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Sample records for addresses common misconceptions

  1. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  2. Mathematics, thermodynamics, and modeling to address ten common misconceptions about protein structure, folding, and stability.

    PubMed

    Robic, Srebrenka

    2010-01-01

    To fully understand the roles proteins play in cellular processes, students need to grasp complex ideas about protein structure, folding, and stability. Our current understanding of these topics is based on mathematical models and experimental data. However, protein structure, folding, and stability are often introduced as descriptive, qualitative phenomena in undergraduate classes. In the process of learning about these topics, students often form incorrect ideas. For example, by learning about protein folding in the context of protein synthesis, students may come to an incorrect conclusion that once synthesized on the ribosome, a protein spends its entire cellular life time in its fully folded native confirmation. This is clearly not true; proteins are dynamic structures that undergo both local fluctuations and global unfolding events. To prevent and address such misconceptions, basic concepts of protein science can be introduced in the context of simple mathematical models and hands-on explorations of publicly available data sets. Ten common misconceptions about proteins are presented, along with suggestions for using equations, models, sequence, structure, and thermodynamic data to help students gain a deeper understanding of basic concepts relating to protein structure, folding, and stability.

  3. Spork & Beans: Addressing Evolutionary Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Stephen R.; Dobson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    They are found at picnics and family outings, apparently attracted by the food provided at these events. Large populations in fast food establishments further support their association with food. Yet little is known about the biology of "Utensilus plastica" (common name: plastic eating utensil). The authors have conducted an in-depth study of this…

  4. Common Student Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Galvanic, Electrolytic, and Concentration Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates student (N=16) misconceptions concerning electrochemistry related to galvanic, electrolytic, and concentration cells. Findings indicate that most students demonstrating misconceptions were still able to calculate cell potentials correctly. Discusses common misconceptions and possible sources of these. Contains 33 references.…

  5. Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics"…

  6. Breaking Down Barriers: Addressing student misconceptions in the K-12 classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, B.; McCallister, J. D.; Knisely, L.

    2004-05-01

    A typical astronomy question an educator may ask their students is "What is a black hole?" Many times, students' responses sound more like an episode of Star Trek than an understanding about the universe and how it works: responses such as "Black holes are worm holes in space" or "A black hole is a huge vacuum in space, sucking everything in". These are all common astronomy misconceptions about black holes. A misconception is defined as a preconceived notion of how the world, or in the case of astronomy - the universe, works. Misconceptions may originate for a variety of reasons, from miscommunication, to oversimplification, to misrepresentation via the media or pop culture. Students who latch on to an astronomy misconception may have difficulty learning new information that is built upon the existing misconception. Additionally, educators who are not able to identify and address misconceptions can create learning barriers that may resonate throughout a students' life. This poster will introduce some of the extensive research that has gone into determining typical student misconceptions about astronomy, ways to identify them, and how students develop them. The poster will also explain why teachers need to be aware of ideas and concepts students may harbor as well as how misconceptions can be remedied.

  7. Omani Twelfth Grade Students' Most Common Misconceptions in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Shuaili, Ali H.; Taylor, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The current study, undertaken in the Sultanate of Oman, explored twelfth grade students' common misconceptions in seven chemistry conceptual areas. The sample included 786 twelfth grade students in Oman while the instrument was a two-tier test called Chemistry Misconceptions Diagnostic Test (CMDT), consisting of 25 items with 12 items…

  8. Common Student Misconceptions in Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, James P.; Doran, Dominic A.; MacLaren, Don P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study represents a preliminary investigation designed to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort…

  9. Addressing the Multiplication Makes Bigger and Division Makes Smaller Misconceptions via Prediction and Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kien H.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that uses prediction items, clickers and visuals via PowerPoint slides to help prospective middle-school teachers address two common misconceptions: multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller (MMB-DMS). Classroom research was conducted to explore the viability of such a lesson. Results show that the…

  10. SBL-Online: Implementing Studio-Based Learning Techniques in an Online Introductory Programming Course to Address Common Programming Errors and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Blanca J.

    2013-01-01

    Much research has been done in regards to student programming errors, online education and studio-based learning (SBL) in computer science education. This study furthers this area by bringing together this knowledge and applying it to proactively help students overcome impasses caused by common student programming errors. This project proposes a…

  11. Using Just in Time Teaching in a Global Climate Change Course to Address Misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuenemann, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) is employed in an introductory Global Climate Change college course with the intention of addressing common misconceptions and climate myths. Students enter the course with a variety of prior knowledge and opinions on global warming, and JiTT can be used as a constructivist pedagogical approach to make use of this prior knowledge. Students are asked to watch a short video or do a reading, sometimes screen capture videos created by the professor as review of material from the previous class, a video available on the web from NASA or NOAA, for example, or a reading from an online article or their textbook. After the video or reading, students answer a question carefully designed to pry at a common misconception, or simply are asked for the 'muddiest point' that remains on the concept. This assignment is done the night before class using a web program. The program aggregates the answers in an organized way so the professor can use the answers to design the day's lesson to address common misconceptions or concerns students displayed in their answers, as well as quickly assign participation credit to students who completed the assignment. On the other hand, if students display that they have already mastered the material, the professor can confidently move on to the next concept. The JiTT pedagogical method personalizes each lecture period to the students in that particular class for maximum efficiency while catching and fixing misconceptions in a timely manner. This technique requires students to spend time with the material outside of class, acts as review of important concepts, and increases engagement in class due to the personalization of the course. Evaluation results from use of this technique will be presented. Examples of successful JiTT videos, questions, student answers, and techniques for addressing misconceptions during lecture will also be presented with the intention that instructors can easily apply this technique to their

  12. Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Grades 1-2: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne

    2010-01-01

    "The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards on Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

  13. Zeroing in on Number and Operations, Pre-K-K: Key Ideas and Common Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dacey, Linda; Collins, Anne

    2011-01-01

    "The Zeroing in on Number and Operations" series, which aligns with the Common Core State Standards and the NCTM Standards on Focal Points, features easy-to-use tools for teaching key concepts in number and operations and for addressing common misconceptions. Sharing the insights they've gained through decades of mathematics teaching and research,…

  14. Addressing Students' Misconceptions about Gases, Mass, and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been published that describes the misconceptions students have about gases; however, not much research has been published that suggests how to change these misconceptions. The action research presented in this article examined how using laboratories to contradict students' preconceived ideas would affect their learning. High…

  15. A Computer-Based Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabee, Timothy G.; Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system…

  16. Common Errors and Misconceptions in Mathematical Proving by Education Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrou, Stavros Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Ninety-seven education students majoring or minoring in mathematics had their math homework examined in a Number Theory or Abstract Algebra course. Each student's homework was observed for the purpose of identifying common errors and misconceptions when writing mathematical proofs. The results showed that students collectively made four…

  17. Addressing the multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller misconceptions via prediction and clickers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kien H.

    2011-12-01

    This article presents a lesson that uses prediction items, clickers and visuals via PowerPoint slides to help prospective middle-school teachers address two common misconceptions: multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller (MMB-DMS). Classroom research was conducted to explore the viability of such a lesson. Results show that the lesson was effective in creating awareness that multiplication does not always make bigger and division does not always makes smaller, uncovering students' misconceptions, and providing opportunities for students to learn from mistakes. Students liked the activity for various reasons, such as getting to learn certain mathematical ideas, to think about the problems, to work in groups and to have fun. The lesson was implemented slightly differently in two classes. The class with an additional phase involving prediction and voting via clickers in the PowerPoint lesson showed a gain of 36 points (an effect size of 1.3 standard deviations, SDs) from the pre-test to the exit-test whereas, the comparison class showed a gain of 25 points (an effect size of 0.87 SDs). In terms of students' written responses with regards to addressing the MMB-DMS misconceptions, there was however not much difference between the two classes.

  18. Common misconceptions in molecular ecology: echoes of the modern synthesis.

    PubMed

    Karl, Stephen A; Toonen, R J; Grant, W S; Bowen, B W

    2012-09-01

    The field of molecular ecology has burgeoned into a large discipline spurred on by technical innovations that facilitate the rapid acquisition of large amounts of genotypic data, by the continuing development of theory to interpret results, and by the availability of computer programs to analyse data sets. As the discipline grows, however, misconceptions have become enshrined in the literature and are perpetuated by routine citations to other articles in molecular ecology. These misconceptions hamper a better understanding of the processes that influence genetic variation in natural populations and sometimes lead to erroneous conclusions. Here, we consider eight misconceptions commonly appearing in the literature: (i) some molecular markers are inherently better than other markers; (ii) mtDNA produces higher F(ST) values than nDNA; (iii) estimated population coalescences are real; (iv) more data are always better; (v) one needs to do a Bayesian analysis; (vi) selective sweeps influence mtDNA data; (vii) equilibrium conditions are critical for estimating population parameters; and (viii) having better technology makes us smarter than our predecessors. This is clearly not an exhaustive list and many others can be added. It is, however, sufficient to illustrate why we all need to be more critical of our own understanding of molecular ecology and to be suspicious of self-evident truths.

  19. Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later stages of lipedema have a classic “column leg” appearance, with masses of nodular fat, easy bruising, and pain. Despite this relatively common disease, there are few physicians who are aware of it. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed with lifestyle-induced obesity, and/or lymphedema, and subjected to unnecessary medical interventions and fat-shaming. Diagnosis is largely clinical and based on criteria initially established in 1951. Treatment of lipedema is effective and includes lymphatic support, such as complete decongestive therapy, and specialized suction lipectomy to spare injury to lymphatic channels and remove the diseased lipedema fat. With an incidence that may affect nearly 1 in 9 adult women, it is important to generate appropriate awareness, conduct additional research, and identify better diagnostic and treatment modalities for lipedema so these women can obtain the care that they need and deserve. PMID:27757353

  20. Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties and Misconceptions: Examples from Physics and from Materials Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Here I present my work identifying and addressing student difficulties with several materials science and physics topics. In the first part of this thesis, I present my work identifying student difficulties and misconceptions about the directional relationships between net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension. This is accomplished…

  1. Identifying and Reconstructing Common Cold Misconceptions among Developing K-12 Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Common cold misconceptions may contribute to ill-informed decisions and recommendations made by K-12 educators who often encounter infected students. Understanding the structure of educators' misconceptions can be used to improve health instruction in teacher professional preparation programs. Purpose: The purposes of this project were…

  2. Addressing Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

  3. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  4. Belief in corrective feedback for common misconceptions: Implications for knowledge revision.

    PubMed

    Rich, Patrick R; Van Loon, Mariëtte H; Dunlosky, John; Zaragoza, Maria S

    2017-03-01

    When correcting a common misconception, it seems likely that for corrective feedback to be effective, it needs to be believed. In 2 experiments, we assessed how participants' belief in the validity of corrective feedback regarding individual misconceptions influenced knowledge revision. After responding about the validity of a set of misconceptions, participants received either a refutation alone (feedback that they were correct or incorrect) or a refutation accompanied by a supporting explanation, and then rated their belief in the corrective feedback. One week later, participants once again responded about the validity of the misconceptions. Across both experiments, participants corrected their misconceptions more often when they believed the corrective feedback. In addition, participants corrected their misconceptions more often when they had earlier received a refutation with a supporting explanation than when they had received the refutation only. This benefit of supportive explanations on knowledge revision was mediated by belief in the feedback, suggesting that explanations enhance the effectiveness of a correction by increasing belief in the feedback. These findings imply that successful correction of common misconceptions is likely enhanced by techniques that increase people's belief in the validity of the corrective feedback. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Common Misconceptions in the Use of Drugs for the Reading/Learning Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papazian, Clement E.

    The author presents a "working model" approach to use with parents in explaining the nature of their reading/learning disabled child's problem, with particular emphasis on medication intervention. Ten misconceptions regarding attentional deficit disorder (ADD) are addressed: (1) a neurological examination and a brain wave test are essential in…

  6. Common misconceptions about cognitive mediation of treatment change: a commentary to Longmore and Worrell (2007).

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G

    2008-01-01

    The article by Richard J. Longmore and Michael Worrell [Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 27, 2007, pp. 173-187] reviews a selection of studies showing no significant difference between treatment conditions that include formal cognitive restructuring techniques and other behavioral treatment modalities that do not include techniques to directly challenge cognitions. Based on this literature, Longmore and Worrell question the validity of the cognitive behavioral treatment model and argue that changes in symptoms are not mediated by changes in cognitions. Longmore and Worrell's arguments are based on common misconceptions about mediation models of treatment change. This commentary discusses and clarifies these misconceptions.

  7. What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument that Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or…

  8. Distance Education in the Digital Age: Common Misconceptions and Challenging Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses in its first part three common misconceptions related to the operation of distance education providers in the digital age: The tendency to relate to e-learning as the new generation of distance education; the confusion between ends and means of distance education; and the absence of the teachers' crucial role in the…

  9. Debunking EHEA Myths: Common ECTS Misconceptions and Why They Are Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez Cañado, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    The present article seeks to overcome some of the most common misconceptions which are currently proliferating in the application of the "European Credit Transfer System" (ECTS) at tertiary level. It presents and unpacks seven false myths affecting all the main curricular and organizational levels of the implementation of the new credit…

  10. "Holes" in Student Understanding: Addressing Prevalent Misconceptions regarding Atmospheric Environmental Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Sara C.; Walz, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a misconception among undergraduate students that global warming is caused by holes in the ozone layer. In this study, we evaluated the presence of this and other misconceptions surrounding atmospheric chemistry that are responsible for the entanglement of the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole in students' conceptual frameworks. We…

  11. Common Origins of Diverse Misconceptions: Cognitive Principles and the Development of Biology Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    Many ideas in the biological sciences seem especially difficult to understand, learn, and teach successfully. Our goal in this feature is to explore how these difficulties may stem not from the complexity or opacity of the concepts themselves, but from the fact that they may clash with informal, intuitive, and deeply held ways of understanding the world that have been studied for decades by psychologists. We give a brief overview of the field of developmental cognitive psychology. Then, in each of the following sections, we present a number of common challenges faced by students in the biological sciences. These may be in the form of misconceptions, biases, or simply concepts that are difficult to learn and teach, and they occur at all levels of biological analysis (molecular, cellular, organismal, population, and ecosystem). We then introduce the notion of a cognitive construal and discuss specific examples of how these cognitive principles may explain what makes some misconceptions so alluring and some biological concepts so challenging for undergraduates. We will argue that seemingly unrelated misconceptions may have common origins in a single underlying cognitive construal. These ideas emerge from our own ongoing cross-disciplinary conversation, and we think that expanding this conversation to include other biological scientists and educators, as well as other cognitive scientists, could have significant utility in improving biology teaching and learning. PMID:22949417

  12. Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance

  13. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  14. Differences in Brain Activation between Novices and Experts in Science during a Task Involving a Common Misconception in Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Steve; Potvin, Patrice; Riopel, Martin; Foisy, Lorie-Marlène Brault

    2014-01-01

    Science education studies have revealed that students often have misconceptions about how nature works, but what happens to misconceptions after a conceptual change remains poorly understood. Are misconceptions rejected and replaced by scientific conceptions, or are they still present in students' minds, coexisting with newly acquired…

  15. The AP Chemistry Course Audit: A Fertile Ground for Identifying and Addressing Misconceptions about the Course and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenz, Richard W.; Miller, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    The advanced placement course audit was implemented to standardize the college-level curricular and resource requirements for AP courses. While the process has had this effect, it has brought with it misconceptions about how much the College Board intends to control what happens within the classroom, what information is required to be included in…

  16. Electromagnetic Scattering by a Morphologically Complex Object: Fundamental Concepts and Common Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mischenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Cairns, Brian; Tishkovets, Victor P.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Rosenbush, Vera K.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.

    2011-01-01

    Following Keller(Proc Symp Appl Math 1962;13:227:46), we classify all theoretical treatments of electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object into first- principle (or "honest" in Keller s terminology) and phenomenological (or "dishonest") categories. This helps us identify, analyze, and dispel several profound misconceptions widespread in the discipline of electromagnetic scattering by solitary particles and discrete random media. Our goal is not to call for a complete renunciation of phenomenological approaches but rather to encourage a critical and careful evaluation of their actual origin, virtues, and limitations. In other words, we do not intend to deter creative thinking in terms of phenomenological short-cuts, but we do want to raise awareness when we stray (often for practical reasons) from the fundamentals. The main results and conclusions are illustrated by numerically-exact data based on direct numerical solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations.

  17. How Rhetorical Theories of Genre Address Common Core Writing Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a review of the forms of writing promoted in the Common Core State Standards. Across content areas, Common Core encourages teachers to attune students' writing to rhetorical concerns of audience, purpose, task, and disciplinary thinking. To address these concerns, teachers might take a rhetorical approach to the study…

  18. Mathematics, Thermodynamics, and Modeling to Address Ten Common Misconceptions about Protein Structure, Folding, and Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robic, Srebrenka

    2010-01-01

    To fully understand the roles proteins play in cellular processes, students need to grasp complex ideas about protein structure, folding, and stability. Our current understanding of these topics is based on mathematical models and experimental data. However, protein structure, folding, and stability are often introduced as descriptive, qualitative…

  19. Beyond Knowledge and Awareness: Addressing Misconceptions in Ghana’s Preparation towards an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Adongo, Philip Baba; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Asampong, Emmanuel; Ansong, Joana; Robalo, Magda; Adanu, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is not new to the world. However, the West African EVD epidemic which started in 2014 evolved into the largest, most severe and most complex outbreak in the history of the disease. The three most-affected countries faced enormous challenges in stopping the transmission and providing care for all patients. Although Ghana had not recorded any confirmed Ebola case, social factors have been reported to hinder efforts to control the outbreak in the three most affected countries. This qualitative study was designed to explore community knowledge and attitudes about Ebola and its transmission. Methods This study was carried out in five of the ten regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (N = 235) and 40 in-depth interviews were conducted across the five regions with community members, stakeholders and opinion leaders. The interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was adopted in the analysis of the data using Nvivo 10. Results The results showed a high level of awareness and knowledge about Ebola. The study further showed that knowledge on how to identify suspected cases of Ebola was also high among respondents. However, there was a firm belief that Ebola was a spiritual condition and could also be transmitted through air, mosquito bites and houseflies. These misconceptions resulted in perceptions of stigma and discrimination towards people who may get Ebola or work with Ebola patients. Conclusion We conclude that although knowledge and awareness about Ebola is high among Ghanaians who participated in the study, there are still misconceptions about the disease. The study recommends that health education on Ebola disease should move beyond creating awareness to targeting the identified misconceptions to improve future containment efforts. PMID:26889683

  20. Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

  1. The Relationship between Biology Classes and Biological Reasoning and Common Heath Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keselman, Alla; Hundal, Savreen; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Bibi, Raquel; Edelman, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship among (1) college major, (2) knowledge used in reasoning about common health beliefs, and (3) judgment about the accuracy of those beliefs. Seventy-four college students, advanced biology and non-science majors, indicated their agreement or disagreement with commonly believed, but often inaccurate,…

  2. Understanding the Common Elements of Evidence-Based Practice: Misconceptions and Clinical Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorpita, Bruce F.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Daleiden, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors proposed a distillation and matching model (DMM) that describes how evidence-based treatment operations can be conceptualized at a lower order level of analysis than simply by their manuals. Also referred to as the "common elements" approach, this model demonstrates the feasibility of coding and identifying the…

  3. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... child may seem overweight according to the growth charts, but our entire family is ‘big boned.’ So ... focus on the growth and body mass index charts. If your child’s weight exceeds the normal range ...

  4. Vocabulary: Five Common Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy; Bromley, Karen; Rasinski, Tim; Newton, Evangeline

    2012-01-01

    When young readers encounter texts that contain too many unfamiliar words, their comprehension suffers. Reading becomes slow, laborious, and frustrating, impeding their learning. That's why vocabulary knowledge is a key element in reading comprehension. To comprehend fully and learn well, all students need regular vocabulary exploration.…

  5. Ecological Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Bruce H.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a summary of the research literature on students' ecological conceptions and the implications of misconceptions. Topics include food webs, ecological adaptation, carrying capacity, ecosystem, and niche. (Contains 35 references.) (MKR)

  6. Antievolutionary Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    This article is essentially a rebuttal to Norman Macbeth's arguments against Darwinism. The author argues that one must identify the real weaknesses of evolutionary theory and not use the misconceptions put forth by Macbeth to make valid judgments. (MA)

  7. Introducing the ‘Science Myths Revealed’ Misconception Video Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Villard, R.; Estacion, M.; Hassan, J.; Ryer, H.

    2012-05-01

    A misconception is a preconceived and inaccurate view of how the world works. There are many common science misconceptions held by students and the public alike about various topics in astronomy - including but not limited to galaxies, black holes, light and color, and the solar system. It is critical to identify and address misconceptions because they can stand in the way of new learning and impeded one’s ability to apply science principals meaningfully to everyday life. In response, the News and Education teams at the Space Telescope Science Institute worked in collaboration with a consultant to develop the “Science Myths Revealed” misconception video series. The purpose of this video series is to present common astronomy misconceptions in a brief and visually engaging manner while also presenting and reinforcing the truth of the universe and celestial phenomena within it. Viewers can the watch the videos to get more information about specific astronomy misconceptions as well as the facts to dispel them. Visual cues and demonstrations provide viewers with a more concrete representation of what are often abstract and misunderstood concepts - making the videos ideal as both engagement and instructional tools. Three videos in the series have been produced and are currently being field-tested within the education community.

  8. Earth Science Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, William C.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)

  9. Astronomical Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrier, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    Do you think that the Moon does not rotate? Do you think that the phases of the Moon are created by the Earth's shadow? Do you think that the seasons are a result of the Earth's distance from the Sun? If you answered "yes" to any of these, then you are one of many who possess misconceptions about astronomy.

  10. What Research Says: The Cardiovascular System: Children's Conceptions and Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    1986-01-01

    Reports findings of a study on children's perceptions and alternate conceptions about the human circulatory system. Summarizes the responses of fifth and eighth grade students on questions dealing with the heart and blood. Offers examples of hands-on activities and confrontation strategies that address common misconceptions on circulation. (ML)

  11. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Élaine; Masson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective. PMID:24478680

  12. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Elaine; Masson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective.

  13. Misconceptions indeed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumayer, D.; Scott, T. F.

    2016-11-01

    In a recent article Fotou and Abrahams (2016 Phys. Educ. 51 044003) described a study which investigated how students approach novel situations and whether their reasoning can be understood as theory-like misconceptions or phenomenological primitives. Two exemplary questions polling students’ concepts of gravity were presented in their article. Although we find the authors’ motivation and approach interesting we also raise concerns about one of these problems.

  14. Using Dynamic Software to Address Common College Calculus Stumbling Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seneres, Alice W.; Kerrigan, John A.

    2014-01-01

    There are specific topics in college calculus that can be major stumbling blocks for students. Having taught college calculus for four years to over a thousand students, we observed that even the students who have already taken pre-calculus or calculus during their high school careers had common misunderstandings. Students may remember a technique…

  15. Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

  16. What Is a Psychological Misconception? Moving toward an Empirical Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, D. Alan; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of psychological misconceptions have often used tests with methodological shortcomings, unknown psychometric properties, and ad hoc methods for identifying misconceptions, creating problems for estimating frequencies of specific misconceptions. To address these problems, we developed a new test, the Test of Psychological Knowledge and…

  17. Misconceptions in Rational Numbers, Probability, Algebra, and Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the relationship of probability misconceptions to algebra, geometry, and rational number misconceptions and investigated the potential of probability instruction as an intervention to address misconceptions in all 4 content areas. Through a review of literature, 5 fundamental concepts were identified that, if…

  18. Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

  19. Misconceptions Surrounding Climate Change: A Review of the Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, C. M.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

    2011-12-01

    Misconceptions about climate change abound in every corner of society. The result manifests itself ranging from apprehension to total disregard for climate change conditions. According to several sources, however, a large percentage of the U. S. population do, indeed indicate some concern over global warming and climate change in general. These climate change misconceptions are numerous and include, to name a few; confusion between weather and climate, how greenhouse gases are affecting the earth, the effects of ozone depletion, earth's natural cycles, volcanic activity, nuclear waste and a host of other anthropogenic influences. This paper is a review of the current research literature relating to climate change misconceptions. These errant views will be addressed, cataloged, enumerated, and ranked to get a grasp on where the general population, politicians, scientists, and educators as well as students stand on informed climate change information. The categories where misconceptions arise have been identified in this literature review study and include the following: Natural cycles of the earth, ecological which include deforestation, urban development and any human intervention on the environment, educational - including teacher strategies, student understanding and textbook updates, emotional, ozone layer and its interactions, polar ice, political regulations, mandates and laws, pollution from human sources as well as from nature, religious beliefs and dogma and social beliefs. We suggest appropriate solutions for addressing these misconceptions, especially in the classroom setting, and broadly include available funding sources for work in climate change education. Some solutions include need for compilation of appropriate education resources and materials for public use, need for the development of educational materials that appropriately address the variety of publics, and need for programs that are conducting climate change education research and EPO work to

  20. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  1. An Astronomical Misconceptions Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Misconceptions that students bring with them to the introductory science classroom plague every area of science and are especially prevalent in astronomy. One way to identify and possibly dispel some of these misconceptions is through the use of a misconceptions survey. The following is a report on the development, implementation, and some early…

  2. Misconceptions Tests or Misconceived Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Ransdell, Sarah E.

    1987-01-01

    States that taking a high school psychology course did not improve the performance of college students in an introductory psychology class on a modified version of Vaughan's misconceptions test (Test of Common Beliefs). Concludes that while college experience did lead to some improvement, comparison with other studies indicates that perhaps the…

  3. Misconceptions concerning the behavior, fate and transport of the fuel oxygenates TBA and MTBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, R.; Sloan, R.

    2003-04-01

    The release of gasoline from underground storage tanks and the subsequent appearance of dissolved constituents in drinking water has focused attention on the use of MTBE in reformulated fuels. Natural biodegradation of MTBE in soil, photo-oxidation in the atmosphere or chemical oxidation during remediation of gasoline releases can produce the intermediate tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). TBA is also a fuel oxygenate and can be found as a co-product in MTBE synthesized from methanol and TBA. Because the physical properties of ethers and alcohols differ somewhat from the predominant hydrocarbon compounds in gasoline, misconceptions have developed about the behavior of fuel oxygenates in storage and in the subsurface. Critical review of several misconceptions about MTBE and TBA in gasoline reveals the concepts were conceived to rationalize early field observations and/or incomplete data sets. Closer scrutiny, in light of recent laboratory investigations, field data, case studies and world literature, clarifies these misconceptions and assumptions about the behavior of ether oxygenates and their degradation products in the environment. Commonly held misconceptions focus on four general areas of fuel and fuel oxygenate management: storage/dispensing, hydrology, remediation, and health effects. Storage/dispensing misconceptions address materials stability to ethers and alcohols in fuel and the environmental forensics of fuel systems failure. Groundwater and hydrology misconceptions deal with plume dynamics and the impact of fuel on drinking water resources. Remediation misconceptions focus on the performance of traditional hydrocarbon remediation technologies, recent developments in biodegradation and natural attenuation, drivers of remedial design and remediation costs. Health effects misconceptions address both acute and chronic exposure risk evaluations by national and international health agencies. Generally MTBE and TBA are manageable by the same processes and

  4. Dominoes as Fractions: Misconceptions and Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Robin A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students must arrange five fractions represented by dominoes in ascending order and justify their reasons for the ordering. Representing common fractions with dominoes helps identify students' misconceptions about fractions. (ASK)

  5. Measuring Sixth-Grade Students' Problem Solving: Validating an Instrument Addressing the Mathematics Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan David; Sondergeld, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a problem-solving instrument intended for classroom use that addresses the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. In this study, 137 students completed the assessment, and their responses were analyzed. Evidence for validity was collected and examined using the current standards for educational and…

  6. NEW APPROACHES: Addressing students' common difficulties in basic electricity by qualitative simulation-based activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronen, M.; Eliahu, M.

    1997-11-01

    Simulation-based activities provide students with an opportunity to compare their physical intuition with the behaviour of the model and can sometimes offer unique advantages over other methods. This article presents various approaches to the development of qualitative simulation- based activities and describes how these activities can be addressed to students' common difficulties in basic electricity.

  7. Misconceptions of Astronomical Distances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…

  8. Does Prior Knowledge Matter? Do Lamarckian Misconceptions Exist? A Critique of Geraedts and Boersma (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enderle, Patrick J.; Smith, Mike U.; Southerland, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The existence, preponderance, and stability of misconceptions related to evolution continue as foci of research in science education. In their 2006 study, Geraedts and Boersma question the existence of stable Lamarckian misconceptions in students, challenging the utility of Conceptual Change theory in addressing any such misconceptions. To support…

  9. Identification and Addressing Reduction-Related Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, Judith; Trakhtenbrot, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Reduction is one of the key techniques used for problem-solving in computer science. In particular, in the theory of computation and complexity (TCC), mapping and polynomial reductions are used for analysis of decidability and computational complexity of problems, including the core concept of NP-completeness. Reduction is a highly abstract…

  10. Diagnosing Portuguese Students' Misconceptions about the Mineral Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Antonio; Nobrega, Clevio; Abrantes, Isabel; Gomes, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    Educational researchers and teachers are well aware that misconceptions--erroneous ideas that differ from the scientifically accepted ones--are very common amongst students. Daily experiences, creative and perceptive thinking and science textbooks give rise to students' misconceptions which lead them to draw erroneous conclusions that become…

  11. Subsidence misconceptions and myths

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.; Knott, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    Subsidence due to coal mining is poorly understood by non-specialists. This has led to numerous misconceptions and myths based on limited observations and lack of knowledge. The three most common are: (1) Mine maps are inaccurate, (2) Deep mines are not a problem, and (3) If no subsidence has occurred for many years after mining, there is no risk of future subsidence. Maps are important during mining and most are carefully prepared. Future use to evaluate conditions at mine level often includes drilling to confirm what the map shows. The idea of a safe depth from subsidence is often based on the false premise that mining results in sufficient breakup of the overlying rock strata that bulking compensates for the coal extracted. The safe depth idea first appeared in the literature about 1880 and remained prevalent well into this century. Sadly, it is still encountered. The modem understanding of fragmentation of the immediate mine roof with the overlying beds sagging down on the broken roof rock was first described in 1900. With full extraction mining, either longwall or retreat room and pillar, surface subsidence occurs regardless of the depth of the mine. Subsidence over longwall mines at depths of 2000 feet can be 90 percent of the mined seam thickness. Numerous studies of undermined sites conclude that mining occurred many years ago and since no subsidence has occurred, there is no risk of future movement. This is true if sufficient coal pillars have been left to support the overlying strate. However, every year subsidence occurs over mines that have been closed for 100 years or more. In a study of subsidera incidents over the Pittsburgh Coal, the senior authors found that 50 percent of the incidents occurred above mines that had been closed for at least 50 years and 10 percent over mines, closed for at least 80 years.

