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  1. The important role of physicians in addressing the psychological aspects of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): A qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Gregory; Volpe, Katherine A; Dunivan, Gena C; Cichowski, Sara B; Jeppson, Peter C; Rogers, Rebecca G; Komesu, Yuko M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a poorly understood source of chronic pain causing significant morbidity, with variable treatment success. Despite the need to understand patient perspectives in chronic pain, there is a paucity of qualitative data for IC/BPS. We aimed to acquire information regarding patient experience with IC/BPS symptoms and with their medical care to elicit suggestions to improve patient satisfaction with that care. Methods Fifteen women with IC/PBS participated in a total of four focus groups. Sessions were recorded, transcribed, and information was de-identified. Focus groups were conducted until thematic saturation was reached. All transcripts were coded and analyzed by a minimum of 3 independent physician reviewers. Investigators identified emergent themes and concepts using grounded theory methodology. Results Participant’s mean age was 52.6 years with an average IC/BPS duration of 6.3 years. Thematic saturation was reached after 4 focus groups. We identified three emergent patient experience concepts; IC/PBS is debilitating, the disease course is unpredictable and unrelenting, and patients experience significant isolation. Importantly, suicidal ideation was expressed in each group. Patients voiced strong preference for physicians who provided education regarding the condition, an array of treatment options, presented organized treatment plans and offered optimism and hope regarding treatment outcomes. Conclusions Our study presents novel findings of the importance of patient-physician interaction in IC/BPS and reinforces the tremendous disability and burden of this disease, which frequently manifests in suicidal ideation. Patients preferred organized treatment plans with diverse choices, and providers who offered hope in dealing with their condition. PMID:27581769

  2. Importance of Addressing Sexuality in Certified Rehabilitation Counselor Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated Certified Rehabilitation Counselors' (CRCs) beliefs about the importance of addressing sexuality issues during rehabilitation. A modified version of the Family Life Sex Education Goals Questionnaire (FLSEGQ) was completed by 199 CRCs to determine which issues CRCs believe are most important to address. Six sexuality-related…

  3. Some important aspects of nadipariksha from basavarajiyam.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Goli Penchala; Bharati, K; Swamy, R K

    2004-07-01

    Nadi Pariksha has been said as one of the important Ashta sthana parikshas. Though, there are some physicians who are doing miracles just by examining Nadi, this system of examination in many views has became extinct now a days. The main reason for this is, now a days very little research and practice is going on regarding this technique. So, many resent samhitas and Chikitsa granthas like Sarangadhara, Yogaratnakara, etc., have highlighted Nadi pariksha. Basavarajiyam is also one of those resent treatises (19(th) century), which has highlighted this ancient type of examination of the patient. Basavarajiyam is a popular Ayurvedic heritage of Andhra Pradesh written by Basavaraju, son of Namahshivaya and disciple of Ramadeshika. The author has referred many books and collected many slokas from various ancient granthas and quoted them in 25 Prakaranas along with his own views and quotations. This book was translated in Telugu language by Puvvada surya Narayana Rao and lppublished by A.B.S.publications, Rajahmundry A.P. In this paper Nadi sthanas (Location), Nadi types, Nadi Pareeksha vidhi (examination of Nadi) and its utilities in different aspects of the disease are dealt, which have been mentioned in Basavarajeeyam.

  4. How do Orthopaedic Surgeons Address Psychological Aspects of Illness?

    PubMed Central

    Vranceanu, Ana Maria; Beks, Reinier B.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Janssen, Stein J.; Ring, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Orthopaedic surgeons have a pivotal role in transitioning the care of orthopedic patients from a biomedical to a biopsychosocial model. In an effort to foster this transition, we designed a study aimed to determine surgeons’ attitudes and practice of noticing, screening, discussing psychological illness with patients, as well as making referrals to address psychosocial issues in patients in need. Additionally, we asked surgeons to rank order potential barriers to and reasons for referrals to psychosocial treatment. Methods: Orthopaedic surgeons members of the Science and Variation Group and Ankle Platform (N =350) completed demographics, and a 4-part survey assessing the degree to which surgeons notice, assess, screen and refer for psychological treatments, as well ranked ordered barriers to engaging in these processes. Results: As a group surgeons were neutral to referral for psychological treatment and formal screening of psychological factors, and somewhat likely to notice and discuss psychological factors. Surgeons were more likely to refer for psychological treatment if they engaged in research, or if they reside in South America as opposed to North America. The highest ranked barriers to screening, noticing, discussing and referring for psychological treatment were lack of time, stigma and feeling uncomfortable. Conclusion: Overall surgeons are likely to notice and discuss psychological factors, but less likely to formally screen or refer for psychological treatment. Transition to biopsychosocial models should focus on problem solving these barriers by teaching surgeons communication skills to increase comfort with discussing psychoemotional factors associated with orthopedic problems. The use of empathic communication can be very helpful in normalizing the difficulty of coping with an orthopedic condition, and may facilitate referral. PMID:28271080

  5. Erythrocyte aggregation: basic aspects and clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Baskurt, Oguz K; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregate to form two- and three-dimensional structures when suspended in aqueous solutions containing large plasma proteins or polymers; this aggregation is reversible and shear dependent (i.e., dispersed at high shear and reformed at low or stasis). The extent of aggregation is the main determinant of low shear blood viscosity, thus predicting an inverse relationship between aggregation and in vivo blood flow. However, the effects of aggregation on hemodynamic mechanisms (e.g., plasma skimming, Fåhraeus Effect, microvascular hematocrit) may promote rather than impede vascular blood flow. The impact of enhanced RBC aggregation on endothelial function and hemostatic mechanisms adds further complexity, thereby requiring specific attention to the nature, extent and time course of aggregation when considering its overall influence on tissue perfusion. A detailed understanding of aggregation effects is important from a clinical point of view since it may be enhanced during a variety of pathophysiological processes, including infections, circulatory and metabolic disorders, hematological pathologies and several other disease states. Altered RBC aggregation may be an indicator of disease as well as a factor affecting the course of the clinical condition; the prognostic value of RBC aggregation indices has been demonstrated in various diseases. Currently, RBC aggregation is an easily and accurately measurable parameter, and therefore may be expected to have broader clinical usage in the future.

  6. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  7. The importance of pragmatic aspects in conditional reasoning.

    PubMed

    Valiña, M D; Seoane, G; Ferraces, M J; Martín, M

    1999-05-01

    The importance of pragmatic aspects in conditional reasoning was assessed in the performance of 54 subjects (26 female and 28 male; mean age 17.6 years) on 48 conditional inference problems, using a 3 x 2 x 4 design, with repeated measurements. The independent variables were probability of empirical frequency in the real world, type of conditional rule, and scenario availability. Number of correct responses and subjects' certainty about the correctness of their responses were the dependent variables. The results showed: a) the scenario availability is not sufficient in itself to explain differences in performance, but it does affect the subjects' degree of confidence in their conclusions; b) there is an interaction between probability of empirical frequency in the real world and type of conditional rule on correct performance. The results were contrasted with the predictions made by the mental models theory and its revised version proposed by Evans (1993). These findings support the semantic theories of conditional reasoning.

  8. The role of law in addressing mental health-related aspects of disasters and promoting resilience.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie

    2012-01-01

    Law plays a critical role in emergency preparedness and disaster response by establishing an infrastructure for the response and facilitating coordination among the federal, state, and local governments. Once a disaster occurs, certain legal mechanisms are activated to ensure that individuals' needs for mental health care are met, both for pre-existing and emergent conditions. This includes the rapid deployment of mental health care personnel and the implementation of crisis counseling programs in affected regions. By facilitating an influx of resources, including personnel, supplies, and financial assistance, the law can help communities quickly rebound and return to a sense of normal. Drawing on examples from the United States, this article illustrates the diverse ways in which the law simultaneously addresses mental health-related aspects of disasters and promotes resilience within affected communities.

  9. Emotional Aspects of Childhood Career Development: Importance and Future Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Íris M.; Taveira, Maria do Céu; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a central period for career and social-emotional development. However, the literature covering childhood career development and the role of emotions in careers is scarce. In this article, we advocate for the consideration of emotions in childhood career development. Emotional aspects of children's career exploration, key-figures and…

  10. The importance and unique aspects of radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Ola; Czarwinski, Renate; Mettler, Fred

    2010-10-01

    Radiation protection in medicine has unique aspects and is an essential element of medical practice. Medical uses of radiation occur throughout the world, from large cities to rural clinics. It has been estimated that the number of medical procedures using radiation grew from about 1.7 billion in 1980 to almost 4 billion in 2007. In spite of these large numbers, there are many parts of the world without adequate equipment, where the ability to perform additional medical procedures would likely result in a net benefit. Medicine accounts for more than 99.9% of the per caput effective dose from man-made sources. The goal in medical exposure is not to give the lowest dose, but to provide the correct dose to enable the practitioner to make the diagnosis or cure a tumour. Too little or too much dose is problematic and the risk of any given procedure ranges from negligible to potentially fatal. Radiation protection in medicine must deal with the issues of not having dose limits, purposely exposing sensitive subgroups, and purposely using doses that could cause deterministic effects. Radiation accidents involving medical uses have accounted for more acute radiation deaths than from any other source including Chernobyl. Many physicians have little or no training in radiation protection, and many have no qualified medical physics support. In many countries, medical radiation devices and uses are only minimally regulated and the rapidly evolving technology is a challenge. Medicine also accounts for the largest number of occupationally exposed workers and collective dose.

  11. Value innovation: an important aspect of global surgical care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Limited resources in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) drive tremendous innovation in medicine, as well as in other fields. It is not often recognized that several important surgical tools and methods, widely used in high-income countries, have their origins in LMICs. Surgical care around the world stands much to gain from these innovations. In this paper, we provide a short review of some of these succesful innovations and their origins that have had an important impact in healthcare delivery worldwide. Review Examples of LMIC innovations that have been adapted in high-income countries include the Bogotá bag for temporary abdominal wound closure, the orthopaedic external fixator for complex fractures, a hydrocephalus fluid valve for normal pressure hydrocephalus, and intra-ocular lens and manual small incision cataract surgery. LMIC innovations that have had tremendous potential global impact include mosquito net mesh for inguinal hernia repair, and a flutter valve for intercostal drainage of pneumothorax. Conclusion Surgical innovations from LMICs have been shown to have comparable outcomes at a fraction of the cost of tools used in high-income countries. These innovations have the potential to revolutionize global surgical care. Advocates should actively seek out these innovations, campaign for the financial gains from these innovations to benefit their originators and their countries, and find ways to develop and distribute them locally as well as globally. PMID:24393237

  12. The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*.

    PubMed

    Lange, Lene

    2014-12-01

    In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations: the scientific discipline mycology has built comprehensive understanding within fungal biodiversity, classification, evolution, genetics, physiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and nutrition. Applied mycology could not make progress without this platform. To unfold the full potentials of what fungi can do for both environment and man we need to strengthen the field of mycology on a global scale. The current mission statement gives an overview of where we are, what needs to be done, what obstacles to overcome, and which potentials are within reach. It further provides a vision for how mycology can be strengthened: The time is right to make the world aware of the immense importance of fungi and mycology for sustainable global development, where land, water and biological materials are used in a more efficient and more sustainable manner. This is an opportunity for profiling mycology by narrating the role played by fungi in the bioeconomy. Greater awareness and appreciation of the role of fungi can be used to build support for mycology around the world. Support will attract more talent to our field of study, empower mycologists around the world to generate more funds for necessary basic research, and strengthen the global mycology network. The use of fungi for unlocking the full potentials of the bioeconomy relies on such progress. The fungal kingdom can be an

  13. Patient and healthcare perspectives on the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Shane; McConnell, Shelagh; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Ager, Naree; Booker, Reanne; Enns, Bert; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to use a qualitative approach to better understand the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic from the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Setting Participants were recruited from the bone marrow transplant clinic of a large urban outpatient cancer care centre in western Canada. Participants: Focus groups were conducted with patients (n=7) and healthcare providers (n=9) to explore the importance of addressing spiritual issues across the treatment trajectory and to identify factors associated with effectively addressing these needs. Results Data were analysed using the qualitative approach of latent content analysis. Addressing spiritual issues was understood by patients and healthcare providers, as a core, yet under addressed, component of comprehensive care. Both sets of participants felt that addressing basic spiritual issues was the responsibility of all members of the interdisciplinary team, while recognising the need for specialised and embedded support from a spiritual care professional. While healthcare providers felt that the impact of the illness and treatment had a negative effect on patients’ spiritual well-being, patients felt the opposite. Skills, challenges, key time points and clinical indicators associated with addressing spiritual issues were identified. Conclusions Despite a number of conceptual and clinical challenges associated with addressing spiritual issues patients and their healthcare providers emphasised the importance of an integrated approach whereby basic spiritual issues are addressed by members of the interdisciplinary team and by an embedded spiritual care professional, who in addition also provides specialised support. The identification of clinical issues associated with addressing spiritual needs provides healthcare providers with clinical guidance on how to better integrate this aspect of care into

  14. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  15. Exploring Elementary Teachers' Perceptions about the Developmental Appropriateness and Importance of Nature of Science Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how four elementary teachers assessed the developmental appropriateness and importance of nine nature of science (NOS) aspects after participating in a yearlong professional development program. A multiple-embedded case study design was employed. The primary data sources included (a) Views of Nature of Science Elementary School…

  16. 41 CFR 102-117.280 - What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure? 102-117.280 Section 102-117.280 Public Contracts...

  17. Perceived Role Legitimacy and Role Importance of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…

  18. Important Questions Remain to Be Addressed before Adopting a Dimensional Classification of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2008-01-01

    Comments on the original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model," by T. A. Widiger and T. J. Trull (2007). Widiger and Trull raised important nosological issues that warrant serious consideration not only for the personality disorders but for all mental disorders as the Diagnostic…

  19. Present, Engaged, and Accounted for: The Critical Importance of Addressing Chronic Absence in the Early Grades. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hedy N.; Romero, Mariajose

    2008-01-01

    This report seeks to raise awareness of the critical importance of chronic early absence, synthesize available data on the scope of the challenge, and share emerging insights about how schools and communities can use chronic early absence to identify and address challenges affecting the social, educational and physical well-being of children and…

  20. Important aspects regarding the role of microorganisms in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Boff, Renata Chiapinotto; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia; Cherubini, Karen

    2014-08-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is an important side effect of bisphosphonates, whose etiopathogenesis has not been completely elucidated. Theories pointing to bone turnover and angiogenesis inhibition, as well as effects on epithelial cells of oral mucosa and the role of microorganisms have been reported. Nevertheless, the true contribution of each one of these factors to BRONJ is unknown. We present here a literature review focusing on important aspects regarding the role of microorganisms in BRONJ development. Knowledge about specific microbiota and its role in the etiopathogenesis of this disease can help the optimisation of preventive and therapeutic interventions in patients with or at-risk for BRONJ.

  1. ASPECT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Able to deploy within one hour of notification, EPA's Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) is the nation’s only airborne real-time chemical and radiological detection, infrared and photographic imagery platform.

  2. Effect on Public Policy from Macro to Nano Aspects of the Deadliest Illness of Mankind: Important Role of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Arjun

    2013-04-01

    The effect on public policy of macro to nano aspects of the deadliest Illness known to mankind is given. The focus is on the important role of physics which has been ignored so far to solve its problems. It is now acknowledged that the deadliest illness is actually a group of illnesses which are lumped together as mental illnesses. They are the most widespread and damaging illnesses in the world. Their impact on the entire society globally is huge because they afflict majority of the people irrespective of race, religion, sex, age, education and economic status. In USA alone, the number afflicted according to the official count is about 80 million (out of a total population of 315 million), and it is projected to increase to about 25 to 30% of the population within two decades. A model is given in this paper to address some of the key issues from macro to nano aspects of the deadliest illness. The information given in this paper is scientific though easy to understand. It will help the elected policy makers, public, physicists, neuroscientists, doctors, and care giving personnel world wide. The model explains the missing links in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Additional evidence from other recent studies shall also be given.

  3. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  4. [Important aspects in pediatric care of children and adolescents with chronic disease using the example of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Steiß, J-O; Lindemann, H; Brosig, B; Zimmer, K P

    2013-12-01

    When treating children or adolescents with chronic disease one should take the specific age-related features of the course of disease, differential diagnosis, and the psychosocial environment, as well as the avoidance of complications and side effects of therapy into account. These may impair the patient's physical and psychosocial development and quality of life in the context of family, school and occupational life. Continued care of growing children from the start of the disease when they are infants to the point when they assume personal responsibility as adults is one of the major concerns of the pediatrician. This concept requires interdisciplinary cooperation and a large body of personnel which would include training programs, inclusion of family members and in some cases psychosomatic therapy. Given the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases in this age group and their sociopolitical significance it is important to activate preventive potentials in terms of content and structure - by quality assurance - especially to avoid long-term complications. Various care structures are used in Europe to achieve this goal. Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children and adolescents. It influences quality of life as well as the child's personal, educational and occupational development to a significant extent. The special aspects of the treatment of these patients will be addressed to illustrate the therapy of chronic disease.

  5. Adhesive systems: important aspects related to their composition and clinical use

    PubMed Central

    SILVA E SOUZA JUNIOR, Mario Honorato; CARNEIRO, Karina Gama Kato; LOBATO, Marcelo Figueiredo; SILVA E SOUZA, Patrícia de Almeida Rodrigues; de GÓES, Mário Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This literature review article addresses the types and the main components of different etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems available in the market, and relates them to their function, possible chemical interactions and influence of handling characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images are presented to characterize the interface between adhesives and dentin. Adhesive systems have been recently classified according to their adhesion approaches in etch-and-rinse, self-etch and glass ionomer. The etch-andrinse systems require a specific acid-etch procedure and may be performed in two or three steps. Self-etch systems employ acidic monomers that demineralize and impregnate dental substrates almost at the same time. These systems are separated in one or two steps. Some advantages and deficiencies were noted for etch-and-rinse and self-etch approaches, mainly for the simplified ones due to some chemical associations and interactions. The SeM micrographs illustrate different relationships between adhesive systems and dental structures, particularly dentin. The knowledge of composition, characteristics and mechanisms of adhesion of each adhesive system is of fundamental importance to permit the adoption of ideal bonding strategies under clinical conditions. PMID:20856995

  6. An Internet-based exercise as a component of an overall training program addressing medical aspects of radiation emergency management.

