reciprocal…

  17. Comprehensive Planning To Address Homelessness. City Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawisza, Kris

    This packet contains documents that provide information about the planning and implementation of a comprehensive plan to address homelessness in cities throughout the U.S. Information on the following components of a comprehensive strategy are included: (1) "Task Forces"; (2) "Assessment Studies"; (3) "Emergency Services"; (4) "Transitional…

  18. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  19. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  20. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  1. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels (CARPs) must be addressed as follows: (a) If hand delivered by a... Friday between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. (b) If hand delivered by a commercial courier (excluding Federal...) located at Second and D Street, NE., Washington, DC. The CCAS will accept items from couriers with...

  2. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  3. A proposed reductionist solution to address the methodological challenges of inconsistent reflexology maps and poor experimental controls in reflexology research: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Lauder, William; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-03-01

    Reflexology is a complex massage intervention, based on the concept that specific areas of the feet (reflex points) correspond to individual internal organs within the body. Reflexologists trained in the popular Ingham reflexology method claim that massage to these points, using massage techniques unique to reflexology, stimulates an increase in blood supply to the corresponding organ. Reflexology researchers face two key methodological challenges that need to be addressed if a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect is to be scientifically demonstrated. The first is the problem of inconsistent reflexology foot maps; the second is the issue of poor experimental controls. This article proposes a potential experimental solution that we believe can address both methodological challenges and in doing so, allow any specific hemodynamic treatment effect unique to reflexology to experimentally reveal itself. PMID:23072264

  4. Addressing food security through public policy action in a community-based participatory research partnership.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-10-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food. PMID:17728199

  5. Interventions to Address HIV and Intimate Partner Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Farley, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV) are commonly co-occurring epidemics affecting the health of women globally and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need for interventions that address both HIV and IPV in health care settings. Our review examined recent literature for intervention studies that explored both HIV and IPV. Of the 9 interventions identified, only 2 were set in health care settings; the remainder were community based. Large multifaceted community-based interventions showed promise in the areas of addressing social norms in order to empower women. Educational interventions have shown short-term improvements in HIV-related knowledge and behavioral intention. Further research is needed to examine brief screening, intervention, and referral for HIV and IPV services within health care settings. Health care-specific interventions such as use of pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission must also be studied in the context of IPV. PMID:23790280

  6. Emerging Infections Program Efforts to Address Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Vugia, Duc J.; Bennett, Nancy M.; Moore, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The Emerging Infections Program (EIP), a collaboration between (currently) 10 state health departments, their academic center partners, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was established in 1995. The EIP performs active, population-based surveillance for important infectious diseases, addresses new problems as they arise, emphasizes projects that lead to prevention, and develops and evaluates public health practices. The EIP has increasingly addressed the health equity challenges posed by Healthy People 2020. These challenges include objectives to increase the proportion of Healthy People–specified conditions for which national data are available by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status as a step toward first recognizing and subsequently eliminating health inequities. EIP has made substantial progress in moving from an initial focus on monitoring social determinants exclusively through collecting and analyzing data by race/ethnicity to identifying and piloting ways to conduct population-based surveillance by using area-based socioeconomic status measures. PMID:26291875

  7. Thermopolis/East Thermopolis, Wyoming site-specific development analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess-Lyon, P.

    1981-06-01

    Some of the topics addressed are: what the area is like currently in terms of its land use, economics, and demographics; reservoir potentials; how the reservoir might be developed; marketing the final product; financial assistance for development; the legal aspects of development; and barriers to possible development. Some specific topics discussed are: leasing and permitting; heat exchangers for geothermal heating systems; and corrosion, scaling, and materials selection. (MHR)