  12. Biology Undergraduates’ Misconceptions about Genetic Drift

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores biology undergraduates’ misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students’ definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct misconceptions about genetic drift. The accuracy of students’ conceptions ranges considerably, from responses indicating only superficial, if any, knowledge of any aspect of evolution to responses indicating knowledge of genetic drift but confusion about the nuances of genetic drift. After instruction, a significantly greater number of responses indicate some knowledge of genetic drift (p = 0.005), but 74.6% of responses still contain at least one misconception. We conclude by presenting a framework that organizes how students’ conceptions of genetic drift change with instruction. We also articulate three hypotheses regarding undergraduates’ conceptions of evolution in general and genetic drift in particular. We propose that: 1) students begin with undeveloped conceptions of evolution that do not recognize different mechanisms of change; 2) students develop more complex, but still inaccurate, conceptual frameworks that reflect experience with vocabulary but still lack deep understanding; and 3) some new misconceptions about genetic drift emerge as students comprehend more about evolution. PMID:22949422

  13. Predicting Student Misconceptions in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouché, Jaunine

    2015-01-01

    Two challenges science teachers face are identifying misconceptions students have about how the world operates and getting past those misconceptions. Students' prior conceptions often conflict with the content educators are trying to teach. The gateway to revealing and changing such misconceptions, Fouché says, is predictive questioning. As they…

  14. Popular misconceptions: agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McHughen, Alan; Wager, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Agricultural biotechnology, especially genetic engineering or genetic modification (GM), is a topic of considerable controversy worldwide. The public debate is fraught with polarized views and opinions, some are held with religious zeal. Unfortunately, it is also marked with much ignorance and misinformation. Here we explore some popular misconceptions encountered in the public debate.

  15. Misconceptions Die Hard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepans, Joseph I.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses a study of students' conceptualizations and misconceptions of how objects sink and float. Results showed little difference in the levels of understanding of the "sink and float" concepts by groups ranging from primary age to college. As age increased, terminology used by students varied, and misuse of terms increased. (TW)

  16. Prevalence and Persistence of Misconceptions in Tree Thinking†

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, Tyler A.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Jensen, Jamie L.

    2016-01-01

    Darwin described evolution as “descent with modification.” Descent, however, is not an explicit focus of most evolution instruction and often leaves deeply held misconceptions to dominate student understanding of common ancestry and species relatedness. Evolutionary trees are ways of visually depicting descent by illustrating the relationships between species and groups of species. The ability to properly interpret and use evolutionary trees has become known as “tree thinking.” We used a 20-question assessment to measure misconceptions in tree thinking and compare the proportion of students who hold these misconceptions in an introductory biology course with students in two higher-level courses including a senior level biology course. We found that misconceptions related to reading the graphic (reading the tips and node counting) were variably influenced across time with reading the tips decreasing and node counting increasing in prevalence. On the other hand, misconceptions related to the fundamental underpinnings of evolutionary theory (ladder thinking and similarity equals relatedness) proved resistant to change during a typical undergraduate study of biology. A possible new misconception relating to the length of the branches in an evolutionary tree is described. Understanding the prevalence and persistence of misconceptions informs educators as to which misconceptions should be targeted in their courses. PMID:28101265

  17. Misconceptions of Emergent Semiconductor Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Katherine G.

    The semiconductor field of Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced tremendous growth, requiring curricula to consider ways to promote student success. One major barrier to success students may face when learning PV is the development of misconceptions. The purpose of this work was to determine the presence and prevalence of misconceptions students may have for three PV semiconductor phenomena; Diffusion, Drift and Excitation. These phenomena are emergent, a class of phenomena that have certain characteristics. In emergent phenomena, the individual entities in the phenomena interact and aggregate to form a self-organizing pattern that can be observed at a higher level. Learners develop a different type of misconception for these phenomena, an emergent misconception. Participants (N=41) completed a written protocol. The pilot study utilized half of these protocols (n = 20) to determine the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions for the three phenomena. Once the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions was confirmed, all protocols (N=41) were analyzed to determine the presence and prevalence of general and emergent misconceptions, and to note any relationships among these misconceptions (full study). Through written protocol analysis of participants' responses, numerous codes emerged from the data for both general and emergent misconceptions. General and emergent misconceptions were found in 80% and 55% of participants' responses, respectively. General misconceptions indicated limited understandings of chemical bonding, electricity and magnetism, energy, and the nature of science. Participants also described the phenomena using teleological, predictable, and causal traits, indicating participants had misconceptions regarding the emergent aspects of the phenomena. For both general and emergent misconceptions, relationships were observed between similar misconceptions within and across the three phenomena, and differences in misconceptions were

  18. Reaching the Mountaintop: Addressing the Common Core Standards in Mathematics for Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Doug

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards provide teachers with a framework of necessary mathematics skills across grades K-12, which vary considerably from previous mathematics standards. In this article, we discuss concerns about the implications of the Common Core for students with mathematics difficulties (MD), given that students with MD, by…

  19. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Time Commitment When Addressing the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William Benedict, III

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were officially released in America for mathematics and English language arts and soon adopted by 45 of the 50 states. However, within the English langue arts domain there were standards intended for secondary social studies teachers under the title, Common Core State Standards for English Language…

  20. Exploring lecturers' views of first-year health science students' misconceptions in biomedical domains.

    PubMed

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G

    2015-05-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge about the human body. This explorative study analysed lecturers' perceptions of first-year health science students' misconceptions in anatomy and physiology to gain a deeper understanding of how and why misconceptions could potentially arise, by attempting to link sources of misconceptions with four schools of thought, namely theories on concept formation, complexity, constructivism and conceptual change. This was a qualitative study where ten lecturers involved in teaching anatomy and physiology in the health science curricula at the University of Cape Town were interviewed to explore perceptions of students' misconceptions. Analytical induction was used to uncover categories within the interview data by using a coding system. A deeper analysis was done to identify emerging themes that begins to explore a theoretical understanding of why and how misconceptions arise. Nine sources of misconceptions were identified, including misconceptions related to language, perception, three dimensional thinking, causal reasoning, curricula design, learning styles and moving between macro and micro levels. The sources of misconceptions were then grouped together to assist educators with finding educational interventions to overcome potential misconceptions. This explorative study is an attempt in theory building to understand what is at the core of biomedical misconceptions. Misconceptions identified in this study hold implications for educators as not all students have the required building blocks and cognitive skills to successfully navigate their way through biomedical courses. Theoretical insight into the sources of misconceptions can

  1. Addressing the "Shift": Preparing Preservice Secondary Teachers for the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Stephanie M.; Hart, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Common Core represents a shift in content-area literacy instruction, broadening from a narrow focus on generalizable skills to also include a disciplinary perspective of literacies specific to the specialized language and habits of thinking within particular subjects. This requires teachers to be knowledgeable in their content and possess…

  2. Assessing common birds' ecological requirements to address nature conservation in permanent crops: Lessons from Italian vineyards.

    PubMed

    Assandri, Giacomo; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia

    2017-04-15

    Viticulture has contributed to shaping cultural landscapes in several regions across all continents. Recent farming intensification is causing landscape homogenization and biodiversity loss in several of those areas, but knowledge about the impacts on biodiversity in vineyards is still scarce. Simplified agro-ecosystems resulting from intensification host mainly generalist and common species, which still play a key role in the regulation of ecosystems and in the provision of ecosystem services. We assessed the abundance of 11 common bird species at 47 linear transects in a vineyard-dominated landscape in Trentino (NE Italy), in both spring and winter, and analysed abundance variation in relation to three independent groups of predictors: landscape, management, and topographic-climatic variables. In the majority of species (7), abundance was primarily or considerably affected by landscape attributes. However, an additional 5 species were largely affected by management practices, often with conspicuous seasonal differences. Overall, landscape and management heterogeneity positively affected the abundance of 6 species. Vineyard cover (and in particular the new spalliera trellising system) was negatively related with the abundance of 6 species, with the strongest impacts occurring in winter. On the contrary, the cover of marginal habitats had major positive effects over 8 species. Hedgerows, tree rows, and dry stone walls, as well as traditional pergola vineyards and landscape and management heterogeneity should be conserved or restored in viticultural landscapes to promote the abundance of common bird species. This strategy would ensure the maintenance of the ecosystem services they provide, while promoting the general sustainability of the agroecosystem.

  3. Unweaving misconceptions: Guided learning, simulations, and misconceptions in learning principles of natural selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Brian E.

    College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and promoted model within the epistemology of science instruction. However, constructivism is not without its skeptics who see some problems of its application in lacking necessary guidance for novice learners. This study within a quantitative, quasi-experimental format tested whether guided online instruction in a video format of common misconceptions in evolutionary biology produced higher performance on a survey of knowledge of natural selection versus more constructivist style learning in the form of student exploration of computer simulations of the evolutionary process. Performances on surveys were also explored for a combination of constructivist and guided techniques to determine if a consolidation of approaches produced higher test scores. Out of the 94 participants 95% displayed at least one misconception of natural selection in the pre-test while the study treatments produced no statistically significant improvements in post-test scores except within the video (guided learning treatment). These overall results demonstrated the stubbornness of misconceptions involving natural selection for adult learners and the difficulty of helping them overcome them. It also bolsters the idea that some misconceptions of natural selection and evolution may be hardwired in a neurological sense and that new, more long-term teaching techniques may be warranted. Such long-term strategies may not be best implemented with constructivist techniques alone, and it is likely that some level of guidance may be necessary for novice adult learners. A more substantial, nuanced approach for undergraduates is needed that consolidates successful

  4. GUIdock: Using Docker Containers with a Common Graphics User Interface to Address the Reproducibility of Research.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ling-Hong; Kristiyanto, Daniel; Lee, Sung Bong; Yeung, Ka Yee

    2016-01-01

    Reproducibility is vital in science. For complex computational methods, it is often necessary, not just to recreate the code, but also the software and hardware environment to reproduce results. Virtual machines, and container software such as Docker, make it possible to reproduce the exact environment regardless of the underlying hardware and operating system. However, workflows that use Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) remain difficult to replicate on different host systems as there is no high level graphical software layer common to all platforms. GUIdock allows for the facile distribution of a systems biology application along with its graphics environment. Complex graphics based workflows, ubiquitous in systems biology, can now be easily exported and reproduced on many different platforms. GUIdock uses Docker, an open source project that provides a container with only the absolutely necessary software dependencies and configures a common X Windows (X11) graphic interface on Linux, Macintosh and Windows platforms. As proof of concept, we present a Docker package that contains a Bioconductor application written in R and C++ called networkBMA for gene network inference. Our package also includes Cytoscape, a java-based platform with a graphical user interface for visualizing and analyzing gene networks, and the CyNetworkBMA app, a Cytoscape app that allows the use of networkBMA via the user-friendly Cytoscape interface.

  5. GUIdock: Using Docker Containers with a Common Graphics User Interface to Address the Reproducibility of Research

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ka Yee

    2016-01-01

    Reproducibility is vital in science. For complex computational methods, it is often necessary, not just to recreate the code, but also the software and hardware environment to reproduce results. Virtual machines, and container software such as Docker, make it possible to reproduce the exact environment regardless of the underlying hardware and operating system. However, workflows that use Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) remain difficult to replicate on different host systems as there is no high level graphical software layer common to all platforms. GUIdock allows for the facile distribution of a systems biology application along with its graphics environment. Complex graphics based workflows, ubiquitous in systems biology, can now be easily exported and reproduced on many different platforms. GUIdock uses Docker, an open source project that provides a container with only the absolutely necessary software dependencies and configures a common X Windows (X11) graphic interface on Linux, Macintosh and Windows platforms. As proof of concept, we present a Docker package that contains a Bioconductor application written in R and C++ called networkBMA for gene network inference. Our package also includes Cytoscape, a java-based platform with a graphical user interface for visualizing and analyzing gene networks, and the CyNetworkBMA app, a Cytoscape app that allows the use of networkBMA via the user-friendly Cytoscape interface. PMID:27045593

  6. Towards a common oil spill risk assessment framework – Adapting ISO 31000 and addressing uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; Martins, Flavio; Janeiro, Joao; Samaras, Achilleas; Zodiatis, George; De Dominicis, Michela

    2015-08-15

    Oil spills are a transnational problem, and establishing a common standard methodology for Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) is thus paramount in order to protect marine environments and coastal communities. In this study we firstly identified the strengths and weaknesses of the OSRAs carried out in various parts of the globe. We then searched for a generic and recognized standard, i.e. ISO 31000, in order to design a method to perform OSRAs in a scientific and standard way. The new framework was tested for the Lebanon oil spill that occurred in 2006 employing ensemble oil spill modeling to quantify the risks and uncertainties due to unknown spill characteristics. The application of the framework generated valuable visual instruments for the transparent communication of the risks, replacing the use of risk tolerance levels, and thus highlighting the priority areas to protect in case of an oil spill.

  7. Abandonment and reconciliation: addressing political and common law objections to fetal homicide laws.

    PubMed

    Curran, Douglas S

    2009-03-01

    Fetal homicide laws criminalize killing a fetus largely to the same extent as killing any other human being. Historically, the common law did not generally recognize feticide as a crime, but this was because of the evidentiary "born-alive" rule, not because of the substantive understanding of the term "human being." As medicine and science have advanced, states have become increasingly willing to abandon this evidentiary rule and to criminalize feticide as homicide. Although most states have recognized the crime of fetal homicide, fourteen have not. This is largely the result of two independent obstacles: (judicial) adherence to the born-alive rule and (legislative) concern that fetal homicide laws could erode constitutionally protected reproductive rights. This Note explores a variety of fetal homicide laws that states have adopted, demonstrating that popular opinion has shifted toward recognizing this crime. It then directly confronts the objections that have prevented other states from adopting such laws: it first reviews the literature suggesting that the born-alive rule should be abandoned, as it is an obsolete evidentiary standard; it then argues that constitutionally protected reproductive liberties can be reconciled with, and in fact augmented by, punishing the killing of a fetus as a homicide.

  8. Misconceptions about astronomical magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Eric; Cox, Caroline V.

    1997-10-01

    The present system of astronomical magnitudes was created as an inverse scale by Claudius Ptolemy in about 140 A.D. and was defined to be logarithmic in 1856 by Norman Pogson, who believed that human eyes respond logarithmically to the intensity of light. Although scientists have known for some time that the response is instead a power law, astronomers continue to use the Pogson magnitude scale. The peculiarities of this system make it easy for students to develop numerous misconceptions about how and why to use magnitudes. We present a useful exercise in the use of magnitudes to derive a cosmologically interesting quantity (the mass-to-light ratio for spiral galaxies), with potential pitfalls pointed out and explained.

  9. Misconceptions in Physical Science at the Middle School Grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lojewska, Zenobia; Barkman, Robert; Polito, Peter; Smist, Julianne; Konicek-Moran, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The presentation will focus on the physical science content and pedagogy workshops addressing student's misconceptions at the middle school level. These workshops were conducted at Springfield College during summer 2010 for in-service teachers from Springfield MA Public Schools. A partnership among Springfield MA Public Schools, Springfield College, and the City of Springfield Science Museum was developed to implement an innovative program to prepare highly-qualified educators. Concepts of force, motion, energy, and energy transformation were explored in a physics laboratory setting and student's misconceptions were addressed.

  10. Misconception in Physical Science at the Middle School Grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lojewska, Zenobia; Barkman, Robert; Polito, Peter; Smist, Julianne; Konicek-Moran, Richard

    2011-04-01

    The presentation will focus on the physical science content and pedagogy workshops addressing student's misconceptions at the middle school level. These workshops were conducted at Springfield College during summer 2010 for in- service teachers from Springfield MA Public Schools. A partnership among Springfield MA Public Schools, Springfield College, and the City of Springfield Science Museum was developed to implement an innovative program to prepare highly- qualified educators. Concepts of force, motion, energy, and energy transformation were explored in a physics laboratory setting and student's misconceptions were addressed.

  11. An Unsolved Electric Circuit: A Common Misconception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsha, N. R. Sree; Sreedevi, A.; Prakash, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Despite a number of theories in circuit analysis, little is known about the behaviour of ideal equal voltage sources in parallel, connected across a resistive load. We neither have any theory that can predict the voltage source that provides the load current, nor is there any method to test it experimentally. In a series of experiments performed…

  12. Diagnosing Portuguese Students' Misconceptions about the Mineral Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, António; Nóbrega, Clévio; Abrantes, Isabel; Gomes, Celeste

    2012-11-01

    Educational researchers and teachers are well aware that misconceptions-erroneous ideas that differ from the scientifically accepted ones-are very common amongst students. Daily experiences, creative and perceptive thinking and science textbooks give rise to students' misconceptions which lead them to draw erroneous conclusions that become strongly attached to their views and somehow affect subsequent learning. The main scope of this study was to understand what students consider a mineral to be and why. Therefore, the goals were (1) to identify eleventh-grade students' misconceptions about the mineral concept; (2) to understand which variables (gender, parents' education level and attitude towards science) influenced students' conceptions; and (3) to create teaching tools for the prevention of misconceptions. In order to achieve these goals, a diagnostic instrument (DI), constituted of a two-tier diagnostic test and a Science Attitude Questionnaire, was developed to be used with a sample of 89 twelfth-grade students from five schools located in central Portugal. As far as we know, this is the first DI developed for the analysis of misconceptions about the mineral concept. Data analysis allows us to conclude that students had serious difficulties in understanding the mineral concept, having easily formed misconceptions. The variables gender and parents' education level influence certain students' conceptions. This study provides a valuable basis for reflection on teaching and learning strategies, especially on this particular theme.

  13. Information technology strategy: three misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Glaser, John P

    2006-01-01

    The core intent in developing an IT strategy is to ensure that there is a strong and clear relationship between IT investment decisions and the organization's overall strategies, goals, and objectives. In the course of developing an IT strategy, an organization may fall victim to three major misconceptions about IT strategy. Those misconceptions are: The IT strategy should be solely derived from a thorough review of organizational strategies and plans. The IT strategy should be dominated by a focus on defining needed application systems. The IT strategy is better if it is developed by using a rigorous methodology. These misconceptions are dangerous. While they are right, they are not completely right. Hence, a dogmatic approach embracing these misconceptions risks an incomplete IT strategy or a strategy that is not as aligned with the organization as it should be.

  14. HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

  15. Myths and Misconceptions about Traumatic Brain Injury: Endorsements by School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of school psychologists regarding myths and misconceptions pertaining to traumatic brain injury (TBI). A sample of 304 school psychologists in the state of North Carolina was surveyed on 11 common myths and misconceptions about TBI. Results indicated that this group performed significantly better…

  16. Overcoming Misconceptions in Neurophysiology Learning: An Approach Using Color-Coded Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has taught neurophysiology would be aware of recurring concepts that students find difficult to understand. However, a greater problem is the development of misconceptions that may be difficult to change. For example, one common misconception is that action potentials pass directly across chemical synapses. Difficulties may be…

  17. Some Misconceptions and Misunderstandings Perpetuated by Teachers and Textbooks of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrass, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Lists 15 commonly encountered misconceptions/misunderstandings in biology, together with specific suggestions to help teachers and textbook authors clarify each misconception. Included are problems related to understanding differences between acellular and multicellular, respiration and photosynthesis, egestion and excretion, and homeostasis and…

  18. Errors and Misconceptions in College Level Theorem Proving. Technical Report. No. 2003-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Annie; Selden, John

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe a number of types of errors and underlying misconceptions that arise in mathematical reasoning. Other types of mathematical reasoning errors, not associated with specific misconceptions, are also discussed. We hope the characterization and cataloging of common reasoning errors will be useful in studying the teaching of…

  19. Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Probability in an Introductory College Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazanov, Leonid; Prado, Lucio

    2010-01-01

    College students' misconceptions about probability are common and widespread. These misconceptions impede students' ability to make sound judgments in situations of uncertainty and master fundamental concepts of inferential statistics. In this paper the authors report the results of a study undertaken with the objective of correcting three common…

  20. Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svandova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…

  1. Misconceptions Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Steven T.; Andrews, Tessa C.

    2014-01-01

    A recent essay in CBE—Life Sciences Education criticized biology education researchers’ use of the term misconceptions and recommended that, in order to be up-to-date with education research, biology education researchers should use alternative terms for students’ incorrect ideas in science. We counter that criticism by reviewing the continued use and the meaning of misconceptions in education research today, and describe two key debates that account for the controversy surrounding the term. We then identify and describe two areas of research that have real implications for tomorrow's biology education research and biology instruction: 1) hypotheses about the structure of student knowledge (coherent vs. fragmented) that gives rise to misconceptions; and 2) the “warming trend” that considers the effects of students’ motivation, beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning (their epistemic beliefs), and learning strategies (their cognitive and metacognitive skills) on their ability to change their misconceptions in science. We conclude with a description of proposed future work in biology education research related to misconceptions. PMID:26086651

  2. Clarifying Chemical Bonding. Overcoming Our Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hapkiewicz, Annis

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrations to help students change their misconceptions about chemical bond breaking are presented. Students' misconceptions about chemical bonds in both biological and chemical systems are discussed. A calculation for the release of energy from respiration is presented. (KR)

  3. A Report of Undergraduates' Bonding Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Gayle

    2001-01-01

    Describes misconceptions related to electronegativity, bonding, geometry, and microscopic representations that undergraduate students hold. Investigates the stability of misconceptions as a function of educational level, indicating that some students' misconceptions relating to bonding are resistant to change despite increased chemistry education.…

  4. Cognitive Processes and Students' Misconceptions in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Deborah C.

    Several categories of misconceptions which appear to be emerging across studies are discussed. They include: mis-perceptions; stunted conceptions; mis-translations; confused conceptions; lost conceptions; and true misconceptions. True misconceptions are metaphors and analogies which represent truly complete systems of explanation but are…

  5. A Test of Contemporary Misconceptions in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Rick M.; Brown, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a contemporary misconception test based on popular myths in psychology. Misconceptions in psychology are commonplace, strongly held, and can be problematic for teaching accurate information. This study examined several predictors of misconceptions in eleven psychological topic areas. We also…

  6. Moving Beyond Misconceptions: A New Model for Learning Challenges in Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    For over 40 years, the science education community has given its attention to cataloging the substantial body of "misconceptions" in individual's thinking about science, and to addressing the consequences of those misconceptions in the science classroom. Despite the tremendous amount of effort given to researching and disseminating information related to misconceptions, and the development of a theory of conceptual change to mitigate misconceptions, progress continues to be less than satisfying. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research to put forth model that will allow us to operate on students' learning difficulties in a more fruitful manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast this model suggests that "misconceptions" are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties. Each of these types of barriers should be addressed with an appropriately designed instructional strategy. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in the Earth & Space Sciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the level of "misconceptions" may allow our community to craft tailored and more effective learning experiences for our students and the general public.

  7. Investigating Climate Science Misconceptions Using a Teacher Professional Development Workshop Registration Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, S. E.; Gold, A. U.; McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthLabs Climate project, an NSF-Discovery Research K12 program, has developed a suite of three online classroom-ready modules: Climate and the Cryosphere; Climate and the Carbon Cycle; and Climate and the Biosphere. The EarthLabs Climate project included week-long professional development workshops during June of 2012 and 2013 in Texas and Mississippi. Evaluation of the 2012 and 2013 workshops included participant self-reported learning levels in many areas of climate science. Teachers' answers indicated they had increased their understanding of the topics addressed in the workshops. However, the project team was interested in refining the evaluation process to determine exactly those areas of climate science in which participants increased content knowledge and ameliorated misconceptions. Therefore, to enhance the investigation into what teachers got out of the workshop, a pre-test/post-test design was implemented for 2013. In particular, the evaluation team was interested in discovering the degree to which participants held misconceptions and whether those beliefs were modified by attendance at the workshops. For the 2013 workshops, a registration survey was implemented that included the Climate Concept Inventory (a climate content knowledge quiz developed by the education research team for the project). The multiple-choice questions are also part of the pre/post student quiz used in classrooms in which the EarthLabs Climate curriculum was implemented. Many of the questions in this instrument assess common misconceptions by using them as distractors in the multiple choice options. The registration survey also asked respondents to indicate their confidence in their answer to each question, because, in addition to knowledge limitations, lack of confidence also can be a barrier to effective teaching. Data from the registration survey informed workshop managers of the topic content knowledge of participants, allowing fine-tuning of the professional development

  8. Exploring Algebraic Misconceptions with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakow, Matthew; Karaman, Ruveyda

    2015-01-01

    Many students struggle with algebra, from simplifying expressions to solving systems of equations. Students also have misconceptions about the meaning of variables. In response to the question "Can x + y + z ever equal x + p + z?" during a student interview, the student claimed, "Never . . . because p has to have a different value…

  9. Undergraduate Mathematics Students' Pronumeral Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardini, Caroline; Vincent, Jill; Pierce, Robyn; King, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Despite an emphasis on manipulative algebraic techniques in secondary school algebra, many tertiary mathematics students have mastered these skills without conceptual understanding. A significant number of students with high tertiary entrance ranks enrolled in first semester university mathematics were found to have misconceptions relating to…

  10. The Effective Use of an Interactive Software Program to Reduce Students' Misconceptions about Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, E.-M.; Greenbowe, T. J.; Andre, T.

    2004-01-01

    The misconceptions of students regarding electricity and electrochemistry in the context of operation of a common flashlight are discussed. An Interactive Software Program (ISP) is used for better conceptual understanding of the operation of commercial batteries in a circuit.

  11. Teaching to the Misconception: Critical Thinking and Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2014-07-01

    Over the past few decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that pre-service and in-service teachers fall victim to the same misconceptions as the students they are or will be teaching. At the same time, research has shown that addressing the misconceptions head-on and leading students to a deep, personal understanding of why their previous conceptions were erroneous aids in replacement of misconceptions with an accurate understanding of the natural world. This paper demonstrates how this was accomplished in a required university-level Earth/space/physical science course for pre-service elementary school teachers, with an emphasis on examples from the Sun-Earth-Moon system.

  12. Better Categorizing Misconceptions Using a Contemporary Cognitive Science Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    Much of the last three decades of discipline-based education research in the geosciences has focused on the important work of identifying the range and domain of misconceptions students bring into undergraduate science survey courses. Pinpointing students' prior knowledge is a cornerstone for developing constructivist approaches and learning environments for effective teaching. At the same time, the development of a robust a priori formula for professors to use in mitigating students' misconceptions remains elusive. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to put forth a model that will allow professors to operate on students' various learning difficulties in a more productive manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast, we propose a model based on the notion that 'misconceptions' are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties (e.g. students' spiritual commitments). In this sense, each of these different types of learning barriers would be more effectively addressed with an instructional strategy purposefully targeting these different attributes. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in geosciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the single generalized category of 'misconceptions' might allow our community to more effectively design learning experiences for our students and the general public

  13. The 2011 Leona Tyler Award Address: The Relationship--And Its Relationship to the Common and Specific Factors of Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampold, Bruce E.; Budge, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    A debate exists about whether the common factors or specific ingredients are critical to producing the benefits of psychotherapy. A model of the relationship, based on evolved human characteristics related to healing, is presented that integrates common factors and specific ingredients. After the initial bond is formed, the relationship involves…

  14. Relations between intuitive biological thinking and biological misconceptions in biology majors and nonmajors.

    PubMed

    Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-03-02

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems--teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking--that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions.

  15. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    PubMed Central

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. PMID:25713093

  16. Five popular misconceptions about osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Eric M.; Myers, David R.

    2012-08-01

    Osmosis is the flow of solvent across a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower to higher solute concentration. It is of central importance in plant and animal physiology and finds many uses in industry. A survey of published papers, web resources, and current textbooks reveals that numerous misconceptions about osmosis continue to be cited and taught. To clarify these issues, we re-derive the thermodynamics of osmosis using the canonical formalism of statistical mechanics and go on to discuss the main points that continue to lead to misunderstandings.

  17. Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

  18. Teaching Projectile Motion to Eliminate Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Anne; Mitchelmore, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Student misconceptions of projectile motion are well documented, but their effect on the teaching and learning of the mathematics of motion under gravity has not been investigated. An experimental unit was designed that was intended to confront and eliminate misconceptions in senior secondary school students. The approach was found to be…

  19. Misconceptions about Sound among Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaen, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the…

  20. Common/Unity: an innovative program to address 3 root causes of many of the social ills seen in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Burris; Harris, Gail; Reedy, Jessica; Krahe, Sue; Gillis, Regina; Laguna, Michele

    2008-04-01

    Multiple community agencies coordinated their individual expertise to develop a comprehensive program for a planned community in a 24-apartment complex for single, young (age range, 18-21 years), homeless mothers and their infants and children. Although objective evaluation of the program proved difficult, "community" was established and lives were changed. The program was designed to address multiple issues faced by teenaged mothers but did not directly address critical factors of youths' internal motivation and decision-making processes. Attempting to reverse major impediments in the lives of young mothers with histories of violence, abuse, unstable early home environments, and lack of education while assuming the sole responsibility of raising a child, advancing their education, and maintaining employment is a daunting task, but a task that deserves our urgent attention.

  1. DISPELLING MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS TO IMPLEMENT A SAFETY CULTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, T. Todd; Smith, Ken; Hylko, James M.

    2003-02-27

    Industrial accidents are typically reported in terms of technological malfunctions, ignoring the human element in accident causation. However, over two-thirds of all accidents are attributable to human and organizational factors (e.g., planning, written procedures, job factors, training, communication, and teamwork), thereby affecting risk perception, behavior and attitudes. This paper reviews the development of WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program that addresses human and organizational factors from a top-down, bottom-up approach. This approach is derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System. As a result, dispelling common myths and misconceptions about safety, while empowering employees to ''STOP work'' if necessary, have contributed to reducing an unusually high number of vehicle, ergonomic and slip/trip/fall incidents successfully. Furthermore, the safety culture that has developed within WESKEM, LLC's workforce consists of three common characteristics: (1) all employees hold safety as a value; (2) each individual feels responsible for the safety of their co-workers as well as themselves; and (3) each individual is willing and able to ''go beyond the call of duty'' on behalf of the safety of others. WESKEM, LLC as a company, upholds the safety culture and continues to enhance its existing ES&H program by incorporating employee feedback and lessons learned collected from other high-stress industries, thereby protecting its most vital resource - the employees. The success of this program is evident by reduced accident and injury rates, as well as the number of safe work hours accrued while performing hands-on field activities. WESKEM, LLC (Paducah + Oak Ridge) achieved over 800,000 safe work hours through August 2002. WESKEM-Paducah has achieved over 665,000 safe work hours without a recordable injury or lost workday case since it started operations on February 28, 2000.

  2. Addressing the Irreducible Needs of Interprofessional Education: Creating and Sustaining an Institutional Commons for Health Professions Training.

    PubMed

    Earnest, Mark A; Pfeifle, Andrea L

    2016-06-01

    Leaders in health professions education schools and programs are under pressure to respond to new accreditation requirements for interprofessional education (IPE). The work of creating and sustaining an IPE program at an academic health center is in many ways analogous to the challenge of creating and sustaining a "commons"-a set of resources shared by many, but owned by none. In this Commentary, the authors borrow from the work of Nobel Laureate Elinor Ostrum to describe the "design principles" necessary to build and maintain the set of common resources needed to successfully implement and sustain an IPE program. They interpret these principles in the context of their own experiences implementing IPE programs and recommend three institutional structural elements necessary to build and sustain an IPE program: (1) a representative governance body, (2) an accountable director or leader, and (3) a structure supporting vertical and horizontal communication and authority.