    PubMed

    Levy, K; Aghababian, R V; Hirsch, E F; Screnci, D; Boshyan, A; Ricks, R C; Samiei, M

    2000-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials continues to increase worldwide in industry, medicine, agriculture, research, electrical power generation, and nuclear weaponry. The risk of terrorism using weapons of mass destruction or simple radiological devices also has increased, leading to heightened concerns. Radiation accidents occur as a consequence of errors in transportation of radionuclides, use of radiation in medical diagnosis and therapy, industrial monitoring and sterilization procedures, and rarely, nuclear power generation. Compared to other industries, a small number of serious radiation accidents have occurred over the last six decades with recent cases in the Republic of Georgia, Peru, Japan, and Thailand. The medical, psychological, and political consequences of such accidents can be considerable. A number of programs designed to train medical responders in the techniques of radiation accident management have been developed and delivered in many countries. The low frequency of serious radiation accidents requires constant re-training, as skills are lost and medical staff turnover occurs. Not all of the training involves drills or exercises in which responders demonstrate learning or communication over the broad spectrum of medical response capabilities. Medical preparedness within the context of a total emergency response program is lacking in many parts of the world, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. This paper describes an effort to enhance medical preparedness in the context of a total program of international cooperation and conventions facilitated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The paper concludes that novel application of telecommunications technology as part of a training activity in radiation accident preparedness can help address gaps in training in this field in which preparedness is essential but experience and practical field exercises are lacking.

  7. Ferrets Infected with Bundibugyo Virus or Ebola Virus Recapitulate Important Aspects of Human Filovirus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Robert; He, Shihua; Kroeker, Andrea; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Audet, Jonathan; Wong, Gary; Urfano, Chantel; Antonation, Kym; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is the etiological agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case-fatality rate ranging from 25 to 36%. Despite having been known to the scientific and medical communities for almost 1 decade, there is a dearth of studies on this pathogen due to the lack of a small animal model. Domestic ferrets are commonly used to study other RNA viruses, including members of the order Mononegavirales. To investigate whether ferrets were susceptible to filovirus infections, ferrets were challenged with a clinical isolate of BDBV. Animals became viremic within 4 days and succumbed to infection between 8 and 9 days, and a petechial rash was observed with moribund ferrets. Furthermore, several hallmarks of human filoviral disease were recapitulated in the ferret model, including substantial decreases in lymphocyte and platelet counts and dysregulation of key biochemical markers related to hepatic/renal function, as well as coagulation abnormalities. Virological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed uncontrolled BDBV replication in the major organs. Ferrets were also infected with Ebola virus (EBOV) to confirm their susceptibility to another filovirus species and to potentially establish a virus transmission model. Similar to what was seen with BDBV, important hallmarks of human filoviral disease were observed in EBOV-infected ferrets. This study demonstrates the potential of this small animal model for studying BDBV and EBOV using wild-type isolates and will accelerate efforts to understand filovirus pathogenesis and transmission as well as the development of specific vaccines and antivirals. IMPORTANCE The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has highlighted the threat posed by filoviruses to global public health. Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a member of the genus Ebolavirus and has caused outbreaks in the past but is relatively understudied, likely due to the lack of a suitable small animal model. Such

  8. Korean Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Importance and Implementation of Strategies to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Kay H.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Noh, Jina

    2014-01-01

    In South Korea, there has been a rapid increase in challenging behaviors and other social-emotional difficulties at the early childhood level. Korean early childhood educators' perspectives and strategies to address young children's social-emotional competencies and challenging behaviors were investigated. Overall, results suggest that many Korean…

  9. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), “addressing inequalities” and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  10. On determining important aspects of mathematical models: Application to problems in physics and chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    1987-01-01

    The use of parametric and functional gradient sensitivity analysis techniques is considered for models described by partial differential equations. By interchanging appropriate dependent and independent variables, questions of inverse sensitivity may be addressed to gain insight into the inversion of observational data for parameter and function identification in mathematical models. It may be argued that the presence of a subset of dominantly strong coupled dependent variables will result in the overall system sensitivity behavior collapsing into a simple set of scaling and self similarity relations amongst elements of the entire matrix of sensitivity coefficients. These general tools are generic in nature, but herein their application to problems arising in selected areas of physics and chemistry is presented.

  11. Safe and effective pharmacotherapy in infants and preschool children: importance of formulation aspects

    PubMed Central

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Vromans, Herman; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A

    2016-01-01

    Safe and effective paediatric pharmacotherapy requires careful evaluation of the type of drug substance, the necessary dose and the age-appropriateness of the formulation. Generally, the younger the child, the more the attention that is required. For decades, there has been a general lack of (authorised) formulations that children are able to and willing to take. Moreover, little was known on the impact of pharmaceutical aspects on the age-appropriateness of a paediatric medicine. As a result of legislative incentives, such knowledge is increasingly becoming available. It has become evident that rapidly dissolving tablets with a diameter of 2 mm (mini-tablets) can be used in preterm neonates and non-rapidly dissolving 2 mm mini-tablets in infants from 6 months of age. In addition, uncoated 4 mm mini-tablets can be used in infants from the age of 1 year. Also, there is some evidence that children prefer mini-tablets over a powder, suspension or syrup. Other novel types of age-appropriate oral formulations such as orodispersible films may further add to the treatment possibilities. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on oral formulations for infants and preschool children, the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of dosage forms and the age groups by which these can likely be used. PMID:26979250

  12. Vesicle-like biomechanics governs important aspects of nuclear geometry in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Lim H W, Gerald; Huber, Greg; Torii, Yoshihiro; Hirata, Aiko; Miller, Jonathan; Sazer, Shelley

    2007-09-26

    It has long been known that during the closed mitosis of many unicellular eukaryotes, including the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), the nuclear envelope remains intact while the nucleus undergoes a remarkable sequence of shape transformations driven by elongation of an intranuclear mitotic spindle whose ends are capped by spindle pole bodies embedded in the nuclear envelope. However, the mechanical basis of these normal cell cycle transformations, and abnormal nuclear shapes caused by intranuclear elongation of microtubules lacking spindle pole bodies, remain unknown. Although there are models describing the shapes of lipid vesicles deformed by elongation of microtubule bundles, there are no models describing normal or abnormal shape changes in the nucleus. We describe here a novel biophysical model of interphase nuclear geometry in fission yeast that accounts for critical aspects of the mechanics of the fission yeast nucleus, including the biophysical properties of lipid bilayers, forces exerted on the nuclear envelope by elongating microtubules, and access to a lipid reservoir, essential for the large increase in nuclear surface area during the cell cycle. We present experimental confirmation of the novel and non-trivial geometries predicted by our model, which has no free parameters. We also use the model to provide insight into the mechanical basis of previously described defects in nuclear division, including abnormal nuclear shapes and loss of nuclear envelope integrity. The model predicts that (i) despite differences in structure and composition, fission yeast nuclei and vesicles with fluid lipid bilayers have common mechanical properties; (ii) the S. pombe nucleus is not lined with any structure with shear resistance, comparable to the nuclear lamina of higher eukaryotes. We validate the model and its predictions by analyzing wild type cells in which ned1 gene overexpression causes elongation of an intranuclear microtubule bundle that deforms the

  13. Clinical and therapeutic aspects of vulvodynia: the importance of physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Polpeta, N C; Giraldo, P C; Teatin Juliato, C R; Gomes Do Amaral, R L; Moreno Linhares, I; Romero Leal Passos, M

    2012-10-01

    Vulvodynia affects a large number of women worldwide. It is estimated that the prevalence rate of vulvodynia is 16% in women aged 18 to 64 years, resulting in constant demand for specialized medical care, although little therapeutic success is achieved. Furthermore, the cause of this disorder remains unknown and involves different symptoms that are implicated in important chronic vulvar pain with disastrous consequences for the afflicted women. In view of these data, the authors have proposed a bibliographic review of the pathophysiology and treatment of vulvodynia. The aim of this review was to assist in clinical diagnosis and elucidate the multidisciplinary treatment that appears to be associated with a higher success rate in these women. Physical therapy using diverse techniques has an important role in multidisciplinary care, obtaining satisfactory results in the treatment of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and thus improving the symptoms and quality of life in women with vulvodynia.

  14. Aspects of imported malaria at a district general hospital in non-endemic Kuwait, Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Hira, P R; Al-Ali, F; Soriano, E B; Behbehani, K

    1988-06-01

    There is no indigenous mosquito-borne transmission of malaria in Kuwait. However, in a five year period at a district general hospital, the number of laboratory-diagnosed cases of malaria increased annually from 25 to 84, a rise of 336%. Except for two induced infections, all were imported, mainly from the Indian subcontinent. Plasmodium vivax was responsible for 87.29% of the cases; P.falciparum (12.05%), a mixed infection of P.vivax and P.falciparum (0.33%) and a case of P.ovale (0.33%) were also identified. Rapid preparation of acetone-fixed, Giemsa-stained thick blood films, a heightened awareness of the infection, examination of multiple samples of blood from patients and the general resurgence of malaria in endemic areas were some of the factors responsible for the high number of cases diagnosed. Most patients were young males and presented with clinical malaria due to P.vivax between May and October each year, an apparent seasonal peak. However, many were already resident in the country for a variable period. Patients with P.falciparum though, presented clinically within two weeks of arrival in the country. Parasite densities were calculated to monitor the progress of treatment and identify quickly any possible chloroquine-resistant P.falciparum strains. A policy of active prophylaxis is suggested to stem the tide of imported malaria.

  15. Is the moon more round in the Western world? Some important aspects of comparative education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu

    2015-09-01

    In this increasingly globalised age, ideas developed in different cultures and countries can be disseminated very rapidly, which is supposed to allow people who live in different cultures to exchange information and learn from each other easily. However, the process of adapting educational ideas developed within one culture for use in another should be slower because education is very complex and there are a great many factors that must be considered. In particular, it is necessary to consider human psychology in relation to differences between the two cultures and their traditions, including things such as teachers' beliefs, teaching practices, students' motivations and interests in learning, and the educational values held by various stakeholders (e.g. school rectors, politicians, parents, and researchers). Therefore, more comparative studies are needed to promote teaching and learning internationally. This article builds on the study on science education presented by Hằng et al. (Cult Stud of Sci Educ. doi: 10.1007/s11422-014-9634-8, 2014) and highlights three issues of relevance for science educators and science educational researchers who seek to implement educational ideas from one culture in another. The first is the importance of conducting comparative studies that will facilitate the development of educational practices in modern multi-cultural societies. Second, I discuss issues with data collection and the interpretation of results, with particular reference to the work of Hằng et al. (2014). Third, given the emerging focus on comparative studies in education, I discuss the important roles of teachers in such efforts and offer some advice on working in collaboration with them in a way that will enable them to develop their professional knowledge and teaching practices. I present three different approaches (action research, design-based research and learning study) that are currently used in teacher professional development programs and which may be

  16. Aspects of human parasites in which surgical intervention may be important.

    PubMed

    Mayer, David A; Fried, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, physicians and surgeons in developed countries only occasionally encountered patients with parasitic protozoan and helminthic infections. High-speed travel, immigration and the popularity of the tropics as vacation areas have increased the number of people at risk for parasitic disease. This chapter examines the significant literature on a select number of protozoan and helminthic parasites for which surgical intervention is important in the diagnosis, treatment or cure of the disease. Although traditional surgical approaches are covered, emphasis is placed on recent advances in the areas of transplantation and minimally invasive surgery. Combining the disciplines of parasitology and surgery, this chapter covers three protozoan and seven helminthic parasites for which surgery is a valid treatment option based on the frequency of cases reported in the literature. Following coverage of the selected parasites, a table is included listing additional helminths for which surgery contributes to patient management. Physicians in the USA, UK, and Europe need to be more aware of the presentation and treatment of parasitic infections. It is our sincere hope that this review accomplishes that goal, and ultimately benefits the patients we serve.

  17. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  18. Import of desired nucleic acid sequences using addressing motif of mitochondrial ribosomal 5S-rRNA for fluorescent in vivo hybridization of mitochondrial DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Zelenka, Jaroslav; Alán, Lukáš; Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Petr

    2014-04-01

    Based on the matrix-addressing sequence of mitochondrial ribosomal 5S-rRNA (termed MAM), which is naturally imported into mitochondria, we have constructed an import system for in vivo targeting of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or mt-mRNA, in order to provide fluorescence hybridization of the desired sequences. Thus DNA oligonucleotides were constructed, containing the 5'-flanked T7 RNA polymerase promoter. After in vitro transcription and fluorescent labeling with Alexa Fluor(®) 488 or 647 dye, we obtained the fluorescent "L-ND5 probe" containing MAM and exemplar cargo, i.e., annealing sequence to a short portion of ND5 mRNA and to the light-strand mtDNA complementary to the heavy strand nd5 mt gene (5'-end 21 base pair sequence). For mitochondrial in vivo fluorescent hybridization, HepG2 cells were treated with dequalinium micelles, containing the fluorescent probes, bringing the probes proximally to the mitochondrial outer membrane and to the natural import system. A verification of import into the mitochondrial matrix of cultured HepG2 cells was provided by confocal microscopy colocalizations. Transfections using lipofectamine or probes without 5S-rRNA addressing MAM sequence or with MAM only were ineffective. Alternatively, the same DNA oligonucleotides with 5'-CACC overhang (substituting T7 promoter) were transcribed from the tetracycline-inducible pENTRH1/TO vector in human embryonic kidney T-REx®-293 cells, while mitochondrial matrix localization after import of the resulting unlabeled RNA was detected by PCR. The MAM-containing probe was then enriched by three-order of magnitude over the natural ND5 mRNA in the mitochondrial matrix. In conclusion, we present a proof-of-principle for mitochondrial in vivo hybridization and mitochondrial nucleic acid import.

  19. Factors contributing to the perpetration of workplace incivility: the importance of organizational aspects and experiencing incivility from others.

    PubMed

    Torkelson, Eva; Holm, Kristoffer; Bäckström, Martin; Schad, Elinor

    2016-04-02

    In recent years a growing amount of research has been conducted in the area of workplace incivility. Whereas many studies have focused on the victims and the consequences of incivility, little attention has been paid to the perpetrators and antecedents of workplace incivility. This study aims to identify possible antecedents of workplace incivility, by investigating organizational aspects as well as the possibility that being the target of incivility from co-workers and supervisors could induce incivility. A total of 512 employees (378 women and 133 men) in the school sector in a Swedish municipality completed an online questionnaire. Overall, the results of structural equation modelling analyses showed that organizational variables were related to the perpetration of incivility. A direct relationship was found between being uncivil and organizational change, job insecurity, low social support from co-workers and high job demands. However, the strongest relationship was found between experienced incivility from co-workers and instigated incivility. This could be reflecting a climate or culture of incivility in the organization, and carry implications for future practice in interventions against workplace incivility. The results indicate the importance of focusing on the perspective of the instigator to gain knowledge about the process of workplace incivility.

  20. Factors contributing to the perpetration of workplace incivility: the importance of organizational aspects and experiencing incivility from others

    PubMed Central

    Torkelson, Eva; Holm, Kristoffer; Bäckström, Martin; Schad, Elinor

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In recent years a growing amount of research has been conducted in the area of workplace incivility. Whereas many studies have focused on the victims and the consequences of incivility, little attention has been paid to the perpetrators and antecedents of workplace incivility. This study aims to identify possible antecedents of workplace incivility, by investigating organizational aspects as well as the possibility that being the target of incivility from co-workers and supervisors could induce incivility. A total of 512 employees (378 women and 133 men) in the school sector in a Swedish municipality completed an online questionnaire. Overall, the results of structural equation modelling analyses showed that organizational variables were related to the perpetration of incivility. A direct relationship was found between being uncivil and organizational change, job insecurity, low social support from co-workers and high job demands. However, the strongest relationship was found between experienced incivility from co-workers and instigated incivility. This could be reflecting a climate or culture of incivility in the organization, and carry implications for future practice in interventions against workplace incivility. The results indicate the importance of focusing on the perspective of the instigator to gain knowledge about the process of workplace incivility. PMID:27226677

  1. Toward eliminating health disparities in HIV/AIDS: the importance of the minority investigator in addressing scientific gaps in Black and Latino communities.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Lisa K.; Sutton, Madeline; Greenberg, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Dialogue in the medical and public health communities has increasingly focused attention in the area of health disparities. We believe that the elimination of health disparities in the United States will require a multipronged approach that includes, at the very least, new approaches in both biomedical and prevention interventions. We also believe that since health disparities primarily affect communities of color, a model which fosters the development of junior scientists, clinicians and researchers of color who serve these communities will yield important progress in this field. The Minority HIV/AIDS Research Initiative at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is a program that, through targeted research, aims to address health disparities in HIV/AIDS. Although the program is disease specific, there are a variety of lessons learned from its inception and implementation that can be useful throughout the scientific, medical and public health communities. PMID:17225832

  2. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  3. KEYNOTE ADDRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past two decades an environmental conference series has emerged in Poland to become one of the premier forums on the chemical aspects of environmental protection. The forum is called Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment CPE). The first conference of this serie...