  8. Assessing and Addressing Students' Scientific Literacy Needs in Physical Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell-Stone, E. A.; Myers, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Exacting excellence equally from university students around the globe can be accomplished by providing all students with necessary background tools to achieve mastery of their courses, even if those tools are not part of normal content. As instructors we hope to see our students grasp the substance of our courses, make mental connections between course material and practical applications, and use this knowledge to make informed decisions as citizens. Yet many educators have found that students enter university-level introductory courses in mathematics, science and engineering without adequate academic preparation. As part of a FIPSE-funded project at the University of Wyoming, the instructors of the Physical Geology course have taken a new approach to tackling the problem of lack of scientific/mathematic skills in incoming students. Instead of assuming that students should already know or will learn these skills on their own, they assess students' needs and provide them the opportunity to master scientific literacies as they learn geologic content. In the introductory geology course, instructors identified two categories of literacies, or basic skills that are necessary for academic success and citizen participation. Fundamental literacies include performing simple quantitative calculations, making qualitative assessments, and reading and analyzing tables and graphs. Technical literacies are those specific to understanding geology, and comprise the ability to read maps, visualize changes through time, and conceptualize in three dimensions. Because these skills are most easily taught in lab, the in-house lab manual was rewritten to be both literacy- and content-based. Early labs include simple exercises addressing literacies in the context of geological science, and each subsequent lab repeats exposure to literacies, but at increasing levels of difficulty. Resources available to assist students with literacy mastery include individual instruction, a detailed

  9. Non-specific effect of measles vaccination on overall child mortality in an area of rural India with high vaccination coverage: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Zubair; Long, Jean; Reddaiah, Vankadara P.; Kevany, John; Kapoor, Suresh K.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vaccination against measles in a population with sustained high vaccination coverage and relatively low child mortality reduces overall child mortality. METHODS: In April and May 2000, a population-based, case-control study was conducted at Ballabgarh (an area in rural northern India). Eligible cases were 330 children born between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 1998 who died aged 12-59 months. A programme was used to match 320 controls for age, sex, family size, and area of residence from a birth cohort of 15 578 born during the same time period. FINDINGS: The analysis used 318 matched pairs and suggested that children aged 12-59 months who did not receive measles vaccination in infancy were three times more likely to die than those vaccinated against measles. Children from lower caste households who were not vaccinated in infancy had the highest risk of mortality (odds ratio, 8.9). A 27% increase in child mortality was attributable to failure to vaccinate against measles in the study population. CONCLUSION: Measles vaccine seems to have a non-specific reducing effect on overall child mortality in this population. If true, children in lower castes may reap the greatest gains in survival. The findings should be interpreted with caution because the nutritional status of the children was not recorded and may be a residual confounder. "All-cause mortality" is a potentially useful epidemiological endpoint for future vaccine trials. PMID:12764490

  10. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  11. Special Education in the Year 2000 and Beyond: A Proposed Action Agenda for Addressing Selected Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, Melvyn I.

    The paper addresses issues concerning the future of special education with a focus on the mildly handicapped (MH). After an initial section presenting the particular frame of reference and philosophical biases underlying this presentation, recommendations are made for a possible agenda which addresses seven key areas in the field. Among…

  12. Sex-specific mediation effect of the right fusiform face area volume on the association between variants in repeat length of AVPR1A RS3 and altruistic behavior in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junping; Qin, Wen; Liu, Feng; Liu, Bing; Zhou, Yuan; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2016-07-01

    Microsatellite variants in the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A) RS3 have been associated with normal social behaviors variation and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in a sex-specific manner. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that AVPR1A RS3 variants affect altruistic behavior by modulating the gray matter volume (GMV) of specific brain regions in a sex-specific manner. We investigated 278 young healthy adults using the Dictator Game to assess altruistic behavior. All subjects were genotyped and main effect of AVPR1A RS3 repeat polymorphisms and interaction of genotype-by-sex on the GMV were assessed in a voxel-wise manner. We observed that male subjects with relatively short repeats allocated less money to others and exhibited a significantly smaller GMV in the right fusiform face area (FFA) compared with male long homozygotes. In male subjects, the GMV of the right FFA exhibited a significant positive correlation with altruistic behavior. A mixed mediation and moderation analysis further revealed both a significant mediation effect of the GMV of the right FFA on the association between AVPR1A RS3 repeat polymorphisms and allocation sums and a significant moderation effect of sex (only in males) on the mediation effect. Post hoc analysis showed that the GMV of the right FFA was significantly smaller in male subjects carrying allele 426 than in non-426 carriers. These results suggest that the GMV of the right FFA may be a potential mediator whereby the genetic variants in AVPR1A RS3 affect altruistic behavior in healthy male subjects. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2700-2709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27027249