  3. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  4. Addressing Common Student Technical Errors in Field Data Collection: An Analysis of a Citizen-Science Monitoring Project.

    PubMed

    Philippoff, Joanna; Baumgartner, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The scientific value of citizen-science programs is limited when the data gathered are inconsistent, erroneous, or otherwise unusable. Long-term monitoring studies, such as Our Project In Hawai'i's Intertidal (OPIHI), have clear and consistent procedures and are thus a good model for evaluating the quality of participant data. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinds of errors made by student researchers during OPIHI data collection and factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of these errors. Twenty-four different types of errors were grouped into four broad error categories: missing data, sloppiness, methodological errors, and misidentification errors. "Sloppiness" was the most prevalent error type. Error rates decreased with field trip experience and student age. We suggest strategies to reduce data collection errors applicable to many types of citizen-science projects including emphasizing neat data collection, explicitly addressing and discussing the problems of falsifying data, emphasizing the importance of using standard scientific vocabulary, and giving participants multiple opportunities to practice to build their data collection techniques and skills.

  5. The relationship between illness perceptions and cardiac misconceptions after Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Figueiras, Maria João; Maroco, João; Caeiro, Raúl; Monteiro, Rita; Trigo, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Research about cardiac misconceptions has focused on identifying the most common erroneous beliefs and understanding their impact on patients' outcomes. However, less is known about the underlying structure of cardiac misconceptions and how they relate to other belief dimensions. The aims of the present study were: (a) to characterize illness perceptions and cardiac misconceptions in a sample of Myocardial Infarction (MI) patients; (b) to analyse the structure of an experimental Portuguese version of the York Cardiac Beliefs Questionnaire (YCBQ); and (c) to examine whether illness perceptions are likely to influence cardiac misconceptions. This cross-sectional study included 127 first-MI patients from both sexes, aged up to 70 years old. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were performed with AMOS. The main results showed that a two-dimension (stress avoidance and exercise avoidance) version of the YCBQ offered the best fit to the data. A significant impact of psychological attributions was observed on cardiac misconceptions, as well as a moderate impact of emotional response explaining 26% of the variance. Although exploratory, this study gives a significant contribution to research in this field, as clarification on the different concepts and the way they relate is needed. Our findings suggest that further investigation into the concepts of cardiac knowledge and cardiac misconceptions may have an important role in understanding health behaviours in the context of heart disease.

  6. Addressing reverse inference in psychiatric neuroimaging: Meta-analyses of task-related brain activation in common mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Sprooten, Emma; Rasgon, Alexander; Goodman, Morgan; Carlin, Ariella; Leibu, Evan; Lee, Won Hee; Frangou, Sophia

    2017-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychiatry use various tasks to identify case-control differences in the patterns of task-related brain activation. Differently activated regions are often ascribed disorder-specific functions in an attempt to link disease expression and brain function. We undertook a systematic meta-analysis of data from task-fMRI studies to examine the effect of diagnosis and study design on the spatial distribution and direction of case-control differences on brain activation. We mapped to atlas regions coordinates of case-control differences derived from 537 task-fMRI studies in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder comprising observations derived from 21,427 participants. The fMRI tasks were classified according to the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). We investigated whether diagnosis, RDoC domain or construct and use of regions-of-interest or whole-brain analyses influenced the neuroanatomical pattern of results. When considering all primary studies, we found an effect of diagnosis for the amygdala and caudate nucleus and an effect of RDoC domains and constructs for the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and nucleus accumbens. In contrast, whole-brain studies did not identify any significant effect of diagnosis or RDoC domain or construct. These results resonate with prior reports of common brain structural and genetic underpinnings across these disorders and caution against attributing undue specificity to brain functional changes when forming explanatory models of psychiatric disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1846-1864, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Addressing reverse inference in psychiatric neuroimaging: Meta‐analyses of task‐related brain activation in common mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sprooten, Emma; Rasgon, Alexander; Goodman, Morgan; Carlin, Ariella; Leibu, Evan; Lee, Won Hee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychiatry use various tasks to identify case‐control differences in the patterns of task‐related brain activation. Differently activated regions are often ascribed disorder‐specific functions in an attempt to link disease expression and brain function. We undertook a systematic meta‐analysis of data from task‐fMRI studies to examine the effect of diagnosis and study design on the spatial distribution and direction of case‐control differences on brain activation. We mapped to atlas regions coordinates of case‐control differences derived from 537 task‐fMRI studies in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder comprising observations derived from 21,427 participants. The fMRI tasks were classified according to the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). We investigated whether diagnosis, RDoC domain or construct and use of regions‐of‐interest or whole‐brain analyses influenced the neuroanatomical pattern of results. When considering all primary studies, we found an effect of diagnosis for the amygdala and caudate nucleus and an effect of RDoC domains and constructs for the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and nucleus accumbens. In contrast, whole‐brain studies did not identify any significant effect of diagnosis or RDoC domain or construct. These results resonate with prior reports of common brain structural and genetic underpinnings across these disorders and caution against attributing undue specificity to brain functional changes when forming explanatory models of psychiatric disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1846–1864, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28067006

  8. Exothermic Bond Breaking: A Persistent Misconception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galley, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The misconceptions regarding the nature of ATP hydrolysis and bond breaking are discussed. The students' knowledge in this area is quantitatively measured by a survey of over 600 biochemistry and physiology students.

  9. Misconceptions in body weight regulation: implications for the obesity pandemic.

    PubMed

    Flatt, J P

    2012-01-01

    Energy is a concept of universal importance. In applying it to body weight regulation, the focus has been on energy balance and how this balance is affected by intakes and expenditures. However, energy is an abstract concept without biological equivalent and applying it to explain body weight regulation has led to various misconceptions and created intellectual obstacles in understanding the obesity problem. When nutrient and substrate interactions are considered, instead, a number of important issues pertaining to body weight regulation and to the obesity epidemic can be much more pertinently addressed.

  10. Using astronomical photographs to investigate misconceptions about galaxies and spectra: Question development for clicker use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunju; Schneider, Stephen E.

    2015-12-01

    Many topics in introductory astronomy at the college or high-school level rely implicitly on using astronomical photographs and visual data in class. However, students bring many preconceptions to their understanding of these materials that ultimately lead to misconceptions, and research about students' interpretation of astronomical images has been scarcely conducted. In this study we probed college students' understanding of astronomical photographs and visual data about galaxies and spectra, and developed a set of concept questions based on their common misconceptions. The study was conducted mainly in three successive surveys: (i) open-ended questions looking for students' ideas and common misconceptions, (ii) combined multiple-choice and open-ended questions seeking to explore student reasoning and to improve concept questions for clickers, and (iii) a finalized version of the concept questions used to investigate the strength of each misconception among the students in introductory astronomy courses. This study reports on the procedures and the development of the concept questions with the investigated common misconceptions about galaxies and spectra. We also provide the set of developed questions for teachers and instructors seeking to implement in their classes for the purpose of formative assessment with the use of classroom response systems. These questions would help them recognize the gap between their teaching and students' understanding, and ultimately improve teaching of the concepts.

  11. A Review and Comparison of Diagnostic Instruments to Identify Students' Misconceptions in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Derya Kaltakci; Eryilmaz, Ali; McDermott, Lillian Christie

    2015-01-01

    Different diagnostic tools have been developed and used by researchers to identify students' conceptions. The present study aimed to provide an overview of the common diagnostic instruments in science to assess students' misconceptions. Also the study provides a brief comparison of these common diagnostic instruments with their strengths and…

  12. Unweaving Misconceptions: Guided Learning, Simulations, and Misconceptions in Learning Principles of Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and…

  13. Diagnostic Assessment of Student Misconceptions about the Particulate Nature of Matter from Ontological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özalp, Dilek; Kahveci, Ajda

    2015-01-01

    Student conceptions related with matter and the particulate nature of matter (PNM), are vital for advanced understanding in chemistry, and have been a research area of significant attention. Lacking in the literature are studies addressing chemical misconceptions from an ontological point of view. The purpose of the current study was to develop a…

  14. Reconsidering Learning Difficulties and Misconceptions in Chemistry: Emergence in Chemistry and Its Implications for Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Identifying students' misconceptions and learning difficulties and finding effective ways of addressing them has been one of the major concerns in chemistry education. However, the chemistry education community has paid little attention to determining discipline-specific aspects of chemistry that can lead to learning difficulties and…

  15. Improving Algebra Preparation: Implications from Research on Student Misconceptions and Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welder, Rachael M.

    2012-01-01

    Through historical and contemporary research, educators have identified widespread misconceptions and difficulties faced by students in learning algebra. Many of these universal issues stem from content addressed long before students take their first algebra course. Yet elementary and middle school teachers may not understand how the subtleties of…

  16. Myths, Misconceptions, and Misunderstandings: A Different Spin on Coriolis--Applying Frame of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses misconceptions surrounding the Coriolis force and describes how it should be presented as a function within inertial and noninertial frames of reference. Not only does this demonstrate the nature of science as it strives to best interpret the natural world (and presents alternative explanations), but it offers a rich…

  17. Using Structured Examples and Prompting Reflective Questions to Correct Misconceptions about Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olakanmi, E. O.; Doyoyo, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of using "structured examples in concert with prompting reflective questions" to address misconceptions held by mechanical engineering students about thermodynamic principles by employing pre-test and post-test design, a structured questionnaire, lecture room observation, and participants'…

  18. Myth-Busting Is a Bust for Patient Education: Making Salient Older Adults' Misconceptions about Osteoarthritis Fails to Lead to Lasting Corrections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansburg, Pamela I.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults hold many misconceptions about health and wellness that reduce their health literacy. To counter these misconceptions, health educators commonly turn to educational interventions that include myth-busting--making explicit health-related myths and refuting those myths. Because of typical age-related changes in memory functioning, there…

  19. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Discusses four issues related to music: (1) music as a form of intelligence and the misconceptions that have arisen; (2) music as a discipline focusing on mastering the discipline of music and obstacles to musicality; (3) a rationale for music education; and (4) the future of music education. (CMK)

  20. Undergraduate students' misconceptions about respiratory physiology.

    PubMed

    Michael, J A; Richardson, D; Rovick, A; Modell, H; Bruce, D; Horwitz, B; Hudson, M; Silverthorn, D; Whitescarver, S; Williams, S

    1999-12-01

    Approximately 700 undergraduates studying physiology at community colleges, a liberal arts college, and universities were surveyed to determine the prevalence of our misconceptions about respiratory phenomena. A misconception about the changes in breathing frequency and tidal volume (physiological variables whose changes can be directly sensed) that result in increased minute ventilation was found to be present in this population with comparable prevalence (approximately 60%) to that seen in a previous study. Three other misconceptions involving phenomena that cannot be experienced directly and therefore were most likely learned in some educational setting were found to be of varying prevalence. Nearly 90% of the students exhibited a misconception about the relationship between arterial oxygen partial pressure and hemoglobin saturation. Sixty-six percent of the students believed that increasing alveolar oxygen partial pressure leads to a decrease in alveolar carbon dioxide partial pressure. Nearly 33% of the population misunderstood the relationship between metabolism and ventilation. The possible origins of these respiratory misconceptions are discussed and suggestions for how to prevent and/or remediate them are proposed.

  1. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence and nature of misconceptions in physics amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background:Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many misconceptions, there is little evidence as to whether the prevalence of such common misconceptions varies from culture to culture. Purpose:To undertake a preliminary examination of the prevalence and reasons for some previously studied scientific misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students so as to ascertain whether there is any evidence of cultural difference. Such a finding could help to identify teaching approaches in either country that are more effective in reducing the prevalence of common student misconceptions. Sample:The study involved a convenience sample of 40 undergraduate students - 20 English and 20 Chinese drawn equally from two universities in the North of England - whose formal science education ended at ages 16 and 15 respectively. Design and methods:The study employed semi-structured interview schedule containing eight questions. Results:Whilst similar misconceptions existed amongst both English and Chinese undergraduates, their prevalence was significantly higher amongst the English students (Overall mean score for scientifically correct answers amongst Chinese students was 27.7% higher, p < .01, r = .64). Often when English and Chinese undergraduates had similar misconceptions, they tended to explain these by drawing upon very similar erroneous analogies and these appear to be only nominally culturally independent in that they are based on globally shared everyday experiences. Conclusion:Differences in the prevalence of misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduates appear to arise from differences in the way in which specific areas of physics are taught in both countries. It might

  2. LMS learning algorithms: misconceptions and new results on converence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Q; Manry, M T; Schiano, J L

    2000-01-01

    The Widrow-Hoff delta rule is one of the most popular rules used in training neural networks. It was originally proposed for the ADALINE, but has been successfully applied to a few nonlinear neural networks as well. Despite its popularity, there exist a few misconceptions on its convergence properties. In this paper we consider repetitive learning (i.e., a fixed set of samples are used for training) and provide an in-depth analysis in the least mean square (LMS) framework. Our main result is that contrary to common belief, the nonbatch Widrow-Hoff rule does not converge in general. It converges only to a limit cycle.

  3. Students' misconceptions about light in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blizak, D.; Chafiqi, F.; Kendil, D.

    2009-06-01

    Physics education research has shown that students have difficulties in learning essential optics concepts. Therefore, in this present work we deal with student's conceptions in geometrical optics field. Our objective is to show the Algerian students misconceptions. We proposed to 246 students in first year university (aged 18-21) a closed questionnaire where most of its questions were already used by other researchers. The misunderstandings identified were compared with those in literature. The results show that our students have the same misconceptions, related to the propagation of the light, the vision, the refraction and the reflexion, as the students in other countries (Andersson, Çiğdem ŞAHİN, Galili, Goldberg, Viennot). We investigate new students "misconception" concerning the propagation of the light in the vacuum.

  4. Misconceptions and facts about treating hypertension.

    PubMed

    Argulian, Edgar; Grossman, Ehud; Messerli, Franz H

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is a powerful risk factor strongly linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Because of its high prevalence, health care providers at many levels are involved in treating hypertension. Distinct progress has been made in improving the rates of hypertension awareness and treatment over years, but the overall control of hypertension remains inadequate. Several recent guidelines from different sources have been put forward in an attempt to bridge the gap between existing evidence and clinical practice. Despite this effort, several misconceptions about treating hypertensive cardiovascular disease continue to persist among clinicians. This review highlights some of the misconceptions regarding antihypertensive therapy.

  5. An inventory of student recollections of their past misconceptions as a tool for improved classroom astronomy instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favia, Andrej

    My Ph.D. research is about examining the persistence of 215 common misconceptions in astronomy. Each misconception is based on an often commonly-held incorrect belief by college students taking introductory astronomy. At the University of Maine, the course is taught in alternating semesters by Prof. Neil F. Comins and Prof. David J. Batuski. In this dissertation, I examine the persistence of common astronomy misconceptions by the administration of a retrospective survey. The survey is a new instrument in that it permits the student to indicate either endorsement or rejection of each misconception at various stages in the student's life. I analyze data from a total of 639 students over six semesters. I compare the survey data to the results of exams taken by the students and additional instruments that assess students' misconceptions prior to instruction. I show that the consistency of the students' recollection of their own misconceptions is on par with the consistency of responses between prelims and the final exam. I also find that students who report higher increased childhood interest in astronomy are more likely to have accurate recalls of their own past recollections. I then discuss the use of principal components analysis as a technique for describing the extent to which misconceptions are correlated with each other. The analysis yields logical groupings of subtopics from which to teach. I then present a brief overview of item response theory, the methodology of which calculates relative difficulties of the items. My analysis reveals orders to teach the associated topics in ways that are most effective at dispelling misconceptions during instruction. I also find that the best order to teach the associated concepts is often different for high school and college level courses.

  6. A Testing System for Diagnosing Misconceptions in DC Electric Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kuo-En; Liu, Sei-Hua; Chen, Sei-Wang

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a test-based diagnosis system for misconceptions in DC electric circuits and its three parts: problem library, problem selector and diagnoser. Discusses misconception discrimination and diagnosis theories, and reports the system supports satisfactory diagnosis. Includes an analysis of nine student misconceptions about electrical circuits…

  7. Student Misconceptions about Plant Transport--A Sri Lankan Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitharana, P. R. K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Students bring with them their own misconceptions to the science classes and it becomes a barrier in developing new concepts. Therefore, identifying misconceptions is an essential component in teaching science. The objective of this study was to identify 10th grade students' misconceptions on plant transport with the use of two-tier diagnostic…

  8. The Effect of Refuting Misconceptions in the Introductory Psychology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

    2009-01-01

    Students often come into the introductory psychology course with many misconceptions and leave with most of them intact. Borrowing from other disciplines, we set out to determine whether refutational lecture and text are effective in dispelling student misconceptions. These approaches first activate a misconception and then immediately counter it…

  9. Misconceptions about Traumatic Brain Injury among Students Preparing to Be Special Education Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hux, Karen; Bush, Erin; Evans, Kelli; Simanek, Gina

    2013-01-01

    The researchers performed a survey study to determine the effectiveness of collegiate programmes in dispelling common misconceptions about traumatic brain injury (TBI) while preparing undergraduate and graduate students for special education (SpEd) careers. Respondents included 136 undergraduate and 147 graduate SpEd students in their final…

  10. Elementary Science Textbooks and Potential Magnet Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which magnet concepts were found in various science textbook series, how the concepts were presented, and to identify potential misconceptions related to magnets. Magnet concepts presented as prose, illustration, and/or laboratory activities are identified and analyzed. (KR)

  11. Clarification of Selected Misconceptions in Physical Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Burton D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses some misconceptions relating to location and to the earth's hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Provides correction and explanation of various phenomena. Includes ocean names and sizes, sea level, coriolis effect, greenhouse effect, lightning, magma, and mass wasting. Suggests that myths can be dispelled by exposure combined with…

  12. Applying Scientific Principles to Resolve Student Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…

  13. Tracking Decimal Misconceptions: Strategic Instructional Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the decimal system is challenging, requiring coordination of place-value concepts with features of whole-number and fraction knowledge (Moloney and Stacey 1997). Moreover, the learner must discern if and how previously learned concepts and procedures apply. The process is complex, and misconceptions will naturally arise. In a…

  14. Technology Rich Biology Labs: Effects of Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark

    This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…

  15. Ten Misconceptions about the Wilson College Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Elisabeth Hudnut

    1980-01-01

    Some misconceptions about the Wilson College Case are discussed, including: the case did not become precedent in law because the degree was superceded by a consent decree; the judge was not a villain; the college was not bankrupt; and the old board did not act wisely. (Author/MLW)

  16. Misconceptions and Miscommunication among Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Wieslander, Cecilia K.; Alas, Alexandriah; Dunivan, Gena C.; Sevilla, Claudia; Cichowski, Sara; Maliski, Sally; Eilber, Karyn; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Anger, Jennifer T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis To better understand women’s experience with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms and to describe factors that prevent disease understanding among Spanish- and English speaking women. Methods Women with POP were recruited from female urology and urogynecology clinics in Los Angeles, California and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Eight focus groups were conducted, four in Spanish and four in English. Topics addressed patients’ emotional responses when noticing their prolapse, how they sought support, what verbal and written information was given, and their overall feelings of the process. Additionally, patients were asked about their experience with their treating physician. All interview transcripts were analyzed using Grounded Theory qualitative methods. Results Qualitative analysis yielded two preliminary themes: First, women had misconceptions about what POP was as well as its causes and treatments. Secondly, there was a great deal of miscommunication between patient and physician which led to decreased understanding about the diagnosis and treatment options. This included the fact that women were often overwhelmed with information which they did not understand. The concept emerged that there is a strong need for better methods to achieve disease and treatment understanding for women with POP. Conclusions Our data emphasize that women with POP have considerable misconceptions about their disease. In addition, there is miscommunication during the patient-physician interaction that leads to further confusion among Spanish and English speaking women. Spending more time explaining the diagnosis of POP, rather than focusing solely on treatment options, may reduce miscommunication and increase patient understanding. PMID:25516231

  17. Common benefit from a perspective of "Non-traditional Partners": A proposed agenda to address the status quo in Global Space Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aganaba-Jeanty, Timiebi

    2015-12-01

    It is presupposed that there is a dominant position in interpreting the freedom of Outer Space which has not given much real significance to the idea of common benefit. The reason that this causes difficulty is that there is an ambiguity to common benefit. This dominant position however sees the issue of benefit sharing in the context of the perceived tension between established space faring nations and emerging and aspirant States and the idea that freedom could take on a different meaning depending on where one is on the scale of development. It fails to recognize that solutions to contemporary and historical governance challenges have been much less oriented towards the interests of less developed States or new entrants, making the accrual and sharing of benefits dependent on the free will of those States able to carry out a variety of space activities independently. As a result of this, the debate around common benefit is exploited to seek individual benefit derived for a State as opposed to what our effort to use space collectively can generate. In recent times, the issue has not received much attention. This is because it is believed to be partly resolved through normative frameworks such as Article 1 of the Outer Space Treaty and the Space Benefits Declaration. While an attempt to re-address historical contentious issues, asserted to be resolved, may appear illusory or futile; such analysis can be useful depending on the account that the reader believes should be given to the normative character of human nature. To this end, the writings of legal, political and social theorists and methodologies from Critical Legal Schools may prove insightful for a deeper contextualization of the historical debate, the current understanding of the freedoms of Outer Space as well as unearth future perspectives to aid in addressing the current pressing space related issue of our time: Sustainability of Space Activities. This article proposes three main issue areas to

  18. Sterilization/disinfection: correcting common misconceptions in the office setting.

    PubMed

    Springer, Rachelle

    2002-01-01

    Nurses in office surgical facilities are often responsible for the processing of instruments and supplies for intraoperative use. Decontamination, preparation and packaging, sterilization, monitoring of the sterilization process, and storage are all key elements in infection control. Practices should be continually updated based on the latest research to enable the office surgical facility to provide the patient with the highest quality of care.

  19. A Study of Common Beliefs and Misconceptions in Physical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary; Larrabee, Timothy G.; Barman, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    The Science Belief Test is an online instrument comprised of 47 statements that require true or false responses and request written explanations to accompany these responses. It targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy and was initially designed to assess preservice elementary teachers' beliefs about general…

  20. Myths and Misconceptions of Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Accelerating students through school at a faster than normal rate is routinely met with skepticism and doubt pertaining to its effectiveness. In the research community, however, the topic is nearly dead. Research has continually supported this practice as effective when carefully implemented. This article attempts to debunk common myths (such as…

  1. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  2. Science Misconceptions and Funds of Knowledge: Impact on STEM Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millham, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Alternate conceptions (misconceptions) in science can hinder understandings and impact student growth and comfort level in the science classroom. Resarch has, and still does, demonstrate that science misconceptions are still prevelant in many conceptual frameworks. Although breaking down misconceptions to rebuild scientifically sound conceptual frameworks are practices used in many science classrooms, misconceptions still persist. After identifying specific misconceptions, we asked our participating teachers to conduct specific instructional interventions in an effort to mitigate misconceptions and bring about scientific understandings with excellent results overall. However, important factors also need condsideration: funds of knowledge and the abilty to determine the differnce between understandings and beliefs held by an individual. This abstract deals with what has been determined in the research conducted by the author, and the next steps to better understandings about how to mitigate alternate conceptions.

  3. Using PCR to Target Misconceptions about Gene Expression †

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Leslie K.; Newman, Dina L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a PCR-based laboratory exercise that can be used with first- or second-year biology students to help overcome common misconceptions about gene expression. Biology students typically do not have a clear understanding of the difference between genes (DNA) and gene expression (mRNA/protein) and often believe that genes exist in an organism or cell only when they are expressed. This laboratory exercise allows students to carry out a PCR-based experiment designed to challenge their misunderstanding of the difference between genes and gene expression. Students first transform E. coli with an inducible GFP gene containing plasmid and observe induced and un-induced colonies. The following exercise creates cognitive dissonance when actual PCR results contradict their initial (incorrect) predictions of the presence of the GFP gene in transformed cells. Field testing of this laboratory exercise resulted in learning gains on both knowledge and application questions on concepts related to genes and gene expression. PMID:23858358

  4. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(∗); (∗)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented.

  5. Three Misconceptions About Radiation — And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi—all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with debates relating to different types of radiation: What are the effects of nuclear contamination going to be after the Fukushima accident? Can radiation from mobile phones really cause cancer? Should the use of tanning booths be forbidden for teenagers? Although students seem to be very motivated to learn about the topic of radiation, I have encountered several misconceptions about this topic that my students bring into the physics classroom. Some of these misconceptions might be caused by biased media reports, while others can be attributed to a different usage of the word radiation in everyday language (when compared to the scientific usage of this term). In this paper, I would like to present the most common misconceptions about radiation that I have encountered in my physics courses and I would like to give some ideas how to confront these ideas in teaching. A detailed description of these misconceptions discovered through empirical research can be found in one of my research articles.1

  6. Misconceptions about "Misconceptions": Preservice Secondary Science Teachers' Views on the Value and Role of Student Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    There remains a lack of agreement in the field of science education as to whether student "misconceptions" ought to be considered obstacles or resources, and this has implications for the ways in which prospective teachers think about the value of their students' ideas. This empirical study examines how 14 preservice secondary science teachers in…

  7. Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Simple Electric Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin; Kocakülah, Sabri

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal secondary school students' misconceptions about simple electric circuits and to define whether specific misconceptions peculiar to Turkish students exist within those identified. Data were obtained with a conceptual understanding test for simple electric circuits and semi-structured interviews. Conceptual…

  8. Misconceptions of Selected Ecological Concepts Held by Some Nigerian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniyi, E. Ola

    1985-01-01

    Identified some of the misconceptions held by secondary science students (N=232) related to selected ecological concepts and generalizations. Lists the alternative conceptions expressed by these students on food chains and energy flows and pyramids. Offers perspectives on dealing with the sources of the misconceptions. (ML)

  9. Clarifying the Misconception about the Principle of Floatation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Manoj K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the misconception about the violation of the principle of floatation. Improper understanding of the definition of "displaced fluid" by a floating body leads to the misconception. With the help of simple experiments, this article shows that there is no violation of the principle of floatation.

  10. Students' Misconceptions about Heat Transfer Mechanisms and Elementary Kinetic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, S. R.; Pradhan, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Heat and thermodynamics is a conceptually rich area of undergraduate physics. In the Indian context in particular there has been little work done in this area from the point of view of misconceptions. This prompted us to undertake a study in this area. We present a study of students' misconceptions about heat transfer mechanisms, i.e. conduction,…

  11. On Misconceptions about Behavior Analysis among University Students and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arntzen, Erik; Lokke, Jon; Lokke, Gunn; Eilertsen, Dag-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Students frequently show misconceptions regarding scientific psychology in general and basic concepts in behavior analysis in particular. We wanted to replicate the study by Lamal (1995) and to expand the study by including some additional statements. In the current study, the focus was on misconceptions about behavior analysis held by…

  12. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  13. Conjectures Concerning the Origins of Misconceptions in LOGO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhwa; Lehrer, Richard

    Seven graduate students in a seminar on classroom computing received instruction in LOGO programming. Programming protocols were collected periodically and examined for errors and misconceptions; in-depth interviews were conducted in order to understand specific misconceptions better. As novice students transit from instruction to experience in…

  14. Prevalence of Harmful Health Misconceptions in Colorado High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Gale Elouise

    This research study was undertaken to determine prevalence of health misconceptions of twelfth grade students in each of three sizes of public high schools in the state of Colorado. Also, whether prevalence of misconceptions was related to factors of: sex, grade-point average, level of father's education, level of mother's education, father's…

  15. Identifying Novice Student Programming Misconceptions and Errors from Summative Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veerasamy, Ashok Kumar; D'Souza, Daryl; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study aimed at examining the novice student answers in an introductory programming final e-exam to identify misconceptions and types of errors. Our study used the Delphi concept inventory to identify student misconceptions and skill, rule, and knowledge-based errors approach to identify the types of errors made by novices…

  16. Overcoming Misconceptions in Quantum Mechanics with the Time Evolution Operator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quijas, P. C. Garcia; Aguilar, L. M. Arevalo

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there have been many efforts to use the research techniques developed in the field of physics education research to improve the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics. In particular, part of this research is focusing on misconceptions held by students. For instance, a set of misconceptions is associated with the concept of stationary…

  17. Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Students' Misconceptions in Learning Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil Mugaga

    2015-01-01

    Preservice teachers enrolled in a modified introductory chemistry course used an instructional rubric to improve and evaluate their understanding of students' misconceptions in learning various chemistry concepts. A sample of 79 preservice teachers first explored the state science standards to identify chemistry misconceptions associated with the…

  18. Resolution of Misconceptions of Latency and Adolescent Sicklers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy-Levine, Diane

    Misconceptions regarding sickle cell disease are qualitatively different among latency age patients as compared to adolescents. The evolution and resolution of these misconceptions determine the effectiveness of self-help programs for sickle cell patients. The Mount Sinai Hospital Sickle Cell Counseling Service is a coordinated center for sickle…

  19. Relieving of Misconceptions of Derivative Concept with Derive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Ozturk, Mesut; Ocal, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine students' learning levels in derivative subjects and their misconceptions. In addition, this study aims to compared to the effects of the computer based instruction and traditional instruction in resolving these misconceptions. For this purpose, 12th grade 70 students were chosen from high schools in Agri…

  20. Relieving of Misconceptions of Derivative Concept with Derive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Ozturk, Mesut; Ocal, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine students' learning levels in derivative subjects and their misconceptions. In addition, this study aims to compared to the effects of the computer based instruction and traditional instruction in resolving these misconceptions. For this purpose, 70 12th grade students were chosen from high schools in Agri…

  1. More Misconceptions to Avoid When Teaching about Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    2005-01-01

    As follow-up to a previous article "Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants," the author identifies fifty additional misconceptions. Undergeneralizations are added to the list of oversimplifications, obsolete concepts, terms, misidentifications, and flawed research. A glossary at the end of the article compares words used in botany with…

  2. Prevalence of Blood Circulation Misconceptions among Prospective Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelaez, Nancy J.; Boyd, Denise D.; Rojas, Jacqueline B.; Hoover, Mildred A.

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that misconceptions about human blood circulation and gas exchange persist across grade levels. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the prevalence and persistence of blood circulation misconceptions among prospective elementary teachers; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of learning activities for…

  3. Using structured examples and prompting reflective questions to correct misconceptions about thermodynamic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olakanmi, E. O.; Doyoyo, M.

    2014-03-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of using 'structured examples in concert with prompting reflective questions' to address misconceptions held by mechanical engineering students about thermodynamic principles by employing pre-test and post-test design, a structured questionnaire, lecture room observation, and participants' interviews. Students' misconceptions were identified through pre-tests that evaluated students' understanding of the chosen concepts, while conceptual change was assessed in pre-test-post-test design that revealed students' ability to apply the concepts and transfer skills from a worked example to satisfactorily undertake a fairly complex similar problem. The use of worked examples in concert with prompting reflective questions is effective for inducing correct conceptual change and effective problem-solving skills. However, it is recommended that engineering tutors should incorporate inquiry-based learning approach and computer simulations alongside the use of worked examples with prompting reflective questions in order to enhance students' conceptual understanding of thermodynamic concepts.

  4. [Science and ethics, therapeutic misconception and mirage].