  4. Direct electric current modifies important cellular aspects and ultrastructure features of Candida albicans yeasts: Influence of doses and polarities.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Dos Santos, Eldio Gonçalves; Capella, Francielle Neves Carvalho; Homsani, Fortune; de Pointis Marçal, Carina; Dos Santos Valle, Roberta; de Araújo Abi-Chacra, Érika; Braga-Silva, Lys Adriana; de Oliveira Sales, Marcelo Henrique; da Silva Neto, Inácio Domingos; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Dos Santos, André Luis Souza; Holandino, Carla

    2017-02-01

    Available treatments against human fungal pathogens present high levels of resistance, motivating the development of new antifungal therapies. In this context, the present work aimed to analyze direct electric current (DC) antifungal action, using an in vitro apparatus equipped with platinum electrodes. Candida albicans yeast cells were submitted to three distinct conditions of DC treatment (anodic flow-AF; electroionic flow-EIF; and cathodic flow-CF), as well as different charges, ranging from 0.03 to 2.40 C. Our results indicated C. albicans presented distinct sensibility depending on the DC intensity and polarity applied. Both the colony-forming unit assay and the cytometry flow with propidium iodide indicated a drastic reduction on cellular viability after AF treatment with 0.15 C, while CF- and EIF-treated cells stayed alive when DC doses were increased up to 2.40 C. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy revealed important ultrastructural alterations in AF-treated yeasts, including cell structure disorganization, ruptures in plasmatic membrane, and cytoplasmic rarefaction. This work emphasizes the importance of physical parameters (polarity and doses) in cellular damage, and brings new evidence for using electrotherapy to treat C. albicans pathology process. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:95-108, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Decomposition and dipteran succession in pig carrion in central Argentina: ecological aspects and their importance in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Horenstein, M Battán; Linhares, A Xavier; De Ferradas, B Rosso; García, D

    2010-03-01

    Data on the insect species associated with corpse decomposition are particularly important for estimation of the post-mortem interval (PMI) in forensic science because the PMI is based on the lifecycle and behaviour of necrophagous insects, among other measures. To determine the dipteran succession on pig carrion, four experiments, one in each season, were carried out during 2004 in a rural area of Córdoba, central Argentina. Two pigs (Sus scrofa L.) were used in each of the four experiments. At each time-point one pig was placed in the shade and the other under direct sunlight. Insects were collected daily during the first 4 weeks and thereafter every 2 or 3 days. Five stages of decomposition were observed and a total of 24 710 adult specimens were collected, belonging to the following eight families of Diptera: Calliphoridae; Muscidae; Sarcophagidae; Phoridae; Piophilidae; Fanniidae; Sphaeroceridae, and Anthomyiidae. All Calliphoridae collected in this study were considered to be of potential forensic importance because of their necrophagous behaviour and because their immature stages use carrion as a food source. Other species, such as Musca domestica L. and Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann), were also considered to represent potential forensic indicators.

  6. Perception of floods as an important aspect of quality of life and territorial changes in flood areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemešová, Kamila; Andráško, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The quality of life in many municipalities in the Czech Republic is affected by coming floods. Since 1997 when a great part of Moravia was affected by an extreme flood situation, much closer attention is paid to floods and flood protection. Flood management is based, besides others, on European flood legislation but it still does not reflect the social perception of flood situations as a common part of the evaluation of flood risk. However, this very perception strongly influences future implementation of flood measures, territorial and social development of the municipality and indirectly the quality of life in the municipality. One of the main problems in flood issue is the financing of anti-flood measures. In view of the fact that financial resources in environmental sphere are limited, preventive anti-flood measures, that can eliminate the impacts of future floods and are not so expensive, assume more importance. Such kind of measures is often suggested for local needs. The necessity to research the social perception of flood in this context is supported by some studies pointing out a still insufficient use of preventive anti-flood measures in the Czech Republic in spite of several extreme floods in the past 20 years. This paper aims at presenting the results of a research which has been done in a model area affected by floods. The aim of this research was to point out the main factors that influence the life in the municipality after flood (including suggested anti-flood measures) and the possibilities and willingness of the inhabitants to change them. The research results have subsequently been supplemented with the same evaluation by the members of local administrations who are important players in post-flood development of the municipality and in dealings with citizens about the suggested anti-flood measures.

  7. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  8. The First Extracellular Linker Is Important for Several Aspects of the Gating Mechanism of Human TRPA1 Channel

    PubMed Central

    Marsakova, Lenka; Barvik, Ivan; Zima, Vlastimil; Zimova, Lucie; Vlachova, Viktorie

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is an excitatory ion channel involved in pain, inflammation and itching. This channel gates in response to many irritant and proalgesic agents, and can be modulated by calcium and depolarizing voltage. While the closed-state structure of TRPA1 has been recently resolved, also having its open state is essential for understanding how this channel works. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations combined with electrophysiological measurements and systematic mutagenesis to predict and explore the conformational changes coupled to the expansion of the presumptive channel's lower gate. We show that, upon opening, the upper part of the sensor module approaches the pore domain of an adjacent subunit and the conformational dynamics of the first extracellular flexible loop may govern the voltage-dependence of multimodal gating, thereby serving to stabilize the open state of the channel. These results are generally important in understanding the structure and function of TRPA1 and offer new insights into the gating mechanism of TRPA1 and related channels. PMID:28197074

  9. A model of integrated health care in a poverty-impacted community in New York City: Importance of early detection and addressing potential barriers to intervention implementation.

    PubMed

    Acri, Mary C; Bornheimer, Lindsay A; O'Brien, Kyle; Sezer, Sara; Little, Virna; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M

    2016-04-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are chronic, impairing, and costly behavioral health conditions that are four times more prevalent among children of color living in impoverished communities as compared to the general population. This disparity is largely due to the increased exposure to stressors related to low socioeconomic status including community violence, unstable housing, under supported schools, substance abuse, and limited support systems. However, despite high rates and greater need, there is a considerably lower rate of mental health service utilization among these youth. Accordingly, the current study aims to describe a unique model of integrated health care for ethnically diverse youth living in a New York City borough. With an emphasis on addressing possible barriers to implementation, integrated models for children have the potential to prevent ongoing mental health problems through early detection and intervention.

  10. New aspects of the role of histamine in cardiovascular function: identification, characterization, and potential pathophysiological importance of H3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Göthert, M; Garbarg, M; Hey, J A; Schlicker, E; Schwartz, J C; Levi, R

    1995-05-01

    As a result of intensive research during several decades, the distribution, function, and pathophysiological role of cardiovascular H1 and H2 receptors are well known, whereas reports on the occurrence and function of H3 receptors in blood vessels and the heart have not become available before the last 7 years (i.e., 4 years after the first description of these receptors in the central nervous system in 1983). The development of selective and potent H3 receptor agonists and antagonists was a prerequisite for convenient investigations of cardiovascular H3 receptors, which like H1 and H2 receptors are G-protein coupled but unlike them have not yet been cloned. Both in blood vessels and the heart, H3 receptors are located on noradrenergic nerve endings and upon stimulation mediate an inhibition of noradrenaline release. Whereas it remains to be clarified under which conditions the vascular H3 receptors may be stimulated by endogenous histamine, those in the heart become activated in the early phases of myocardial ischemia characterized by an increased histamine spillover. The H3 receptors in the central nervous system also appear to be of importance for the control of vascular function. Inhibitory presynaptic H3 receptors occur on trigeminal sensory C fibres supplying blood vessels in the dura mater. Release of neuropeptides from these fibres induces a neurogenic inflammation, which has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of migraine. An interaction, involving presynaptic H3 receptors, between sensory C fibres and mast cells in close apposition to these fibres plays a role in the control of histamine synthesis in the dura mater.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T. Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C.; Guell, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. Methods: A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and ‘cascading.’ Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. Results: A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of

  12. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  13. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  14. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  15. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  16. President's Address

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Naughton

    1928-01-01

    (1) The most important periods in the treatment of muscles weakened as a result of infantile paralysis are the acute illness, and if necessary a prolonged convalescence. (2) Division of tendons or muscles is seldom necessary for correction of deformity. (3) Successful transference of muscle power to a new insertion, given a good surgical technique, is dependent mainly on recognition of the group action of muscles. (4) Tendon transplantation should always be helpful, but will seldom by itself produce spectacular success in the restoration of function in infantile paralysis. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 2 PMID:19986766

  17. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  18. President's Address

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Maurice

    1928-01-01

    Conditions which experience has proved conducive to mental disturbance considered.—Suggestions as to their treatment.—A weakened inhibition, rather than any positive condition, is probably the most important factor in the production of the exhaustion psycho-neuroses or psychoses. This view is supported by the prophylactic value of giving for prolonged periods small doses of bromide to hypersensitive children or to highly-strung persons exposed to stress or tropical climate, etc.—Pavlov's work on the conditioned reflexes in dogs quoted in support of the author's clinical experience: Pavlov states that bromides should not be regarded as sedatives, diminishing the excitability of the central nervous system, but as simply regulating the nervous system by strengthening the intensity of internal inhibition. This agrees with the author's clinical experience, as small doses of bromide taken regularly over a period of many years do not diminish the mental powers but in fact increase them. Question of sleeplessness considered with regard to the way in which sedatives act. Most of these do not act as so-called “sleeping draughts”; research may ultimately show that their action is to strengthen a weakened inhibition and that sleep is only a secondary benefit.—Value of sedatives before and after surgical operation. Importance of toxæmia in the production of mental disorder; insomnia often precedes a toxic process and permits it to become active. The theory of weakened inhibition explains many problems; e.g., why certain brilliant children or adults break down and why at first there is no interference with their normal mental activity which only becomes involved as sleep and other bodily functions become affected; why a toxæmia may affect the nervous system of certain people; why a breakdown may follow over-stimulation or occur with advancing years; why some persons relapse when certain treatment is discontinued; why treatment should at times be continuous, and why

  19. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    IMGC this is an extremely valuable opportunity to compare our results with others using combined x-ray and optical interferometry to measure Si lattice spacing and dimensional and mass metrology to determine Si density. The initial impetus for the organization of this workshop was given by several colleagues, and with special emphasis and competence by the late Prof. Peter Seyfried of the PTB. We all mourn the loss of such a distinguished scientist to whom very important achievements in NA determination have to be credited. Prof. Seyfried was well known at the IMGC, some of our scientists having very profitably cooperated with him and his co-workers—a cooperation that is being steadily carried on. I wish to acknowledge the endorsements of the Regione Piemonte, of the CNR, of Turin University, and of the Commission of the European Communities, in terms of grants and other resources without which the workshop could not have been realized. I also wish to very warmly thank my colleagues on the Organizing Committee who have worked so well for this event. Lastly, I am pleased to acknowledge the fruitful cooperation between the IMGC and the Istituto di Fisica Generale "A Avogadro"—not the first case of its kind and, I am convinced, not the last. To conclude, let me draw your attention to an enlargement of an Italian stamp commemorating A Avogadro. The statement reads: "Equal volumes of gas in the same temperature and pressure conditions contain the same number of molecules". He simply stated the existence of such a number, leaving us with the pleasure of measuring it.

  20. [Themes addressed in nursing consultation: integrative literature review].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Sherida Karanini Paz; Queiroz, Ana Paula Oliveira; Matos, Diliane Paiva de Melo; de Moura, Alline Falconieri; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the aspects of the nursing consultation (NC) in scientific publications. It was conducted an integrative literature review available in databases: LILACS, PUBMED, CINAHL and COCHRANE. 31 articles were selected that met the inclusion criteria. The themes most addressed on the NC were: factors affecting the NC, time and cost of consultations, assessment of nursing records, use of interview scripts, communication, systematization of nursing care, meaning and importance of the NC to promote health. It was concluded that various aspects of nursing consultation are being addressed in the articles analyzed. However, studies are needed to confirm its efficacy.

  1. Product Aspect Clustering by Incorporating Background Knowledge for Opinion Mining

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiheng; Zhao, Yanyan; Qin, Bing; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Product aspect recognition is a key task in fine-grained opinion mining. Current methods primarily focus on the extraction of aspects from the product reviews. However, it is also important to cluster synonymous extracted aspects into the same category. In this paper, we focus on the problem of product aspect clustering. The primary challenge is to properly cluster and generalize aspects that have similar meanings but different representations. To address this problem, we learn two types of background knowledge for each extracted aspect based on two types of effective aspect relations: relevant aspect relations and irrelevant aspect relations, which describe two different types of relationships between two aspects. Based on these two types of relationships, we can assign many relevant and irrelevant aspects into two different sets as the background knowledge to describe each product aspect. To obtain abundant background knowledge for each product aspect, we can enrich the available information with background knowledge from the Web. Then, we design a hierarchical clustering algorithm to cluster these aspects into different groups, in which aspect similarity is computed using the relevant and irrelevant aspect sets for each product aspect. Experimental results obtained in both camera and mobile phone domains demonstrate that the proposed product aspect clustering method based on two types of background knowledge performs better than the baseline approach without the use of background knowledge. Moreover, the experimental results also indicate that expanding the available background knowledge using the Web is feasible. PMID:27561001

  2. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  3. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  4. Which health-related quality of life aspects are important to patients with chronic myeloid leukemia receiving targeted therapies and to health care professionals? GIMEMA and EORTC Quality of Life Group.

    PubMed

    Efficace, Fabio; Breccia, Massimo; Saussele, Susanne; Kossak-Roth, Ute; Cardoni, Annarita; Caocci, Giovanni; Chie, Weichu; Naeem, Adel; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Cocks, Kim; Vignetti, Marco; Baccarani, Michele; Mandelli, Franco; Sprangers, Mirjam

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) aspects valued the most by patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) receiving targeted therapies (TT), and to compare their perception with that of health-care professionals' (HCPs). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 137 CML patients receiving TT from five different countries. An additional sample of 99 CML patients, completing an online interview, was considered for supportive analyses. A sample of 59 HCPs from 12 countries also participated in the study. Patients and HCPs were asked to rate and rank the importance of a predefined list of 74 HRQOL aspects of potential relevance for CML patients. Patients and HCPs agreed that the following five aspects are most important: fatigue, muscle cramps, swelling, worries, and uncertainty about health condition in the future, and importance of social support in coping with the disease. However, the difference in rankings between the two groups was substantial with respect to other HRQOL aspects investigated. Patients valued some issues related to symptoms much higher than HCPs, thus suggesting that a better symptom management could be the crucial aspects to improve HRQOL of CML patients.

  5. Addressing legal and political barriers to global pharmaceutical access: options for remedying the impact of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the imposition of TRIPS-plus standards.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Forman, Lisa; Lipkus, Nathaniel

    2008-07-01

    Despite myriad programs aimed at increasing access to essential medicines in the developing world, the global drug gap persists. This paper focuses on the major legal and political constraints preventing implementation of coordinated global policy solutions - particularly, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and bilateral and regional free trade agreements. We argue that several policy and research routes should be taken to mitigate the restrictive impact of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus rules, including greater use of TRIPS flexibilities, advancement of human rights, and an ethical framework for essential medicines distribution, and a broader campaign that debates the legitimacy of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus standards themselves.

  6. Principals Of Radiation Toxicology: Important Aspects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    “All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.” Paracelsus Key Words: Radiation Toxins (RT), Radiation Toxicants (RTc), Radiation Poisons (RP), Radiation Exposure (RE), Radiation Toxicology is the science about radiation poisons. [D.Popov et al. 2012,J.Zhou et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins is a specific proteins with high enzymatic activity produced by living irradiated mammals. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxicants is a substances that produce radiomimetics effects, adverse biological effects which specific for radiation. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxic agent is specific proteins that can produce pathological biological effects specific for physical form of radiation.[D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev 2007] Different Toxic Substances isolated from cells or from blood or lymph circulation. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins may affects many organs or specific organ, tissue, specific group of cells. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007] For example: Radiation Toxins could induce collective toxic clinical states to include: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMODS),and finally, toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). [T. Azizova et al. 2005, Konchalovsky et al., 2005, D. Popov et al 2012] However, Radiation Toxins could induce specific injury of organs or tissue and induce Acute Radiation Syndromes such as Acute Radiation Cerebrovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Cardiovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome, Acute Radiation GastroIntestinal Syndrome. [ D.Popov et al. 1990, 2012, V. Maliev et al. 2007] Radiation Toxins correlates with Radiation Exposure and the dose-response relationship is a fundamental and essential concept in classic Toxicology and Radiation Toxicology.[ D.Popov et al. 1990, 2012] Moderate and high doses of radiation induces necrosis of radiosensitive cells with the subsequent formation of radiation toxins and their induced acute inflammatory processes. Radiation necrosis is the most substantial and most severe form of radiation induced injury, and when widespread, has grave therapeutic implications. [D. Popov et al. 1990, 2012,Claudio A. et al. 2002, Robertson J. et al. 2002, ] Relatively small doses of Radiation Toxins induce apoptosis and high doses of Radiation Toxins induce necrosis. [Rastogi P. et al. 2009, D. Popov et al. 1990, 2012,] Threshold of Toxic Effects occurs and can be defined. [D. Popov et al. 2012, ] Radiation Toxins affects Somatic cells and Germ Cells. Radiation Toxins can induce teratogenic processes. Specific Toxicity of Radiation Toxins can affects developing fetus. Material and Methods, Results: http://www.intechopen.com/books/current-topics-in-ionizing-radiation-research/radiation-toxins-molecular-mechanisms-of-toxicity-and-radiomimetic-properties- Conclusion: Radiation is a physical agent - induce activation of some secretory proteins with high enzymatic activity. This proteins called as Radiation Toxins can produce specific for radiation biological and toxic effects after administration to radiation naive mammals. [V. Maliev et al. 2007, D. Popov et al. 1990, 2012] Radiation Toxins are teratogenic and oncogenic. Radiation Toxins effects depend on Administered Dose and Radiation effects depend on Exposure Dose and Absorbed Dose. The levels of Radiation Toxins correlates with Radiation Exposure.

  7. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  8. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings.