  13. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each. PMID:24000836

  14. A model for addressing navigation limitations and metacognitive constraints in hypermedia training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1990-01-01

    A model for addressing navigation limitations and metacognitive constraints in hypermedia training systems is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: samples of software and people problems; system design; and hypermedia training system.

  15. Addressable parallel cavity-based quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetlugin, Anton N.; Sokolov, Ivan V.

    2014-09-01

    We elaborate theoretically a model of addressable parallel cavity-based quantum memory for light able to store multiple transverse spatial modes of the input light signal of finite duration and, at the same time, a time sequence of the signals by side illumination. Having in mind possible applications for, e.g., quantum repeaters, we reveal the addressability of our memory, that is, its handiness for the read-out on demand of a given transverse quantized signal mode and of a given signal from the time sequence. The addressability is achieved by making use of different spatial configurations of pump wave during the write-in and the readout. We also demonstrate that for the signal durations of the order of few cavity decay times, better efficiency is achieved when one excites the cavity with zero light-matter coupling and finally performs fast excitation transfer from the intracavity field to the collective spin. On the other hand, the light-matter coupling control in time, based on dynamical impedance matching, allows to store and retrieve time restricted signals of the on-demand smooth time shape.

  16. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered. PMID:25155236

  17. Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women

    PubMed Central

    Loría, Kattia Rojas; Rosado, Teresa Gutiérrez; Espinosa, Leonor María Cantera; Marrochi, Leda María Marenco; Sánchez, Anna Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. METHODS A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. RESULTS Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries’ contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. CONCLUSIONS The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia. PMID:25210820

  18. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  19. Stormwater Pollutant Control from Critical Source Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Critical source areas include: vehicular maintenance facilities, parking lots and bus terminals, junk and lumber yards, industrial storage facilities, loading docks and refueling areas, manufacturing sites, etc. Addressing pollutant runoff from these areas is an important compon...

  20. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2000-03-15

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area.

  1. A Nominal Balloon Instrument Payload to Address Questions from the Planetary Decadal Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot; Kremic, Tibor; Dankanich, John

    The Planetary Science Decadal Survey (entitled "Visions and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013 - 2022", available online at https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/2013decadal/) serves as a roadmap for activities to be pursued by the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This document outlines roughly 200 key research areas and questions in chapters covering different parts of the solar system (e.g., Mars, Small Bodies, etc.). We have reviewed the Decadal Survey to assess whether any of the key questions can be addressed by high altitude balloon-borne payloads. Although some questions can only be answered by in situ experiments, we found that approximately one quarter of the key questions were well suited to balloon payloads. In many of those cases, balloons were competitive or superior to other existing facilities, including HST, SOFIA or Keck telescopes. We will present specific telescope and instrument bench designs that are capable of addressing key questions in the Decadal Survey. The instrument bench takes advantage of two of the main benefits of high-altitude observations: diffraction-limited imaging in visible and UV wavelengths and unobstructed spectroscopy in near-IR (1 - 5 microns) wavelengths. Our optical prescription produces diffraction-limited PSFs in both visible and IR beams. We will discuss pointing and thermal stability, two of the main challenges facing a balloon-borne telescope.

  2. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Tammy R.; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A.; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  3. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  4. Extending the ARS Experimental Watersheds to Address Regional Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, D.; Goodrich, D. C.; Winstral, A.; Bosch, D. D.; Pool, D.