    PubMed

    Raymond, J; Long, H

    2008-12-01

    Medical practice changes constantly. Ethical imperatives are however incorrigible. How can we reconcile ethics, practice and progress? Some bioethicians argue that research and care should be disentangled to minimize the 'therapeutic misconception', a clinical propensity to believe that patients are the object of medical care, while in fact they are the subjects of a scientific experiment. On the contrary, we believe that clinical research should be an integral part of the good practice. A divorce between research and clinical practice leads to an incorrigible medicine, liable to the therapeutic mirage, that is the false belief that everything modern medicine can offer has been proved beneficial. But both therapeutic misconception and mirage are possible because of a misunderstanding of either research or clinical practice. In this essay we review ethical principles behind clinical trial methodology and attempt to reconcile ethics, science and clinical practice. Not only should clinical research be integrated to the good practice of medicine, it should also be part of training in our specialty.

  5. Myths and Misconceptions about Second Language Learning: What Every Teacher Needs to Unlearn. Educational Practice Report 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Barry

    By discussing commonly held myths and misconceptions about second language learning, this discussion attempts to clarify a number of important issues concerning the ease and rapidity with which children learn a second language, the optimal age at which to begin second language instruction, the importance of the extent of exposure to the second…

  6. Revisiting Science Misconceptions: How are we doing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millham, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Misconceptions in science continue in K-12 settings. Although "A Nation at Risk" helped spearheaded the development of creative instructional strategies, concept maps, and a multitude of other reforms, many basic science concepts remain misunderstood by students. Recent research conducted by the author and colleagues finds it difficult to determine if a student knows and understands a scientific concept when the student cannot find the language necessary to explain what s/he thinks they know. In fact, student explanations for understandings are often confusing and include mixed conceptual ideas. This session discusses the findings, instructional tools, and the use of academic language as a tool for conceptual development. In my research, I found it difficult to determine if students know and understand scientific concepts. A majority of students surveyed were unable to use language to explain what they think they know, and explanations were often confusing, containing mixed concepts. This demonstrates the importance of teacher content, academic language, and active engagement in learning through doing science. We will focus on how to identify whether or not students have the language necessary to explicitly explain their scientific understandings, and how we can help them to develop their skills through the consistent use of academic language to mitigate scientific misconceptions. Embedded will be the importance of content knowledge and active engagement in teaching and learning. This interactive dialogue and activity is designed to provoke thinking about strong content background, engagement of students in learning, and related clusters of vocabulary to express content (i.e. acid vs base, or fault vs earthquakes). Total number of students who either agreed or disagreed with a statement. Comparing the correctness of the agree or disagree statements with written explanations.

  7. Toward a "Common Definition of English Learner": Guidance for States and State Assessment Consortia in Defining and Addressing Policy and Technical Issues and Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linquanti, Robert; Cook, H. Gary

    2013-01-01

    States participating in the four federally-funded assessment consortia are required to establish a "common definition of English Learner." This includes the two Race to the Top academic assessment consortia and the two Enhanced Assessment Grant English language proficiency (ELP) assessment consortia. This paper provides guidance that…

  8. Phase 3 Oncology Clinical Trials in South Africa: Experimentation or Therapeutic Misconception?

    PubMed

    Malan, Tina; Moodley, Keymanthri

    2016-02-01

    Although clinical research in oncology is vital to improve current understanding of cancer and to validate new treatment options, voluntary informed consent is a critical component. Oncology research participants are a particularly vulnerable population; hence, therapeutic misconception often leads to ethical and legal challenges. We conducted a qualitative study administering semi-structured questionnaires on 29 adult, Phase 3, oncology clinical trial participants at three different private oncology clinical trial sites in South Africa. A descriptive content analysis was performed to identify perceptions of these participants regarding Phase 3 clinical trials. We found that most participants provided consent to be included in the trial for self-benefit. More than half of the participants had a poor understanding of Phase 3 clinical trials, and almost half the participants believed the clinical trial did not pose any significant risk to them. The word "hope" was used frequently by participants, displaying clear optimism with regard to the clinical trial and its outcome. This indicated that therapeutic misconception does occur in the South African oncology research setting and has the potential to lead to underestimation of the risks of a Phase 3 clinical trial. Emphasizing the experimental nature of a clinical trial during the consent process is critical to address therapeutic misconception in oncology research.

  9. HIV misconceptions associated with condom use among black South Africans: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M; Skinner, Donald; Weinhardt, Lance S; Glasman, Laura; Sitzler, Cheryl; Toefy, Yoesrie; Kalichman, Seth C

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, approximately 20% of 15–49-year-olds are infected with HIV. Among black South Africans, high levels of HIV/AIDS misconceptions (e.g. HIV is manufactured by whites to reduce the black African population; AIDS is caused by supernatural forces or witchcraft) may be barriers to HIV prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 150 young, black adults (aged 18–26; 56% males) visiting a public clinic for sexually transmitted infections, to investigate whether HIV/AIDS misconceptions were related to low condom use in main partner relationships. We assessed agreement with HIV/AIDS misconceptions relating to the supernatural (e.g. witchcraft as a cause of HIV) and to genocide (e.g. the withholding of a cure). In multivariate models, agreement that ‘Witchcraft plays a role in HIV transmission’ was significantly related to less positive attitudes about condoms, less belief in condom effectiveness for HIV prevention, and lower intentions to use condoms among men. The belief that ‘Vitamins and fresh fruits and vegetables can cure AIDS’ was associated with lower intentions among men to use condoms. Women who endorsed the belief linking HIV to witchcraft had a higher likelihood of unprotected sex with a main partner, whereas women who endorsed the belief that a cure for AIDS was being withheld had a lower likelihood of having had unprotected sex. Knowledge about distinct types of HIV/AIDS misconceptions and their correlates can help in the design of culturally appropriate HIV-prevention messages that address such beliefs. PMID:21804784

  10. Therapeutic Misconception in Psychiatry Research: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Thong, Ivan SK; Foo, Meng Yee; Sum, Min Yi; Capps, Benjamin; Lee, Tih-Shih; Ho, Calvin; Sim, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic misconception (TM) denotes the phenomenon in which research subjects conflate research purpose, protocols and procedures with clinical treatment. We examined the prevalence, contributory factors, clinical associations, impact, and collated solutions on TM within psychiatric research, and made suggestions going ahead. Literature search for relevant empirical research papers was conducted until February 2015. Eighty-eight reports were extracted, of which 31 were selected, summarised into different headings for discussion of implications and collated solutions of TM. We found variable and high rates of TM (ranging from 12.5% to 86%) in some psychiatry research populations. Contributory factors to TM included perceived medical roles of researchers, media, research setting and subject factors. Greater TM in affective, neurodevelopmental and psychotic spectrum conditions were associated with demographic variables (such as lower education, increased age), clinical factors (such as poor insight, cognitive deficits, increased symptoms, poorer self-rated quality of health), and social functioning (such as decreased independence). Inattention to TM may lead to frustration, negative impression and abandonment of participation in psychiatry research. Strategies such as the employment of a neutral educator during the informed consent process and education modules may be effective in addressing TM. Further research is warranted to examine the different TM facets, specific clinical correlates and more effective management strategies. PMID:26792036

  11. Unraveling Students' Misconceptions about the Earth's Shape and Gravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneider, Cary I.; Ohadi, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a study designed to test the effectiveness of a constructivist-historical teaching strategy in changing students' misconceptions about the earth's shape and gravity at the upper elementary and middle school levels. Contains 27 references. (DDR)

  12. Beyond informed consent: the therapeutic misconception and trust.

    PubMed

    de Melo-Martín, I; Ho, A

    2008-03-01

    The therapeutic misconception has been seen as presenting an ethical problem because failure to distinguish the aims of research participation from those receiving ordinary treatment may seriously undermine the informed consent of research subjects. Hence, most theoretical and empirical work on the problems of the therapeutic misconception has been directed to evaluate whether, and to what degree, this confusion invalidates the consent of subjects. We argue here that this focus on the understanding component of informed consent, while important, might be too narrow to capture the ethical complexity of the therapeutic misconception. We show that concerns about misplaced trust and exploitation of such trust are also relevant, and ought to be taken into account, when considering why the therapeutic misconception matters ethically.

  13. Diagnosing students' misconceptions in algebra: results from an experimental pilot study.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael; O'Dwyer, Laura M; Miranda, Helena

    2009-05-01

    Computer-based diagnostic assessment systems hold potential to help teachers identify sources of poor performance and to connect teachers and students to learning activities designed to help advance students' conceptual understandings. The present article presents findings from a study that examined how students' performance in algebra and their overcoming of common algebraic misconceptions were affected by the use of a diagnostic assessment system that focused on important algebra concepts. This study used a four-group randomized cluster trial design in which teachers were assigned randomly to one of four groups: a "business as usual" control group, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to diagnostic tests results, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to the learning activities, and a full intervention group that was given access to the test results and learning activities. Data were collected from 905 students (6th-12th grade) nested within 44 teachers. We used hierarchical linear modeling techniques to compare the effects of full, partial, and no (control) intervention on students' algebraic ability and misconceptions. The analyses indicate that full intervention had a net positive effect on ability and misconception measures.

  14. A Compilation and Review of over 500 Geoscience Misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the frequency of misconceptions by subject matter, group (primary, middle-school, high-school, middle-/high-school, college, pre-service teachers, in-service teachers, and undefined) and source (journal versus web); and (2) the pattern of misconceptions across age groups and (3) directions for future research. A total of 502 misconceptions were discovered, with over 40% targeting a middle- and high-school audience. Plate tectonics comprised 19% of all misconceptions, with another 14% and 13% associated with weathering/erosion and historical geology, respectively. Over 80% of all the misconceptions were derived from peer-reviewed journals or web sources, the rest originated from reliable sources on the World Wide Web. The supernatural origin for many of the geoscience phenomena listed here is abandoned by middle school, but in other cases, some misconceptions seem robust through adulthood. Examples of such misconceptions include the origin/pattern of earthquakes, thickness of the earth's crust, oil's origin, movement mechanisms for glaciers, co-existence of humans and dinosaurs, water movement within karst terrains, the nature of plate boundaries, the power of water as an agent of geomorphic change, what constitutes a mineral and a rock, thickness of the soil layer, the distribution of volcanoes, and the difference between weathering and erosion.

  15. Gender-based attitudes, HIV misconceptions and feelings towards marginalized groups are associated with stigmatization in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Shalini; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Heylen, Elsa; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2014-11-01

    Summary This study examined the association of gender-based attitudes, HIV misconceptions and community feelings for marginalized groups with stigmatizing responses towards people with HIV/AIDS in Mumbai, India. Participants included 546 men and women sampled in hospital settings during 2007-2008. Structured measures were used to assess avoidance intentions and denial of rights of people with HIV/AIDS. Mean age of participants was 32 years; 42% had less than 10 years of education. Higher HIV transmission misconceptions (β=0.47; p<0.001), more traditional gender attitudes (β=0.11; p<0.01) and more negative feelings towards HIV-positive people (β=0.23; p<0.001) were related to higher avoidance intentions. Endorsement of denial of rights was also significantly associated with higher transmission misconceptions (β=0.20; p<0.001), more traditional gender attitudes (β=0.33; p<0.001) and greater negative feelings towards HIV-positive people (β=0.12; p<0.05), as well as with a lower education level (β=-0.10; p<0.05). The feelings respondents had towards people with HIV/AIDS were more strongly correlated with their feelings towards those with other diseases (tuberculosis, leprosy) than with feelings they had towards those associated with 'immoral' behaviour (e.g. sex workers). Eliminating HIV transmission misconceptions and addressing traditional gender attitudes are critical for reducing HIV stigma in Indian society.

  16. Chemistry misconceptions associated with understanding calcium and phosphate homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cliff, William H

    2009-12-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration when calcium ions were added to a saturated calcium phosphate solution. Fifty-two percent of the students correctly predicted that the phosphate concentration would decrease in accord with the common ion effect. Forty-two percent of the students predicted that the phosphate concentration would not change. Written explanations showed that most students failed to evoke the idea of competing chemical equilibria. A second question assessed the predicted change in calcium concentration after solid calcium phosphate was added to a saturated solution. Only 11% of the students correctly predicted no change in calcium concentration; 86% of the students predicted an increase, and many based their prediction on a mistaken application of Le Chatelier's principle to heterogeneous equilibria. These results indicate that many students possess misconceptions about chemical equilibrium that may hamper understanding of the processes of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Instructors can help students gain greater understanding of these physiochemical phenomena by adopting strategies that enable students achieve more accurate conceptions of chemical equilibria.

  17. Misconceptions and realities about teaching online.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Joan E

    2005-07-01

    This article is intended to guide online course developers and teachers. A brief review of the literature on the misconceptions of beginning online teachers reveals that most accept the notion that putting one's lecture notes online produces effective learning, or that technology will make education more convenient and cost-effective for all concerned. Effective online learning requires a high level of responsibility for learning on the part of students and a reduction of the teacher-student power differential. This, in turn, has major implications for faculty and course development, student selection criteria, the cost of instruction, and the outcomes of education. Effective online teaching focuses on processes of learning rather than outcomes, and is consistent with modern principles of learning that emphasize focusing on issues of high interest to learners, teaching students to use skills of active and effective learning, providing prompt feedback, and enabling students to establish learning goals and employ alternative paths to achieving those goals. Multiple ways of operationalizing these goals online are presented. Tips are offered concerning selection of students who are capable of benefiting from the online experience, developing curriculum that is user-friendly, using resources that stimulate good writing and critical thinking, and limiting class size to a manageable number.

  18. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Jenkin, T.; Milford, J.; Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Evans, D.; Lieberman, E.; Goldstein, G.; Wright, E.; Jayaraman, K.; Venkatech, B.; Kleiman, G.; Namovicz, C.; Smith, B.; Palmer, K.; Wiser, R.; Wood, F.

    2009-09-30

    /or different answers in response to a set of focused energy-related questions. The focus was on understanding reasons for model differences, not on policy implications, even though a policy of high renewable penetration was used for the analysis. A group process was used to identify the potential question (or questions) to be addressed through the project. In late 2006, increasing renewable energy penetration in the electricity sector was chosen from among several options as the general policy to model. From this framework, the analysts chose a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) as the way to implement the required renewable energy market penetration in the models. An RPS was chosen because it was (i) of interest and represented the group's consensus choice, and (ii) tractable and not too burdensome for the modelers. Because the modelers and analysts were largely using their own resources, it was important to consider the degree of effort required. In fact, several of the modelers who started this process had to discontinue participation because of other demands on their time. Federal and state RPS policy is an area of active political interest and debate. Recognizing this, participants used this exercise to gain insight into energy model structure and performance. The results are not intended to provide any particular insight into policy design or be used for policy advocacy, and participants are not expected to form a policy stance based on the outcomes of the modeling. The goals of this REMAP project - in terms of the main topic of renewable penetration - were to: (1) Compare models and understand why they may give different results to the same question, (2) Improve the rigor and consistency of assumptions used across models, and (3) Evaluate the ability of models to measure the impacts of high renewable-penetration scenarios.

  19. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozge Arslan, Harika; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-07-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test procedure as described by Treagust constitutes the framework for this study. To differentiate a lack of knowledge from a misconception, a certainty response index is added as a third tier to each item. Based on propositional knowledge statements, related literature, and the identified misconceptions gathered initially from 157 pre-service teachers, the AREPDiT was constructed and administered to 256 pre-service teachers. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the pre-service teachers' scores was estimated to be 0.74. Content and face validations were established by senior experts. A moderate positive correlation between the participants' both-tiers scores and their certainty scores indicated evidence for construct validity. Therefore, the AREPDiT is a reliable and valid instrument not only to identify pre-service teachers' misconceptions about GW, GE, OLD, and AR but also to differentiate these misconceptions from lack of knowledge. The results also reveal that a majority of the respondents demonstrated limited understandings about atmosphere-related environmental problems and held six common misconceptions. Future studies could test the AREPDiT as a tool for assessing the misconceptions held by pre-service teachers from different programs as well as in-service teachers and high school students.

  20. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  1. Misconceptions of Synthetic Biology: Lessons from an Interdisciplinary Summer School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verseux, Cyprien; Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Chizzolini, Fabio; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, an international group of scholars from various fields analysed the "societal dimensions" of synthetic biology in an interdisciplinary summer school. Here, we report and discuss the biologists' observations on the general perception of synthetic biology by non-biologists who took part in this event. Most attendees mainly associated synthetic biology with contributions from the best-known public figures of the field, rarely mentioning other scientists. Media extrapolations of those contributions appeared to have created unrealistic expectations and irrelevant fears that were widely disconnected from the current research in synthetic biology. Another observation was that when debating developments in synthetic biology, semantics strongly mattered: depending on the terms used to present an application of synthetic biology, attendees reacted in radically different ways. For example, using the term "GMOs" (genetically modified organisms) rather than the term "genetic engineering" led to very different reactions. Stimulating debates also happened with participants having unanticipated points of view, for instance biocentrist ethicists who argued that engineered microbes should not be used for human purposes. Another communication challenge emerged from the connotations and inaccuracies surrounding the word "life", which impaired constructive debates, thus leading to misconceptions about the abilities of scientists to engineer or even create living organisms. Finally, it appeared that synthetic biologists tend to overestimate the knowledge of non-biologists, further affecting communication. The motivation and ability of synthetic biologists to communicate their work outside their research field needs to be fostered, notably towards policymakers who need a more accurate and technical understanding of the field to make informed decisions. Interdisciplinary events gathering scholars working in and around synthetic biology are an effective tool in addressing those

  2. Misconceptions of the p-value among Chilean and Italian Academic Psychologists

    PubMed Central

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Iotti, Bryan; Bonilla-Campos, Amparo; Longobardi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Common misconceptions of p-values are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals' decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italian, 30 Chilean) questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p-values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed. PMID:27602007

  3. Vaccinating Your Preteen: Addressing Common Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be confident about your decision to vaccinate. HPV Vaccine FAQs Why is the HPV vaccine recommended at age 11 or 12 years?​ The ... all 3 shots. Why does my son need HPV vaccine if it protects against cervical cancer? ​HPV vaccine ...

  4. Matter Scatter and Energy Anarchy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is Simply Common Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Shows that the second law of thermodynamics is in the common experience of many people and if taught first, before the law of conservation, can result in fewer misconceptions among pupils. Stresses the use of common experiences in teaching. (CW)

  5. Addressing the Misconceptions of Middle School Students About Becoming a Scientist or Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Sorge, C.; Hagerty, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of our educational outreach program shows that students and their parents are excited about space science, but stereotypes about science and scientists drastically effect student attitudes about science and pursuing a technical career.

  6. Bringing Climate Change into the Life Science Classroom: Essentials, Impacts on Life, and Addressing Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Amy J.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is at the forefront of our cultural conversation about science, influencing everything from presidential debates to Leonardo DiCaprio's 2016 Oscar acceptance speech. The topic is becoming increasingly socially and scientifically relevant but is no closer to being resolved. Most high school students take a life science course but…

  7. Exploring Lecturers' Views of First-Year Health Science Students' Misconceptions in Biomedical Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge…

  8. One Output Function: A Misconception of Students Studying Digital Systems--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotskovsky, E.; Sabag, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Learning processes are usually characterized by students' misunderstandings and misconceptions. Engineering educators intend to help their students overcome their misconceptions and achieve correct understanding of the concept. This paper describes a misconception in digital systems held by many students who believe that combinational…

  9. Grade-12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Atoms and Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Alan K.; Preston, Kirk R.

    1992-01-01

    Identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules held by twelfth-grade students. Data were obtained by administration of semistructured interviews to a stratified, random sample of 30 students. Fifty-two misconceptions were observed and reported. Some of the misconceptions identified parallel the…

  10. Diagnostic Opportunities Using Rasch Measurement in the Context of a Misconceptions-Based Physical Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Stefanie A.; Gale, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) items that are constructed such that distractors target known misconceptions for a particular domain provide useful diagnostic information about student misconceptions (Herrmann-Abell & DeBoer, 2011, 2014; Sadler, 1998). Item response theory models can be used to examine misconceptions distractor-driven multiple-choice…

  11. Detection of Misconceptions about Colour and an Experimentally Tested Proposal to Combat Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Borreguero, Guadalupe; Perez-Rodriguez, Angel Luis; Suero-Lopez, Maria Isabel; Pardo-Fernandez, Pedro Jose

    2013-01-01

    We study the misconceptions about colour that most people hold, determining the general phenomenological laws that govern them. Concept mapping was used to combat the misconceptions which were found in the application of a test specifically designed to determine these misconceptions, while avoiding the possible misleading inductions that could…

  12. Teachers' Misconceptions about the Effects of Addition of More Reactants or Products on Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…

  13. The Earthquake Information Test: Validating an Instrument for Determining Student Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Katharyn E. K.; Shuell, Thomas J.

    Some pre-instructional misconceptions held by children can persist through scientific instruction and resist changes. Identifying these misconceptions would be beneficial for science instruction. In this preliminary study, scores on a 60-item true-false test of knowledge and misconceptions about earthquakes were compared with previous interview…

  14. Developing Simulation-Based Computer Assisted Learning to Correct Students' Statistical Misconceptions Based on Cognitive Conflict Theory, Using "Correlation" as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tzu-Chien

    2010-01-01

    Understanding and applying statistical concepts is essential in modern life. However, common statistical misconceptions limit the ability of students to understand statistical concepts. Although simulation-based computer assisted learning (CAL) is promising for use in students learning statistics, substantial improvement is still needed. For…

  15. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  16. Prototypical Concepts and Misconceptions of Plate Tectonic Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, D. F.; Patino, L. C.

    2003-12-01

    plank correctly answered a multiple-choice question that would appear to indicate a better understanding than the drawings reveal. Furthermore, 12 interviewed students made statements that could be interpreted to indicate that they understood the concept of mountain building at plate tectonic boundaries better than their drawings suggest. Incoherence of multiple-choice responses, verbal statements and drawings may be common in novice learners. If cognitive scientists are correct in their model of multiple types of mental representations for the same term, then the fact that novices may hold inconsistent representations is not surprising. The fact that students at various academic levels draw very similar prototypes that are incorrect is evidence that students have distinct and persistent prototype misconceptions. * Cognitive scientists define a prototypical/exemplar concept as a mental representation of the best examples or central tendencies of a term.

  17. A Compilation and Review of over 500 Geoscience Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the…

  18. Students' Misconceptions about Medium-Scale Integrated Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, G. L.; Loui, M. C.; Zilles, C.

    2011-01-01

    To improve instruction in computer engineering and computer science, instructors must better understand how their students learn. Unfortunately, little is known about how students learn the fundamental concepts in computing. To investigate student conceptions and misconceptions about digital logic concepts, the authors conducted a qualitative…

  19. Predicting Students' Performance in Introductory Psychology from their Psychology Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhle, Barry X.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bristol, Adam S.

    2009-01-01

    Students bring many misconceptions about psychology to the introductory psychology course. We investigated whether scores on a 10-item Knowledge of Psychology Test (adapted from Vaughan, 1977) taken on the first class day were related to final class grades in 11 introductory psychology classes taught by the same instructor at three colleges. A…

  20. Misconceptions in Optics: Their Persistence at University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil Llinas, J.; Suero Lopez, M. I.; Perez Rodriguez, A. L.; Solano Macias, F.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study on misconceptions in optics with the objective of checking their persistence over time in spite of the continued academic instruction of students. Involves (n=4000) students of all levels of the Spanish educational system as well as with those at a Spanish university with degrees in medicine, chemical sciences, technical…

  1. Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canpolat, Nurtac

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…

  2. Textbook Errors and Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Energetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses misconceptions and outdated models appearing in biology textbooks for concepts involving bioenergetics and chemical reactions; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the energy currency of cells; the myth of high energy phosphate bonds; structural properties of ATP; ATP production from respiration and fermentation; ATP as an energy storage…

  3. Misconception Analysis: A Necessary Complement to Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farjami, Hadi

    2001-01-01

    Suggests a practical proposal for dealing with language learning problems labeled "misconception analysis." Draws on findings from cognitive psychology that emphasize learners and their learning needs. The approach is motivated by the fact that in foreign language learning, formal instruction is the primary source of input and consequently can be…

  4. Using a Teaching Model To Correct Known Misconceptions in Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddle, Penelope Ann; White, Margaret Dawn; Rogers, Fiona

    2000-01-01

    Describes a concrete teaching model designed to eliminate students' misconceptions about current flow in electrochemistry. The model uses a semi-permeable membrane rather than a salt bridge to complete the circuit and demonstrate the maintenance of cell neutrality. Concludes that use of the model led to improvement in students' understanding at…

  5. Misconceptions about the Early Land-Grant Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eldon L.

    A review of the evolution and characteristics of the emerging land grant institutions during the period from the passing of the Morrill Act in 1862 until about 1890 refutes some popular misconceptions about these institutions. Land grant institutions added new subjects to the curriculum, provided higher education for the "industrial…

  6. First Year Turkish Science Undergraduates' Understandings and Misconceptions of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcin, Mehmet; Altun, Sema; Turgut, Umit; Aggul, Fatma

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to identify first year Turkish Science undergraduates' understandings and misconceptions of the concept of light and its propagation. For this purpose, an instrument composed of four open-ended questions was developed by the researchers. The diagnostic test was piloted with twenty students and modifications were made prior…

  7. Internet as a Source of Misconception: "Radiation and Radioactivity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar Sesen, Burcin; Ince, Elif

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine students' usage styles of the Internet for seeking information and to investigate whether information obtained from the Internet is a source of misconceptions. For this reason, a two-stage study was conducted. At the first stage, a questionnaire was developed to get information about students' Internet usage…

  8. Using Analogy to Overcome Misconceptions about Conservation of Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavy, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    This study (n=192) examined the use of analogical instruction to overcome misconceptions about conservation of matter. Students who understood the concept conservation of matter when iodine was evaporated were able to transfer their understanding to the evaporation of acetone. This indicates that teaching by analogy can be an effective tool in…

  9. Prospective Primary School Teachers' Misconceptions about States of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify prospective primary school teachers' misconceptions about the states of matter. The sample of the study was 227 fourth-year prospective primary school teachers in a Department of Primary Education in Turkey. Researcher asked from every participant to write a response to an open ended question about…

  10. Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    2007-01-01

    Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

  11. Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in Foreign Countries: Misconceptions Revealed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Toshiakira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on data gathered during visits to Uganda and Malawi, conducted by the International Math-teacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study (IMPULS) project and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The author's observations and experiences highlighted misconceptions about lesson study. The paper concludes that some…

  12. Using Analogies to Prevent Misconceptions about Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin Pekmez, Esin

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of using analogies to prevent misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Nineteen analogies, which were based on dynamic aspects of chemical equilibrium and application of Le Chatelier's principle, were developed. The participations of this study consisted of 11th grade students (n: 151)…

  13. Secondary & College Biology Students' Misconceptions About Diffusion & Osmosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis

    1995-01-01

    Tests on diffusion and osmosis given to (n=116) secondary biology students, (n=123) nonbiology majors, and (n=117) biology majors found that, even after instruction, students continue to have misconceptions about these ideas. Appendix includes diffusion and osmosis test. (MKR)

  14. The Evolution with Age of Probabilistic, Intuitively Based Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Efraim; Schnarch, Ditza

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated probabilistic intuitions held by students (N=98) from grade 7 through college through the use of a questionnaire. Of the misconceptions that were investigated, availability was the only one that was stable across age groups. Contains 20 references. (DDR)

  15. Faring with Facets: Building and Using Databases of Student Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhyastha, Tara; Tanimoto, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A number of educational researchers have developed pedagogical approaches that involve the teacher in discovering and helping to correct misconceptions that students bring to their study of their subject matter. During the last decade, several computer systems have been developed to support teaching and learning using this kind of approach. A…

  16. Remediating Misconceptions Concerning Chemical Bonding through Conceptual Change Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabuccu, Aybuke; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of conceptual change texts oriented instruction on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts. In this study, the main aim of the preparation of conceptual change texts was to activate students' prior knowledge and misconceptions and to help them to understand the chemical…

  17. The Retention of Geologic Misconceptions: Alternative Ideas That Persist After Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandersee, J. H.; Clary, R. M.; Anderson, S. W.; Libarkin, J.

    2003-12-01

    We used a 30 item multiple-choice instrument called the geoscience concept test (GCT) to study learning in introductory college-level science courses. The GCT uses common misconceptions as wrong answers, and allows us to pre- and post-test individual courses to gauge the effectiveness of instruction. The GCT was given at the beginning of the semester to 2215 college students in 42 classes at 32 different institutions in 19 different states (21 public and 6 private four-year institutions, 4 community colleges, and one tribal college). The pilot was also given to 1907 students as a semester-end post-test in 30 different classes. We were able to match pre- and post-test results for 967 students through an analysis of volunteered personal and demographic data. Although statistical analysis shows that learning occurred in all classes, closer inspection of the data show that the student population retained a number of misconceptions. Students retained several incorrect ideas relating to geologic time despite instruction. For example, 71% of post-tested students believe that the study of fossils, rock layers, or carbon is the most accurate means for calculating the age of the Earth. Nearly 25% of students believed that dinosaurs only existed on Earth for 500,000 years, and 40% believe dinosaurs came into existence about halfway through the geologic time scale. Many alternative ideas about plate tectonics and the formation of rocks also existed after instruction. Nearly half of the post-tested students (47%) believed that tectonic plates do not extend all way to the surface of the Earth, and 65% did not believe that animals could form oceanic rocks. Identification of strongly held misconceptions in a post-tested student population provides instructors with information that could impact the way they present material to their introductory classes.

  18. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  19. The Ultimate Factor of Safety for Aircraft and Spacecraft Its History, Applications and Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.; Modlin, C. Thomas, Jr.; Larsen, Curtis E.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate factor of safety (FOSULT) concept used in aircraft and spacecraft has evolved over many decades. Currently an FOSULT 1.5 is the FAR-mandated value for aircraft while an FOSULT of 1.4 has been used in various spacecraft. This paper was motivated by the desire to concisely explain the origins, proper interpretation and application of the ultimate factor of safety concept, since the authors have seen throughout their careers many misconceptions and incorrect applications of this concept. The history of the ultimate factor of safety concept is briefly summarized, the proper application of the factor of safety in aircraft design, structural analysis and operations is covered in detail, examples of limit load exceedance in aircraft and spacecraft are discussed, the evolution of the 1.4 FOSULT for spacecraft is described and some misconceptions regarding the ultimate factor of safety concept are addressed. It is hoped that this paper can be a summary resource for engineers to understand the origin, purpose and proper application of the ultimate factor of safety.

  20. Applying Agnotology-Based Learning in a Mooc to Counter Climate Misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.

    2014-12-01

    A key challenge facing educators and climate communicators is the wide array of misconceptions about climate science, often fostered by misinformation. A number of myths interfere with a sound understanding of the science, with key myths moderating public support for mitigation policies. An effective way to reduce the influence of misinformation is through agnotology-based learning. Agnotology is the study of ignorance while agnotology-based learning teaches students through the direct addressing of myths and misconceptions. This approach of "refutational teaching" is being applied in a MOOC (Massive Online Open Course) currently being developed by Skeptical Science and The University of Queensland, in collaboration with universities in Canada, USA and the UK. The MOOC will examine the science of climate change denial. Why is the issue so controversial given there is an overwhelming consensus on human-caused global warming? How do climate myths distort the science? What can scientists and laypeople do in response to misinformation? The MOOC will be released on the EdX platform in early 2015. I will summarise the research underpinning agnotology-based learning and present the approach taken in the MOOC to be released in early 2015

  1. Reverse Asteroids: Searching for an Effective Tool to Combat Asteroid Belt Misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, F.; Eisenhamer, B.