  9. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  10. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  11. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  12. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  13. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  14. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  15. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  16. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  17. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  18. Presidential address. Fatti Maschii Parole Femine.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G P

    1984-03-15

    The current role of the Society of Surgical Oncology has demonstrated leadership in the field of surgical oncology in both word and deed, as exemplified by the motto of the State of Maryland, adopted from the 1632 family seal of Lord Baltimore, "Fatti Maschii Parole Femine." The current emphasis on the need for clinical research on human cancers, and the education of surgeons in all aspects of various cancers is well founded in the writings and the addresses of Dr. James Ewing, the Society's founder. Our goals as a society for the next decade have been precisely defined and, as in all important national programs, made current and interfaced with corresponding priorities of the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute. The Society, in three project areas, is: (1) assessing current progress in surgical oncology, as well as future manpower needs; (2) studying on a comprehensive basis the surgical practices in cancer patient management; and (3) surveying academic centers concerning the nature of current education and training of academic surgeons in clinical research. The Training Committee currently reviews and recognizes 2-year postresidency multidisciplinary training at several institutions, and the James Ewing Foundation has expanded its fiscal support of educational activities. This annual meeting marks an historic first signified by the conjoint sessions being held with other international surgical oncology societies.

  19. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  20. Addressing Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that between 25% to 40% of students experience test anxiety, with students with disabilities and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds having higher prevalence rates. Since test anxiety impacts student well-being and the validity of the important educational decisions based on testing data, this article…

  1. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  2. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  3. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  4. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  5. Sprirtual aspects of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Prasinos, S

    1992-03-01

    This article addresses the relevance of spirituality to psychology and psychotherapy. It argues that spiritual experience is phenomenologically legitimate and worthy of study, especially by students of mental health. It utilizes Fox's (1985) definition of spirituality as "unitive experience" to show that spiritual experience is often present, overtly or covertly, within the ritual of psychotherapy. The paper argues that the therapist's adoption of an empathic posture is essentially a spiritual position. This position consists of a sense of peace, eternity, forgiveness, faith, love, truth, and God. These aspects are part of an integrated spiritual gestalt which is, though generally unacknowledged, fundamental to the communal healing process of psychotherapy. The paper concludes by asserting that greater involvement with the unitive (as opposed to the disunitive) represents a positive paradigmatic shift for psychology and humanity.

  6. Subduction modelling with ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cédric; Spakman, Wim; Quinquis, Matthieu; Buiter, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We make use of the promising features of ASPECT, especially Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), for modelling lithosphere subduction in 2D and 3D geometries. The AMR allows for mesh refinement where needed and mesh coarsening in regions less important to the parameters under investigation. In the context of subduction, this amounts to having very small grid cells at material interfaces and larger cells in more uniform mantle regions. As lithosphere subduction modelling is not standard to ASPECT, we explore the necessary adaptive grid refinement and test ASPECT with widely accepted benchmarks. We showcase examples of mechanical and thermo-mechanical oceanic subduction in which we vary the number of materials making up the overriding and subducting plates as well as the rheology (from linear viscous to more complicated rheologies). Both 2D and 3D geometries are used, as ASPECT easily extends to three dimensions (Kronbichler et al. 2012). Based on these models, we discuss the advection of compositional fields coupled to material properties and the ability of AMR to trace the slab's path through the mantle. Kronbichler, M., T. Heister and W. Bangerth (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29.

  7. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  8. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  9. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  10. Addressing Deaf Culture in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliaro, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    The importance of recognizing the culture of deaf people is often overlooked when addressing issues of student diversity in the schools. Including the culture of deaf students can add vitality and energy to the educational environment, providing an alternative and unique perspective. This paper describes deafness, explains deaf culture, and…

  11. Contextual analysis of machine-printed addresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Peter B.; Ho, Tin K.; Hull, Jonathan J.; Prussak, Michal; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1992-08-01

    The assignment of a nine digit ZIP Code (ZIP + 4 Code) to the digital image of a machine printed address block is a problem of central importance in automated mail sorting. This problem is especially difficult since most addresses do not contain ZIP + 4 Codes and often the information that must be read to match an address to one of the 28 million entries in the ZIP + 4 file is either erroneous, incomplete, or missing altogether. This paper discusses a system for interpreting a machine printed address and assigning a ZIP + 4 Code that uses a constraint satisfaction approach. Words in an address block are first segmented and parsed to assign probable semantic categories. Word images are then recognized by a combination of digit, character, and word recognition algorithms. The control structure uses a constraint satisfaction problem solving approach to match the recognition results to an entry in the ZIP + 4 file. It is shown how this technique can both determine correct responses as well as compensate for incomplete or erroneous information. Experimental results demonstrate the success of this system. In a recent test on over 1000 machine printed address blocks, the ZIP + 4 encode rate was over 73 percent. This compares to the success rate of current postal OCRs which is about 45 percent. Additionally, the word recognition algorithm recognizes over 92 percent of the input images (over 98 percent in the top 10 choices.

  12. Chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1987-02-01

    Two-dimensional classical chiral models of field theory are considered, the main attention being paid on geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of these models is that the interaction is inserted not by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the manifold. These models are in many respects analogous to non-Abelian gauge theories and as became clear recently, they are also important for the superstring theory which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  13. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  14. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  15. Promoting cognitive and social aspects of inquiry through classroom discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hui; Wei, Xin; Duan, Peiran; Guo, Yuying; Wang, Wenxia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how Chinese physics teachers structured classroom discourse to support the cognitive and social aspects of inquiry-based science learning. Regarding the cognitive aspect, we examined to what extent the cognitive processes underlying the scientific skills and the disciplinary reasoning behind the content knowledge were taught. Regarding the social aspect, we examined how classroom discourse supported student learning in terms of students' opportunities to talk and interaction patterns. Our participants were 17 physics teachers who were actively engaged in teacher education programs in universities and professional development programs in local school districts. We analyzed one lesson video from each participating teacher. The results suggest both promises and challenges. Regarding the cognitive aspect of inquiry, the teachers in general recognized the importance of teaching the cognitive processes and disciplinary reasoning. However, they were less likely to address common intuitive ideas about science concepts and principles. Regarding the social aspect of inquiry, the teachers frequently interacted with students in class. However, it appeared that facilitating conversations among students and prompting students to talk about their own ideas are challenging. We discuss the implications of these findings for teacher education programs and professional development programs in China.

  16. Clinical Aspects of Dermatitis Associated with Dirofilaria repens in Pets: A Review of 100 Canine and 31 Feline Cases (1990–2010) and a Report of a New Clinic Case Imported from Italy to Dubai

    PubMed Central

    Tarello, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous dirofilariasis is a parasitic disease caused by the mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens, living in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs, cats, wild carnivores, and humans. Cases have been recently reported also from Germany, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ukraine, Russia, Austria, Switzerland, France, The Netherlands, and the Middle East. D. repens is not widely known to cause chronic pruritic dermatitis in animals. Dermatological signs observed in 100 canine clinic cases were pruritus (100%), erythema (79%), papulae (62%), focal or multifocal alopecia (55%), hyperkeratosis (18%), crusting (14%), nodules (12%), acantosis (5%), and eczema (3%). Signs other than dermatological were conjunctivitis (46%), anorexia (35%), vomiting (26%), fever (25%), lethargy (20%), and lymph-adenomegaly (10%). A case imported from Italy to Dubai is described. The opportunistic role of D. repens might explain the presence of asymptomatic carriers, the concurrent observation of nondermatological signs, and the development of dermatitis in a subgroup of parasitized dogs. PMID:22203888

  17. Clinical Aspects of Dermatitis Associated with Dirofilaria repens in Pets: A Review of 100 Canine and 31 Feline Cases (1990-2010) and a Report of a New Clinic Case Imported from Italy to Dubai.

    PubMed

    Tarello, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous dirofilariasis is a parasitic disease caused by the mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens, living in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs, cats, wild carnivores, and humans. Cases have been recently reported also from Germany, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ukraine, Russia, Austria, Switzerland, France, The Netherlands, and the Middle East. D. repens is not widely known to cause chronic pruritic dermatitis in animals. Dermatological signs observed in 100 canine clinic cases were pruritus (100%), erythema (79%), papulae (62%), focal or multifocal alopecia (55%), hyperkeratosis (18%), crusting (14%), nodules (12%), acantosis (5%), and eczema (3%). Signs other than dermatological were conjunctivitis (46%), anorexia (35%), vomiting (26%), fever (25%), lethargy (20%), and lymph-adenomegaly (10%). A case imported from Italy to Dubai is described. The opportunistic role of D. repens might explain the presence of asymptomatic carriers, the concurrent observation of nondermatological signs, and the development of dermatitis in a subgroup of parasitized dogs.

  18. Portfolios: possibilities for addressing emergency medicine resident competencies.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Patricia; Greene, Constance

    2002-11-01

    Portfolios are an innovative approach to evaluate the competency of emergency medicine residents. Three key characteristics add to their attractiveness. First, portfolios draw from the resident's actual work. Second, they require self-reflection on the part of the resident. Third, they are inherently practice-based learning since residents must review and consider their practice in order to begin the portfolio. This paper illustrates five different applications of portfolios. First, portfolios are applied to evaluating specific competencies as part of the training of emergency physicians. While evaluating specific competencies, the portfolio captures aspects of the general competencies. Second, the article illustrates using portfolios as a way to address a specific residency review committee (RRC) requirement such as follow-ups. Third is a description of how portfolios can be used to evaluate resident conferences capturing the competency of practice-based learning and possibly other competencies such as medical knowledge and patient care. Fourth, the authors of the article designed a portfolio as a way to demonstrate clinical competence. Fifth, they elaborate as to how a continuous quality improvement project could be cast within the portfolio framework. They provide some guidance concerning issues to address when designing the portfolios. Portfolios are carefully structured and not haphazard collections of materials. Following criteria is important in maintaining the validity of the portfolio as well as contributing to reliability. The portfolios can enhance the relationship between faculty and residents since faculty will suggest cases, discuss anomalies, and interact with the residents around the portfolio. The authors believe that in general portfolios can cover many of the general competencies specified by the ACGME while still focusing on issues important to emergency medicine. The authors believe that portfolios provide an approach to evaluation commensurate

  19. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each.

  20. Addressing the Need for Electronic Communication in Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLoup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert

    Use of electronic communication options to access foreign language teaching resources is discussed, illustrated with examples from programs and applications found in New York State. The discussion is divided into four sections, each addressing an aspect of electronic communication for preparing for and teaching a foreign language: issues of access…

  1. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  2. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  3. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  4. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  5. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  6. Minimal Pairs: Minimal Importance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adam

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that minimal pairs do not merit as much attention as they receive in pronunciation instruction. There are other aspects of pronunciation that are of greater importance, and there are other ways of teaching vowel and consonant pronunciation. (13 references) (VWL)

  7. Tailoring Software Inspections for Aspect-Oriented Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Charlette Ward

    2009-01-01

    Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) is a new approach that addresses limitations inherent in conventional programming, especially the principle of separation of concerns by emphasizing the encapsulation and modularization of crosscutting concerns through a new abstraction, the "aspect." Aspect-oriented programming is an emerging AOSD…

  8. Presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system and occurrence of up- and down-regulation in expression of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: new aspects of importance regarding Achilles tendon tendinosis (tendinopathy).

    PubMed

    Bjur, Dennis; Danielson, Patrik; Alfredson, Håkan; Forsgren, Sture

    2008-02-01

    Limited information is available concerning the existence of a cholinergic system in the human Achilles tendon. We have studied pain-free normal Achilles tendons and chronically painful Achilles tendinosis tendons with regard to immunohistochemical expression patterns of the M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M(2)R), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). M(2)R immunoreactivity was detected in the walls of blood vessels. As evidenced via parallel staining for CD31 and alpha-smooth muscle actin, most M(2)R immunoreactivity was present in the endothelium. M(2)R immunoreactivity also occured in tenocytes, which regularly immunoreact for vimentin. The degree of M(2)R immunoreactivity was highly variable, tendinosis tendons that exhibit hypercellularity and hypervascularity showing the highest levels of immunostaining. Immunoreaction for ChAT and VAChT was detected in tenocytes in tendinosis specimens, particularly in aberrant cells. In situ hybridization revealed that mRNA for ChAT is present in tenocytes in tendinosis specimens. Our results suggest that autocrine/paracrine effects occur concerning the tenocytes in tendinosis. Up-regulation/down-regulation in the levels of M(2)R immunoreactivity possibly take place in tenocytes and blood vessel cells during the various stages of tendinosis. The presumed local production of acetylcholine (ACh), as evidenced by immunoreactivity for ChAT and VAChT and the detection of ChAT mRNA, appears to evolve in response to tendinosis. These observations are of importance because of the well-known vasoactive, trophic, and pain-modulating effects that ACh is known to have and do unexpectedly establish the presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in the Achilles tendon.

  9. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  10. Addressing Asthma Health Disparities: A Multilevel Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Rand, Cynthia S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial research has documented pervasive disparities in the prevalence, severity, and morbidity of asthma among minority populations compared to non-Latino whites. The underlying causes of these disparities are not well understood, and as a result, the leverage points to address them remain unclear. A multilevel framework for integrating research in asthma health disparities is proposed in order to advance both future research and clinical practice. The components of the proposed model include health care policies and regulations, operation of the health care system, provider/clinician-level factors, social/environmental factors, and individual/family attitudes and behaviors. The body of research suggests that asthma disparities have multiple, complex and inter-related sources. Disparities occur when individual, environmental, health system, and provider factors interact with one another over time. Given that the causes of asthma disparities are complex and multilevel, clinical strategies to address these disparities must therefore be comparably multilevel and target many aspects of asthma care. Clinical Implications: Several strategies that could be applied in clinical settings to reduce asthma disparities are described including the need for routine assessment of the patient’s beliefs, financial barriers to disease management, and health literacy, and the provision of cultural competence training and communication skills to health care provider groups. PMID:19447484

  11. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  12. Elimination and selection by aspects in health choice experiments: prioritising health service innovations.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Seda; Campbell, Danny; Thompson, Carl

    2014-12-01

    Priorities for public health innovations are typically not considered equally by all members of the public. When faced with a choice between various innovation options, it is, therefore, possible that some respondents eliminate and/or select innovations based on certain characteristics. This paper proposes a flexible method for exploring and accommodating situations where respondents exhibit such behaviours, whilst addressing preference heterogeneity. We present an empirical case study on the public's preferences for health service innovations. We show that allowing for elimination-by-aspects and/or selection-by-aspects behavioural rules leads to substantial improvements in model fit and, importantly, has implications for willingness to pay estimates and scenario analysis.

  13. Important aspects of oral lining in unilateral cleft lip repair.

    PubMed

    Baek, Rong-Min; Lee, Sang Woo

    2009-09-01

    To achieve an aesthetic lip in cleft lip repair, central fullness and slight eversion of the vermilion are necessary. If only cutaneous anthropometric length is considered, symmetry and good vermilion contour may be obtained, but a seemingly tightness of the lip can occur. To prevent this, it is necessary to obtain sufficient central mucosal tissue of the oral lining.The authors used 2 methods to obtain adequate tissue of the central area of the oral lining. First, the mucosa of the central area of the oral lining was supplemented using a medial mucosal flap, and the amount of superfluous tissue was minimized. Second, a relaxing incision was placed at the oral lining of the lateral flap, which was subsequently centrally advanced.A total of 389 patients with a unilateral cleft lip underwent surgery using these methods and achieved satisfactory results. Occasional cases of lateral vermilion bulging were encountered during long-term follow-up, but these were easily corrected by bulging excision.Consideration of the oral lining is essential in cleft lip repair. The authors were able to reconstruct an aesthetically pleasing lip with central fullness by obtaining an adequate amount of tissue in the central area of oral lining.

  14. Important aspects of the evidence for TCDD carcinogenicity in man.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E S

    1993-01-01

    Most of the evidence for the carcinogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in humans has centered on whether TCDD causes soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) and malignant lymphomas (ML). Recently, reports from two of the largest occupational cohort studies have become available. A critical reappraisal of these and other recent reports indicates that it is unlikely that TCDD causes malignant lymphomas in humans. For STS, the evidence for an etiologic role for TCDD is not convincing. However, more data and further clarification are needed before a clear and objective evaluation can be made. Factors such as level of exposure, sex, and host susceptibility may be critical determinants of whether cancer occurs; there is evidence from both humans and animals that these factors play a role, and therefore these factors should be considered in future evaluations. There is a serious need to rule out the possibility that observed effects are due to other concomitant exposures. Consideration of the carcinogenic effects of TCDD in animals reveals consistency with the human data and points to other cancers such as those of the thyroid gland and lung, for example, which are more likely candidates for investigating the role of TCDD in their occurrence, while at the same time providing a basis for a better understanding and interpretation of the human data. There are now sufficient epidemiologic studies in place that will provide a better climate for a definitive evaluation in the near future. PMID:8319655

  15. Self-Development: An Important Aspect of Leader Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34 Military Review 5 (July / August 2001), [ database on-line]; available from EBSCOhost . Accessed 11 December 2002. Steele, William M. and Robert P. Walters...360pa.txt. 39 John L. Rovero and Craig R. Bullis, "Assessing Self Development," Military Review, 78 (Jan/Feb 1998),5; [ database on-line]; available...from EBSCOhost ; accessed 11 September 2002. 40 Rovero & Bullis, 5. 41 Burnette, 121-122. 42 Steele and Walters, 2. 43 Burnette, 122. 44 Ibid, 9. 45

  16. Important aspects of oral paracoccidioidomycosis--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Abreu e Silva, Mariana Àlvares de; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia; Cherubini, Karen

    2013-05-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a deep mycosis endemic to Latin America, with considerable morbidity and mortality. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which affects, among other organs in the human body, the oral cavity. Fungus virulence and immunocompetence of the host determine the establishment of infection or active disease, whose severity and clinical behaviour depend mostly on the cellular immune response of the host. Often, oral lesions constitute the first sign and site of confirmation of diagnosis, which in most cases is delayed. The success of the treatment depends on early and correct diagnosis, as well as on the patient's adherence to the drug therapy.