    2001-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service's (ARS) Watershed Research Program maintains and operates a diverse, geog raphically distributed, nested, multi-scale, national ex perimental watershed network. This network, much of which has been operational for more than 40 years (several more than 60 years), constitutes one the best networks of its kind in the world. The watershed network and its instrumentation was primarily established to assess the hydrologic impacts of watershed conservation and management practices. It has evolved, through development of long-term hydrologic data, as a network of high quality outdoor laboratories for addressing emerging science issues facing hydrologists and resource managers. While the value of the experimental watershed for investigating precipitation, climatic, and hydrologic processes is unquestioned, extending the results from these investigations to other sites and larger areas is more difficult. ARS experimental watersheds are a few hundred km2 or smaller making it challenging to address regional scale issues. To address this the ARS watershed program is, with a suite of partners from universities and other federal agencies, enlarging its research focus to extend beyond the boundaries of the experimental watershed. In this poster we present several examples of this effort, with suggestions on how, using the experimental watershed and its core, a larger scale hydrologic observatory could be developed and maintained.

  5. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem. PMID:26817556

  6. Best Practices in Hiring: Addressing Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Caroline E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that implementing certain hiring practices will increase diversity in the workplace while enhancing academic quality. All of these practices rely on addressing the issue of 'unconscious bias.' A brief overview of unconscious bias--what it is, how it works, and simple measures to counter it--will be presented. Successful strategies, actions, and recommendations for implementing best recruiting and hiring practices, which have been proven to enhance academic excellence by ensuring a deep and diverse applicant pool, will also be presented.

  7. Building technology services that address student needs.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform. PMID:25611437

  8. Addressing the challenges of emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Pinner, R W

    1996-01-01

    Through the recent examples of diphtheria in the former Soviet Union, plague in India, and trends in pneumonia mortality in the United States, the author, in this article, illustrates issues in emerging infectious diseases. The Centers for Disease Control's plan, Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats: A Prevention Strategy for the United States, is summarized. Initial efforts to implement this plan are described, with particular focus on the development of Emerging Infections Programs, which are conducting epidemiologic and laboratory projects on several infectious diseases, including invasive bacterial diseases, unexplained deaths, foodborne diseases, and ehrlichiosis in four population-based sites in the United States. PMID:8571983

  9. Versions to Address Business Process Flexibility Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaâbane, Mohamed Amine; Andonoff, Eric; Bouaziz, Rafik; Bouzguenda, Lotfi

    This paper contributes to address an important issue in business process management: the Business Process (BP) flexibility issue. First, it defends that versions are an interesting solution to deal with both a priori (when designing BPs) and a posteriori (when executing BPs) flexibility. It also explains why previous contributions about versions of BPs are incomplete, and need to be revisited. Then, the paper presents a meta-model for BP versions, which combines five perspectives -the functional, process, informational, organizational and operation perspectives- for BP modelling, and which allows a comprehensive description of versionalized BPs.

  10. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  11. Development of a numerical workflow based on μ-CT imaging for the determination of capillary pressure-saturation-specific interfacial area relationship in 2-phase flow pore-scale porous-media systems: a case study on Heletz sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peche, Aaron; Halisch, Matthias; Bogdan Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this case study, we present the implementation of a finite element method (FEM)-based numerical pore-scale model that is able to track and quantify the propagating fluid-fluid interfacial area on highly complex micro-computed tomography (μ-CT)-obtained geometries. Special focus is drawn to the relationship between reservoir-specific capillary pressure (pc), wetting phase saturation (Sw) and interfacial area (awn). The basis of this approach is high-resolution μ-CT images representing the geometrical characteristics of a georeservoir sample. The successfully validated 2-phase flow model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations, including the surface tension force, in order to consider capillary effects for the computation of flow and the phase-field method for the emulation of a sharp fluid-fluid interface. In combination with specialized software packages, a complex high-resolution modelling domain can be obtained. A numerical workflow based on representative elementary volume (REV)-scale pore-size distributions is introduced. This workflow aims at the successive modification of model and model set-up for simulating, such as a type of 2-phase problem on asymmetric μ-CT-based model domains. The geometrical complexity is gradually increased, starting from idealized pore geometries until complex μ-CT-based pore network domains, whereas all domains represent geostatistics of the REV-scale core sample pore-size distribution. Finally, the model can be applied to a complex μ-CT-based model domain and the pc-Sw-awn relationship can be computed.