    2014-12-01

    The public 'knows' that asteroid belts are densely packed and dangerous for spaceships to cross. Visuals from "Star Wars" to, unfortunately, the recent "Cosmos" TV series have firmly established this astronomical misconception. However, even scientifically correct graphics, such as the Minor Planet Center's plot of the inner solar system, reinforces that view. Each pixel in the image is more than a million kilometers in width, making an accurate representation of the object density impossible.To address this widespread misconception, we are investigating an educational exercise built around a computer interactive that we call "Reverse Asteroids". In the arcade classic video game, the asteroids came to the player's spaceship. For our reverse implementation, we consider an inquiry-based activity in which the spaceship must go hunting for the asteroids, using a database of real objects in our solar system. Both 3D data visualization and basic statistical analysis play crucial roles in bringing out the true space density within the asteroid belt, and perhaps a reconciliation between imagination and reality. We also emphasize that a partnership of scientists and educators is fundamental to the success of such projects.

  2. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  3. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  4. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  5. An Analysis of Misconceptions in Science Textbooks: Earth science in England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Chris John Henry

    2010-03-01

    Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one earth science error/misconception per page. Science syllabuses and examinations surveyed also showed errors/misconceptions. More than 500 instances of misconception were identified through the surveys. These were analysed for frequency, indicating that those areas of the earth science curriculum most prone to misconception are sedimentary processes/rocks, earthquakes/Earth's structure, and plate tectonics. For the 15 most frequent misconceptions, examples of quotes from the textbooks are given, together with the scientific consensus view, a discussion, and an example of a misconception of similar significance in another area of science. The misconceptions identified in the surveys are compared with those described in the literature. This indicates that the misconceptions found in college students and pre-service/practising science teachers are often also found in published materials, and therefore are likely to reinforce the misconceptions in teachers and their students. The analysis may also reflect the prevalence earth science misconceptions in the UK secondary (high school) science-teaching population. The analysis and discussion provide the opportunity for writers of secondary science materials to improve their work on earth science and to provide a platform for improved teaching and learning of earth science in the future.

  6. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  7. Evaluation of an Intervention among Adolescents to Reduce Preventive Misconception in HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lally, Michelle; Goldsworthy, Richard; Sarr, Moussa; Kahn, Jessica; Brown, Larry; Peralta, Ligia; Zimet, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Placebo and randomization are important concepts that must be understood before youth can safely participate in HIV vaccine studies or other biomedical trials for HIV prevention. These concepts are central to the phenomenon of preventive misconception which may be associated with an increase in risk behavior among study participants related to mistaken beliefs. Persuasive messaging, traditionally used in the field of marketing, could enhance educational efforts associated with randomized clinical trials. Methods Two educational brochures were designed to increase knowledge about HIV vaccine clinical trials via 1 and 2-sided persuasive messaging. Through the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network, 120 youth were enrolled, administered a mock HIV vaccine trial consent, and then randomized to receive either no supplemental information or one of the two brochures. Results The 2-sided brochure group in which common clinical trial misconceptions were acknowledgedand then refuted had significantly higher scores on knowledge of randomization and interpretation of side effects than the consent-only control group, and willingness to participate in an HIV vaccine trial was not decreased with the use of this brochure. Conclusion Two sided persuasive messaging improves understanding of the concepts of randomization and placebo among youth who would consider participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Further evaluation of this approach should be considered for at-risk youth participating in an actual trial of a biomedical intervention for HIV prevention. PMID:24613097

  8. What Conceptions Have US Grade 4-6 Students' Generalized for Formal and Informal Common Representations of Unknown Addends?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, J. Matt

    2016-01-01

    Research findings have established that students often struggle with mathematical symbols including common misconceptions for literal symbolic representations of variables but provide little evidence of when or how these misconceptions arise. This article reports findings from a study of grade 4-6 students' conception(s) for various…

  9. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students' Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Kathryn I; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification.

  10. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students’ Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. PMID:26163563

  11. Use of a token economy with seriously mentally ill patients: criticisms and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, P W

    1995-12-01

    Although use of a token economy has been shown to have significant impact on adults and children with serious mental illness who participate in inpatient and community treatment programs, the intervention has not been widely adopted. The paper presents common criticisms of token economies, which may explain the infrequent use of this treatment strategy. They include perceptions that token economies are ineffective, that their benefits do not readily generalize to other settings, that token economies do not foster individualized treatment plans, that participating in a token economy is humiliating, that token economies are abusive, that concerns about milieu management are unimportant and irrelevant to treatment delivery in the 1990s, and that effective token economies are impractical. In an effort to rekindle interest in this potent treatment technique, the author shows that many of these criticisms rest on misconceptions and provides rebuttals based on empirical research. He describes three steps in establishing a token economy.

  12. Sustainable rare diseases business and drug access: no time for misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Rollet, Pierrick; Lemoine, Adrien; Dunoyer, Marc

    2013-07-23

    Legislative incentives enacted in Europe through the Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000 to incentivize orphan drug development have over the last 12 years constituted a powerful impetus toward R&D directed at the rare diseases population. However, despite therapeutic promises contained in these projects and significant economic impact linked to burgeoning R&D expenditures, the affordability and value of OMPs has become a topic of health policy debate in Europe fueled by the perception that OMPs have high acquisition costs, and by misconceptions around pricing dynamics and rare-diseases business models. In order to maintain sustainable patient access to new and innovative therapies, it is essential to address these misconceptions, and to ensure the successful continuation of a dynamic OMPs R&D within rare-diseases public health policy. Misconceptions abound regarding the pricing of rare diseases drugs and reflect a poor appreciation of the R&D model and the affordability and value of OMPs. Simulation of potential financial returns of small medium sized rare diseases companies focusing on high priced drugs show that their economic returns are likely to be close to their cost of capital. Research in rare diseases is a challenging endeavour characterised by high fixed costs in which companies accrue substantial costs for several years before potentially generating returns from the fruits of their investments. Although heavily dependent upon R&D capabilities of each individual company or R&D organization, continuous flow of R&D financial investment should allow industry to increasingly include efficiencies in research and development in cost considerations to its customers. Industry should also pro-actively work on facilitating development of a specific value based pricing approach to help understanding what constitute value in rare diseases. Policy makers must reward innovation based upon unmet need and patient outcome. Broader understanding by clinicians, the public, and

  13. Assessing Climate Misconceptions of Middle School Learners and Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.

    2012-12-01

    Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1

  14. About the Foreskin: Parents' Perceptions and Misconceptions

    PubMed Central

    Cooblal, AS; Rampersad, B

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine parents'understanding of the foreskin, in an effort to improve parent education. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to parents of patients attending outpatient clinics at the Wendy Fitzwilliam Paediatric Hospital (Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex), the San Fernando General Hospital and the Scarborough General Hospital during an eight-month period. It comprised 15 questions, 10 of which asked about the role of the foreskin, retraction and views on circumcision. Results: There were 520 completed questionnaires. The majority of participants were mothers. Twelve per cent of parents had a child who was circumcised. The reasons for circumcision were mostly because of phimosis (31%), religious reasons (26% Islamic), personal preference (21%) and infection (20%). Regarding the need for circumcision, 31% of parents believed all boys should be circumcised and 36% did not agree. The majority of parents felt that by one year, full retraction should occur and 66% of parents felt that circumcision should be performed if the foreskin is not retractable. With respect to hygiene, 75% felt that circumcision made cleaning the penis easier and 43% believed the foreskin causes infections. Concerning HIV/AIDS, 67% did not believe that circumcision helps to prevent its transmission. When considering penile cancer and sexual function, more than 50% of parents did not know the role of the foreskin. Approximately 25% of parents answered ‘do not know’ to most of the questions. Conclusion: Despite foreskin pathology being a common paediatric problem, it is clear that there is a lot of misunderstanding and ignorance of the facts relating to the function of the foreskin in children. There is an obvious need for better parent education. PMID:25781287

  15. Assessing what to address in science communication

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  16. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions.

  17. Development and use of a three-tier diagnostic test to assess high school students' misconceptions about the photoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taslidere, Erdal

    2016-05-01

    Background: In the last few decades, researchers have turned their attention to students' understanding of scientific concepts at different school levels. The results indicate that the learners have different ideas, and most of them are inaccurate in terms of those generally accepted by the scientific community. Purpose: This study was undertaken to describe the development, validation and use of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test (PEMT) to reveal Turkish high school students' common misconceptions in terms of the photoelectric effect. Sample: In this study, 243 students (male=86, female=137) from six high schools made up the sample which comprised approximately 76% of the 11th grade population. Design and Methods: Based on findings from the literature, open-ended questions and interviews, the PEMT was developed and administered to 243 students. The data was analysed descriptively. Results: The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of the scores was estimated as .83. Construct, content and face validities were established by senior experts and through the use of statistical techniques. The findings denoted that the test is a valid and reliable measure of students' qualitative understanding of the photoelectric concept. The results revealed that the majority of the students demonstrated a limited understanding of the photoelectric effect and have five prevalent misconceptions. These are: (1) an increase in intensity would provide the photon with enough energy to release electrons; (2) the photoelectric effect results from the ionization of atoms through the interaction with light; (3) a light beam whose photons have smaller energies than the work function would release electrons with the help of a voltage source; (4) the number of photoelectrons depends on the energy of the photon and (5) the photon has kinetic energy and it depends on the colour of light. The last two misconceptions were discovered in the current study. Conclusion: The findings

  18. Bacterially induced bone destruction: mechanisms and misconceptions.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, S P; Meghji, S; Wilson, M; Reddi, K; White, P; Henderson, B

    1996-01-01

    Normal bone remodelling requires the coordinated regulation of the genesis and activity of osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. Any interference with these integrated cellular systems can result in dysregulation of remodelling with the consequent loss of bone matrix. Bacteria are important causes of bone pathology in common conditions such as periodontitis, dental cysts, bacterial arthritis, and osteomyelitis. It is now established that many of the bacteria implicated in bone diseases contain or produce molecules with potent effects on bone cells. Some of these molecules, such as components of the gram-positive cell walls (lipoteichoic acids), are weak stimulators of bone resorption in vitro, while others (PMT, cpn60) are as active as the most active mammalian osteolytic factors such as cytokines like IL-1 and TNF. The complexity of the integration of bone cell lineage development means that there are still question marks over the mechanism of action of many well-known bone-modulatory molecules such as parathyroid hormone. The key questions which must be asked of the now-recognized bacterial bone-modulatory molecules are as follows: (i) what cell population do they bind to, (ii) what is the nature of the receptor and postreceptor events, and (iii) is their action direct or dependent on the induction of secondary extracellular bone-modulating factors such as cytokines, eicosanoids, etc. In the case of LPS, this ubiquitous gram-negative polymer probably binds to osteoblasts or other cells in bone through the CD14 receptor and stimulates them to release cytokines and eicosanoids which then induce the recruitment and activation of osteoclasts. This explains the inhibitor effects of nonsteroidal and anticytokine agents on LPS-induced bone resorption. However, other bacterial factors such as the potent toxin PMT may act by blocking the normal maturation pathway of the osteoblast lineage, thus inducing dysregulation in the tightly regulated process of resorption and

  19. Dispelling misconceptions in the management of familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, Timothy J; Warrier, Satish K; Heriot, Alexander G; Kalady, Matthew; Church, James

    2017-03-07

    Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis require surgical intervention at some point in their lives. The diagnosis is often apparent from their phenotype and family history, however, this is not always the case. Many factors can influence the surgical strategy although the polyposis burden and distribution remain the main consideration. While prophylactic removal of the rectum and colon is often required, sparing the rectum at the index surgery is safe in select patients. This article aims to dispel misconceptions in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

  20. Prevalence of Misconceptions, Dogmas, and Popular Views about Giftedness and Intelligence: A Case from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sak, Ugur

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misconceptions, dogmas and popular views about giftedness and intelligence among Turkish lay people. A survey questionnaire consisting of 12 forced-choice items about global misconceptions, dogmatic beliefs and popular views related to giftedness and intelligence was used to collect…

  1. A Study on Student Teachers' Misconceptions and Scientifically Acceptable Conceptions about Mass and Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonen, Selahattin

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were considered under three headings. The first was to elicit misconception that science and physics student teachers (pre-service teachers) had about the terms, "inertial mass", "gravitational mass", "gravity", "gravitational force" and "weight". The second was to understand how prior learning affected their misconceptions,…

  2. Misconceptions about Density of Decimals: Insights from Indonesian Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widjaja, Wanty; Stacey, Kaye; Steinle, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    Extensive studies have documented various difficulties with, and misconceptions about, decimal numeration across different levels of education. This paper reports on pre-service teachers' misconceptions about the density of decimals. Written test data from 140 Indonesian pre-service teachers, observation of group and classroom discussions provided…

  3. Two-Dimensional, Implicit Confidence Tests as a Tool for Recognizing Student Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klymkowsky, Michael W.; Taylor, Linda B.; Spindler, Shana R.; Garvin-Doxas, R. Kathy

    2006-01-01

    The misconceptions that students bring with them, or that arise during instruction, are a critical barrier to learning. Implicit-confidence tests, a simple modification of the multiple-choice test, can be used as a strategy for recognizing student misconceptions. An important issue, however, is whether such tests are gender-neutral. We analyzed…

  4. Enhancing Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students' Thinking from Assessing and Analyzing Misconceptions in Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Shuhua; Wu, Zhonghe

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on teacher learning of student thinking through grading homework, assessing and analyzing misconceptions. The data were collected from 10 teachers at fifth-eighth grade levels in the USA. The results show that assessing and analyzing misconceptions from grading homework is an important approach to acquiring knowledge of…

  5. Misconceptions of Turkish Pre-Service Teachers about Force and Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayraktar, Sule

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to diagnose the misconceptions held by pre-service physics teachers about force and motion. The secondary aim of the study was to detect whether misconceptions vary according to gender, educational level, and culture. The study was conducted with 79 student-teachers attending to one of the largest faculties of…

  6. A Descriptive Study of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions about Sinking-Floating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiray, Seyit Ahmet; Aktan, Filiz; Kaynar, Hamza; Kilinc, Sena; Gorkemli, Tugce

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, it attempts to determine the pre-service science teachers' misconceptions about floating and sinking. Secondly, it aims to reveal the level of pre-service science teachers' misconceptions, scientific knowledge, lack of knowledge, and lack of confidence related to floating and sinking. To conduct the…

  7. Thai High-School Students' Misconceptions about and Models of Light Refraction through a Planar Surface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe…

  8. Playing with Science: An Investigation of Young Children's Science Conceptions and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolleck, Lori; Hershberger, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the conceptions and misconceptions of young children (ages 3-8) related to science concepts, skills, and phenomena. These conceptions and misconceptions were investigated within the framework of the Pennsylvania Early Learning Standards for Pre-Kindergarten and the Pennsylvania Standards for…

  9. Preservice Science Teachers' Attitudes towards Chemistry and Misconceptions about Chemical Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çam, Aylin; Topçu, Mustafa Sami; Sülün, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates preservice science teachers' attitudes towards chemistry; their misconceptions about chemical kinetics; and relationships between pre-service science teachers' attitudes toward chemistry and misconceptions about chemical kinetics were examined. The sample of this study consisted of 81 freshman pre-service science…

  10. Student Misconceptions in Chemical Equilibrium as Related to Cognitive Level and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Alan E.; Kass, Heidi

    Reported is an investigation to determine the nature and extent of student misconceptions in chemical equilibrium and to ascertain the degree to which certain misconceptions are related to chemistry achievement and to performance on specific tasks involving cognitive transformations characteristic of the concrete and formal operational stages of…

  11. Students' Misconceptions of Statistical Inference: A Review of the Empirical Evidence from Research on Statistics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotos, Ana Elisa Castro; Vanhoof, Stijn; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    A solid understanding of "inferential statistics" is of major importance for designing and interpreting empirical results in any scientific discipline. However, students are prone to many misconceptions regarding this topic. This article structurally summarizes and describes these misconceptions by presenting a systematic review of publications…

  12. Misconceptions of High School Students Related to the Conceptions of Absolutism and Constitutionalism in History Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Mehmet Suat

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the 10th grade high school students' misconceptions related to the sense of ruling in the Ottoman State during the absolutist and constitutional periods and to investigate the causes of these misconceptions. The data were collected through eight open-ended questions related to the concepts of absolutism and…

  13. Case Study Analysis and the Remediation of Misconceptions about Respiratory Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Most students enter the physiology classroom with one or more fundamental misconceptions about respiratory physiology. This study examined the prevalence of four respiratory misconceptions and determined the role of case analysis in the remediation of one of them. A case study was used to help students learn about oxygen transport in the blood and…

  14. Utility of Concept Cartoons in Diagnosing and Overcoming Misconceptions Related to Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekici, Fatma; Ekici, Erhan; Aydin, Fatih

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of concept cartoons in diagnosing and overcoming students' misconceptions related to photosynthesis subject was examined. Firstly, the literature has been thoroughly examined and misconceptions about photosynthesis subject have been listed and then grouped. Concept cartoons related to these groups have been…

  15. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  16. Remediating Misconception on Climate Change among Secondary School Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Chandrakesan, Kasturi

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies report on secondary school students' misconceptions related to climate change; they also report on the methods of teaching as reinforcing misconceptions. This quasi-experimental study was designed to test the null hypothesis that a curriculum based on constructivist principles does not lead to greater understanding and fewer…

  17. An Analysis of Students' Misconceptions Concerning Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capa, Yesim; Yildirim, Ali; Ozden, M. Yasar

    The aims of this study were to diagnose students' misconceptions concerning photosynthesis and respiration in plants, and to investigate reasons behind these misconceptions. The subjects were 45 ninth grade high school students and 11 high school teachers. Data were collected by interview technique. All of the interviews were audiotaped and…

  18. An Investigation of Grade 12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Molecules and Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Alan Keith; Preston, Kirk R.

    An understanding of the concepts of atoms and molecules is fundamental to the learning of chemistry. Any misconceptions and alternative conceptions related to these concepts which students harbor will impede much further learning. This paper identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules which Grade 12…

  19. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  20. Misconceptions about optics: An effect of misleading explanations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favale, Fabrizio; Bondani, Maria

    2014-07-01

    During our activities of physics dissemination with High School students especially concerning optics, we are used to distribute a questionnaire about colors and image formation by mirrors and lenses. The answers to some questions clearly show misconceptions and naïve ideas about colors, ray tracing, image formation in reflection and refraction. These misconceptions are widespread and do not depend on the gender, the level, and the age of the students: they seem to depend on some wrong ideas and explanatory models that are not changed by the curricular studies at school. In fact, the same errors are present in groups of students before and after taking optics courses at High School. On the other hand we have also found some misleading explanations of the phenomena both in textbooks and websites. Most of the time, errors occur in the explanatory drawings accompanying the text, which are based on some hybrid description of the optical processes: sometimes the description of the path of the ray light is confused with the image reconstruction by the lenses. We think that to partially avoid some errors it is important to use a teaching path centered on the actual path of the rays and not on what eyes see (the vision). Here we present the results of data collected from more than 200 students and some considerations about figures and explanations found in textbooks.

  1. Student Acquisition of Biological Evolution-Related Misconceptions: The Role of Public High School Introductory Biology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Tony Brett

    2011-01-01

    In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma…

  2. Demonstrating VOC capture efficiency using Permanent Total Enclosure technology: Common practices, challenges and rewards

    SciTech Connect

    Bemi, D.; Pearson, E.

    1997-12-31

    During the past decade, the Permanent Total Enclosure (PTE) has been gaining acceptance among flexographic printers and coaters, as a viable, cost effective means of demonstrating compliance with overall Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) control efficiency regulations. Throughout this period, industry has voiced a number of concerns regarding the implementation of PTE solutions. Many of these concerns, including control device upsizing requirements, operator safety and health issues, work area interference and onerous expense, have proven to be overstated and in some cases unwarranted. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first objective is to address some of the practical design considerations associated with the use of PTE technology. Secondly, the authors will review some of the more common misconceptions concerning PTE implementation. This paper will cover the following topics: a brief discussion of the EPA approved alternative methods for capture efficiency testing, a summary of the EPA criteria for achieving PTE status, a presentation of some of the misconceptions associated with PTE implementation, a discussion of practical PTE design issues, the presentation of a case study highlighting a typical application, and finally, a summary of the benefits of using a PTE. Finally, it should be noted that the scope of this paper will be limited to the discussion of walk in type PTE`s versus uninhabited PTE designs.

  3. Complicating common ideas about medical tourism: gender, class, and globality in Yemenis' international medical travel.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Three cases of international medical travelers from Yemen, a capital‐poor country in the southwest corner of the Arabian Peninsula, help to counter misconceptions within discussions of medical tourism. These misconceptions include the suggestion of leisure in medical tourism, the role of gender and class, and the ease with which we dismiss the health concerns of wealthy individuals. Instead, this article proposes, we should uncover commonalities and differences within international medical travel while avoiding slipping into generalities and stereotypical portrayals.

  4. Patient misconceptions concerning lumbar spondylosis diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Franz, Eric W; Bentley, J Nicole; Yee, Patricia P S; Chang, Kate W C; Kendall-Thomas, Jennifer; Park, Paul; Yang, Lynda J S

    2015-05-01

    results show that a surprisingly high percentage of patients have misconceptions regarding the diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spondylosis, and that these misconceptions persist in patients with a history of spine surgery. Specifically, patients overemphasize the value of radiological studies and have mixed perceptions of the relative risk and effectiveness of surgical intervention compared with more conservative management. These misconceptions have the potential to alter patient expectations and decrease satisfaction, which could negatively impact patient outcomes and subjective valuations of physician performance. While these results are preliminary, they highlight a need for improved communication and patient education during surgical consultation for lumbar spondylosis.

  5. Common Misconceptions about the Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices: Cauchy Relations, Lattice Potentials and Infinite Crystals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcoro, Luis; Etxebarria, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    The requirement of rotational invariance for lattice potential energies is investigated. Starting from this condition, it is shown that the Cauchy relations for the elastic constants are fulfilled if the lattice potential is built from pair interactions or when the first-neighbour approximation is adopted. This is seldom recognized in widely used…

  6. Identifying Common Mathematical Misconceptions from Actions in Educational Video Games. CRESST Report 838

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    Educational video games provide an opportunity for students to interact with and explore complex representations of academic content and allow for the examination of problem-solving strategies and mistakes that can be difficult to capture in more traditional environments. However, data from such games are notoriously difficult to analyze. This…

  7. Children's Misconceptions in Primary Science: a survey of teachers' views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pine, Karen; Messer, David; St. John, Kate

    2001-01-01

    Young children hold naive theories about the world around them, but how do these mediate science learning in primary school? This paper considers the process of conceptual change and describes empirical studies into children's naive theories of physics concepts. The Representational Redescription model is invoked to explain how naive theories are a feature of conceptual change. Data are presented from a survey of 122 teachers of primary science in England. The teachers rated almost one-third of the topics sampled from the primary curriculum as being of above average difficulty for the children, particularly abstract concepts like electricity and forces. In addition, the teachers identified 130 misconceptions (such as 'Stones grow' or 'Taller people are older than shorter people') which children bring to the science class. These data provide a starting point for considering how children's naive theories may mediate their ability to learn and implications for science teaching are discussed.

  8. Experimenter Confirmation Bias and the Correction of Science Misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael; Coole, Hilary

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a randomised educational experiment ( n = 47) that examined two different teaching methods and compared their effectiveness at correcting one science misconception using a sample of trainee primary school teachers. The treatment was designed to promote engagement with the scientific concept by eliciting emotional responses from learners that were triggered by their own confirmation biases. The treatment group showed superior learning gains to control at post-test immediately after the lesson, although benefits had dissipated after 6 weeks. Findings are discussed with reference to the conceptual change paradigm and to the importance of feeling emotion during a learning experience, having implications for the teaching of pedagogies to adults that have been previously shown to be successful with children.

  9. Evaluating Juvenile Detainees' Miranda Misconceptions: The Discriminant Validity of the Juvenile Miranda Quiz.

    PubMed

    Sharf, Allyson J; Rogers, Richard; Williams, Margot M; Drogin, Eric Y

    2016-08-08

    Most juvenile arrestees in custodial settings waive their Miranda rights almost immediately, and many then provide incriminating statements, if not outright confessions. Forensic practitioners are then asked to provide retrospective determinations regarding whether these waivers were effectuated knowingly, voluntarily, and intelligently. At present, the forensic assessment instrument for juvenile Miranda issues consists of the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments (MRCI)-which as its name implies-focuses mostly on Miranda comprehension with a de-emphasis of Miranda reasoning. In partially addressing this gap, the current study investigated the clinical utility of the Juvenile Miranda Quiz (JMQ) for evaluating key Miranda misconceptions, a critically important component of Miranda reasoning. Using data from 201 juvenile detainees, we evaluated the JMQ's discriminability with regards to cognitive variables and MRCI scales. Many moderate effect sizes in the predicted direction were found for the JMQ Primary Total and Juvenile Total scores. Finally, these detainees were tested using a mock crime scenario with a representative Miranda warning plus a brief interrogation to evaluate whether they would waive their rights, and if so, whether they would confess. Using Miranda measures to predict problematic outcomes (i.e., impaired waivers followed by confessions), the JMQ Juvenile Total proved the most successful. These findings are discussed within the context of the "intelligent" prong of Miranda waivers. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Emergence, Learning Difficulties, and Misconceptions in Chemistry Undergraduate Students' Conceptualizations of Acid Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-03-01

    Philosophical debates about chemistry have clarified that the issue of emergence plays a critical role in the epistemology and ontology of chemistry. In this article, it is argued that the issue of emergence has also significant implications for understanding learning difficulties and finding ways of addressing them in chemistry. Particularly, it is argued that many misconceptions in chemistry may derive from students' failure to consider emergence in a systemic manner by taking into account all relevant factors in conjunction. Based on this argument, undergraduate students' conceptions of acids, and acid strength (an emergent chemical property) were investigated and it was examined whether or not they conceptualized acid strength as an emergent chemical property. The participants were 41 third- and fourth-year undergraduate students. A concept test and semi-structured interviews were used to probe students' conceptualizations and reasoning about acid strength. Findings of the study revealed that the majority of the undergraduate students did not conceptualize acid strength as an emergent property that arises from interactions among multiple factors. They generally focused on a single factor to predict and explain acid strength, and their faulty responses stemmed from their failure to recognize and consider all factors that affect acid strength. Based on these findings and insights from philosophy of chemistry, promoting system thinking and epistemologically sound argumentative discourses among students is suggested for meaningful chemical education.

  11. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed "misconceptions," among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists…

  12. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  13. TASER® conducted electrical weapons: misconceptions in the scientific/medical and other literature.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R

    2015-03-01

    TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have become an important law-enforcement tool. Controversial questions are often raised during discussion of some incidents in which the devices have been used. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some misconceptions about CEWs that have been published in the scientific/medical and other literature. This is a narrative review, using a multidisciplinary approach of analyzing reports from scientific/medical and other literature sources. In previous reports, durations of incapacitating effects and possible associations of CEWs with deaths-in-custody have often been overstated or exaggerated. Comparisons of CEW effects with "electrocution" are misleading. Clarification of these misconceptions may be important during policymaker decisions, practitioner operations, expert witness testimonies, and court proceedings. Despite misconceptions in the literature, CEWs can still be a valuable tool for law enforcement activities. Scientists, medical professionals, legal advisors, and investigators of police tactics should be aware of these misconceptions.

  14. Detection of Misconceptions about Colour and an Experimentally Tested Proposal to Combat them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Borreguero, Guadalupe; Pérez-Rodríguez, Ángel Luis; Suero-López, María Isabel; José Pardo-Fernández, Pedro

    2013-06-01

    We study the misconceptions about colour that most people hold, determining the general phenomenological laws that govern them. Concept mapping was used to combat the misconceptions which were found in the application of a test specifically designed to determine these misconceptions, while avoiding the possible misleading inductions that could have arisen from the use of everyday language. In particular, care was taken to avoid the distorting effect that the use of the verb 'to be' applied to coloured objects could have on the responses. The misconceptions found were shown to have an internal consistency in the form of authentic mini-theories (implicit theories). We compared experimentally the results of two different teaching methods applied to combat these misconceptions. This study was conducted with 470 undergraduates of the University of Extremadura. We analysed the persistence over time of their learning made to overcome those misconceptions. The students were divided randomly into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). To combat their misconceptions, EG were taught following a method based on the use of concept maps, and CG were taught following traditional teaching methods. The results of a pre-test and a post-test were compared for the two groups, finding statistically significant differences. The results allowed the principal working hypothesis to be accepted-concept maps are learning tools which foster conceptual change and allow misconceptions to be eradicated via meaningful learning maintained over time, i.e. EG acquired a relative long-lasting gain in learning that was superior to that acquired by CG.

  15. Rugby headgear and concussion prevention: misconceptions could increase aggressive play.

    PubMed

    Menger, Richard; Menger, Austin; Nanda, Anil

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Multiple studies have illustrated that rugby headgear offers no statistically significant protection against concussions. However, there remains concern that many players believe rugby headgear in fact does prevent concussions. Further investigation was undertaken to illustrate that misconceptions about concussion prevention and rugby headgear may lead to an increase in aggressive play. METHODS Data were constructed by Internet survey solicitation among United States collegiate rugby players across 19 teams. Initial information given was related to club, age, experience, use of headgear, playing time, whether the rugger played football or wrestling in high school, and whether the player believed headgear prevented concussion. Data were then constructed as to whether wearing headgear would increase aggressive playing style secondary to a false sense of protection. RESULTS A total of 122 players responded. All players were male. The average player was 19.5 years old and had 2.7 years of experience. Twenty-three of 122 players (18.9%) wore protective headgear; 55.4% of players listed forward as their primary position. Overall, 45.8% (55/120) of players played 70-80 minutes per game, 44.6% (54/121) played football or wrestled in high school, 38.1% (45/118) believed headgear prevented concussions, and 42.2% (51/121) stated that if they were using headgear they would be more aggressive with their play in terms of running or tackling. Regression analysis illustrated that those who believed headgear prevented concussions were or would be more likely to engage in aggressive play (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Nearly 40% of collegiate rugby players surveyed believed headgear helped to prevent concussions despite no scientific evidence that it does. This misconception about rugby headgear could increase aggressive play. Those who believed headgear prevented concussion were, on average, 4 times more likely to play with increased aggressive form than those who believed

  16. The Unknown Moon: Eliminating Misconceptions and Strengthening Lunar Science Literacy in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, M. A. M.