  17. Supersymmetric chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1989-03-01

    We consider classical supersymmetric chiral models of field theory and focus our attention on the geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of such models is that the interaction is not introduced by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the target manifold. In many aspects these models are analogous to gauge theories and, as became clear recently, they are also important for superstring theory, which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  18. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  19. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  20. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  1. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  2. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  3. Integrating multiple disturbance aspects: management of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Shea, Katriona

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Disturbances occur in most ecological systems, and play an important role in biological invasions. We delimit five key disturbance aspects: intensity, frequency, timing, duration and extent. Few studies address more than one of these aspects, yet interactions and interdependence between aspects may lead to complex outcomes. Methods In a two-cohort experimental study, we examined how multiple aspects (intensity, frequency and timing) of a mowing disturbance regime affect the survival, phenology, growth and reproduction of an invasive thistle Carduus nutans (musk thistle). Key Results Our results show that high intensity and late timing strongly delay flowering phenology and reduce plant survival, capitulum production and plant height. A significant interaction between intensity and timing further magnifies the main effects. Unexpectedly, high frequency alone did not effectively reduce reproduction. However, a study examining only frequency and intensity, and not timing, would have erroneously attributed the importance of timing to frequency. Conclusions We used management of an invasive species as an example to demonstrate the importance of a multiple-aspect disturbance framework. Failure to consider possible interactions, and the inherent interdependence of certain aspects, could result in misinterpretation and inappropriate management efforts. This framework can be broadly applied to improve our understanding of disturbance effects on individual responses, population dynamics and community composition. PMID:22199031

  4. Crisis Management Aspects of Bam Catastrophic Earthquake: Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Ziapour, Behrad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bam earthquake was the most catastrophic natural disasters in recent years. The aim of this study was to review different aspects of crisis management during and after the catastrophic earthquake in Bam City, Iran. Methods: Data needed for this systematic review were collected through searching PubMed, EMBASE and SID databases, for the period from 2003 to 2011. Keywords included earthquake, Iran and Bam earthquake. The data were summarized and were analyzed using Content Analysis. Results: Out of 422 articles, 25 articles were included in the study. Crisis Management aspects and existing pitfalls were classified into seven categories including planning and organization, human resource management, management of logistics, international humanitarian aids, field performance of the military and security forces, health and medical service provision, and information management. Positive aspects and major pitfalls of crisis management have been introduced in all the mentioned categories. Conclusion: The available evidence indicated poor crisis management during Bam earthquake that resulted in aggravating the losses as well as diminishing the effect of interventions. Thus, concerning the importance of different aspects of the crisis management and the high prevalence of disasters in Iran, the observed vulnerability in disaster management process should be addressed. PMID:26000241

  5. The Adult Learner: Four Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Topics concerning the adult learner that are relevant to institutional researchers are addressed in four articles: marketing, predicting success for adult students, enrollment projection, and follow-up studies of adult learners. In "Institutional Research in Support of Marketing the Adult Student," Lydia Jurand notes the importance of…

  6. Imported malaria.

    PubMed

    Schultz, M G

    1974-01-01

    There have been 4 waves of imported malaria in the USA. They occurred during the colonization of the country and during the Second World War, the UN Police Action in Korea, and the Viet-Nam conflict. The first 3 episodes are briefly described and the data on imported malaria from Viet-Nam are discussed in detail.Endemic malaria is resurgent in many tropical countries and international travel is also on the rise. This increases the likelihood of malaria being imported from an endemic area and introduced into a receptive area. The best defence for countries threatened by imported malaria is a vigorous surveillance programme. The principles of surveillance are discussed and an example of their application is provided by a description of the methods used to conduct surveillance of malaria in the USA.

  7. 40 CFR 59.409 - Addresses of EPA Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses of EPA Offices. 59.409... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.409 Addresses of EPA... manufacturer or importer resides. These areas are indicated in the following list of EPA Regional Offices:...

  8. 40 CFR 59.409 - Addresses of EPA Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses of EPA Offices. 59.409... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.409 Addresses of EPA... manufacturer or importer resides. These areas are indicated in the following list of EPA Regional Offices:...

  9. 40 CFR 59.409 - Addresses of EPA Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Addresses of EPA Offices. 59.409... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.409 Addresses of EPA... manufacturer or importer resides. These areas are indicated in the following list of EPA Regional Offices:...

  10. 40 CFR 59.409 - Addresses of EPA Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses of EPA Offices. 59.409... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.409 Addresses of EPA... manufacturer or importer resides. These areas are indicated in the following list of EPA Regional Offices:...

  11. 40 CFR 59.409 - Addresses of EPA Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Addresses of EPA Offices. 59.409... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.409 Addresses of EPA... manufacturer or importer resides. These areas are indicated in the following list of EPA Regional Offices:...

  12. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  13. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  14. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  15. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  16. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  17. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  18. Instructional Aspects of Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieters, Jules M., Ed.

    This collection contains three papers addressing the instructional aspects of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS): (1) "Some Experiences with Two Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Teaching Computer Programming: Proust and the LISP-Tutor" (van den Berg, Merrienboer, and Maaswinkel); (2) "Some Issues on the Construction of Cooperative…

  19. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  20. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  1. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  2. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Aspects of higher training in emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kilroy, D

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To devise and develop a structured questionnaire addressing important issues relating to specialist registrar training in emergency medicine in the UK, and to then administer this questionnaire nationally to higher trainees in order to establish current practice and opinion regarding those issues. Methods: Informal interviews with current trainees were undertaken to identify themes which might be of wider importance in relation to training. The transcriptions were incorporated into a discussion questionnaire which was circulated to other trainees and to members of the Joint Committee on Higher Training in Accident and Emergency. A postal survey was developed from this draft and distributed to all trainees currently registered with the Faculty of Accident and Emergency Medicine. Results: The response rate was 75%. Collective responses to certain aspects of training are demonstrated in order to reflect current practice and opinion among UK specialist registrars and to allow further debate. Conclusion: Development of a structured questionnaire allows issues in relation to training in emergency medicine to be assessed. The findings of the survey allow national data to be presented which will be of interest to trainees and trainers in the UK as well as overseas. PMID:12954958

  4. Regional Actions to Address Climate Change Impacts on Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's ten regions work to address climate change on a local level, implementing regionally important solutions and working with stakeholders on the ground. Many regional partners work closely with EPA to better implement climate solutions

  5. Immunological aspects of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Woollard, Kevin J

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in several countries. The underlying process is atherosclerosis, a slowly progressing chronic disorder that can lead to intravascular thrombosis. There is overwhelming evidence for the underlying importance of our immune system in atherosclerosis. Monocytes, which comprise part of the innate immune system, can be recruited to inflamed endothelium and this recruitment has been shown to be proportional to the extent of atherosclerotic disease. Monocytes undergo migration into the vasculature, they differentiate into macrophage phenotypes, which are highly phagocytic and can scavenge modified lipids, leading to foam cell formation and development of the lipid-rich atheroma core. This increased influx leads to a highly inflammatory environment and along with other immune cells can increase the risk in the development of the unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. The present review provides an overview and description of the immunological aspect of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in atherosclerosis, by defining their interaction with the vascular environment, modified lipids and other cellular exchanges. There is a particular focus on monocytes and macrophages, but shorter descriptions of dendritic cells, lymphocyte populations, neutrophils, mast cells and platelets are also included.

  6. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  7. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  8. Thermodynamic aspects of therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Vanlandingham, Sean C; Kurz, Michael C; Wang, Henry E

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is an important treatment for post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Despite its widespread practice, only limited data describe the thermodynamic aspects of heat transfer during TH. This paper reviews the principles of human body heat balance and provides a conceptual model for characterizing heat exchange during TH. The model may provide a framework for computer simulation for improving training in or clinical methods of TH.

  9. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  10. Managing external genital warts: practical aspects of treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald

    2013-12-01

    Rising rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in recent decades, including external genital warts (EGWs), underscore the need for effective management of this common sexually transmitted disease. Although treatment is a vital aspect that aims primarily to resolve physical symptoms, health care providers must also address the psychosocial burden that typically accompanies diagnosis, treatment, remission, and recurrence. Education and counseling are integral components of care to address the cascade of negative emotional reactions that follow diagnosis, which often include anger, shame, stigma, frustration, and fear. Health care providers should offer patient information that is clear and simple, both verbally and in written form. Research to date has shown that information is most helpful when it is conveyed in a supportive tone and avoids stigmatization. Treatment decisions should consider the patient's preferences and the clinician's ability to offer certain therapies. A locally relevant algorithm and an individualized treatment approach are recommended by various treatment guidelines to improve the chances of compliance and treatment success. Given that success rates are variable, monitoring treatment is also necessary to gauge the patient's response to treatment, local reactions, and the potential need to switch treatments. Patients diagnosed with EGWs should also be screened for other sexually transmitted diseases because coinfection is common. Vaccination is becoming an increasingly important aspect of prevention strategies for HPV infections and should be considered for eligible patients.

  11. Firewall for Dynamic IP Address in Mobile IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ying; Bao, Feng; Zhou, Jianying

    Mobile communication is becoming the mainstream with the rapid growth of mobile devices penetrating our daily life. More and more mobile devices such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, notebooks etc, are capable of Internet access. Mobile devices frequently change their communication IP addresses in mobile IPv6 network following its current attached domain. This raises a big challenge for building firewall for mobile devices. The conventional firewalls are primarily based on IPv4 networks where the security criteria are specified only to the fixed IP addresses or subnets, which apparently do not apply to mobile IPv6. In this paper we propose three solutions for mobile IPv6 firewall. Our approaches make the firewall adaptive to dynamic IP addresses in mobile IPv6 network. They have different expense and weight corresponding to different degree of universality. The paper focuses the study more from practical aspect.

  12. [Imported histoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Stete, Katarina; Kern, Winfried V; Rieg, Siegbert; Serr, Annerose; Maurer, Christian; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Wagner, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    Infections with Histoplasma capsulatum are rare in Germany, and mostly imported from endemic areas. Infections can present as localized or disseminated diseases in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent hosts. A travel history may be a major clue for diagnosing histoplasmosis. Diagnostic tools include histology, cultural and molecular detection as well as serology. Here we present four cases of patients diagnosed and treated in Freiburg between 2004 and 2013 that demonstrate the broad range of clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis: an immunocompetent patient with chronic basal meningitis; a patient with HIV infection and fatal disseminated disease; a patient with pulmonary and cutaneous disease and mediastinal and cervical lymphadenopathy; and an immunosuppressed patient with disseminated involvement of lung, bone marrow and adrenal glands.

  13. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajfel, Henri

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  14. Ergonomical aspects of anaesthetic practice

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra Rao, RS

    2016-01-01

    Anaesthesiologist's service begins as a general physician, goes on as an investigator cum data analyser leading to the architectural planning of a forthcoming surgical event, but only after articulately convincing the subject along with his kith and kin. In the era of rapid developments in the field of medicine which includes relevant developments in anaesthetic care, an adequate work environment has to be provided to the anaesthesia team so that all anaesthetic procedures can be carried out safely and efficiently and an optimal workflow can be established in the operating room environment. Such ecological state demands an updated knowledge and ergonomics to aid him. Unfortunately, ergonomics is an area of anaesthesia that has received little attention and should be addressed through more education and training for workplace well-ness. Hence, an attempt is made to discuss few aspects on ergonomics for the interface between anaesthesiologist-machine-patient systems regarded as human-machine-system. PMID:27212716

  15. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  16. Professional Culture and Climate: Addressing Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2016-10-01

    Unconscious bias reflects expectations or stereotypes that influence our judgments of others (regardless of our own group). Everyone has unconscious biases. The end result of unconscious bias can be an accumulation of advantage or disadvantage that impacts the long term career success of individuals, depending on which biases they are subject to. In order to foster a professional culture and climate, being aware of these unconscious biases and mitigating against them is a first step. This is particularly important when judgements are needed, such as in cases for recruitment, choice of speakers for conferences, and even reviewing papers submitted for publication. This presentation will cover how unconscious bias manifests itself, what evidence exists to demonstrate it exists, and ways it can be addressed.

  17. Emotional Congruence in Learning and Health Encounters in Medicine: Addressing an Aspect of the Hidden Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to draw attention to and provide insights into an area that is of educational significance for clinical teachers, namely the need to acknowledge and respond appropriately to the emotional context of both learning and health encounters in order to improve the outcomes of both. This need has been highlighted by recent calls for more…

  18. Quality and safety aspects of food products addressing the needs of pregnant women and infants.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Heck, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Food safety is a primary concern for pregnant women and infants as the immune system is weakened during pregnancy and not developed enough in infants, which makes them especially vulnerable to suffering from the negative effects of nonquality food products. However, food contaminations not only affect an individual's health but also a country's economic development, social harmony, food trade and even politics, as seen during the Chinese infant formula crisis in 2008. Thus, quality control is crucial in the production processes in order to have safe food products on the market. But quality control alone is not enough: manufacturers must embrace quality beyond classic in-process parameters and perform a final microbiological analysis at the end of the production process. This requires a clear and trustworthy approach to quality and safety and the involvement of all stakeholders from industry, government and academia over policy makers to consumers. This paper provides an introductory context for current quality management systems and gives real-life examples of challenges that manufacturers face during quality management and control throughout the production process.

  19. How to Address the Volitional Dimension of the Engineer's Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkero, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I argue that volitional aspects, i.e. ethos, attitude, pathos, will, underlying emotion, in engineering action need to be addressed when teaching social responsibility within the engineering curriculum. After presenting reasons for this claim, I look at two different, but not mutually exclusive, approaches to address volitional…

  20. Chronic Mountain Sickness: Clinical Aspects, Etiology, Management, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Corante, Noemí

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Villafuerte, Francisco C., and Noemí Corante. Chronic mountain sickness: clinical aspects, etiology, management, and treatment. High Alt Med Biol. 17:61–69, 2016.—Millions of people worldwide live at a high altitude, and a significant number are at risk of developing Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a progressive incapacitating syndrome caused by lifelong exposure to hypoxia. CMS is characterized by severe symptomatic excessive erythrocytosis (EE; Hb ≥19 g/dL for women and Hb ≥21 g/dL for men) and accentuated hypoxemia, which are frequently associated with pulmonary hypertension. In advanced cases, the condition may evolve to cor pulmonale and congestive heart failure. Current knowledge indicates a genetic predisposition to develop CMS. However, there are important risk factors and comorbidities that may trigger and aggravate the condition. Thus, appropriate medical information on CMS is necessary to provide adequate diagnosis and healthcare to high-altitude inhabitants. After reviewing basic clinical aspects of CMS, including its definition, diagnosis, and common clinical findings, we discuss aspects of its etiology, and address its epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. PMID:27218284

  1. Charles Darwin and Evolution: Illustrating Human Aspects of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampourakis, Kostas; McComas, William F.

    2010-06-01

    Recently, the nature of science (NOS) has become recognized as an important element within the K-12 science curriculum. Despite differences in the ultimate lists of recommended aspects, a consensus is emerging on what specific NOS elements should be the focus of science instruction and inform textbook writers and curriculum developers. In this article, we suggest a contextualized, explicit approach addressing one core NOS aspect: the human aspects of science that include the domains of creativity, social influences and subjectivity. To illustrate these ideas, we have focused on Charles Darwin, a scientist whose life, work and thought processes were particularly well recorded at the time and analyzed by scholars in the succeeding years. Historical facts are discussed and linked to core NOS ideas. Creativity is illustrated through the analogies between the struggle for existence in human societies and in nature, between artificial and natural selection, and between the division of labor in human societies and in nature. Social influences are represented by Darwin’s aversion of criticism of various kinds and by his response to the methodological requirements of the science of that time. Finally, subjectivity is discussed through Darwin’s development of a unique but incorrect source for the origin of variations within species.

  2. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  3. Ethical aspects on rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Luis A; Galindo, Gilberto Cely

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss several of the most relevant subjects related to ethics on Rare Diseases. Some general aspects are discussed such as the socio-psychological problems that confront the patients and their families that finally lead to marginalization and exclusion of patients affected by these diseases from the health programs, even in wealthy countries. Then we address problems related to diagnosis and some ethical aspects of newborn screening, prenatal, pre-implantation diagnosis and reference centers, as well as some conditions that should be met by the persons and institutions performing such tasks. Alternatives of solutions for the most critical situations are proposed. Subsequently the orphan drugs subject is discussed not only from the availability point of view, prizes, industrial practices, and purchasing power in developed and developing societies. The research related to rare disease in children and other especially vulnerable conditions, the need for informed consent, review boards or ethics comities, confidentiality of the information, biobanks and pharmacogenetics are discussed.

  4. Addressing the spiritual needs of American Indians: predictors of satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R; Wolosin, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Spirituality is instrumental to health and wellness in many American Indian (AI) cultures. Although the Joint Commission requires spiritual assessments to identify and address clients' spiritual needs during hospitalization, little is known about the operationalization of this process for American Indians (AIs). To address this gap in the literature, the present study employed a national sample of AIs (N = 1,281) to identify predictors of satisfaction with the manner in which their spiritual needs were addressed. The results suggest the discharge process, physicians, room quality, and nurses play important roles in satisfactorily addressing AIs' spiritual needs. Of these, the discharge process had the largest effect on satisfaction, underscoring the salience of social workers in addressing the spiritual needs of hospitalized AIs.