  12. Dissociable attentional and inhibitory networks of dorsal and ventral areas of the right inferior frontal cortex: a combined task-specific and coordinate-based meta-analytic fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Alexandra; Jung, Patrick; Neuhoff, Jonathan; Wibral, Michael; Fox, Peter T; Lieb, Klaus; Fries, Pascal; Eickhoff, Simon B; Tüscher, Oliver; Mobascher, Arian

    2016-04-01

    The right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) is frequently activated during executive control tasks. Whereas the function of the dorsal portion of rIFC, more precisely the inferior frontal junction (rIFJ), is convergingly assigned to the attention system, the functional key role of the ventral portion, i.e., the inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG), is hitherto controversially debated. Here, we used a two-step methodical approach to clarify the differential function of rIFJ and rIFG. First, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a modified stop signal task with an attentional capture condition (acSST) to delineate attentional from inhibitory motor processes (step 1). Then, we applied coordinate-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) to assess functional connectivity profiles of rIFJ and rIFG across various paradigm classes (step 2). As hypothesized, rIFJ activity was associated with the detection of salient stimuli, and was functionally connected to areas of the ventral and dorsal attention network. RIFG was activated during successful response inhibition even when controlling for attentional capture and revealed the highest functional connectivity with core motor areas. Thereby, rIFJ and rIFG delineated largely independent brain networks for attention and motor control. MACM results attributed a more specific attentional function to rIFJ, suggesting an integrative role between stimulus-driven ventral and goal-directed dorsal attention processes. In contrast, rIFG was disclosed as a region of the motor control but not attention system, being essential for response inhibition. The current study provides decisive evidence regarding a more precise functional characterization of rIFC subregions in attention and inhibition. PMID:25637472

  13. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  14. Multi-port, optically addressed RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor); Esener, Sadik (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A random access memory addressing system utilizing optical links between memory and the read/write logic circuits comprises addressing circuits including a plurality of light signal sources, a plurality of optical gates including optical detectors associated with the memory cells, and a holographic optical element adapted to reflect and direct the light signals to the desired memory cell locations. More particularly, it is a multi-port, binary computer memory for interfacing with a plurality of computers. There are a plurality of storage cells for containing bits of binary information, the storage cells being disposed at the intersections of a plurality of row conductors and a plurality of column conductors. There is interfacing logic for receiving information from the computers directing access to ones of the storage cells. There are first light sources associated with the interfacing logic for transmitting a first light beam with the access information modulated thereon. First light detectors are associated with the storage cells for receiving the first light beam, for generating an electrical signal containing the access information, and for conducting the electrical signal to the one of the storage cells to which it is directed. There are holographic optical elements for reflecting the first light beam from the first light sources to the first light detectors.

  15. Framework for Address Cooperative Extended Transactions

    1997-12-01

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. it can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET canmore » also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. FACET includes generic software objects representing the fundamental classes of agent -- Person and Organization - with mechanisms for resource management, including resolution of conflicting requests for participation and/or use of the agent's resources. The FACET infrastructure supports stochastic behavioral elements and coping mechanisms by which specified special conditions and events can cause an active cooperative process to be preempted, diverting the participants onto appropriate alternative behavioral pathways.« less

  16. Addressing medical errors in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shepard P; Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-09-01