    2012-08-01

    Our Moon is an ideal tool for teaching about space science and Earth's place in our solar system. The Moon remains the most studied object in our solar system and the only other body, besides Earth, from which humans have collected field samples. Despite our long history of studying the Moon, there are still many questions that remain unanswered. Most students believe that we know everything there is to know about the Moon, but in actuality it still remains very much "unknown." For example, recent radar observations of the lunar poles suggest the presence of water ice, but the quantity remains unknown. Additionally, remote-sensing analysis of the Moon's regolith suggests the presence of chemicals that can be used as resources when manned-missions return to the Moon, but how we would access those resources remains unknown. These studies and many more need to be shared with students in a way that regenerates excitement for future exploration of our Moon and our solar system. Common lunar misconceptions and ideas for establishing Lunar Science Literacy Concepts (LSLC) will be discussed in this paper.

  17. Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temiz, B. K.; Yavuz, A.

    2014-07-01

    Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface.

  18. Use of GFP for in vivo imaging: concepts and misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Robert M.

    2008-02-01

    Although GFP and fluorescent proteins are used extensively for in vivo imaging, there are many misconceptions about GFP imaging especially compared to luciferase. GFP is not toxic, indeed, transgenic animals with GFP expressed in every cell (1) live as long as non-transgenic animals. Cancer cells with GFP are as aggressive and malignant as the cells without GFP (2-4). Cell lines can be made very bright with fluorescent proteins with no toxicity. The in vivo signal from fluorescent proteins is at least 1,000 times greater than luciferase (5). GFP is so bright that a single molecule of GFP can be seen in a bacterium (6). GFP can be observed through the skin on deep organs (7). Skin autofluorescence presents no problem for in vivo GFP imaging with proper filters (8). Fur can be rapidly clipped removing this autofluorescence (9). GFP is readily quantified by the image area which correlates to tumor volume (10). There are now numerous clones of GFP, RFP, YFP and proteins that change color (11) that can be used in vivo.

  19. The danger of epigenetics misconceptions (epigenetics and stuff…).

    PubMed

    Georgel, Philippe T

    2015-12-01

    Within the past two decades, the fields of chromatin structure and function and transcription regulation research started to fuse and overlap, as evidence mounted to support a very strong regulatory role in gene expression that was associated with histone post-translational modifications, DNA methylation, as well as various chromatin-associated proteins (the pillars of the "Epigenetics" building). The fusion and convergence of these complementary fields is now often simply referred to as "Epigenetics". During these same 20 years, numerous new research groups have started to recognize the importance of chromatin composition, conformation, and its plasticity. However, as the field started to grow exponentially, its growth came with the spreading of several important misconceptions, which have unfortunately led to improper or hasty conclusions. The goal of this short "opinion" piece is to attempt to minimize future misinterpretations of experimental results and ensure that the right sets of experiment are used to reach the proper conclusion, at least as far as epigenetic mechanisms are concerned.

  20. What Belongs in Your 15-Bean Soup? Using the Learning Cycle to Address Misconceptions about Construction of Taxonomic Keys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Ann; Vanderspool, Staria

    2004-01-01

    Students can use seed characteristics to discriminate between the different kinds of legumes using taxonomic classification processes of sorting and ranking, followed by construction of taxonomic keys. The application of the Learning Cycle process to taxonomic principles, hierarchical classification, and construction of keys presents the…

  1. Middle-Grade Students' Misconceptions about the Graphical Representation of Simple Fractions: An Assessment from the Eliciting Mathematical Misconceptions Project (EM[superscript 2])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Peggy; Buffington, Pamela; Tobey, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Rational number concepts underpin many topics in advanced mathematics and understanding these concepts is a prerequisite for students' success in high-school level courses. Students with rational number misconceptions that are not diagnosed and remediated in the middle grades are likely to encounter difficulty in high-school mathematics courses.…

  2. Using a Force Plate to Correct Student Misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrembeck, Edward P.

    2005-09-01

    Each year during the unit on collisions I ask my physics students this conceptual question: If you want to close a door but you have too much inertia at the moment to get up and do it yourself, should you throw a ball that rebounds well, like a basketball, or a ball that rebounds poorly, like a ball of modeling dough, at the door? I also impose the condition that the two balls must have the same momenta when they strike the door. I give my students some time to discuss the problem in small groups and then make a prediction. I find that most students predict incorrectly that the dough ball will be more effective at closing the door because it is solid throughout and denser than the hollow, air-filled basketball. The students do not focus on the better-rebounding basketball and the greater change in velocity that it experiences than the modeling dough ball when they strike a solid object like a door. To correct this misconception I use a Vernier2 force plate to measure the impulse of a size 3 basketball and a ball of modeling dough of equal mass (0.3213 ± 0.0002 kg) dropped from the same height of 0.200 ± 0.002 m, to ensure equal velocities, onto the force plate. While I realize that a collision between a ball and a force plate is not exactly the same as a collision between a ball and a door, a more complex system, I believe it offers some very useful insights into the problem. I also include in this paper an extension on validating the impulse-momentum theorem.

  3. A Comparative Qualitative Study of Misconceptions Associated with Contraceptive Use in Southern and Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adongo, Philip B.; Tabong, Philip T.-N.; Azongo, Thomas B.; Phillips, James F.; Sheff, Mallory C.; Stone, Allison E.; Tapsoba, Placide

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from Ghana consistently shows that unmet need for contraception is pervasive with many possible causes, yet how these may differ by cultural zone remains poorly understood. This qualitative study was designed to elicit information on the nature and form of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use among northern and southern Ghanaians. Twenty-two focus group discussions (FGDs) with married community members were carried out. Community health officers, community health volunteers, and health care managers were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. FGDs and in-depth interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 10 to compare contraceptive misconceptions in northern and southern Ghana. Results indicate that misconceptions associated with the use of contraceptives were widespread but similar in both settings. Contraceptives were perceived to predispose women to both primary and secondary infertility, uterine fibroids, and cancers. As regular menstrual flow was believed to prevent uterine fibroids, contraceptive use-related amenorrhea was thought to render acceptors vulnerable to uterine fibroids as well as cervical and breast cancers. Contraceptive acceptors were stigmatized and ridiculed as promiscuous. Among northern respondents, condom use was generally perceived to inhibit erection and therefore capable of inducing male impotence, while in southern Ghana, condom use was believed to reduce sensation and sexual gratification. The study indicates that misconceptions associated with contraceptive use are widespread in both regions. Moreover, despite profound social and contextual differences that distinguish northern and southern Ghanaians, prevailing fears and misconceptions are shared by respondents from both settings. Findings attest to the need for improved communication to provide accurate information for dispelling these misconceptions. PMID:25250307

  4. Diagnosing Secondary Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants Using a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Filocha; Treagust, David F.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a multiple-choice instrument that reliably and validly diagnoses secondary students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Highlights the consistency of students' misconceptions across secondary levels and indicates a high percentage of students have misconceptions regarding plant physiology. (CW)

  5. An Investigation into the Prevalence of Ecological Misconceptions in Upper Secondary Students and Implications for Pre-Service Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, J.; Mooney Simmie, G.; O'Grady, A.

    2015-01-01

    Students' and teachers' misconceptions are an international concern among researchers in science education; they influence how students learn and teachers' teach knowledge and are a hindrance in the acquisition of accurate knowledge. This paper reports on a literature synthesis of existing research about ecological misconceptions. One means of…

  6. Overcoming Students' Misconceptions Concerning Thermal Physics with the Aid of Hints and Peer Interaction during a Lecture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-01-01

    As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures…

  7. Effects of Conceptual Assignments and Conceptual Change Discussions on Students' Misconceptions and Achievement Regarding Force and Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing…

  8. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  9. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  10. Misconceptions and Conceptual Changes Concerning Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics among Portuguese Students Aged 16-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Luis; Thompson, David

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates student misconceptions in the areas of continent, ocean, permanence of ocean basins, continental drift, Earth's magnetic field, and plates and plate motions. A teaching-learning model was designed based on a constructivist approach. Results show that students held a substantial number of misconceptions. (Author/DKM)

  11. Addressing Common Technical challenges in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Donald A.

    2016-09-22

    The implosion phase for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) occurs from initiation of the drive until just before stagnation. Evolution of the shell and fusion fuel during the implosion phase is affected by the initial conditions of the target, the drive history. Poor performing implosions are a result of the behavior that occurs during the implosion phase such as low mode asymmetries, mixing of the ablator into the fuel, and the hydrodynamic evolution of initial target features and defects such as the shell mounting hardware. The ultimate results of these effects can only be measured at stagnation. However, studying the implosion phase can be effective for understanding and mitigating these effects and for of ultimately improving the performance of ICF implosions. As the ICF program moves towards the 2020 milestone to “determine the efficacy of ignition”, it will be important to understand the physics that occurs during the implosion phase. This will require both focused and integrated experiments. Focused experiments will provide the understanding and the evidence needed to support any determination concerning the efficacy of ignition.

  12. Addressing Three Common Myths about the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    Science education is central to the lives of all Americans. Students face a world where they will frequently be required to make important decisions on issues that range from health care to the environment. Achieving literacy in science will require coherence at all levels and across components of the system including curriculum, assessment, and…

  13. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  14. Assessing 10- to 11-Year-Old Children's Performance and Misconceptions in Number Sense Using a Four-Tier Diagnostic Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Number sense is a key topic in mathematics education, and the identification of children's misconceptions about number is, therefore, important. Information about students' serious misconceptions can be quite significant for teachers, allowing them to change their teaching plans to help children overcome these misconceptions. In…

  15. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  16. Student Misconceptions about Newtonian Mechanics: Origins and Solutions through Changes to Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, Aaron Michael

    In order for Physics Education Research (PER) to achieve its goals of significant learning gains with efficient methods, it is necessary to figure out what are the sorts of preexisting issues that students have prior to instruction and then to create teaching methods that are best able to overcome those problems. This makes it necessary to figure out what is the nature of student physics misconceptions---prior beliefs that are both at variance to Newtonian mechanics and also prevent a student from properly cognizing Newtonian concepts. To understand the prior beliefs of students, it is necessary to uncover their origins, which may allow instructors to take into account the sources for ideas of physics that are contrary to Newtonian mechanics understanding. That form of instruction must also induce the sorts of metacognitive processes that allow students to transition from their previous conceptions to Newtonian ones, let alone towards those of modern physics. In this paper, the notions of basic dynamics that are common among first-year college students are studied and compared with previous literature. In particular, an analysis of historical documents from antiquity up to the early modern period shows that these conceptions were rather widespread and consistent over thousands of years and in numerous cultural contexts. This is one of the only analyses in PER that considers the original languages of some of these texts, along with appropriate historical scholarship. Based on the consistent appearance of these misconceptions, a test and interview module was devised to help elucidate the feelings students have that may relate to fictitious forces. The test looked at one-dimensional motion and forces. The first part of the interview asked each student about their answers to the test questions, while the second part asked how students felt when undergoing three cases of constant acceleration in a car. We determined that students confabulated relative motion with the

  17. A Study on Sixth Grade Students' Misconceptions and Errors in Spatial Measurement: Length, Area, and Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan Sisman, Gulcin; Aksu, Meral

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to portray students' misconceptions and errors while solving conceptually and procedurally oriented tasks involving length, area, and volume measurement. The data were collected from 445 sixth grade students attending public primary schools in Ankara, Türkiye via a test composed of 16 constructed-response…

  18. Analysis of Errors and Misconceptions in the Learning of Calculus by Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzangwa, Jonatan; Chifamba, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper is going to analyse errors and misconceptions in an undergraduate course in Calculus. The study will be based on a group of 10 BEd. Mathematics students at Great Zimbabwe University. Data is gathered through use of two exercises on Calculus 1&2.The analysis of the results from the tests showed that a majority of the errors were due…

  19. Student Misconceptions in Writing Balanced Equations for Dissolving Ionic Compounds in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify student misconceptions and difficulties in writing symbolic-level balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. A sample of 105 college students were asked to provide balanced equations for dissolving four ionic compounds in water. Another 37 college students participated in semi-structured…

  20. Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms - Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions about Rock Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusnick, Judi

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes narrative essays--stories of rock formation--written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Reports startling misconceptions among preservice teachers on pebbles that grow, human involvement in rock formation, and sedimentary rocks forming as puddles as dry up, even though these students had completed a college level course on Earth…

  1. Determination of Secondary School Students' Cognitive Structure, and Misconception in Ecological Concepts through Word Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, Elif Özata; Özkan, Mulis

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we determined cognitive structures and misconceptions about basic ecological concepts by using "word association" tests on secondary school students, age between 12-14 years. Eighty-nine students participated in this study. Before WAT was generated, basic ecological concepts that take place in the secondary science…

  2. Misconceptions and Biases in German Students' Perception of Multiple Energy Sources: Implications for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Roh Pin

    2016-01-01

    Misconceptions and biases in energy perception could influence people's support for developments integral to the success of restructuring a nation's energy system. Science education, in equipping young adults with the cognitive skills and knowledge necessary to navigate in the confusing energy environment, could play a key role in paving the way…

  3. BIOMIND Portal for Developing 21st Century Skills and Overcoming Students' Misconception in Biology Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vebrianto, Rian; Rery, Radjawaly Usman; Osman, Kamisah

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of BIOMIND portal in enhancing students' 21st century skills and overcoming their misconceptions in Biology subject. 118 Indonesian high school students were involved in this quasi-experimental study. The experimental group underwent learning experiences using BIOMIND portal whereas the…

  4. Interchanges: Commenting on Douglas Downs and Elizabeth Wardle's "Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Libby; Pennell, Michael; Owens, Kim Hensley; Dyehouse, Jeremiah; O'Grady, Helen; Reynolds, Nedra; Schwegler, Robert; Shamoon, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors comment on Douglas Downs and Elizabeth Wardle's "Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions." As Downs and Wardle note, a one-year academic writing course will not prepare students to write in all fields, and evidence suggests limitations on the transfer of skills. The authors agree, in addition, that the study of…

  5. Science Teachers' Misconceptions in Science and Engineering Distinctions: Reflections on Modern Research Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Meyer, Daniel Z.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to learn about the misconceptions that may arise for elementary and high school science teachers in their reflections on science and engineering practice. Using readings and videos of real science and engineering work, teachers' reflections were used to uncover the underpinnings of their understandings. This…

  6. The Effect of Group Work on Misconceptions of 9th Grade Students about Newton's Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergin, Serap

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of group work and traditional method on 9th grade students' misconceptions about Newton Laws was investigated. The study was conducted in three classes in an Anatolian Vocational High School in Ankara/Turkey in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. Two of these classes were chosen as the experimental group and…

  7. The Effects and Side-Effects of Statistics Education: Psychology Students' (Mis-)Conceptions of Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina; Chiesi, Francesca; Handley, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In three studies we looked at two typical misconceptions of probability: the representativeness heuristic, and the equiprobability bias. The literature on statistics education predicts that some typical errors and biases (e.g., the equiprobability bias) increase with education, whereas others decrease. This is in contrast with reasoning theorists'…

  8. A Study on Primary and Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Greenhouse Effect (Erzurum Sampling)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Seyda; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine what level of primary and secondary school students' misconceptions related to greenhouse effect is. Study group consists of totally 280 students attended to totally 8 primary and secondary schools (4 primary school, 4 secondary school) which were determined with convenient sampling method from center of…

  9. University and Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about the Concept of "Aromaticity" in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topal, Giray; Oral, Behcet; Ozden. Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Aromaticity concept is given incorrect or incomplete to the student in secondary education and knowledge based on this basic concept has been caused to another misconception in future. How are the achievement levels relating to the comprehension of various characteristics of aromatic compounds for the first and third grade students attending…

  10. Learning Difficulties Experienced by Students and their Misconceptions of the Inverse Function Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okur, Muzaffer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine students' learning difficulties and misconceptions related to the "inverse function". The study group was composed of 137 first-grade students enrolled in the elementary mathematics teaching program of an Eastern Anatolia University in Turkey during the fall term of the academic year 2010-2011. The…

  11. An Analysis of Misconceptions in Science Textbooks: Earth Science in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris John Henry

    2010-01-01

    Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one…

  12. Diagnosing Students' Misconceptions in Number Sense via a Web-Based Two-Tier Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yung-Chi; Yang, Der-Ching; Li, Mao-Neng

    2016-01-01

    A web-based two-tier test (WTTT-NS) which combined the advantages of traditional written tests and interviews in assessing number sense was developed and applied to assess students' answers and reasons for the questions. In addition, students' major misconceptions can be detected. A total of 1,248 sixth graders in Taiwan were selected to…

  13. Seafarers, Great Circles, and a Tad of Rhumb: Understanding the Mercator Misconception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Being flat, Mercator maps inherently misrepresent some aspects of Earth's geography. That's because there is absolutely no way to simultaneously conserve all of the elements of three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional model. To dispel misconceptions, check out the Activity Worksheet and the website resources included in this article. Along…

  14. An Investigation of Fifth and Eighth Grade Korean Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jung-il

    Many researchers believe that prior knowledge is the single most important variable influencing learning. Learning in the classroom is determined or affected positively or negatively, to some degree, by the knowledge people bring to the classroom. This study was designed to: (1) assess fifth- and eighth-grade Korean students' misconceptions of…

  15. Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Misconceptions about Colligative Properties: Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Sozbilir, Mustafa; Canpolat, Nurtac

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying prospective chemistry teachers' misconceptions of colligative properties. In order to fulfill this aim, a diagnostic test composed of four open-ended questions was used. The test was administered to seventy-eight prospective chemistry teachers just before qualifying to teaching in secondary schools. Nine different…

  16. Exploring Seventh-Grade Students' and Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions in Astronomical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service science teachers' conceptual understanding of astronomical concepts and their misconceptions in these concepts is crucial to study since they will teach these subjects in middle schools after becoming teachers. This study aimed to explore both seventh-grade students' and the science teachers' understanding of astronomical concepts and…

  17. The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Sami

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

  18. Using Astronomical Photographs to Investigate Misconceptions about Galaxies and Spectra: Question Development for Clicker Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunju; Schneider, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Many topics in introductory astronomy at the college or high-school level rely implicitly on using astronomical photographs and visual data in class. However, students bring many preconceptions to their understanding of these materials that ultimately lead to misconceptions, and the research about students' interpretation of astronomical images…

  19. Using Astronomical Photographs to Investigate Misconceptions about Galaxies and Spectra: Question Development for Clicker Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunju; Schneider, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Many topics in introductory astronomy at the college or high-school level rely implicitly on using astronomical photographs and visual data in class. However, students bring many preconceptions to their understanding of these materials that ultimately lead to misconceptions, and research about students' interpretation of astronomical images has…

  20. Conceptions and Misconceptions about Neuroscience in Preschool Teachers: A Study from Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermida, M. J.; Segretin, M. S.; Soni García, A.; Lipina, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teachers' conceptions and misconceptions about neuroscience are crucial in establishing a proper dialogue between neuroscience and education. In recent years, studies in different countries have examined primary and secondary school teachers' conceptions. However, although preschool education has proved its importance to later academic…

  1. Coherent Backscattering: Conceptions and Misconceptions (Reply to Comments by Bruce W. Hapke and Robert M. Nelson)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tishkovets, Victor P.; Mishchenko, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Although the note by Hapke and Nelson has virtually no relevance to our original publication, it contains a number of statements that are misleading and/or wrong. We, therefore, use this opportunity to dispel several profound misconceptions that continue to hinder the progress in remote sensing of planetary surfaces.

  2. Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

  3. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Material on Students' Cognitive Levels, Misconceptions and Attitudes Towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepni, Salih; Tas, Erol; Kose, Sacit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to "photosynthesis" topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which…

  4. Using Learning Analytics to Identify Medical Student Misconceptions in an Online Virtual Patient Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Eric G.; Naismith, Laura M.; Doleck, Tenzin; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify misconceptions in medical student knowledge by mining user interactions in the MedU online learning environment. Data from 13000 attempts at a single virtual patient case were extracted from the MedU MySQL database. A subgroup discovery method was applied to identify patterns in learner-generated annotations and…

  5. Creationism as a Misconception: Socio-Cognitive Conflict in the Teaching of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This position paper argues that students' understanding and acceptance of evolution may be supported, rather than hindered, by classroom discussion of creationism. Parallels are drawn between creationism and other scientific misconceptions, both of the scientific community in the past and of students in the present. Science teachers frequently…

  6. Genius Is Not Immune to Persistent Misconceptions: Conceptual Difficulties Impeding Isaac Newton and Contemporary Physics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Melvin S.; And Others

    Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the "Principia." This paper compares Newton's pre-"Principia" beliefs, based upon his writings,…

  7. How persistent are the misconceptions about force and motion held by college students?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bani-Salameh, Hisham N.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the effectiveness of our introductory mechanics instructions in changing students’ misconceptions about Newtonian concepts. We gave the force concept inventory (FCI) test to 341 of our students twice, before and after instructions. The data were analyzed using a method first reported by Martín-Blas et al (2010 Eur. J. Eng. Educ. 35 597-606). We examined all of the known misconceptions found in the original paper by Hestenes et al (1992 Phys. Teach. 30 141-51) and determined the dominant ones from students’ incorrect answers for each of the 30 questions in the inventory. By comparing the dominant misconceptions held by our students in the pre- and post-tests, we were able to determine which ones were unchangeable by instructions and students couldn’t overcome. Results indicate some overall improvement in students’ performance but also the existence of very resistive to change misconceptions that were not affected by instructions.

  8. Development and Application of an Instrument to Identify Students Misconceptions: Diffusion and Osmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misischia, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test,…

  9. Development and Use of Diagnostic Tests to Evaluate Students' Misconceptions in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Describes 10 steps for developing a diagnostic test of students' misconceptions and the use of two tests in chemistry (covalent bonding and structure) and in biology (photosynthesis and respiration in plants). Discusses the results and some implications for teaching science. (YP)

  10. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Teaching on Remedying Misconceptions: The Case of the Subject "Probability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurbuz, Ramazan; Birgin, Osman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of computer-assisted teaching (CAT) on remedying misconceptions students often have regarding some probability concepts in mathematics. Toward this aim, computer-assisted teaching materials were developed and used in the process of teaching. Within the true-experimental research method, a pre- and…

  11. Are `misconceptions' or alternative frameworks of force and motion spontaneous or formed prior to instruction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, T.; Berry, J.; Rowlands, S.

    2013-01-01

    It has often been assumed that misconceptions of force and motion are part of an alternative framework and that conceptual change takes place when that framework is challenged and replaced with the Newtonian framework. There have also been variations of this theme, such as this structure is not coherent and conceptual change does not involve the replacement of concepts, conceptions or ideas but consists of the development of scientific ideas that can exist alongside ideas of the everyday. This article argues that misconceptions (or preconceptions, intuitive ideas, synthetic models, p-prims etc.) may not be formed until the learner considers force and motion within the learning situation and reports on a classroom observation (that is replicated with similar results) that suggest misconceptions arise, not because of prior experience, but spontaneously in the attempt at making sense of the terms of the discourse. The implications are that misconceptions may not be preformed, that research ought to consider the possible spontaneity in the students' reasoning and then, if possible, attempt to discern any preformed elements or antecedents, and that we ought to reconsider what is meant by 'conceptual change'. The classroom observation also suggests gravity as a particular stumbling-block for students. The implications for further research are discussed.

  12. Effect of Cabri-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Graphs of Quadratic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koklu, Oguz; Topcu, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Pre-existing misconceptions are serious impediments to learning in mathematics. Means for detecting and correcting them have received much attention in the literature of educational research. Dynamic geometry software has been tried at different grade levels. This quasi-experimental study investigates the effect of Cabri-assisted instruction on…

  13. The Effects of Integration on the Acceptance of Science Misconceptions by College Freshmen with Poverty Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Chester L.

    Reported is a study designed to determine the current status of acceptance of science misconceptions by college freshmen with poverty backgrounds and to determine the influence of integrated secondary education on educational development. A sample of 350 students was used as subjects for this study. They were selected to represent four distinct…

  14. Factors Mediating the Effect of Gender on Ninth-Grade Turkish Students' Misconceptions Concerning Electric Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sencar, Selen; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and analyze possible factors that mediate the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits. A Simple Electric Circuit Concept Test (SECCT), including items with both practical and theoretical contexts, and an Interest-Experience Questionnaire about Electricity…

  15. Reality versus Perception: Using Research to Resolve Misconceptions about Developmental Programs and Promote Credibility and Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overby, Bronte A.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author uses a comparison of various measures of success for developmental students at Patrick Henry Community College with the faculty's perceptions of these measures to break down misconceptions and stereotypes about developmental education and provide ever-needed credibility and acceptance for developmental programs.…

  16. Form Four Students' Misconceptions in Electrolysis of Molten Compounds and Aqueous Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bong, Anita Yung Li; Lee, Tien Tien

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the Form Four students' misconceptions in the electrolysis of molten compounds and aqueous solutions. The respondents were 60 Form Four students from two secondary schools in Sibu, Sarawak. The two instruments used in this study were an open-ended electrochemistry assessment and interview protocol. This…

  17. Identifying pre-service physics teachers’ misconceptions and conceptual difficulties about geometrical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltakci-Gurel, Derya; Eryilmaz, Ali; McDermott, Lillian C.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated pre-service physics teachers’ (PSPTs) misconceptions and conceptual difficulties about geometrical optics in the contexts of plane mirrors (single and hinged), spherical mirrors (concave and convex) and lenses (converging and diverging) using prolonged interviews and an open-ended test. The interviews were conducted in five sessions with a divergent sample of 16 PSPTs, and the open-ended geometrical optics test (OEGOT) was administered to a sample of 52 PSPTs in Turkey. The interview guide and the OEGOT included mainly qualitative questions, which were specifically designed to elicit and examine PSPTs’ misconceptions about geometrical optics. Several misconceptions held by PSPTs were identified and discussed. We found that PSPTs mainly had difficulties with the ray model, the function of the observer in the real and virtual image formation and observation processes, and the function of the screen in image formation and observation processes. Also the misconceptions in plane mirrors were found to be more coherent and experience-based while the ones in spherical mirrors and lenses were fragmented and loosely held in nature and mostly based on instruction.

  18. Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning the State Changes of Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    2006-01-01

    Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the questions setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

  19. An Inventory on Rotational Kinematics of a Particle: Unravelling Misconceptions and Pitfalls in Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashood, K. K.; Singh, Vijay A.

    2012-01-01

    Student difficulties regarding the angular velocity ([image omitted]) and angular acceleration ([image omitted]) of a particle have remained relatively unexplored in contrast to their linear counterparts. We present an inventory comprising multiple choice questions aimed at probing misconceptions and eliciting ill-suited reasoning patterns. The…

  20. Identifying Students' Misconceptions about Nuclear Chemistry: A Study of Turkish High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakiboglu, Canan; Tekin, Berna Bulbul

    2006-01-01

    This study represents the first attempt to elucidate and detail the types of misconceptions high school students hold relating to basic concepts and topics of nuclear chemistry. A diagnostic multiple-choice test was administered to 157 tenth-grade students (15-16 years old) and the data were analyzed. The results show that high school students…

  1. A Data Generating Review that Bops,Twists and Pulls at Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Statistics is an integral part of the K-12 mathematics curriculum (age 5-18). Naturally, students construct misconceptions of what they learn. This article discusses The Bop It[C]Challenge, a review activity assesses student understanding and reveals their misunderstandings of statistical concepts. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  2. Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

  3. Development of the Bonding Representations Inventory to Identify Student Misconceptions about Covalent and Ionic Bonding Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    Teachers use multiple representations to communicate the concepts of bonding, including Lewis structures, formulas, space-filling models, and 3D manipulatives. As students learn to interpret these multiple representations, they may develop misconceptions that can create problems in further learning of chemistry. Interviews were conducted with 28…

  4. One output function: a misconception of students studying digital systems - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotskovsky, E.; Sabag, N.

    2015-05-01

    Background:Learning processes are usually characterized by students' misunderstandings and misconceptions. Engineering educators intend to help their students overcome their misconceptions and achieve correct understanding of the concept. This paper describes a misconception in digital systems held by many students who believe that combinational logic circuits should have only one output. Purpose:The current study aims to investigate the roots of the misconception about one-output function and the pedagogical methods that can help students overcome the misconception. Sample:Three hundred and eighty-one students in the Departments of Electrical and Electronics and Mechanical Engineering at an academic engineering college, who learned the same topics of a digital combinational system, participated in the research. Design and method:In the initial research stage, students were taught according to traditional method - first to design a one-output combinational logic system, and then to implement a system with a number of output functions. In the main stage, an experimental group was taught using a new method whereby they were shown how to implement a system with several output functions, prior to learning about one-output systems. A control group was taught using the traditional method. In the replication stage (the third stage), an experimental group was taught using the new method. A mixed research methodology was used to examine the results of the new learning method. Results:Quantitative research showed that the new teaching approach resulted in a statistically significant decrease in student errors, and qualitative research revealed students' erroneous thinking patterns. Conclusions:It can be assumed that the traditional teaching method generates an incorrect mental model of the one-output function among students. The new pedagogical approach prevented the creation of an erroneous mental model and helped students develop the correct conceptual understanding.

  5. CEDS Addresses: Rubric Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 4 introduced a common data vocabulary for defining rubrics in a data system. The CEDS elements support digital representations of both holistic and analytic rubrics. This document shares examples of holistic and analytic project rubrics, available CEDS Connections, and a logical model showing the…

  6. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  7. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  8. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  9. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  10. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  11. Instructional Misconceptions in Acid-Base Equilibria: An Analysis from a History and Philosophy of Science Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kousathana, Margarita; Demerouti, Margarita; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    The implications of history and philosophy of chemistry are explored in the context of chemical models. Models and modeling provide the context through which epistemological aspects of chemistry can be promoted. In this work, the development of ideas and models about acids and bases (with emphasis on the Arrhenius, the Brønsted-Lowry, and the Lewis models) are presented. In addition, misconceptions (alternative and instructional ones) on acid-base (ionic) equilibria are examined from the history and philosophy of science perspective. The relation between the development of the models and students misconceptions are investigated. Finally, the hypothesis that history and philosophy could help educators anticipate students misconceptions is examined.

  12. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  13. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  14. Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

  15. Essay Contest Reveals Misconceptions of High School Students in Genetics Content

    PubMed Central

    Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Van Horne, Katie; Zhang, Hubert; Boughman, Joann

    2008-01-01

    National educational organizations have called upon scientists to become involved in K–12 education reform. From sporadic interaction with students to more sustained partnerships with teachers, the engagement of scientists takes many forms. In this case, scientists from the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), the Genetics Society of America (GSA), and the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) have partnered to organize an essay contest for high school students as part of the activities surrounding National DNA Day. We describe a systematic analysis of 500 of 2443 total essays submitted in response to this contest over 2 years. Our analysis reveals the nature of student misconceptions in genetics, the possible sources of these misconceptions, and potential ways to galvanize genetics education. PMID:18245328

  16. Therapeutic misconception in clinical trials: fighting against it and living with it.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, R; Morell, F; Tejedor, J C; Gracia, D

    2014-11-01

    A clinical trial seeks information for the benefit of future patients and not necessarily for those who participate in the study. However, there are patients who believe that they will receive a direct therapeutic benefit by participating in a clinical trial, the so-called «therapeutic misconception». In this article, we describe the nature and extent of therapeutic misconception, which researchers can also experience. Its presence is especially important in phase 1 oncology trials and those with placebo group. To limit its occurrence, investigators have to ensure that participant information sheet are well written and to establish an effective and transparent discussion during the process of obtaining informed consent so that patients understand all aspects of their participation in the research and appreciate what this participation entails.