  5. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  6. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  7. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  8. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  9. Aspect-Object Alignment with Integer Linear Programming in Opinion Mining

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanyan; Qin, Bing; Liu, Ting; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Target extraction is an important task in opinion mining. In this task, a complete target consists of an aspect and its corresponding object. However, previous work has always simply regarded the aspect as the target itself and has ignored the important "object" element. Thus, these studies have addressed incomplete targets, which are of limited use for practical applications. This paper proposes a novel and important sentiment analysis task, termed aspect-object alignment, to solve the "object neglect" problem. The objective of this task is to obtain the correct corresponding object for each aspect. We design a two-step framework for this task. We first provide an aspect-object alignment classifier that incorporates three sets of features, namely, the basic, relational, and special target features. However, the objects that are assigned to aspects in a sentence often contradict each other and possess many complicated features that are difficult to incorporate into a classifier. To resolve these conflicts, we impose two types of constraints in the second step: intra-sentence constraints and inter-sentence constraints. These constraints are encoded as linear formulations, and Integer Linear Programming (ILP) is used as an inference procedure to obtain a final global decision that is consistent with the constraints. Experiments on a corpus in the camera domain demonstrate that the three feature sets used in the aspect-object alignment classifier are effective in improving its performance. Moreover, the classifier with ILP inference performs better than the classifier without it, thereby illustrating that the two types of constraints that we impose are beneficial. PMID:26000635

  10. Aspect-object alignment with Integer Linear Programming in opinion mining.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Qin, Bing; Liu, Ting; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Target extraction is an important task in opinion mining. In this task, a complete target consists of an aspect and its corresponding object. However, previous work has always simply regarded the aspect as the target itself and has ignored the important "object" element. Thus, these studies have addressed incomplete targets, which are of limited use for practical applications. This paper proposes a novel and important sentiment analysis task, termed aspect-object alignment, to solve the "object neglect" problem. The objective of this task is to obtain the correct corresponding object for each aspect. We design a two-step framework for this task. We first provide an aspect-object alignment classifier that incorporates three sets of features, namely, the basic, relational, and special target features. However, the objects that are assigned to aspects in a sentence often contradict each other and possess many complicated features that are difficult to incorporate into a classifier. To resolve these conflicts, we impose two types of constraints in the second step: intra-sentence constraints and inter-sentence constraints. These constraints are encoded as linear formulations, and Integer Linear Programming (ILP) is used as an inference procedure to obtain a final global decision that is consistent with the constraints. Experiments on a corpus in the camera domain demonstrate that the three feature sets used in the aspect-object alignment classifier are effective in improving its performance. Moreover, the classifier with ILP inference performs better than the classifier without it, thereby illustrating that the two types of constraints that we impose are beneficial.

  11. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  12. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  14. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  15. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  16. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  17. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  18. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  19. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  20. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  1. Requirements Engineering and Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yijun; Niu, Nan; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Mylopoulos, John; Easterbrook, Steve; Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio

    A fundamental problem with requirements engineering (RE) is to validate that a design does satisfy stakeholder requirements. Some requirements can be fulfilled locally by designed modules, where others must be accommodated globally by multiple modules together. These global requirements often crosscut with other local requirements and as such lead to scattered concerns. We explore the possibility of borrowing concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to tackle these problems in early requirements. In order to validate the design against such early aspects, we propose a framework to trace them into coding and testing aspects. We demonstrate the approach using an open-source e-commerce platform. In the conclusion of this work, we reflect on the lessons learnt from the case study on how to fit RE and AOP research together.

  2. Organisational aspects of care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-04

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  3. Sociological Aspects of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational…

  4. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  5. Global aspects of monsoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments are studied in three areas of monsoon research: (1) global aspects of the monsoon onset, (2) the orographic influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the summer monsoon circulations, and (3) tropical 40 to 50 day oscillations. Reference was made only to those studies that are primarily based on FGGE Level IIIb data. A brief summary is given.

  6. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  7. Remembering What's Important: Priorities of School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    In "Remembering What's Important: Priorities of School Leadership," Charles A. Bonnici addresses several issues facing school leaders through strategies supported by real-life examples and anecdotes. The issues addressed include questions such as: (1) What is the most urgent issue faced by a new school leader?; (2) How can this leader address the…

  8. Energy Aspects of Green Buildings - International Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2016-12-01

    At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

  9. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  10. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  11. Psychology's contributions to understanding and addressing global climate change.

    PubMed

    Swim, Janet K; Stern, Paul C; Doherty, Thomas J; Clayton, Susan; Reser, Joseph P; Weber, Elke U; Gifford, Robert; Howard, George S

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change poses one of the greatest challenges facing humanity in this century. This article, which introduces the American Psychologist special issue on global climate change, follows from the report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on the Interface Between Psychology and Global Climate Change. In this article, we place psychological dimensions of climate change within the broader context of human dimensions of climate change by addressing (a) human causes of, consequences of, and responses (adaptation and mitigation) to climate change and (b) the links between these aspects of climate change and cognitive, affective, motivational, interpersonal, and organizational responses and processes. Characteristics of psychology that cross content domains and that make the field well suited for providing an understanding of climate change and addressing its challenges are highlighted. We also consider ethical imperatives for psychologists' involvement and provide suggestions for ways to increase psychologists' contribution to the science of climate change.

  12. Psychiatric Aspects of Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, G.; Desousa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Surgical transplantation of human organs from deceased as well as living donors to sick and dying patients began after the Second World War. Over the past 50 years the transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells has become a worldwide practice which has extended, and greatly enhanced the quality of hundreds of thousands of lives. The field of transplantation medicine provides an important chance for liaison between psychiatric professionals and other transplant physicians and surgeons. The discrepancy between the ever-increasing demand for organs but the decreasing supply makes it important to evaluate and prioritize individuals who are in dire need of the organ. However, this also gives rise to certain ethical questions. The following paper discusses various psychiatric aspects of organ transplantation in general. PMID:25013589

  13. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  14. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  15. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  16. Addressing the Public About Science and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshkin, Murray

    2010-03-01

    Attacks on the integrity of science teaching in our public schools have recently become increasingly threatening. Geology and Darwinian evolution are the primary targets and cosmology is at risk. Up to now, the Supreme Court has excluded teachings based on religion from public schools for constitutional, not scientific, reasons. But now the incumbent Supreme Court seem less committed to strict separation of church and state than were their predecessors, and federal courts are beginning to judge the science itself. In this situation, we need to create a climate of public opinion favorable to the protection of good science by explaining the issues both to students and to others. I have been trying to do that by addressing audiences such as church groups, other community groups, and high school and college classes. I do not seek to convert committed anti-evolutionists. I am trying to inform the reasonable majority who do not really know what science is and does, or what a theory is and how we know when it's right, or why we tell them that all knowledge is provisional but still insist that we are teaching the right science. Many have been advised by their religious teachers that there is no conflict between science and their religious beliefs but do not see how that can be. I try to explain how they are disjoint discussions. I also discuss the likely consequences for our country if we degrade the teaching of science in the public schools. My audiences have generally been receptive. Here I will relate some lessons I have learned from my experience with such talks. Without doubt, the most important lesson is that most Americans have religious beliefs that are important to them and are willing to consider what I say only because they know I respect their beliefs. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  17. To Address or Not to Address the Violent Past in the Classroom? That Is the Question in Côte D'ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Line; Langer, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of violent conflict, divided societies have to answer the important question of whether, when and how to address their country's violent past within their educational system. Whereas some scholars within the field of peace education and transitional justice argue that addressing the violent past in the classroom is important for…

  18. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  19. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  20. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  1. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  2. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  3. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  4. 49 CFR 369.6 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.6 Address. The following address must be used by motor carriers when submitting a report, requesting an exemption from filing...

  5. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  6. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  7. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  8. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  9. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  10. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  11. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  12. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  13. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  14. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  15. The Footing of a Royal Address: An Analysis of Representativeness in Political Speech, Exemplified in Queen Beatrix' Address to the Knesset on March 28, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensink, Titus

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a systematic approach to the analysis of states of the union speeches, based on Goffman's concept "footing." This concept allows making a distinction between several functional aspects of the roles speakers and listeners perform in speech situations, as exemplified in the case of the Dutch Queen addressing the Israeli…

  16. Can Innovation Save Gifted Education? 2010 NAGC Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Connecting innovation with gifted education is a necessity not only in the current political climate but also because it is a field with deeply held beliefs about the importance of problem solving, creativity, imagination, and invention--all critical components of innovation. In this address, the author focuses on three key ideas. First, she…

  17. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  18. Addressing Culture and Values in the Training of Art Therapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattaneo, Mariagnese

    1994-01-01

    Discusses importance of addressing culture, values, and aesthetics in training of art therapists. Illustrates how students can be guided to discover and examine influence which culture has on their own and others' perceptions of different modes of artistic expression. Contends that newly gained sensibility can give direction to students'…

  19. 21 CFR 812.19 - Address for IDE correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Address for IDE correspondence. 812.19 Section 812... correspondence. (a) If you are sending an application, supplemental application, report, request for waiver, request for import or export approval, or other correspondence relating to matters covered by this...

  20. 21 CFR 812.19 - Address for IDE correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Address for IDE correspondence. 812.19 Section 812... correspondence. (a) If you are sending an application, supplemental application, report, request for waiver, request for import or export approval, or other correspondence relating to matters covered by this...

  1. 21 CFR 812.19 - Address for IDE correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Address for IDE correspondence. 812.19 Section 812... correspondence. (a) If you are sending an application, supplemental application, report, request for waiver, request for import or export approval, or other correspondence relating to matters covered by this...

  2. State Legislation to Address Childhood Obesity. Program Results Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiester, Leila

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 12.5 million American children and teens are obese. Over time, the diseases and disabilities associated with obesity may undermine this population's health and result in substantial social and economic costs. Policies that address children's nutrition and physical activity are an important tool in reversing the obesity epidemic. More…

  3. Effective Language Education Practices and Native Language Survival. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlebear, Dick

    The importance of Native languages to Native Americans and the effort needed to maintain them are discussed in this keynote address at the ninth Native American Language Issues Institute. It is noted that the current cultural transition has demeaned Native languages and cultures and that strategies must be devised by Native Americans to counter…

  4. Automated measurement of printer effective addressability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Brian E.; Eid, Ahmed H.; Rippetoe, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating printer resolution, addressability is a key consideration. Addressability defines the maximum number of spots or samples within a given distance, independent of the size of the spots when printed. Effective addressability is the addressability demonstrated by the final, printed output. It is the minimum displacement possible between the centers of printed objects. In this paper, we present a measurement procedure for effective addressability that offers an automated way to experimentally determine the addressability of the printed output. It requires printing, scanning, and measuring a test target. The effective addressability test target contains two types of elements, repeated to fill the page: fiducial lines and line segments. The fiducial lines serve as a relative reference for the incremental displacements of the individual line segments, providing a way to tolerate larger-scale physical distortions in the printer. An ordinary reflection scanner captures the printed test target. By rotating the page on the scanner, it is possible to measure effective addressability well beyond the scanner's sampling resolution. The measurement algorithm computes the distribution of incremental displacements, forming either a unimodal or bimodal histogram. In the latter case, the mean of the second (non-zero) peak indicates the effective addressability. In the former case, the printer successfully rendered the target's resolution, requiring another iteration of the procedure after increasing the resolution of the test target. The algorithm automatically estimates whether the histogram is unimodal or bimodal and computes parameters describing the quality of the measured histogram. Several experiments have refined the test target and measurement procedure, including two round-robin evaluations by the ISO WG4 committee. Results include an analysis of approximately 150 printed samples. The effective addressability attribute and measurement procedure are included in

  5. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    PubMed Central

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  6. Review of biomedical aspects of CB masks and their relationship to military performance. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Muza, S.R.

    1986-11-01

    This review describes the most important factors affecting military work performance while wearing a CB mask: (1) the additional inspiratory and expiratory breathing resistance; (2) increased external dead space; (3) thermal stress of the mask and hood; (4) restriction of functional vision; (5) hindrance of speech transmission and reception; (6) weight, size, and pressure on the face by the CB mask; (7) claustrophobic reactions, and (8) sleep loss and lack of nutrient intake due to long-term wear. In assessing the biomedical aspects of these factors, rather than making comparisons between specific models of CB masks, the review addresses these factors as they apply to CB masks in general.

  7. Addressing Uniqueness and Unison of Reliability and Safety for a Better Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Zhaofeng; Safie, Fayssal

    2016-01-01

    Over time, it has been observed that Safety and Reliability have not been clearly differentiated, which leads to confusion, inefficiency, and, sometimes, counter-productive practices in executing each of these two disciplines. It is imperative to address this situation to help Reliability and Safety disciplines improve their effectiveness and efficiency. The paper poses an important question to address, "Safety and Reliability - Are they unique or unisonous?" To answer the question, the paper reviewed several most commonly used analyses from each of the disciplines, namely, FMEA, reliability allocation and prediction, reliability design involvement, system safety hazard analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The paper pointed out uniqueness and unison of Safety and Reliability in their respective roles, requirements, approaches, and tools, and presented some suggestions for enhancing and improving the individual disciplines, as well as promoting the integration of the two. The paper concludes that Safety and Reliability are unique, but compensating each other in many aspects, and need to be integrated. Particularly, the individual roles of Safety and Reliability need to be differentiated, that is, Safety is to ensure and assure the product meets safety requirements, goals, or desires, and Reliability is to ensure and assure maximum achievability of intended design functions. With the integration of Safety and Reliability, personnel can be shared, tools and analyses have to be integrated, and skill sets can be possessed by the same person with the purpose of providing the best value to a product development.

  8. Terminological aspects of data elements

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A. ); Kenworthey, W.H. Jr. ); Schuldt, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The creation and display of data comprise a process that involves a sequence of steps requiring both semantic and systems analysis. An essential early step in this process is the choice, definition, and naming of data element concepts and is followed by the specification of other needed data element concept attributes. The attributes and the values of data element concept remain associated with them from their birth as a concept to a generic data element that serves as a template for final application. Terminology is, therefore, centrally important to the entire data creation process. Smooth mapping from natural language to a database is a critical aspect of database, and consequently, it requires terminology standardization from the outset of database work. In this paper the semantic aspects of data elements are analyzed and discussed. Seven kinds of data element concept information are considered and those that require terminological development and standardization are identified. The four terminological components of a data element are the hierarchical type of a concept, functional dependencies, schematas showing conceptual structures, and definition statements. These constitute the conventional role of terminology in database design. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Aspects of Gond astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

    2013-03-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

  10. Importance of risk communication during and after a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Perko, Tanja

    2011-07-01

    Past nuclear accidents highlight communication as one of the most important challenges in emergency management. In the early phase, communication increases awareness and understanding of protective actions and improves the population response. In the medium and long term, risk communication can facilitate the remediation process and the return to normal life. Mass media play a central role in risk communication. The recent nuclear accident in Japan, as expected, induced massive media coverage. Media were employed to communicate with the public during the contamination phase, and they will play the same important role in the clean-up and recovery phases. However, media also have to fulfill the economic aspects of publishing or broadcasting, with the "bad news is good news" slogan that is a well-known phenomenon in journalism. This article addresses the main communication challenges and suggests possible risk communication approaches to adopt in the case of a nuclear accident.

  11. Every Child Left Behind -- Addressing One Important Effect of Multiple Deployments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-25

    As President Bush stated to the audience in Hamilton, Ohio, at the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act, “[i]t’s so much easier to move a child...different age groups of preschool , elementary, and adolescence, thus requiring different solutions to effectuate the problems each age group may be

  12. The Power of a Single Game to Address a Range of Important Ideas in Fraction Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug; Roche, Anne

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Contemporary Teaching and Learning of Mathematics Project (CTLM), the mathematics education team at Australian Catholic University has the privilege of working with principals, teachers, students, and parents in schools in the Melbourne Archdiocese. A particular highlight is the opportunity to work alongside project teachers and…

  13. Are current standards of reporting quality for clinical trials sufficient in addressing important sources of bias?

    PubMed

    Mills, Edward J; Ayers, Dieter; Chou, Roger; Thorlund, Kristian

    2015-11-01

    Determining the quality of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) is necessary for decision-makers to determine the believability and applicability of the trial findings. Issues that are likely to affect the utility of RCT evidence include issues of bias, random error and applicability. In this article we focus primarily on issues of bias and examine the evidence for whether reporting methodological items, including allocation concealment, sequence generation, and blinding of participants can be relied upon as evidence of bias. We present the findings of a systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies and a simulation study demonstrating that commonly examined sources of bias likely play little role in treatment exaggeration. We discuss other issues that may additionally influence trial outcomes including sample size, publication bias, and expertise of trialists. We conclude by discussing strategies to moderate the effect of known biases in assessing overall estimates of treatment effects.

  14. Biomedical aspects of artificial gravity.

    PubMed

    Vil-Viliams, I F; Kotovskaya, A R; Shipov, A A

    1997-07-01

    Artificial gravity (AG) is the basic challenge for space biology and medicine. The importance of this problem is associated with the fact that duration of the space missions will become progressively longer, but the presently available countermeasures do not provide reason enough to predict the human health safety during space missions of any duration. The creation of AG could be an efficient method for removing the negative effects of microgravity. Two principle methods of generating AG, rotation of space system (SS) and building of short arm centrifuge (SAC), have been proposed. The purpose of the present work is to review the biomedical aspects of AG in the context of its use in long-term space missions.

  15. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  16. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  17. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  18. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  19. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  20. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  1. 76 FR 27020 - Representative and Address Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Representative and Address Provisions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of...

  2. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  3. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  4. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  5. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  6. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  7. Criticism and interpretation: teaching the persuasive aspects of research articles.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Research articles are an excellent tool for promoting active learning about the scientific process. One difficulty in teaching research articles is that they address a professional audience and often seek to be persuasive as well as informative. This essay discusses pedagogical strategies that are intended to help students differentiate the purely informative aspects of research articles, such as descriptions of the methods and results, from the persuasive aspects, such as interpretation of results and critical evaluation of the work of other scientists.