    Influential think tanks such as the Institute of Medicine have raised awareness about the implications of medical errors. In response, organizations, medical societies, and hospitals have initiated programs to decrease the incidence and prevent adverse effects of these errors. Surgeons deal with the direct implications of adverse events involving patients. In addition to managing the physical consequences, they are confronted with ethical and social issues when caring for a harmed patient. Although there is considerable effort to implement system-wide changes, there is little guidance for hand surgeons on how to address medical errors. Admitting an error by a physician is difficult, but a transparent environment where patients are notified of errors and offered consolation and compensation is essential to maintain physician-patient trust. Furthermore, equipping hand surgeons with a guide for addressing medical errors will help identify system failures, provide learning points for safety improvement, decrease litigation against physicians, and demonstrate a commitment to ethical and compassionate medical care. PMID:25154576

  17. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    counterparts. The urban environment also provides numerous opportunities. One example being the better use of weather and environmental predictions to proactively optimize the functioning of the urban environment in terms of the use of energy, goods and services. Another is the providing of air quality forecasting services to benefit the health of the population. To address the challenges and opportunities facing megacities and large urban complexes, WMO has established the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Urban Research Meteorology and Environment (GURME). Air pollution questions in urban areas, in particular megacities, is the main focus, building observational and modelling capabilities in developing countries through pilot projects and transfer of scientific expertise. GURME contributes to improving capabilities to handle meteorological and related features of air pollution by addressing end-to-end aspects of air quality, linking observational capabilities with the needs of chemical weather prediction, with the goal of providing high quality air quality services. Using examples from around the world but with specific reference to Africa, the unique challenges and opportunities related to megacities and large urban complexes, as perceived by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are highlighted.

  18. Addressing the Tension Between Strong Perimeter Control an Usability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas H.; Kolano, Paul Z.; Keller, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a strong perimeter control system for a general purpose processing system, with the perimeter control system taking significant steps to address usability issues, thus mitigating the tension between strong perimeter protection and usability. A secure front end enforces two-factor authentication for all interactive access to an enclave that contains a large supercomputer and various associated systems, with each requiring their own authentication. Usability is addressed through a design in which the user has to perform two-factor authentication at the secure front end in order to gain access to the enclave, while an agent transparently performs public key authentication as needed to authenticate to specific systems within the enclave. The paper then describes a proxy system that allows users to transfer files into the enclave under script control, when the user is not present to perform two-factor authentication. This uses a pre-authorization approach based on public key technology, which is still strongly tied to both two-factor authentication and strict control over where files can be transferred on the target system. Finally the paper describes an approach to support network applications and systems such as grids or parallel file transfer protocols that require the use of many ports through the perimeter. The paper describes a least privilege approach that dynamically opens ports on a host-specific, if-authorized, as-needed, just-in-time basis.

  19. Introduction: the need to address older women's mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Victor J

    2007-01-01

    Women are the primary consumers of mental health services. Ironically, research addressing their unique needs lags behind that of men's issues. The aging process introduces an important variable that accentuates the relative lack of information and specific treatment guidelines for older women who are confronted by mental health problems. This volume offers a comprehensive overview for the health professional who is seeking a greater depth of understanding with respect to the study of mental health problems in general, and how these issues pertain specifically to women and the aging process. A second goal of this project is to provide the practicing therapist and counselor with a research update and a broad clinical perspective offered by seasoned clinicians. Using current psychiatric diagnosis as a framework, the contributions address the range of mental health problems, including dementia and cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, traumatic and dissociative conditions, sexual and eating disorders, and personality disorders. It is hoped that this book will inform, inspire and encourage students and health professionals in their work with middle aged and older women who are facing mental health challenges. PMID:17588876

  20. Flight experiments to improve terminal area operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmirs, S.; Morello, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description is given of the objectives and activities of the terminal configured vehicle (TCV) program and of some of the airborne facilities. A short analysis of some particular problems in CTOL operations in the terminal area is also presented to show how the program's technical objectives are related to the defined problems. The test aircraft was flown both manually and automatically with manual monitoring over paths including 130 deg intercepts and 2.0 km and 0.8 km finals. Some statistical data are presented from these and other flight profiles designed to address specific terminal area problems. An overview is presented of research studies receiving emphasis in the next biennium and their application to the terminal area. A description of work undertaken to study the addition of adjacent traffic information to present map displays is also given.