  17. Essay contest reveals misconceptions of high school students in genetics content.

    PubMed

    Mills Shaw, Kenna R; Van Horne, Katie; Zhang, Hubert; Boughman, Joann

    2008-03-01

    National educational organizations have called upon scientists to become involved in K-12 education reform. From sporadic interaction with students to more sustained partnerships with teachers, the engagement of scientists takes many forms. In this case, scientists from the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), the Genetics Society of America (GSA), and the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) have partnered to organize an essay contest for high school students as part of the activities surrounding National DNA Day. We describe a systematic analysis of 500 of 2443 total essays submitted in response to this contest over 2 years. Our analysis reveals the nature of student misconceptions in genetics, the possible sources of these misconceptions, and potential ways to galvanize genetics education.

  18. Clarifying misconceptions of extinction risk assessment with the IUCN Red List

    PubMed Central

    Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Gärdenfors, Ulf; Keith, David A.; Punt, André E.; Regan, Helen M.; Böhm, Monika; Hedges, Simon; Seddon, Mary; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Bachman, Steven P.; Akçakaya, H. Reşit

    2016-01-01

    The identification of species at risk of extinction is a central goal of conservation. As the use of data compiled for IUCN Red List assessments expands, a number of misconceptions regarding the purpose, application and use of the IUCN Red List categories and criteria have arisen. We outline five such classes of misconception; the most consequential drive proposals for adapted versions of the criteria, rendering assessments among species incomparable. A key challenge for the future will be to recognize the point where understanding has developed so markedly that it is time for the next generation of the Red List criteria. We do not believe we are there yet but, recognizing the need for scrutiny and continued development of Red Listing, conclude by suggesting areas where additional research could be valuable in improving the understanding of extinction risk among species. PMID:27072401

  19. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  20. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  1. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  2. Determination of Misconceptions that are Encountered by Teacher Candidates and Solution Propositions for Relieving of These Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesan, Cenk; Kaya, Deniz

    2007-01-01

    In order to think, to interpret and judge correctly, the humans have to comprehend what they have learned. Concepts are the abstract representatives of the classifications that are formed by objects, events, ideas and behaviors which have common specifications. (Fidan, N., 1985). Concepts reduce the complexity by simplifying the environment that…

  3. Determination of Misconceptions That Are Encountered by Teacher Candidates and Solution Propositions for Relieving of These Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesan, Cenk; Kaya, Deniz

    2007-01-01

    In order to think, to interpret and judge correctly, the humans have to comprehend what they have learned. Concepts are the abstract representatives of the classifications that are formed by objects, events, ideas and behaviors which have common specifications. (Fidan, N., 1985). Concepts reduce the complexity by simplifying the environment that…

  4. Challenges posed by some misconceptions in mathematical physics: A case study of work done and potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yah, Jake K.

    2011-12-01

    This study is focused on the concept and formalism of work done and potential energy on the very fundamental level. A detailed analysis of the incomplete presentations of the topics found a major misconception that precluded acknowledgement of existence of certain nonradial effects caused by classical radial/center-bound gravitational force fields is offered. Certain consequences of this and some related misconceptions are also discussed as well the adverse impact of these misconceptions on research on education, teaching and learning of these topics, and on the future development of physical and mathematical theories related to, or relying on, these topics. The most noticeable conclusion of this study is that a more complete and transparent mathematical approach to physics is needed in order to prevent generating similar misconception in the future theories of physics and mathematical sciences in general. A conclusion of importance to educators is that they cannot rely on research scientists anymore, but should evaluate the contents of topics presented to undergraduate and graduate students in order to recognize possible misconceptions and reformulate presentations of topics whose mathematical incompleteness might lead to cognitive conflicts. These conclusions, when generalized, provide specific guidelines for educators, and especially for academic teachers, curriculum designers and researchers on issues pertinent to education. This study is not dealing with misconceptions created by students.

  5. The effects of a Web-based physics software program on students' achievement and misconceptions in force and motion concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Neset

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a web-based physics software program on students' achievement and misconceptions in force and motion concepts. During the fall of 1999, a total 125 students (54.4% female and 45.6% male) from two public high schools in Brevard County, Florida, were selected by a sample of convenience to participate in this quasi-experimental study. The MANCOVA analysis yielded a significant interaction for pretest (covariate = priory physics knowledge) and gender for each dependent variable (Y 1 = Achievement, and Y2 = Misconception). Thus, the test for homogeneity of regression failed rendering an invalid MANCOVA model. As a result, separate ATI's were performed for each dependent variable. ATI interaction between pretest and gender relative to achievement and misconception was significant. Of the six initial hypotheses, only hypothesis 2, which examined differences in-group misconception scores, was rejected. Specifically, group membership contributed 12.6% additional knowledge of posttest misconception score variability, which was statistically significant (F1,9 = 20.03, p < .05). Based on this result, it can be concluded that incorporating the web-based physics program with traditional lecturing did have a significant effect on dispelling students' physics misconceptions about force and motion concepts. Thus, only the test for this hypothesis and the two interactions, which were not initially considered as research hypotheses, were significant. All other tests of hypotheses were not statistically significant and hence were not rejected.

  6. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  7. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Amy G; Morgan, Stephanie K; Sanderson, Seth K; Schulting, Molly C; Wieseman, Laramie J

    2016-12-01

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids) and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein). Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble.

  8. Development of the kinetic molecular theory of gases concept inventory: Preliminary results on university students' misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erceg, Nataša; Aviani, Ivica; Mešić, Vanes; Glunčić, Matko; Žauhar, Gordana

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated students' understanding of concepts related to the microscopic model of gas. We thoroughly reviewed the relevant literature and conducted think alouds with students by asking them to answer open-ended questions about the kinetic molecular theory of gases. Thereafter, we transformed the open-ended questions into multiple-choice questions, whereby distractors were based on the results of the think alouds. Thus, we obtained a set of 22 questions, which constitutes our current version of the kinetic molecular theory of gases concept inventory. The inventory has been administered to 250 students from different universities in Croatia, and its content validity has been investigated trough physics teacher surveys. The results of our study not only corroborate the existence of some already known student misconceptions, but also reveal new insights about a great spectrum of students' misconceptions that had not been reported in earlier research (e.g., misconceptions about intermolecular potential energy and molecular velocity distribution). Moreover, we identified similar distribution of students' responses across the surveyed student groups, despite the fact that they had been enrolled in different curricular environments.

  9. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  10. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  11. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  12. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  13. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  14. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  15. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H.; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this “perspective article” we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  16. Addressing Reservations about Hospitality and Tourism Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Lynn L.

    2003-01-01

    Although colleges have been offering degrees in hospitality management, tourism, and recreation for more than 40 years, many misconceptions persist about these programs and the careers available to their graduates. This article explores some of the opportunities available to students with degrees in these majors and looks at how one school…

  17. QCI Common

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  18. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology†

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Amy G.; Morgan, Stephanie K.; Sanderson, Seth K.; Schulting, Molly C.; Wieseman, Laramie J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids) and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein). Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble. PMID:28101260

  19. Nigerian Dental Technology Students and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Knowledge, Misconceptions and Willingness to Care

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Omili, MA; Akeredolu, PA

    2014-01-01

    Background: The rehabilitative dental care is important for maintaining adequate nutrition, guarding against wasting syndrome and malnutrition among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the Nigerian dental technology students’ knowledge and misconceptions about HIV infection and their willingness to care for HIV-infected patients. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study of dental technology students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. Data was subjected to descriptive, non-parametric and parametric statistics using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (Chicago Illinois, USA). P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents was high with some misconceptions. Specifically, the misconceptions about HIV transmission through a mosquito bite (P = 0.02) and shaking of hands (P = 0.03) were higher among respondents in the higher class than those in lower class. However, 10.6% (21/198), 6.1% (12/198) and 4.0% (8/198) of the respondents erroneous described HIV as harmless, self-limitation and antibiotics responsive infection respectively. Of the respondents, 78.8% (156/198) and 83.3% (165/198) of them expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients and expressed need for training in the clinical care of HIV-infected patients respectively. Overall, the respondents opined that the dental therapists are the most suitable dental professional to pass HIV-related information to patients in the dental setting ahead of dentists and dental surgery assistants. Conclusion: The expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients, knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents were high with existent misconceptions. There were no significant differences in the knowledge about HIV infection

  20. Using the method of dominant incorrect answers with the FCI test to diagnose misconceptions held by first year college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bani-Salameh, Hisham N.

    2017-01-01

    We started this work with the goal of detecting misconceptions held by our students about force and motion. A total of 341 students participated in this study by taking the force concept inventory (FCI) test both before and after receiving instructions about force or motion. The data from this study were analysed using different statistical techniques with results from frequencies and the dominant incorrect answer reported in this paper. All misconceptions reported in the original paper of the designers of the FCI test (Hestenes et al 1992 Phys. Teach. 30 141-58) were examined and the results are reported. Only pre test results are reported in this paper leaving post data for future work. We used the modified version of the FCI containing 30 questions and therefore used the revised list of misconceptions. Problems with impetus and active force are among the most dominant ones found with the full list reported in this paper.

  1. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  2. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Identifying and Repairing Student Misconceptions in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald L.; Streveler, Ruth A.; Yang, Dazhi; Roman, Aidsa I. Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes progress on two related lines of chemical engineering education research: 1) identifying persistent student misconceptions in thermal and transport science (fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics); and, 2) developing a method to help students repair these misconceptions. Progress on developing the Thermal and…

  3. Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: Overcoming a Misconception Using Conceptual Change to Teach the Energy-Yielding Metabolism to Brazilian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; Oliveira, Gabriel A.; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2013-01-01

    A misconception regarding the human metabolism has been shown to be widespread among high school students. The students consider glucose as the sole metabolic fuel, disregarding that lipids and amino acids can be oxidized for ATP production by human cells. This misconception seems to be a consequence of formal teaching in grade and high schools.…

  4. The influence of implementation of interactive lecture demonstrations (ILD) conceptual change oriented toward the decreasing of the quantity students that misconception on the Newton's first law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, Yudi; Suhandi, Andi; Hasanah, Lilik

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to know the influence of implementation of ILD conceptual change oriented (ILD-CC) toward the decreasing of the quantity of students that misconception on the Newton's First Law. The Newton's First Law misconceptions separated into five sub-misconceptions. This research is a quantitative research with one group pretest-posttest design. The samples of this research were 32 students on 9th grade of junior high school in Pandeglang, Banten, Indonesia. The diagnostic test is a multiple-choice form with three-tier test format. The result of this study found that there was decreasing of the quantity of students that misconception on the Newton's First Law. The largest percentage in the decreasing of the number of the students that misconception was on the Misconception 4 about 80, 77%. The Misconception 4 is "The cause of tendency of the body passenger that sat upright on the accelerated bus from motionless bus suddenly to backward be a backward force". For the future studies, it suggested to combine other methods to optimize the decreasing the number of students that misconception.

  5. Physics Education: Effect of Micro-Teaching Method Supported by Educational Technologies on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions on Basic Astronomy Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurbuz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…

  6. High school students' misconceptions in electricity and magnetism and some experiments that can help students to reduce them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelkova, Vera; Dvorak, Leos

    2016-05-01

    The Czech Conceptual test from the area of Electricity and Magnetism was prepared at Department of Physics Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague. The first part of the paper presents three problematic topics which were identified using this test -- charge distribution on an insulators, Coulomb's law and electromagnetic induction. However, to identify misconceptions is not enough. Therefore, the main part of the paper presents some experiments which can help students to overcome their misconceptions and to better understand not only the topics mentioned above. Most of these experiments can be done with very simple tools and materials.

  7. Problems in research integrity arising from misconceptions about the ownership of research.

    PubMed

    Fields, K L; Price, A R

    1993-09-01

    Many allegations of scientific misconduct result from activities that are perceived by the complainants as the "theft" of ideas, experimental results, or other intellectual property. The authors' thesis is that many of these allegations originate in misconceptions about the ownership of publicly supported scientific research. Some universities and medical schools may have their own codes for authorship, and journals and professional societies have codes or guidelines. In the NIH intramural programs, research data are considered to be the property of the institutes, not the individual researchers. In contrast, the training and experience of most scientists lead them to consider research data as being theirs. The paper discusses the origins of this attitude toward data and the ways that the structures of university laboratories and training programs lead to confusion and misunderstandings of researchers' "rights" to data. Also, emotional and personality factors often complicate these issues and lead to confrontations. Other misconceptions widely held among researchers: the false concepts of "my grant" and the "co-principal" investigator, ideas about who is and is not qualified to be an author, and ideas about sharing data. The authors emphasize the importance of scientifically literate legal advisers and the necessity for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and professors to understand their institutions' and grantors' guidelines and their obligations as scientists. At the heart of these obligations at all levels of research is honesty.

  8. Students’ analogical reasoning in novel situations: theory-like misconceptions or p-prims?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotou, Nikolaos; Abrahams, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been much research in the area of students’ misconceptions. Whilst this research has been useful in helping to inform the design of instructional approaches and curriculum development it has not provided much insight into how students reason when presented with a novel situation and, in particular, the knowledge they draw upon in an attempt to make predictions about that novel situation. This article reports on a study of Greek students, aged from 10 to 17 years old, who were asked to make predictions in novel situations and to then provide, without being told whether their predictions were correct or incorrect, explanations about their predictions. Indeed, their explanations in such novel situations have the potential to reveal how their ideas, as articulated as predictions, are formed as well as the sources they draw upon to make those predictions. We also consider in this article the extent to which student ideas can be seen either as theory-like misconceptions or, alternatively, as situated acts of construction involving the activation of fragmented pieces of knowledge referred to as phenomenological primitives (p-prims). Our findings suggest that in most cases students’ reasoning in novel situations can be better understood in terms of their use of p-prims and that teaching might be made more effective if teachers were more aware of the p-prims that students were likely to be using when presented with new situations in physics.

  9. Creationism as a Misconception: Socio-cognitive conflict in the teaching of evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Colin

    2012-09-01

    This position paper argues that students' understanding and acceptance of evolution may be supported, rather than hindered, by classroom discussion of creationism. Parallels are drawn between creationism and other scientific misconceptions, both of the scientific community in the past and of students in the present. Science teachers frequently handle their students' misconceptions as they arise by offering appropriate socio-cognitive conflict, which highlights reasons to disbelieve one idea and to believe another. It is argued that this way of working, rather than outlawing discussion, is more scientific and more honest. Scientific truth does not win the day by attempting to deny its opponents a voice but by engaging them with evidence. Teachers can be confident that evolution has nothing to fear from a free and frank discussion in which claims can be rebutted with evidence. Such an approach is accessible to children of all ages and is ultimately more likely to drive out pre-scientific superstitions. It also models the scientific process more authentically and develops students' ability to think critically.

  10. Science Teachers' Misconceptions in Science and Engineering Distinctions: Reflections on Modern Research Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Meyer, Daniel Z.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to learn about the misconceptions that may arise for elementary and high school science teachers in their reflections on science and engineering practice. Using readings and videos of real science and engineering work, teachers' reflections were used to uncover the underpinnings of their understandings. This knowledge ultimately provides information about supporting professional development (PD) for science teachers' knowledge of engineering. Six science teachers (two elementary and four high school teachers) participated in the study as part of an online PD experience. Cunningham and Carlsen's (Journal of Science Teacher Education 25:197-210, 2014) relative emphases of science and engineering practices were used to frame the design of PD activities and the analyses of teachers' views. Analyses suggest misconceptions within the eight practices of science and engineering from the US Next Generation Science Standards in four areas. These are that: (1) the nature of the practices in both science and engineering research is determined by the long-term implications of the research regardless of the nature of the immediate work, (2) engineering and science are hierarchical, (3) creativity is inappropriate, and (4) research outcomes cannot be processes. We discuss the nature of these understandings among participants and the implications for engineering education PD for science teachers.

  11. Misconceptions and biases in German students' perception of multiple energy sources: implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Roh Pin

    2016-04-01

    Misconceptions and biases in energy perception could influence people's support for developments integral to the success of restructuring a nation's energy system. Science education, in equipping young adults with the cognitive skills and knowledge necessary to navigate in the confusing energy environment, could play a key role in paving the way for informed decision-making. This study examined German students' knowledge of the contribution of diverse energy sources to their nation's energy mix as well as their affective energy responses so as to identify implications for science education. Specifically, the study investigated whether and to what extent students hold mistaken beliefs about the role of multiple energy sources in their nation's energy mix, and assessed how misconceptions could act as self-generated reference points to underpin support/resistance of proposed developments. An in-depth analysis of spontaneous affective associations with five key energy sources also enabled the identification of underlying concerns driving people's energy responses and facilitated an examination of how affective perception, in acting as a heuristic, could lead to biases in energy judgment and decision-making. Finally, subgroup analysis differentiated by education and gender supported insights into a 'two culture' effect on energy perception and the challenge it poses to science education.

  12. Mental models and other misconceptions in children's understanding of the earth.

    PubMed

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive "mental models" of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous. Participants were 6- and 7-year-olds (N=127) who were given either the mental model theorists' original drawing task or a new version in which the same instructions and questions were rephrased to minimize ambiguity and, thus, possible misinterpretation. In response to the new version, children gave substantially more indication of having scientific understanding and less of having naive mental models, suggesting that the misconceptions reported by the mental model theorists are largely methodological artifacts. There were also differences between the responses to the original version and those reported by Vosniadou and Brewer, indicating that other factors, such as cohort and cultural effects, are also likely to help explain the discrepant findings of previous research.

  13. Moon Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald; Lewis, Bradford F.

    2003-01-01

    Over the course of history, scientists have constructed models and equations that provide insight into the motions of the heavens. However, research indicates many people hold alternative conceptions that, to them, explain the same observable phenomenon. Science educators have found that students learning about lunar phases may hold misconceptions…

  14. Fibromyalgia Misconceptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the mind is a real factor in pain perception. For example, studies have shown that anxiety that ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibromyalgia/in-depth/fibromyalgia/ART-20048097 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions ...

  15. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  16. Identifying Students' Misconceptions in Writing Balanced Equations for Dissolving Ionic Compounds in Water and Using Multiple-Choice Questions at the Symbolic and Particulate Levels to Confront These Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil M.

    2012-01-01

    Students who harbor misconceptions often find chemistry difficult to understand. To improve teaching about the dissolving process, first semester introductory chemistry students were asked to complete a free-response questionnaire on writing balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. To corroborate errors and misconceptions…

  17. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    PubMed

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  18. Sensory illusions: Common mistakes in physics regarding sound, light and radio waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briles, T. M.; Tabor-Morris, A. E.

    2013-03-01

    Optical illusions are well known as effects that we see that are not representative of reality. Sensory illusions are similar but can involve other senses than sight, such as hearing or touch. One mistake commonly noted among instructors is that students often mis-identify radio signals as sound waves and not as part of the electromagnetic spectrum. A survey of physics students from multiple high schools highlights the frequency of this common misconception, as well as other nuances on this misunderstanding. Many students appear to conclude that, since they experience radio broadcasts as sound, then sound waves are the actual transmission of radio signals and not, as is actually true, a representation of those waves as produced by the translator box, the radio. Steps to help students identify and correct sensory illusion misconceptions are discussed. School of Education

  19. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  20. Misconceptions in Science and Mathematics. Proceedings of the International Seminar. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, June 20-22, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Hugh; Novak, Joseph D.

    These proceedings include abstracts and/or complete papers on topics and research focusing on student misconceptions (ideas at variance with accepted views) in science and mathematics. Abstracts and papers are arranged according to nine general areas emphasized: (1) theoretical and philosophical perspectives; (2) instructional issues; (3) research…

  1. Assessing the Effects of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions and Attitudes towards Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment software programs related to "genetic concepts" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the genetic concepts achievement test (GAT), the genetic concept test (GCT) and biology attitude scale…

  2. Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the types of views and misconceptions uncovered after assessing 155 freshman general chemistry students on the concept of particle position during the reversible physical change of melting, using the Melting Cycle Instrument, which illustrates particulate-level representations of a melting-freezing cycle. Animations…

  3. Development of a Three-Tier Test as a Valid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Misconceptions Related to Carbohydrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milenkovic, Dusica D.; Hrin, Tamara N.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Horvat, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and application of a three-tier test as a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing students' misconceptions regarding some basic concepts about carbohydrates. The test was administrated to students of the Pharmacy Department at the University of Bijeljina (Serb Republic). The results denoted construct and content…

  4. Will Writing Awareness Transfer to Writing Performance? Response to Douglas Downs and Elizabeth Wardle, "Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutney, Joshua P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author offers his critiques on Downs and Wardle's course, Introduction to Writing Studies. Downs and Wardle use their course to alert students to the very misconceptions that prompt the shift from "teaching writing" to "teaching about writing"--namely the inability of first-year composition courses to make good on the pledge…

  5. The Role of Computer-Aided Instruction in Science Courses and the Relevant Misconceptions of Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksakalli, Ayhan; Turgut, Umit; Salar, Riza

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the ways in which pre-service physics teachers interact with computers, which, as an indispensable means of today's technology, are of major value in education and training, and to identify any misconceptions said teachers may have about computer-aided instruction. As part of the study, computer-based physics…

  6. Formative Assessment Pre-Test to Identify College Students' Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions and Learning Difficulties in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Lieb, Carl

    2006-01-01

    A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in…

  7. Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and…

  8. Exploring Secondary Students' Knowledge and Misconceptions about Influenza: Development, validation, and implementation of a multiple-choice influenza knowledge scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, William L.; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Folk, William R.

    2013-07-01

    Understanding infectious diseases such as influenza is an important element of health literacy. We present a fully validated knowledge instrument called the Assessment of Knowledge of Influenza (AKI) and use it to evaluate knowledge of influenza, with a focus on misconceptions, in Midwestern United States high-school students. A two-phase validation process was used. In phase 1, an initial factor structure was calculated based on 205 students of grades 9-12 at a rural school. In phase 2, one- and two-dimensional factor structures were analyzed from the perspectives of classical test theory and the Rasch model using structural equation modeling and principal components analysis (PCA) on Rasch residuals, respectively. Rasch knowledge measures were calculated for 410 students from 6 school districts in the Midwest, and misconceptions were verified through the χ 2 test. Eight items measured knowledge of flu transmission, and seven measured knowledge of flu management. While alpha reliability measures for the subscales were acceptable, Rasch person reliability measures and PCA on residuals advocated for a single-factor scale. Four misconceptions were found, which have not been previously documented in high-school students. The AKI is the first validated influenza knowledge assessment, and can be used by schools and health agencies to provide a quantitative measure of impact of interventions aimed at increasing understanding of influenza. This study also adds significantly to the literature on misconceptions about influenza in high-school students, a necessary step toward strategic development of educational interventions for these students.

  9. Correcting Misconceptions on Electronics: Effects of a Simulation-Based Learning Environment Backed by a Conceptual Change Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Lung; Pan, Pei-Rong; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulation has significant potential as a supplementary tool for effective conceptual-change learning based on the integration of technology and appropriate instructional strategies. This study elucidates misconceptions in learning on diodes and constructs a conceptual-change learning system that incorporates…

  10. The Development of Discovery-Inquiry Learning Model to Reduce the Science Misconceptions of Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompo, Basman; Ahmad, Arifin; Muris, Muris

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to develop discovery inquiry (DI) learning model to reduce the misconceptions of Science student level of secondary school that is valid, practical, and effective. This research was an R&D (research and development). The trials of discovery inquiry (DI) learning model were carried out in two different…

  11. Preservice Elementary and Secondary Science Methods Teachers: Comparison of Formal Reasoning, ACT Science, Process Skill, and Physical Science Misconceptions Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitner, Betty L.

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to compare reasoning level, American College Test (ACT) science, process skills, and physical science misconceptions of preservice elementary and secondary science teachers and to investigate gender differences. The stratified randomly drawn sample (n=68) consisted of preservice elementary and…

  12. Science Teachers' Perceptions of and Approaches towards Students' Misconceptions on Photosynthesis: A Comparison Study between US and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Kyungwoon; Park, Soonhye; Choi, Aeran

    2017-01-01

    A critical component of teacher effectiveness is how teachers notice students' misconceptions and adjust the instructional approach accordingly. Taking a stance that the teachers' instructional quality is crucial to students' learning, a qualitative international comparison study was performed to examine science teachers' perceptions of and their…

  13. Describing and Analyzing Learning in Action: An Empirical Study of the Importance of Misconceptions in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Karim M.; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2008-01-01

    Although misconceptions in science have been established in interview studies, their role during the learning process is poorly examined. In this paper, we use results from a classroom study to analyze to what extent nonscientific ideas in electrochemistry that students report in interviews enter into their learning in a more authentic setting. We…

  14. The Effect of Conceptual Change Approach to Eliminate 9th Grade High School Students' Misconceptions about Air Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbas, Yavuz; Gencturk, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching based on conceptual change overcome misconceptions of 9th grade high school students about the subject of air pressure. The sampling of the study was formed with two classes of 9th grade students from a general high school in the city-center of Trabzon. A quasi-experimental…

  15. Advanced Undergraduate and Early Graduate Physics Students' Misconception about Solar Wind Flow: Evidence of Students' Difficulties in Distinguishing Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Nicholas A.; Lopez, Ramon E.

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested that advanced undergraduate students confuse the spiral structure of the interplanetary magnetic field with the flow of the solar wind. Though it is a small study, this paper documents this misconception and begins to investigate the underlying issues behind it. We present evidence that the traditional presentation…

  16. Challenges Posed by Some Misconceptions in Mathematical Physics: A Case Study of Work Done and Potential Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yah, Jake K.

    2011-01-01

    This study is focused on the concept and formalism of work done and potential energy on the very fundamental level. A detailed analysis of the incomplete presentations of the topics found a major misconception that precluded acknowledgement of existence of certain nonradial effects caused by classical radial/center-bound gravitational force fields…

  17. Misconceptions--A Column about Errors in Geoscience Textbooks. Mythical Effects of Molecular Attraction on Groundwater Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampler, Jesse Marion

    1996-01-01

    Explores the origins of the myth expressed in many early geology textbooks that clay and shale are impervious to water. Misconceptions about the effects of molecular attraction on groundwater appear to have arisen from errant interpretations of correct physicochemical concepts. (PVD)

  18. Relationship between care-givers' misconceptions and non-use of ITNs by under-five Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria has been a major public health problem in Nigeria and many other sub-Saharan African countries. Insecticide-treated nets have shown to be cost-effective in the prevention of malaria, but the number of people that actually use these nets has remained generally low. Studies that explore the determinants of use of ITN are desirable. Methods Structured questionnaires based on thematic areas were administered by trained interviewers to 7,223 care-givers of under-five children selected from all the six geo-political zones of Nigeria. Bivariate analysis and multinomial logit model were used to identify possible determinants of use of ITN. Results Bivariate analysis showed that under-five children whose care-givers had some misconceptions about causes and prevention of malaria were significantly less likely to use ITN even though the household may own a net (p < 0.0001). Education and correct knowledge about modes of prevention of malaria, knowing that malaria is dangerous and malaria can kill were also significantly associated with use of ITN (p < 0.0001). Knowledge of symptoms of malaria did not influence use of ITN. Association of non-use of ITN with misconceptions about prevention of malaria persisted with logistic regression (Odds ratio 0.847; 95% CI 0.747 to 0.960). Conclusions Misconceptions about causes and prevention of malaria by caregivers adversely influence the use ITN by under-five children. Appropriate communication strategies should correct these misconceptions. PMID:21696622

  19. Misconceptions Regarding Accommodations on High-Stakes Tests: Recommendations for Preparing Disability Documentation for Test Takers with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinckerhoff, Loring C.; Banerjee, Manju

    2007-01-01

    The process of submitting documentation to testing agencies as proof of a disability can be time consuming, expensive, and even intimidating to test takers with learning disabilities. Misconceptions about the accommodations review process employed by testing agencies add to the anxiety that many test takers feel around obtaining approval for…

  20. Trends Concerning Four Misconceptions in Students' Intuitively-Based Probabilistic Reasoning Sourced in the Heuristic of Representativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kustos, Paul Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Student difficulty in the study of probability arises in intuitively-based misconceptions derived from heuristics. One such heuristic, the one of note for this research study, is that of representativeness, in which an individual informally assesses the probability of an event based on the degree to which the event is similar to the sample from…

  1. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  2. A New Direction: How a Compass Pointed the Way to Clearing Up an Attractive Misconception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Tracy

    2012-10-01

    Ask a typical high school student to draw a picture of how a bar magnet works and most of the drawings produced will show a "+" and "-" sign at the two ends. Some students will write "N" and "S." If you then ask some follow-up questions, they will often resort to talking about "charges" being responsible for the magnetism. For several years, I have tried to tackle this prevalent misconception and guide students toward a more sophisticated model of domains, with at least one unexpected outcome along the way. This year, my AP Physics B class helped me develop a simple demonstration that may convince some students that charges are not in charge of magnetism.

  3. The historical basis of a misconception leading to undertreating atopic dermatitis (eczema): facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Farhi, David; Taïeb, Alain; Tilles, Gérard; Wallach, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The quest for clarifying the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (eczema) has lasted for 25 centuries. Yearning to discern the primum movens of atopic dermatitis, physicians aimed to identify the curative therapy. Recent scientific efforts has brought to the light an ever-growing amount of interplaying pathophysiologic factors, including the epidermal barrier, the digestive flora, food, early infections and antigenic stimulations, and innate and adaptive immune response; however, overfocusing on some of these factors, along with misconceptions about the benefit/risk balance of topical therapies, has sometimes led topical therapies being disregarded. Reviewing the history of pathophysiologic concepts, we aim to return topical therapies to the center of the clinical management of atopic dermatitis.

  4. Misconceptions in recent papers on special relativity and absolute space theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.; Kolen, P.

    1982-01-01

    Several recent papers which purport to substantiate or negate arguments in favor of certain theories of absolute space have been based on fallacious principles. This paper discusses three related instances, indicating where misconceptions have arisen. It is established, contrary to popular belief, that the classical Lorentz ether theory accounts for all the experimental evidence which supports the special theory of relativity. It is demonstrated that the ether theory predicts the null results obtained from pulsar timing and Moessbauer experiments. It is concluded that a measurement of the one-way velocity of light has physical meaning within the context of the Lorentz theory, and it is argued that an adequately designed experiment to measure the one-way velocity of light should be attempted.

  5. Development and application of an instrument to identify students misconceptions: Diffusion and osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misischia, Cynthia M.

    A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test, and if possible participate in a follow-up interview. The researcher constructed short answer test that consisted of a three-tier structure that required students to generate answers, diminishing the influence found in two-tiered instruments such as 'recognition' of correct answers and test taking skills More importantly, each level built upon knowledge demonstrated in the previous tier; this allowed the researcher to determine where the breakdown occurred. Part one of the test consisted of 9 questions that prompted students to provide short answer definitions. Part two of the exam consisted of 7 questions that contained two parts. The first question required a true or false answer and the second required a brief explanation. The final part of the test consisted of 12 questions related to three scenarios. After each question students were also asked to record how confident they were with their answers on a three point scale. This helped to determine whether students had 'confidence' in their answers, or if they were just guessing. A total of three students agreed to participate in audio-recorded interviews. Descriptive and correlational data was used in the analysis of this study. This data included: (1) test; (2) interview; (3); Point biserial correlation coefficients; (4) Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficients; (5) Kendall's Tau-b correlation coefficients; (5) and error pattern analysis Evidence from this study demonstrates that students do have misconceptions, about the processes of diffusion and osmosis.