  8. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  9. Historical aspects of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    “Anxiety” is a key term for behavioral, psychoanalytic, neuroendocrine, and psychopharmacological observations and theories. Commenting on its historical aspects is difficult, since history is properly a study of primary data. Unfortunately, much clinical anecdote does not correspond to factual records of a long time ago. Even reports of objective studies may suffer from allegiance effects. This essay therefore primarily reflects the personal impact of others' work against the background of my experiences, clinical and scientific. These lead me to question the assumption that “anxiety”, as it exists in syndromal disturbances, is simply the quantitative extreme of the normal “anxiety” that occurs during the anticipation of danger. An alternative view that emphasizes dysfunctions of distinct evolved adaptive alarm systems is presented. PMID:22033777

  10. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  11. NOx emission trading in a European context: discussion of the economic, legal, and cultural aspects.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, C P

    2001-10-25

    Emission trading is a new instrument in environmental policy. It is an alien notion in most European countries and it is often viewed with hesitation. The paper discusses the economic, legal, and perhaps more importantly, the cultural aspects to consider when one tries to explore the prospects for trading emissions of NOx and other substances in Europe. Issues to be addressed are the present legal framework in Europe in relation to the national emission ceilings on NOx and other substances on the basis of relevant EU directives and UNECE protocols. The paper will discuss the extent to which the legal framework within the EU imposes constraints on the design of a national emission trading scheme, and what options are available to fit emission trading into that legislative structure. The NOx emission trading programme developed in the Netherlands will be used to demonstrate the various aspects in a European context.

  12. In vitro testing of thiolated poly(aspartic acid) from ophthalmic formulation aspects.

    PubMed

    Budai-Szű Cs, Mária; Horvát, Gabriella; Gyarmati, Benjámin; Szilágyi, Barnabás Áron; Szilágyi, András; Csihi, Tímea; Berkó, Szilvia; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Mori, Michela; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Caramella, Carla; Csányi, Erzsébet

    2016-08-01

    Ocular drug delivery formulations must meet anatomical, biopharmaceutical, patient-driven and regulatory requirements. Mucoadhesive polymers can serve as a better alternative to currently available ophthalmic formulations by providing improved bioavailability. If all requirements are addressed, a polymeric formulation resembling the tear film of the eye might be the best solution. The optimum formulation must not have high osmotic activity, should provide appropriate surface tension, pH and refractive index, must be non-toxic and should be transparent and mucoadhesive. We would like to highlight the importance of in vitro polymer testing from a pharmaceutical aspect. We, therefore, carried out physical-chemical investigations to verify the suitability of certain systems for ophthalmic formulations. In this work, in situ gelling, mucoadhesive thiolated poly(aspartic acid)s were tested from ophthalmic formulation aspects. The results of preformulation measurements indicate that these polymers can be used as potential carriers in ophthalmic drug delivery.

  13. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  14. Emphasize the Nontechnical Aspects of Office Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Walter A.

    1979-01-01

    Stating that employers consider the nontechnical aspects of office work to be as important as work competence, the author lists 12 nontechnical qualities that business teachers should place greater emphasis on, such as new terminology, new devices, communication skills, decision making, personal and professional characteristics, responsibility,…

  15. Wound healing: immunological aspects.

    PubMed

    Tsirogianni, Afrodite K; Moutsopoulos, Niki Maria; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M

    2006-04-01

    Wound healing is a complex biological process, comprised of a series of a sequential events aiming to repair injured tissue. The role of the immune system in this process is not only to recognise and combat the newly presented antigens at the site of injury, but also to participate in the debridement of the damaged area and to contribute to the process of healing. In this review, we discuss the molecules and cells of the immune system that participate in tissue repair. We describe the mechanisms of immune recognition during initial insult and the innate and adaptive immune responses to injury. Finally, we address the role of the immune system in regeneration and repair.

  16. Psychosocial aspects of aphasia: whose perspectives?

    PubMed

    Parr, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some different meanings of the term 'psychosocial' and identifies the different ways in which the social and psychological sequelae of aphasia can be explored. These include qualitative methods, which seem well suited to addressing such complex issues. Having outlined some features of qualitative research, the paper describes a study in which fifty people talked about the consequences and significance of their long-term aphasia. Their 'insider perspective' on aphasia suggests its impacts are extensive, complex, direct and indirect, interconnected, systemic, dynamic and diversely experienced. The paper discusses the various implications of the study for clinicians and researchers concerned with the psychosocial aspects of aphasia and outlines how some of the issues raised in the interviews might be addressed.

  17. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, Yanbing

    2009-09-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  18. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, YanBing

    2010-11-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  19. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  20. The 2016 AANS Presidential Address: Leading the way.

    PubMed

    Batjer, H Hunt; Ban, Vin Shen

    2016-12-01

    This AANS presidential address focuses on enduring values of the neurosurgical profession that transcend the current political climate. The address was delivered by Dr. Batjer during a US presidential election year, but the authors have intentionally avoided discussing the current chaos of the American health care system in the knowledge that many pressing issues will change depending on the outcome of the 2016 elections. Instead, they have chosen to focus on clarifying what neurosurgeons, and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, in particular, stand for; identifying important challenges to these fundamental principles and values; and proposing specific actions to address these challenges. The authors cite "de-professionalism" and commoditization of medicine as foremost among the threats that confront medicine and surgery today and suggest concrete action that can be taken to reverse these trends as well as steps that can be taken to address other significant challenges. They emphasize the importance of embracing exceptionalism and never compromising the standards that have characterized the profession of neurosurgery since its inception.

  1. Aspects of cosmological relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.

    1999-07-01

    The author reviews cosmological relativity, a new special theory of relativity that was recently developed for cosmology, and discusses in detail some of its aspects. He recalls that in this theory it is assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time. Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. New applications of the theory are presented. The author shows that there is no need to assume the existence of galaxy dark matter; the Tully-Fisher law is derived from the theory. A completely new picture of the expanding universe is thus obtained and compared to the FRW one.

  2. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-08

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  3. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  4. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  5. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  6. Addressing resistance to antibiotics in systematic reviews of antibiotic interventions.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David J; Afshari, Arash; Pace, Nathan Leon; Cullum, Nicky; Williams, Hywel C; Smyth, Alan; Skoetz, Nicole; Del Mar, Chris; Schilder, Anne G M; Yahav, Dafna; Tovey, David

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies. This omission creates a skewed view, which emphasizes short-term efficacy and ignores the long-term consequences to the patient and other people. We offer a framework for addressing antibiotic resistance in systematic reviews. We suggest that the data on background resistance in the original trials should be reported and taken into account when interpreting results. Data on emergence of resistance (whether in the body reservoirs or in the bacteria causing infection) are important outcomes. Emergence of resistance should be taken into account when interpreting the evidence on antibiotic treatment in randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews.

  7. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment. PMID:22690178

  8. Beyond responsible conduct in research: new pedagogies to address macroethics of nanobiotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Vallero, Daniel Alan

    2007-01-01

    A team of engineers, scientists, ethicists, and educational specialists are enhancing Duke University's Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) program to ensure that graduate-level researchers in emerging fields are adequately prepared when confronted with macroethical issues associated with applications of new and emerging medical technologies. The focus is on nanoscale laboratory research conducted in the Center for Biologically Inspired Materials and Material Systems and the Center for Biological Tissue Engineering. Most present RCR programs address methodological ethics of the individual researcher or practitioner (i.e., microethical) issues, analogous to Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The resultant model from this project is the basis for departmental, center, and other more targeted ethical challenges stemming from research in emerging technologies, designed to provide comprehensive RCR training. The research successfully identified new ways of teaching students about macroethical issues (i.e., those that affect society). Three main dimensions of ethics in nanotechnology-related research are being stressed, namely, awareness, ethical decision making, and behavior. Workshops appear to enhance awareness of the ethical issues associated with emerging technologies. To date, attempts to affect decision making have been difficult, although in this study workshops were an effective means of identifying strategies to address ethical issues. A principal lesson learned has been the importance of providing a context for macroethical issues. For example, the workshop where an expert presented the technical aspects of environmental consequences of carbon nanotubes led to statistically significant differences between pre- and postworkshop understanding of societal risks. Conversely, in a workshop without the technical introduction, little difference was observed. This indicates that the stage of students' ethical understanding is an important determinant of

  9. Do patients with different mental disorders show specific aspects of shame?

    PubMed

    Scheel, Corinna N; Bender, Caroline; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Brodführer, Anne; Matthies, Swantje; Hermann, Christiane; Geisse, Eva K; Svaldi, Jennifer; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Philipsen, Alexandra; Jacob, Gitta A

    2014-12-15

    Shame is related to several mental disorders. We assume that facets of shame, namely bodily, cognitive and existential shame, may occur in typical patterns in mental and personality disorders. An excessive level of shame may lead to psychopathological symptoms. However, a lack of shame may also lead to distress, for instance as it may facilitate violation of social norms and thus may promote interpersonal problems. In this study we investigated facets of shame in females suffering from various mental disorders and personality disorders presumably associated with specific aspects of shame. Women suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD, n=92), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n=86), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=17), social anxiety disorder (SAD, n=33), and a community sample (COM, n=290) completed the SHAME questionnaire, which is a newly developed instrument to assess adaptive and maladaptive aspects of shame. BPD patients reported the highest level of existential shame compared to all other groups. Compared to the controls, SAD patients displayed stronger bodily and cognitive shame, and ADHD showed lower bodily shame. As assumed, specific aspects of shame were found in different patient groups. It may be important to specifically address these specific aspects of shame in psychotherapy.

  10. Some Aspects of Oracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NATE Bulletin, 1965

    1965-01-01

    In the lead article of this issue, the editor of the "NATE Bulletin," Andrew Wilkinson, defines "oracy" as "the ability to use the oral skills of speaking and listening," and maintains that instruction in these skills must be incorporated into the curriculum--not as a subject but as an important "condition of learning." Following are five articles…

  11. Addressing multigenerational conflict: mutual respect and carefronting as strategy.

    PubMed

    Kupperschmidt, Betty R

    2006-05-31

    This article addresses the challenges faced by nurses as they work side-by-side with nurses from a variety of generational cohorts. First a brief overview of the generational characteristics of the four generational cohorts in today's workplace is presented. Next the importance of each nurse using respect and carefronting as antidotes to generational conflict is discussed. Finally the role of nursing leadership in facilitating respect and carefronting is noted.

  12. Forty Years on: Presidential Address to the History of Education Society, London, 4 November 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This paper, based on the author's presidential address to the History of Education Society in November 2006, explores aspects of continuity and change over the past 40 years with particular reference to educational reform and the development of the History of Education Society itself. It assesses the significance of the work of the playwright Alan…

  13. Addressing Air, Land & Water Nitrogen Issues under Changing Climate Trends & Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    The climate of western U.S. dairy producing states is anticipated to change significantly over the next 50 to 75 years. A multimedia modeling system based upon the “nitrogen cascade” concept has been configured to address three aspects of sustainability (environmenta...

  14. A "Mindful Rational Living" Approach for Addressing HIV in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenneville, Tiffany; St. John Walsh, Audra

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a "mindful rational living" approach, which incorporates mindfulness techniques with rational emotive behavioral therapy strategies for addressing HIV in the school setting. The utility of this approach for attending to the physical, mental, and psychosocial aspects of school-based HIV prevention and treatment will…

  15. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  16. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to showcase…

  17. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  18. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  19. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  20. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  1. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  2. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  3. 50 CFR 18.78 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 18.78 Section 18.78 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.78 Mailing...

  4. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  5. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  6. Addressing Psychosocial Factors with Library Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Bridget; Alabi, Jaena; Whaley, Pambanisha; Jenda, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    The majority of articles on mentoring in the library and information science field address career development by emphasizing the orientation process for new librarians and building the requisite skills for a specific job. Few articles deal with the psychological and social challenges that many early-career and minority librarians face, which can…

  7. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  8. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  9. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  10. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  11. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  12. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  13. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  14. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  15. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  16. 78 FR 35149 - Addresses of Regional Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Addresses of Regional Offices AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We... offices in our regulations at title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations. We are also making...

  17. EPA Addresses Environmental Justice in Houston

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 8, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced Texas Environmental Justice Advocacy Services (t.e.j.a.s.) was selected as a grant recipient to address environmental justice (EJ) issues in the Manchester area

  18. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  19. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (b) If hand delivered... Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. (c) If hand delivered by a commercial...., Washington, DC, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., and be addressed as follows:...

  20. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (b) If hand delivered... Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. (c) If hand delivered by a commercial...., Washington, DC, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., and be addressed as follows:...

  1. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  2. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  3. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  4. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  5. Aspects of braneworld cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinet, Jeremie

    What is essential is invisible to the eye. Antoine de Saint-Exupery Of course, Saint-Exupery didn't have extra dimensions in mind when he wrote this famous line. Nevertheless, the recent realisation that standard model degrees of freedom can naturally be restricted to a submanifold embedded in a higher dimensional Universe means that an ingredient essential to our description of nature might quite literally be "invisible to the eye". Exploring the consequences of such braneworld scenarios has occupied a large part of the theoretical physics community over the last seven years, and this thesis is a collection of contributions to this endeavour. After reviewing the motivations for and early successes of braneworld scenarios, we examine rho2 corrections to the Hubble rate in the stabilized Randall-Sundrum I model, where the hierarchy problem is solved in a natural way, in order to ascertain whether such corrections might be of help in addressing some issues with inflation and baryogenesis. The three following chapters are concerned with six-dimensional models that have been advertised as possibly leading to a self-tuning solution to the cosmological constant problem. We examine this claim thoroughly, through the study of thick codimension-two braneworlds. This allows us to provide a generalization of the relationship between the deficit angle and the brane matter content. We also present the first derivation of the Friedmann equations on a codimension-two brane containing matter with an arbitrary equation of state, first in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity and then in six dimensional supergravity.

  6. Cognitive aspects of performance.

    PubMed Central

    Kane, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The study of cognitive structures and processes in the control of skilled performance is considered and reviewed with special reference to a proposed hierarchical system incorporating levels of motor integration. Cognitive styles and dispositions of general behaviour are suggested as factors which may determine performance levels. The relative importance of these personal factors and stronger personality traits in accounting for variance in performance is considered in the light of a critique of the current interactional controversy. PMID:444808

  7. How important is patient education?

    PubMed

    Ramos-Remus, C; Salcedo-Rocha, A L; Prieto-Parra, R E; Galvan-Villegas, F

    2000-12-01

    The prevalence and disability rate of rheumatic diseases are increasing. It seems that non-medical causes play an important role in the morbidity, disability and mortality of these patients. Efforts to reduce their impact are extremely important. Patient education is thought to be one way to limit disability in rheumatic diseases and to achieve an improvement in quality of life. In this chapter, we review the influence of non-medical causes of morbidity on disease outcome, some basic aspects of education and the evidence of the effectiveness of patient education in diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia syndrome.

  8. Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overview of measuring science based on a bibliometric methodology. The 2 main lines of this methodology are discussed. First, the measurement of research performance is addressed, including aspects such as interdisciplinarity, collaboration, and knowledge users. It is demonstrated that advanced bibliometric methods are an…

  9. Addressing Human Factors Gaps in Cyber Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-23

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average...maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information . Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other...aspect of this collection of information , including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services

  10. [Food supplements : Legal requirements, borderline issues and other aspects].

    PubMed

    Noble, Pia

    2017-03-01

    Food supplements are classified as foods. They are concentrated sources of vitamins and minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. Their purpose is to supplement the normal diet. Food supplements have to comply with the applicable legal provisions of the food law. In order to ensure the health protection of consumers, food supplements that will be put on the market must be safe. For food supplements, regulations exist at the EU level as well as at the national level. Specific requirements are regulated in the Ordinance on Food Supplements, with which the European Directive on Food Supplements was transposed into German law. The European and German legal provisions applicable to food supplements are outlined. Important aspects regarding the delimitation between food supplements and medicinal products are addressed. These borderline issues are of special importance to food supplements which are marketed in dose forms such as capsules, tablets etc., the typical forms of medicinal products. Problems resulting from the lack of harmonized rules are described. The European harmonization of the rules is still incomplete for substances with a nutritional or physiological effect other than vitamins and minerals for use in food supplements. The setting of maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals present in food supplements as envisaged in the Directive on Food Supplements has not yet been implemented.

  11. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed

    Sheetz, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws" by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems.

  12. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  13. School Phobia: The Importance of Prompt Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnanly, Eileen

    1986-01-01

    The importance of prompt treatment of the school phobic child, and the need for good communication among those concerned, are addressed in this article. The manifestation of school phobia is described and intervention methods are reviewed. (Author/MT)

  14. Cultural aspects of SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, John

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a broad range of issues that raise important questions about the search for exterrestrial life forms or intelligence. The history of the concept of plurality of inhabited worlds is reviewed, and disciplinary areas are cited that are considered crucial for SETI. Such issues involve analogs of the discovery of ETI, immediate responses to such detections, and the significance of journalistic and media response. The responses of religion is also considered, and it is suggested that humankind respond to the discovery of ETI with a single voice and message. The issues discussed demonstrate the need for explicit protocols that would be followed after any discovery of the types discussed.

  15. [Arteriosclerosis--selected aspects].

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the current knowledge concerning the diagnosis of atherosclerosis and therapeutic objectives. Atherosclerosis is one of the most common medical problems. It affects adults as well as children. It leads to clinically overt cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the cause of premature deaths. During its course, the formation of atherosclerotic plaque takes place, along with local inflammations artery walls. Gradually growing plaque does not cause clinical symptoms until the stenosis does not exceed 70-80% of the coronary vessel diameter, causing a marked reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle. The prevention of atherosclerosis and its complications requires an individual assessment of cardiovascular risk. In people without CVD symptoms, it is recommended to use SCORE risk card for Polish population, assessing the 10-year risk of cardiac death. A key element in combating atherosclerosis is to eliminate its risk factors by both implementing pro-health policies, as well as working with individual patients. An important objective is the proper control of blood pressure. It should not exceed 140/90 mmHg. A very important role is played by correct approach to patients with moderate or unusual cardiovascular risk. Despite knowing many facts about the mechanisms of atherosclerosis and its treatment, many issues still remain to be clarified. Finding methods to influence ongoing immune processes within arteries is of particular interest, which will soon make way to new therapeutic possibilities.