  6. Middle School Teacher Misconceptions and Anxieties Concerning Space Science Disciplinary Core Ideas in NGSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    The Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI) of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are grouped into the broad disciplinary areas of Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences, and Engineering, Technology and Application of Science, and feature learning progressions based on endpoint targets for each grade band. Since the Middle School DCIs build on the expected learning achievements to be reached by the end of Fifth Grade, and High School DCI similarly build on the expected learning achievements expected for the end of Eighth Grade, the Middle School grade band is of particular importance as the bridge between the Elementary and High School curriculum. In states where there is not a special Middle School Certification many of these science classes are taught by teachers prepared to teach at the Elementary level (and who may have limited content background). As a result, some pre-service and in-service teachers have expressed reduced self-confidence in both their own science content knowledge and their ability to apply it in the NGSS-based classroom, while decades of research has demonstrated the pervasiveness of science misconceptions among teachers. Thus the adoption of NGSS has the potential to drive talented teachers out of the profession who feel that they are ill-prepared for this sweeping transition. The key is providing rigorous education in both content and pedagogy for pre-service teachers and quality targeted professional development for in-service teachers. This report focuses on the Middle School Space Sciences grade band DCIs and presents research on specific difficulties, misconceptions and uncertainties with the material demonstrated by pre-service education students over the past four years in a required university science content course, as well as two year-long granted workshop series for current Middle School teachers. This information is relevant to the development of both new content courses aligned with NGSS for pre

  7. Using conceptual maps to assess students' climate change understanding and misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, C.

    2011-12-01

    The complex and interdisciplinary nature of climate change science poses special challenges for educators in helping students understand the climate system, and how it is evolving under natural and anthropogenic forcing. Students and citizens alike have existing mental models that may limit their perception and processing of the multiple relationships between processes (e.g., feedback) that arise in global change science, and prevent adoption of complex scientific concepts. Their prior knowledge base serves as the scaffold for all future learning and grasping its range and limitations serves as an important basis upon which to anchor instruction. Different instructional strategies can be adopted to help students understand the inherently interdisciplinary topic of global climate change, its interwoven human and natural causes, and the connections it has with society through a complex range of political, social, technological and economic factors. One assessment method for students' understanding of global climate change with its many uncertainties, whether associated with the workings of the climate system or with respect to social, cultural and economic processes that mediate human responses to changes within the system, is through the use of conceptual maps. When well designed, they offer a representation of students' mental model prior and post instruction. We will present two conceptual mapping activities used in the classroom to assess students' knowledge and understanding about global climate change and uncover misconceptions. For the first one, concept maps will be used to demonstrate evidence of learning and conceptual change, while for the second we will show how conceptual maps can provide information about gaps in knowledge and misconceptions students have about the topic.

  8. Identifying Liquid-Gas System Misconceptions and Addressing Them Using a Laboratory Exercise on Pressure-Temperature Diagrams of a Mixed Gas Involving Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on students' understandings of a liquid-gas system with liquid-vapor equilibrium in a closed system using a pressure-temperature ("P-T") diagram. By administrating three assessment questions concerning the "P-T" diagrams of liquid-gas systems to students at the beginning of undergraduate general chemistry…

  9. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  10. Addressing Kitchen Contaminants for Healthy, Low-Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, J. Chris; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking and cooking burners emit pollutants that can adversely affect indoor air quality in residences and significantly impact occupant health. Effective kitchen exhaust ventilation can reduce exposure to cooking-related air pollutants as an enabling step to healthier, low-energy homes. This report by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory identifies barriers to the widespread adoption of kitchen exhaust ventilation technologies and practice and proposes a suite of strategies to overcome these barriers. The recommendations have been vetted by a group of industry, regulatory, health, and research experts and stakeholders who convened for two meetings and provided input and feedback to early drafts of this document. The most fundamental barriers are (1) the common misconception, based on a sensory perception of risk, that kitchen exhaust when cooking is unnecessary and (2) the lack of a code requirement for kitchen ventilation in most U.S. locations. Highest priority objectives include the following: (1) Raise awareness among the public and the building industry of the need to install and routinely use kitchen ventilation; (2) Incorporate kitchen exhaust ventilation as a requirement of building codes and improve the mechanisms for code enforcement; (3) Provide best practice product and use-behavior guidance to ventilation equipment purchasers and installers, and; (4) Develop test methods and performance targets to advance development of high performance products. A specific, urgent need is the development of an over-the-range microwave that meets the airflow and sound requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  11. Addressing Kitchen Contaminants for Healthy, Low-Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, J. Chris; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking and cooking burners emit pollutants that can adversely affect indoor air quality in residences and significantly impact occupant health. Effective kitchen exhaust ventilation can reduce exposure to cooking-related air pollutants as an enabling step to healthier, low-energy homes. This report identifies barriers to the widespread adoption of kitchen exhaust ventilation technologies and practice and proposes a suite of strategies to overcome these barriers. The recommendations have been vetted by a group of industry, regulatory, health, and research experts and stakeholders who convened for two web-based meetings and provided input and feedback to early drafts of this document. The most fundamental barriers are (1) the common misconception, based on a sensory perception of risk, that kitchen exhaust when cooking is unnecessary and (2) the lack of a code requirement for kitchen ventilation in most US locations. Highest priority objectives include the following: (1) Raise awareness among the public and the building industry of the need to install and routinely use kitchen ventilation; (2) Incorporate kitchen exhaust ventilation as a requirement of building codes and improve the mechanisms for code enforcement; (3) Provide best practice product and use-behavior guidance to ventilation equipment purchasers and installers, and; (4) Develop test methods and performance targets to advance development of high performance products. A specific, urgent need is the development of an over-the-range microwave that meets the airflow and sound requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  12. 47 CFR 32.19 - Address for reports and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Address for reports and correspondence. 32.19 Section 32.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.19 Address...

  13. Commercial insurance vs community-based health plans: time for a policy option with clinical emphasis to address the cost spiral.

    PubMed

    Amundson, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The nation continues its ceaseless struggle with the spiraling cost of health care. Previous efforts (regulation, competition, voluntary action) have included almost every strategy except clinical. Insurers have largely failed in their cost-containment efforts. There is a strong emerging body of literature that demonstrates the relationship between various clinical strategies and reductions in utilization and costs. This article describes the organization of health services, including integration of delivery and financing systems, at the community level as a model that effectively addresses the critical structural flaws that have frustrated control of costs. Community-based health plans (CHPs) have been developed and have demonstrated viability. The key elements of CHPs are a legal organizational structure, a full provider network, advanced care-management systems, and the ability to assume financial risk. Common misconceptions regarding obstacles to CHP development are the complexity of the undertaking, difficulty assuming the insurance function, and insured pools that are too small to be viable. The characteristics of successful CHPs and 2 case studies are described, including the types of advanced care-management systems that have resulted in strong financial performance. The demonstrated ability of CHPs to establish financial viability with small numbers of enrollees challenges the common assumption that there is a fixed relationship between health plan enrollment size and financial performance. Organizing the health system at the community/regional level provides an attractive alternative model in the health-reform debate. There is an opportunity for clinical systems and state and federal leaders to support the development of community-based integrated delivery and financing system models that, among other advantages, have significant potential to modulate the pernicious cost spiral.

  14. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  15. Determinants of misconceptions about diabetes among Saudi diabetic patients attending diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsunni, Ahmed A.; Albaker, Waleed I.; Badar, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculated and categorized into low (0-12), moderate (13-24) and high (25-36) scores. The association of misconception score with various potential determinants was calculated using Chi-square test. Step-wise logistic regression was applied to the variables showing significant association with the misconception score in order to identify the determinants of misconceptions. Results: The mean age was 39.62 ± 16.7 and 112 (56%) subjects were females. Type 1 diabetics were 78 (39%), while 122 (61%) had Type 2 diabetes. Insulin was being used by 105 (52.5%), 124 (62%) were self-monitoring blood glucose and 112 (56%) were using diet control. Formal education on diabetes awareness had been received by 167 (83.5%) before the interview. The mean misconception score was 10.29 ± 4.92 with 115 (57.5%) subjects had low misconception scores (<12/36). On the Chi-square test, female gender, rural area of residence, little or no education, <5 or >15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no dietary control and no diabetes education were all significantly (P < 0.05) associated with higher misconception scores. Step-wise logistic regression suggested that diabetes education, gender, education and time since diagnosis were significant (P < 0.05) predictors of misconception scores. Conclusions: The strongest determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in our study population were female gender, rural area of residence, illiteracy or little education, <5 or >15 years since diagnosis, no self

  16. Name-Based Address Mapping for Virtual Private Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surányi, Péter; Shinjo, Yasushi; Kato, Kazuhiko

    IPv4 private addresses are commonly used in local area networks (LANs). With the increasing popularity of virtual private networks (VPNs), it has become common that a user connects to multiple LANs at the same time. However, private address ranges for LANs frequently overlap. In such cases, existing systems do not allow the user to access the resources on all LANs at the same time. In this paper, we propose name-based address mapping for VPNs, a novel method that allows connecting to hosts through multiple VPNs at the same time, even when the address ranges of the VPNs overlap. In name-based address mapping, rather than using the IP addresses used on the LANs (the real addresses), we assign a unique virtual address to each remote host based on its domain name. The local host uses the virtual addresses to communicate with remote hosts. We have implemented name-based address mapping for layer 3 OpenVPN connections on Linux and measured its performance. The communication overhead of our system is less than 1.5% for throughput and less than 0.2ms for each name resolution.

  17. Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Yılmaz; Yeşilyurt, Selami

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research. After the treatment, general achievement in CAT increased in favor of experimental groups. Instructional software programs also had the positive effect to the awareness of students' understandings to the general functions of mitosis and meiosis. However, the current study revealed that there were still some misconceptions in the experimental groups even after the treatment. It was also noticed that only using edutainment software program significantly changed students' attitudes towards biology.

  18. Addressing the underperformance of faculty and staff.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Carole; Pressler, Jana L

    2006-01-01

    Many new nursing leaders assuming work as deans, assistant deans, or interim deans have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them for the job. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, the authors of this department, both deans, offer survival tips based on their personal experiences and insights. They address common issues, challenges, and opportunities that face academic executive teams, such as negotiating an executive contract, obtaining faculty lines, building effective work teams, managing difficult employees, and creating nimble organizational structure to respond to changing consumer, healthcare delivery, and community needs. The authors welcome counterpoint discussions with readers.

  19. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  20. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  1. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  2. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  3. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  4. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  5. Birthday and birthmate problems: misconceptions of probability among psychology undergraduates and casino visitors and personnel.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S; Formann, Anton K

    2008-02-01

    Subjective estimates and associated confidence ratings for the solutions of some classic occupancy problems were studied in samples of 721 psychology undergraduates, 39 casino visitors, and 34 casino employees. On tasks varying the classic birthday problem, i.e., the probability P for any coincidence among N individuals sharing the same birthday, clear majorities of respondents markedly overestimated N, given P, and markedly underestimated P, given N. Respondents did notedly better on tasks varying the birthmate problem, i.e., P for the specific coincidence among N individuals of having a birthday today. Psychology students and women did better on both task types, but were less confident about their estimates than casino visitors or per sonnel and men. Several further person variables, such as indicators of topical knowledge and familiarity, were associated with better and more confident performance on birthday problems, but not on birthmate problems. Likewise, higher confidence ratings were related to subjective estimates that were closer to the solutions of birthday problems, but not of birthmate problems. Implications of and possible explanations for these findings, study limitations, directions for further inquiry, and the real-world relevance of ameliorating misconceptions of probability are discussed.

  6. Myths and misconceptions in general public toward ocular complications followed by the removal of upper teeth

    PubMed Central

    Newadkar, Ujwala Rohan; Chaudhari, Lalit; Khalekar, Yogita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The upper jaw forms the floor of the maxillary sinus and the upper teeth are continuous with the whole midface and cranium, therefore while treating these teeth, it is important for the practitioner to consider the possibility of ocular complications. Ocular disturbances such as blurring of vision, mydriasis, ptosis, diplopia, enophthalmos, miosis, and blindness are rare complications due to intraoral local anesthesia. So far at present, the general population is having myths and misconceptions regarding the extraction of teeth and vision loss; hence, we evaluated the same. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective survey targeting the general public was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 300 standardized self-administered questionnaires were given and the data were analyzed. Results: Out of 300 patients, 148 were educated and 152 were uneducated. The study population was analyzed based on their age, sex, and literacy, i.e. the level of education. Seventy-six percent of uneducated and 48% of educated groups had false belief of ocular complications followed by the removal of upper teeth and among them uneducated females of older age group showed higher prevalence. Conclusion: The general public's knowledge about ocular complications due to tooth extraction in our study group is not adequate and needs improvement. Although the practice of informing by dentists is satisfactory, there is a need for creating awareness in the general public against such complications.

  7. Bad astronomy : misconceptions and misuses revealed, from astrology to the moon landing "hoax"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plait, Philip C.

    2002-02-01

    Advance praise for Philip Plait s Bad Astronomy "Bad Astronomy is just plain good! Philip Plait clears up every misconception on astronomy and space you never knew you suffered from." --Stephen Maran, Author of Astronomy for Dummies and editor of The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia "Thank the cosmos for the bundle of star stuff named Philip Plait, who is the world s leading consumer advocate for quality science in space and on Earth. This important contribution to science will rest firmly on my reference library shelf, ready for easy access the next time an astrologer calls." --Dr. Michael Shermer, Publisher of Skeptic magazine, monthly columnist for Scientific American, and author of The Borderlands of Science "Philip Plait has given us a readable, erudite, informative, useful, and entertaining book. Bad Astronomy is Good Science. Very good science..." --James "The Amazing" Randi, President, James Randi Educational Foundation, and author of An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural "Bad Astronomy is a fun read. Plait is wonderfully witty and educational as he debunks the myths, legends, and 'conspiracies that abound in our society. 'The Truth Is Out There' and it's in this book. I loved it!" --Mike Mullane, Space Shuttle astronaut and author of Do Your Ears Pop in Space?

  8. Marvels, Mysteries, and Misconceptions of Vascular Compensation to Peripheral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    ZIEGLER, MATTHEW A.; DISTASI, MATTHEW R.; BILLS, RANDALL G.; MILLER, STEVEN J.; ALLOOSH, MOUHAMAD; MURPHY, MICHAEL P.; AKINGBA, A. GEORGE; STUREK, MICHAEL; DALSING, MICHAEL C.; UNTHANK, JOSEPH L.

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a major health problem and there is a significant need to develop therapies to prevent its progression to claudication and critical limb ischemia. Promising results in rodent models of arterial occlusion have generally failed to predict clinical success and led to questions of their relevance. While sub-optimal models may have contributed to the lack of progress, we suggest that advancement has also been hindered by misconceptions of the human capacity for compensation and the specific vessels which are of primary importance. We present and summarize new and existing data from humans, Ossabaw miniature pigs, and rodents which provide compelling evidence that natural compensation to occlusion of a major artery (i) may completely restore perfusion, (ii) occurs in specific pre-existing small arteries, rather than the distal vasculature, via mechanisms involving flow-mediated dilation and remodeling (iii) is impaired by cardiovascular risk factors which suppress the flow-mediated mechanisms and (iv) can be restored by reversal of endothelial dysfunction. We propose that restoration of the capacity for flow-mediated dilation and remodeling in small arteries represents a largely unexplored potential therapeutic opportunity to enhance compensation for major arterial occlusion and prevent the progression to critical limb ischemia in the peripheral circulation. PMID:20141596

  9. Implementacion de modulos constructivistas que atiendan "misconceptions" y lagunas conceptuales en temas de la fisica en estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacruz Sarmiento, Neida M.

    Este estudio se enfoco en los "misconception" y lagunas conceptuales en temas fundamentales de Fisica como son Equilibrio Termodinamico y Estatica de fluidos. En primer lugar se trabajo con la identificacion de "misconceptions" y lagunas conceptuales y se analizo en detalle la forma en que los estudiantes construyen sus propias teorias de fenomenos relacionados con los temas. Debido a la complejidad en la que los estudiantes asimilan los conceptos fisicos, se utilizo el metodo de investigacion mixto de tipo secuencial explicativo en dos etapas, una cuantitativa y otra cualitativa. La primera etapa comprendio cuatro fases: (1) Aplicacion de una prueba diagnostica para identificar el conocimiento previo y lagunas conceptuales. (2) Identificacion de "misconceptions" y lagunas del concepto a partir del conocimiento previo. (3) Implementacion de la intervencion por medio de modulos en el topico de Equilibrio Termodinamico y Estatica de Fluidos. (4) Y la realizacion de la pos prueba para analizar el impacto y la efectividad de la intervencion constructivista. En la segunda etapa se utilizo el metodo de investigacion cualitativo, por medio de una entrevista semiestructurada que partio de la elaboracion de un mapa conceptual y se finalizo con un analisis de datos conjuntamente. El desarrollo de este estudio permitio encontrar "misconceptions" y lagunas conceptuales a partir del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes participantes en los temas trabajados, que fueron atendidos en el desarrollo de las distintas actividades inquisitivas que se presentaron en el modulo constructivista. Se encontro marcadas diferencias entre la pre y pos prueba en los temas, esto se debio al requerimiento de habilidades abstractas para el tema de Estatica de Fluidos y al desarrollo intuitivo para el tema de Equilibrio Termodinamico, teniendo mejores respuestas en el segundo. Los participantes demostraron una marcada evolucion y/o cambio en sus estructuras de pensamiento, las pruebas estadisticas

  10. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems.

  11. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  12. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  13. Addressing problems in complete dentures.

    PubMed

    LaBarre, Eugene; Giusti, Lola; Pitigoi-Aron, Gabriela

    2007-10-01

    The authors have compiled a set of solutions to the most common issues influencing the success of complete denture cases. A brief review and discussion of occlusal vertical dimension is presented, followed by a troubleshooting guide to problems such as inadequate retention and stability, discomfort, and other problems affecting treatment outcome.

  14. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  15. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  16. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  17. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  18. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  19. Putting to rest WISHE-ful misconceptions for tropical cyclone intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montomery, Michael T.; Persing, John; Smith, Roger K.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. The first is to point out and correct several misconceptions about the putative WISHE mechanism of tropical cyclone intensification that currently are being taught to atmospheric science students, to tropical weather forecasters, and to laypeople who seek to understand how tropical cyclones intensify. The mechanism relates to the simplest problem of an initial cyclonic vortex in a quiescent environment. This first part is important because the credibility of tropical cyclone science depends inter alia on being able to articulate a clear and consistent picture of the hypothesized intensification process and its dependencies on key flow parameters. The credibility depends also on being able to test the hypothesized mechanisms using observations, numerical models, or theoretical analyses. The second purpose of the paper is to carry out new numerical experiments using a state-of-the-art numerical model to test a recent hypothesis invoking the WISHE feedback mechanism during the rapid intensification phase of a tropical cyclone. The results obtained herein, in conjunction with prior work, do not support this recent hypothesis and refute the view that the WISHE intensification mechanism is the essential mechanism of tropical cyclone intensification in the idealized problem that historically has been used to underpin the paradigm. This second objective is important because it presents a simple way of testing the hypothesized intensification mechanism and shows that the mechanism is neither essential nor the dominant mode of intensification for the prototype intensification problem. In view of the operational, societal, and scientific interest in the physics of tropical cyclone intensification, we believe this paper will be of broad interest to the atmospheric science community and the findings should be useful in both the classroom setting and frontier research.

  20. Are Therapeutic Motivation and Having One’s Own Doctor as Researcher Sources of Therapeutic Misconception?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Scott Y H; De Vries, Raymond; Parnami, Sonali; Wilson, Renee; Kim, H Myra; Frank, Samuel; Holloway, Robert G; Kieburtz, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Background Desire for improvement in one’s illness and having one’s own doctor functioning as a researcher are thought to promote therapeutic misconception (TM), a phenomenon in which research subjects are said to conflate research with treatment. Purpose To examine whether subjects’ therapeutic motivation and own doctor functioning as researcher are associated with TM. Methods We interviewed 90 persons with advanced Parkinson Disease (PD) enrolled or intending to enroll in sham surgery controlled neurosurgical trials, using qualitative interviews. Subjects were compared by motivation (primarily therapeutic versus primarily altruistic or dually motivated by altruistic and therapeutic motivation) and by doctor status (own doctor as site investigator versus not) on the following: understanding of purpose of study; understanding of research procedures; perception of chance of direct benefit; and recollection and perceptions concerning the risks. Results 60% had primarily therapeutic motivation and 44% had their own doctor as the site investigator, but neither were generally associated with increased TM responses. Overall level of understanding of purpose and procedures of research were high. Subjects responded with generally high estimates of probability of direct benefit but their rationales were personal and complex. The therapeutic-motivation group was more sensitive to risks. Five (5.6%) subjects provided incorrect answers to the question about purpose of research and yet showed excellent understanding of research procedures. Conclusions In persons with PD involved in sham surgery clinical trials, being primarily motivated by desire for direct benefit to one’s illness or having one’s own doctor as the site investigator were not associated with greater TM responses. PMID:24855070

  1. Glucose as the sole metabolic fuel: overcoming a misconception using conceptual change to teach the energy-yielding metabolism to Brazilian high school students.

    PubMed

    Luz, Mauricio R M P; Oliveira, Gabriel A; Da Poian, Andrea T

    2013-01-01

    A misconception regarding the human metabolism has been shown to be widespread among high school students. The students consider glucose as the sole metabolic fuel, disregarding that lipids and amino acids can be oxidized for ATP production by human cells. This misconception seems to be a consequence of formal teaching in grade and high schools. The present study reports the evaluation of a teaching strategy based on the use of a dialogic teaching methodology within a conceptual change approach to remediate that misconception. Students were stimulated to formulate hypotheses, outline experiments, and to discuss their outcomes. The results showed that students were able to reformulate their original concepts immediately after teaching. The majority of the students showed adequate learning of the topic eight months after the application of the teaching strategy, although some level of misconception recurrence was observed. The educational consequences of the teaching unit are discussed in the context of the possible reasons for its success as well as the need for similar initiatives at grade school to avoid the establishment of the misconception.

  2. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  3. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  4. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Presidential address: E pluribus unum.

    PubMed

    Bill, A H

    1977-12-01

    To promote the best possible overall pediatric surgical care, I think that this may be the time that we should consider making common cause with other surgical specialists who work in the pediatric age range. This will need cooperative organization in our hospitals, medical schools, and on the national level. We now need a combined strong voice to deal with the large organizations through which the policies and the funding are being decided. We must now "hang together, or we (and our patients) may all hang separately".

  6. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  7. Glucose as the sole metabolic fuel: a study on the possible influence of teachers' knowledge on the establishment of a misconception among Brazilian high school students.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Maurício Roberto Motta Pinto

    2008-09-01

    In the present work, I investigated the origin of the misconception that glucose is the sole metabolic fuel previously described among Brazilian high school students. The results of a multiple-choice test composed of 24 questions about a broad range of biology subjects were analyzed. The test was part of a contest and was answered by a sample composed of undergraduate students as well as biologists and practicing biology teachers. The majority of the responders had difficulties in recognizing the existence of gluconeogenesis and the possibility of ATP production using other fuels other than carbohydrates. Biology teachers and biologists seemed to either lack the knowledge or present the misconception regarding energy-yielding metabolism found among students. I argue that in both cases, biology teachers are likely to teach metabolism-related subjects in a manner that may contribute to the appearance of the misconception among high school students.

  8. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  9. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  10. Changing Misconceptions in Newton's Laws of Motion Through Playing Computer Games and Peer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Hyejoo

    This study was conducted to acquire information about students' misconceptions on Newton's laws of motion. Three major hypotheses were examined: (1) students' performance on the posttest after playing the games set in the context of a Newtonian microworld will be significantly better than their performance on the pretest; (2) performance of the students playing the games in a peer cooperative learning setting will improve significantly better than the students who play the games individually; (3) there will be a differential relationship between students with different abilities' performance on the posttest and student interactions in a cooperative learning setting measured by verbal interaction variables. Fifty-three subjects were drawn from 12th grade physics classes at two high schools located in a suburban area of the State of Connecticut. All the students had studied vector addition, Newton's laws of motion, and conservation of momentum. To test the hypotheses, some students played the computer games in a cooperative learning setting and others in an individual learning setting. A series of force and motion problems (White, 1981, 1983) was used as a pretest and a posttest. The nature of verbal interactions in the peer cooperative learning setting was also examined to find the relationship between interaction variables and achievement on the posttest. Comparisons of results were also made with the results of White's study (1981) in which the same dynamics problems were used as a pretest and a posttest. The results show that the students who played computer games in both learning settings performed better on the posttest than on the pretest. On the difference between the performance improvement of the students in two learning settings, the students of all three levels in a peer cooperative learning setting improved more than the students of each corresponding level in individual learning setting. An analysis of videotapes of student verbal interactions in the

  11. Drawing rocks at primary school: a tool for emerging misconceptions and promoting conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benciolini, L.; Muscio, G.

    2012-04-01

    Drawing rocks at primary school: a tool for emerging misconceptions and promoting conceptual change Luca Benciolini Dipartimento di Fisica, Chimica e Ambiente, Università di Udine (Italy) and Giuseppe Muscio Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale (Udine, Italy) In order to investigate spontaneous ideas of children about rock samples, the Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale in collaboration with the Università di Udine submitted six classrooms of fifth and fourth grade-students to a specific test. One hundred thirty-three students without a specific background in Earth Sciences were asked to give a) a written description of a rock sample; b) a drawing of the sample; c) a written short story about the sample. The selected thirty-five samples in the opinion of the researchers contain 255 geologically relevant self-evident characters such as fossils, clastic textures, planar discontinuities and so on. Childs spontaneously described 209 geological characters. Forty-seven fifth-grade students (group A) have been previously followed specific training in multisensory description of objects and observed the 90% of the geologically relevant characters. Group B (forty-three fifth-grade) and group C (forty-three fourth-grade) on the contrary, without any previous instructions discovered the 77%. In order to follow childs building their knowledge through experience we found that the main problem was the lack of consistency between written and drawing description. Heterogeneities as evident as a magmatic contact have been correctly represented by the drawing but it has not been worth of any attention in the written description. On the contrary, written description may sometimes contain careful description of the clastic sedimentary process but these criteria are applied for example to a travertine, without any relations with observed characters. Descriptions and drawing of rock outcrops performed by university students demonstrate the persistence of this attitude. Thus, groups B and

  12. The Persuasion Model of conceptual change and its application to misconceptions in evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Joanna Kate

    Previous work has attempted to account for the factors involved in conceptual change (e.g. Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993). While progress has been made, cognitive restructuring remains to be positioned within a unifying theory of change. Here, a new model of conceptual change is put forward. The Persuasion Model of conceptual change builds on previous frameworks (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993; Vosniadou, 1994) including the psychology of persuasion (Heuristic-Systematic Model, Chaiken, 1980; Elaboration Likelihood Model, Petty & Cacioppo, 1986; Social Judgement Theory, Sherif & Hovland, 1953) and cognitive and motivational theories of learning (Johnson-Laird, 1983; Mayer & Moreno, 1988; Wittrock, 1974b). High quality, elaborative processing of a persuasive message leads to change. Mental models are positioned as the mechanism by which meaning is created, manipulated, inspected and evaluated. These processes result in a continuum of cognitive restructuring. A study of conceptual change in Evolutionary Biology examined the viability of the Persuasion Model. It was predicted that knowledge, beliefs, interest and cognitive style would predict elaborative processing. Processing was hypothesized to influence information comprehensibility, plausibility, fruitfulness and compatibility with prior knowledge. Judgments were hypothesized to influence learning outcomes. Evolutionary knowledge and beliefs were assessed at pre- and posttest in 375 college students using multiple choice, likert-scale and extended response items. Need for Cognition, Need for Cognitive Closure, Epistemological Beliefs, Religiosity, Dogmatism, Moral Values and Argument Evaluation Ability were measured using paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Participants read a text and indicated elaborative processing and information evaluation. Ninety percent of participants held at least one misconception at pre-test. Significant gains on

  13. Using intervention-oriented evaluation to diagnose and correct students' persistent climate change misconceptions: A Singapore case study.

    PubMed

    Pascua, Liberty; Chang, Chew-Hung

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation of classroom-based educational interventions is fraught with tensions, the most critical of which is choosing between focusing the inquiry on measuring the effects of treatment or in proximately utilizing the data to improve practice. This paper attempted to achieve both goals through the use of intervention-oriented evaluation of a professional development program intended to diagnose and correct students' misconceptions of climate change. Data was gathered, monitored and analyzed in three stages of a time-series design: the baseline, treatment and follow-up stages. The evaluation itself was the 'intervention' such that the data was allowed to 'contaminate' the treatment. This was achieved through giving the teacher unimpeded access to the collected information and to introduce midcourse corrections as she saw fit to her instruction. Results showed a significant development in students' conceptual understanding only after the teacher's decision to use direct and explicit refutation of misconceptions. Due to the accessibility of feedback, it was possible to locate specifically at which point in the process that the intervention was most effective. The efficacy of the intervention was then measured through comparing the scores across the three research stages. The inclusion of a comparison group to the design is recommended for future studies.

  14. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  15. The Democratic Imperative to Address Sexual Equality Rights in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Issues of sexual orientation elicit ethical debates in schools and society. In jurisdictions where a legal right has not yet been established, one argument commonly rests on whether schools ought to address issues of same-sex relationships and marriage on the basis of civil equality, or whether such controversial issues ought to remain in the…

  16. Are Teacher and Principal Candidates Prepared to Address Student Cyberbullying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Bonner, Jessica L.; Styron, Jennifer L.; Bridgeforth, James; Martin, Cecelia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the preparation of teacher and principal candidates to address problems created in K-12 settings as a result of cyberbullying. Participants included teacher and principal preparation students. Findings indicated that respondents were familiar with the most common forms of cyberbullying and its impact on…

  17. Addressing Parental Vaccination Questions in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Burningham, Jana; Eden, Lacey M.; Macintosh, Janelle L. B.; Beckstrand, Renea L.

    2016-01-01

    School nurses work in a unique environment with key opportunities to address parental concerns and questions regarding their child's health. A common concern for parents during school enrollment is childhood vaccination safety and efficacy. As public health leaders, school nurses are well respected among parents, therefore school nurses are in a…

  18. 47 CFR 32.19 - Address for reports and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Address for reports and correspondence. 32.19 Section 32.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... reports and correspondence. Reports, statements, and correspondence submitted to the...

  19. 47 CFR 32.19 - Address for reports and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Address for reports and correspondence. 32.19 Section 32.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... reports and correspondence. Reports, statements, and correspondence submitted to the...

  20. 47 CFR 32.19 - Address for reports and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Address for reports and correspondence. 32.19 Section 32.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... reports and correspondence. Reports, statements, and correspondence submitted to the...