  16. Obesity: epigenetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Anderson, James T

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetics, defined as inheritable and reversible phenomena that affect gene expression without altering the underlying base pair sequence has been shown to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity. Obesity is associated with extensive gene expression changes in tissues throughout the body. Epigenetics is emerging as perhaps the most important mechanism through which the lifestyle-choices we make can directly influence the genome. Considerable epidemiological, experimental and clinical data have been amassed showing that the risk of developing disease in later life is dependent on early life conditions, mainly operating within the normative range of developmental exposures. In addition to the 'maternal' interactions, there has been increasing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms through which 'paternal' influences on offspring development can be achieved. Nutrition, among many other environmental factors, is a key player that can induce epigenetic changes not only in the directly exposed organisms but also in subsequent generations through the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic traits. Overall, significant progress has been made in the field of epigenetics and obesity and the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that could be detected at birth have been identified. Fortunately, epigenetic phenomena are dynamic and rather quickly reversible with intensive lifestyle changes. This is a very promising and sustainable resolution to the obesity pandemic.

  17. Address block localization based on graph theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaceb, Djamel; Eglin, Véronique; Lebourgeois, Frank; Emptoz, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    An efficient mail sorting system is mainly based on an accurate optical recognition of the addresses on the envelopes. However, the localizing of the address block (ABL) should be done before the OCR recognition process. The location step is very crucial as it has a great impact on the global performance of the system. Currently, a good localizing step leads to a better recognition rate. The limit of current methods is mainly caused by modular linear architectures used for ABL: their performances greatly depend on each independent module performance. We are presenting in this paper a new approach for ABL based on a pyramidal data organization and on a hierarchical graph coloring for classification process. This new approach presents the advantage to guarantee a good coherence between different modules and reduces both the computation time and the rejection rate. The proposed method gives a very satisfying rate of 98% of good locations on a set of 750 envelope images.

  18. Optically addressed asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, A.; Maserjian, J.

    1991-01-01

    A low power, high contrast optically addressed modulator, operating with normal incidence, has been fabricated. Optically controlled reflection modulation is achieved through optically induced absorption modulation in a periodically delta-doped InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structure inserted in an integrated asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonator. A contrast ratio over 60:1 was measured using a spectrally matched low power InGaAs/GaAs quantum well laser to generate the write (control) signal. The insertion loss for the normally off modulator is 4.6 dB at the highest write signal power (30 mW) used. The device lends itself to the fabrication of arrays for optically addressed spatial light modulation.

  19. Addressing Medical Errors in Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Adkinson, Joshua M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Influential think-tank such as the Institute of Medicine has raised awareness about the implications of medical errors. In response, organizations, medical societies, and institutions have initiated programs to decrease the incidence and effects of these errors. Surgeons deal with the direct implications of adverse events involving patients. In addition to managing the physical consequences, they are confronted with ethical and social issues when caring for a harmed patient. Although there is considerable effort to implement system-wide changes, there is little guidance for hand surgeons on how to address medical errors. Admitting an error is difficult, but a transparent environment where patients are notified of errors and offered consolation and compensation is essential to maintain trust. Further, equipping hand surgeons with a guide for addressing medical errors will promote compassionate patient interaction, help identify system failures, provide learning points for safety improvement, and demonstrate a commitment to ethically responsible medical care. PMID:25154576

  20. Uses of risk importance measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankamo, Tuomas; Porn, Kurt; Holmberg, Jan

    1991-05-01

    The definitions, relationships, and interpretations of the three most basic measures of risk importance measures are outlined: risk increase factor, risk decrease factor, and fractional contribution. Risk importance measures provide an understandable and practical way of presenting probabilistic safety analysis results which too often tend to remain abstract numbers without real insight into the content. The fundamental aspect of importance measures is that they express some specific influence of a basic event in the total risk. The basic failure or error events are the elements from which the reliability and risk models are constituted. The importance measures are relative, which is an advantage compared to absolute risk numbers, due to insensitivity with respect to quantification uncertainties. Therefore, they are particularly adapted to give first hand guidance on where to focus the main interest from the system's risk and reliability point of view, and from where to continue the analysis with more sophisticated methods requiring more effort.

  1. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  2. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    effectively with the American debt and deficit, by first describing the background of our current government approach to the economy , then examining the...to address the problem of deficit financing and the associated debt in a positive manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States...current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining what

  3. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  4. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  5. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    SciTech Connect

    Welcome, Michael L.; Bell, Christian S.

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address space languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.

  6. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  7. [Psychophysiologic aspects of occupational flying].

    PubMed

    Lapa, V V

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with advanced research on psychophysiology of flying activity to solve a triune task: to humanize the character and means of labour, to maintain a high level of working capacity and to develop professionally important psychophysiological features of flying personnel. The solution of the first task is associated with consecutive realization of the principle of actualization, an increase of psychophysiological capabilities of a man with the use of technical means in designing aeronautical engineering. Assurance of high functional reliability of flying personnel requires the development of the methods to evaluate and predict the state of psychophysiologic reserves during flying activities; the refinement of the norms of flight load on the basis of determining the quantitative interactions between a complexity level of flight assignments and a degree of decrease in reserve capabilities; the search for means and methods of correcting functional state directly in flight and accelerated recovery of performance postflight. The solution of psychophysiologic aspects of the professional reliability of pilot should be the development of a flight capabilities theory and theory-based improvement of estimation methods, development of methods and technical means for their improvements.

  8. Some Aspects of PDC Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poláčik, Ján; Pospíšil, Jiří

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, aspects of pulsed direct current (PDC) water splitting are described. Electrolysis is a simple and well-known method to produce hydrogen. The efficiency is relatively low in normal conditions using conventional DC. PDC in electrolysis brings about many advantages. It increases efficiency of hydrogen production, and performance of the electrolyser may be smoothly controlled without compromising efficiency of the process. In our approach, ultra-short pulses are applied. This method enhances efficiency of electrical energy in the process of decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Efficiency depends on frequency, shape and width of the electrical pulses. Experiments proved that efficiency was increased by 2 to 8 per cent. One of the prospects of PDC electrolysis producing hydrogen is in increase of efficiency of energy storage efficiency in the hydrogen. There are strong efforts to make the electrical grid more efficient and balanced in terms of production by installing electricity storage units. Using hydrogen as a fuel decreases air pollution and amount of carbon dioxide emissions in the air. In addition to energy storage, hydrogen is also important in transportation and chemical industry.

  9. [Acne vulgaris: endocrine aspects].

    PubMed

    Dekkers, O M; Thio, B H; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A

    2006-06-10

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development of acne. The skin contains enzymes that convert precursor hormones to the more potent androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Androgen synthesis can therefore be regulated locally. The effects of androgens on the skin are the result of circulating androgens and enzyme activity in local tissues and androgen receptors. Acne is a clinical manifestation of some endocrine diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome has the highest prevalence. In women with acne that persists after puberty, in 10-200% of cases polycystic ovary syndrome is later diagnosed. The mechanism of hormonal anti-acne therapy may work by blocking the androgen-production (oestrogens) or by blocking the androgen receptor (cyproterone, spironolactone).

  10. Terminology, the importance of defining.

    PubMed

    van Mil, J W Foppe; Henman, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Multiple terms and definitions exist to describe specific aspects of pharmacy practice and service provision. This commentary explores the reasons for different interpretations of words and concepts in pharmaceutical care and pharmacy practice research. Reasons for this variation can be found in language, culture, profession and may also depend on developments over time. A list of words is provided where the authors think that currently multiple interpretations are possible. To make sure that the reader understands the essence, it seems imperative that authors include a definition of the topics that they actually study in their papers, and that they clearly cite existing definitions or refer to collections of definitions such as existing glossaries. It is important that presenters, authors and reviewers of pharmacy practice papers pay more attention to this aspect of describing studies.

  11. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  12. Age aspects of habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  13. Historical aspects of dermatomycoses.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Ricardo

    2010-03-04

    Physicians have been aware of superficial fungal infections for centuries, but the causal agents and treatments of fungal infections remained unknown until the mid-1800s, when numerous important findings were reported. Among the relevant researchers in the field of superficial mycoses were Remak, who found the fungal nature of favus in 1837; Berg, who reported oral candidosis in 1841; and Wilkinson, who described vaginal candidosis in 1849. Tinea versicolor was described clinically in 1846 by Eichstedt, and its etiologic agent was identified in 1853. Beigel reported white piedra in 1856, and Cerqueira, tinea nigra in 1891. The book Les Tiegnes was published by Sabouraud in 1910, and black piedra infection was described by Horta in 1911. In 1927, Nannizzi reported the description of the sexual state of Microsporum gypseum. The current classification of dermatophytes was published by Emmons in 1934, and the taxonomy of yeast fungi was described by Lodder and Kreger-van Rij in 1952. Finally, the successful treatment of tinea capitis with griseofulvin by Gentles in 1958 saved many patients with tinea capitis from permanent hair loss, a common side effect after treatment with thallium. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Nosocomial infection: clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Frottier, J

    1993-05-01

    Nosocomial infections develop within a hospital or are produced by microorganisms acquired during hospitalization. They may involve not only patients (2 to 10 percent) but also hospital personnel. They arise from complex interactions of multiple causal factors. Patients risk factors are these that reduce the patient's capacity for resisting the injurious effects of the microorganisms and impair natural host defense mechanisms: patients with malignant disorders or immunosuppressive therapy, poor nutritional status, extensive burn wounds ... The young and the elderly are generally more susceptible to infection. Other infections are preventable. Disease causation is often multifactorial. Nosocomial urinary tract infections had the highest rate, followed by lower respiratory tract infections, surgical infections and bacteremias. The emergence of other nosocomial infections, caused by bacteria (tuberculosis), virus (HIV, hepatitis B and C virus, cytomegalovirus...), Aspergillus species or Pneumocystis carinii appears to be recent in origin and is of importance to immunocompromised hosts, other patients and hospital personnel. Nosocomial infections and their social and economic impacts require for their prevention vigorous organized hospital-wide surveillance and control programs.

  15. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  16. Clinical aspects of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrell, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    Communication among physicians is an essential in order to combine our experiences for the elucidation and application of new knowledge and for the accurate and uniform application of established medical practice. This communication requires an adequate understanding of the culture of the patient and the social context of disease and indeed the culture of the physician. Malnutrition in Bangladesh means caloric insufficiency, and a program to lower cholesterol would be impertinent, while a program to enhance the nutrition of patients in Texas by an international effort to import more grain would be ludicrous. In the same vein a public health effort to combat alcoholic cirrhosis in Mecca would be as silly as a program to increase fiber in the diet of the Bantu. Clinical communication must acknowledge the culture of the issue at hand and the differences in the experiential base of the physicians. Not only do geography and culture affect the potential differences in the experiential bases, but the world utilizes very different traditions of education and science in training physicians. We are influenced by the diseases we treat, and learn to look for the expected at least as much as we are attentive to the unexpected. A physician in Siberia would be much more likely to recognize frostbite than one from Buenos Aires, and the Argentine doctor would much more likely consider Chaga's Disease to explain abdominal pain than a colleague in Zurich. Beyond these obvious issues in communication among physicians we must deal with the many languages and idioms used in the world. An overview of using Telemedicine SpaceBridge after the earthquake in the Republic of Armenia in 1988 is presented.

  17. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population.

  18. Building technology services that address student needs.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform.

  19. Optical addressing technique for a CMOS RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, W. H.; Bergman, L. A.; Allen, R. A.; Johnston, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Progress on optically addressing a CMOS RAM for a feasibility demonstration of free space optical interconnection is reported in this paper. The optical RAM chip has been fabricated and functional testing is in progress. Initial results seem promising. New design and SPICE simulation of optical gate cell (OGC) circuits have been carried out to correct the slow fall time of the 'weak pull down' OGC, which has been characterized experimentally. Methods of reducing the response times of the photodiodes and the associated circuits are discussed. Even with the current photodiode, it appears that an OGC can be designed with a performance that is compatible with a CMOS circuit such as the RAM.

  20. Addressing tomorrow's DMO technical challenges today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, James R.

    2009-05-01

    Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) is essentially a type of networked training that pulls in participants from all the armed services and, increasingly, allies to permit them to "game" and rehearse highly complex campaigns, using a mix of local, distant, and virtual players. The United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is pursuing Science and Technology (S&T) solutions to address technical challenges associated with distributed communications and information management as DMO continues to progressively scale up the number, diversity, and geographic dispersal of participants in training and rehearsal exercises.

  1. Addressing the water budget with SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; AlBitar, A.; Tomer, S. K.; Merlin, O.; Pellarin, T.

    2012-12-01

    SMOS, a L Band radiometer using aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution, was successfully launched on November 2, 2009. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent enabling to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS as been now acquiring data for almost 2 years. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and of China. However, many different international teams are now addressing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. In parallel different teams are now starting addressing data use in various fields including hydrology. It requires coupling with other models and or disaggregation to address soil moisture distribution over watersheds. Significant new results were obtained for floods and drought events, together with new potential applications in terms of precipitation monitoring This paper thus gives an overview of the science goals of the SMOS mission, a description of its main elements, and a taste of the first results including

  2. Addressing the underperformance of faculty and staff.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Carole; Pressler, Jana L

    2006-01-01

    Many new nursing leaders assuming work as deans, assistant deans, or interim deans have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them for the job. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, the authors of this department, both deans, offer survival tips based on their personal experiences and insights. They address common issues, challenges, and opportunities that face academic executive teams, such as negotiating an executive contract, obtaining faculty lines, building effective work teams, managing difficult employees, and creating nimble organizational structure to respond to changing consumer, healthcare delivery, and community needs. The authors welcome counterpoint discussions with readers.

  3. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.

  4. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  5. Aspect-Oriented Design with Reusable Aspect Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Jörg; Al Abed, Wisam; Fleurey, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Klein, Jacques

    The idea behind Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM) is to apply aspect-oriented techniques to (software) models with the aim of modularizing crosscutting concerns. This can be done within different modeling notations, at different levels of abstraction, and at different moments during the software development process. This paper demonstrates the applicability of AOM during the software design phase by presenting parts of an aspect-oriented design of a crisis management system. The design solution proposed in this paper is based on the Reusable Aspect Models (RAM) approach, which allows a modeler to express the structure and behavior of a complex system using class, state and sequence diagrams encapsulated in several aspect models. The paper describes how the model of the "create mission" functionality of the server backend can be decomposed into 23 inter-dependent aspect models. The presentation of the design is followed by a discussion on the lessons learned from the case study. Next, RAM is compared to 8 other AOM approaches according to 6 criteria: language, concern composition, asymmetric and symmetric composition, maturity, and tool support. To conclude the paper, a discussion section points out the features of RAM that specifically support reuse.

  6. Multi-port, optically addressed RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor); Esener, Sadik (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A random access memory addressing system utilizing optical links between memory and the read/write logic circuits comprises addressing circuits including a plurality of light signal sources, a plurality of optical gates including optical detectors associated with the memory cells, and a holographic optical element adapted to reflect and direct the light signals to the desired memory cell locations. More particularly, it is a multi-port, binary computer memory for interfacing with a plurality of computers. There are a plurality of storage cells for containing bits of binary information, the storage cells being disposed at the intersections of a plurality of row conductors and a plurality of column conductors. There is interfacing logic for receiving information from the computers directing access to ones of the storage cells. There are first light sources associated with the interfacing logic for transmitting a first light beam with the access information modulated thereon. First light detectors are associated with the storage cells for receiving the first light beam, for generating an electrical signal containing the access information, and for conducting the electrical signal to the one of the storage cells to which it is directed. There are holographic optical elements for reflecting the first light beam from the first light sources to the first light detectors.

  7. Addressing the Complexity of Tourette's Syndrome through the Use of Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Nespoli, Ester; Rizzo, Francesca; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Hengerer, Bastian; Ludolph, Andrea G.

    2016-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by fluctuating motor and vocal tics, usually preceded by sensory premonitions, called premonitory urges. Besides tics, the vast majority—up to 90%—of TS patients suffer from psychiatric comorbidities, mainly attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The etiology of TS remains elusive. Genetics is believed to play an important role, but it is clear that other factors contribute to TS, possibly altering brain functioning and architecture during a sensitive phase of neural development. Clinical brain imaging and genetic studies have contributed to elucidate TS pathophysiology and disease mechanisms; however, TS disease etiology still is poorly understood. Findings from genetic studies led to the development of genetic animal models, but they poorly reflect the pathophysiology of TS. Addressing the role of neurotransmission, brain regions, and brain circuits in TS disease pathomechanisms is another focus area for preclinical TS model development. We are now in an interesting moment in time when numerous innovative animal models are continuously brought to the attention of the public. Due to the diverse and largely unknown etiology of TS, there is no single preclinical model featuring all different aspects of TS symptomatology. TS has been dissected into its key symptomst hat have been investigated separately, in line with the Research Domain Criteria concept. The different rationales used to develop the respective animal models are critically reviewed, to discuss the potential of the contribution of animal models to elucidate TS disease mechanisms. PMID:27092043

  8. Legal and Regulatory Aspects of Sleep Disorders.

    PubMed

    Venkateshiah, Saiprakash B; Hoque, Romy; DelRosso, Lourdes M; Collop, Nancy A

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorders may interact with the law, making awareness important. Insufficient sleep and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are prevalent and associated with excessive sleepiness. Patients with excessive sleepiness may have civil or criminal liability if they fall asleep and cause a motor vehicle accident. Awareness of screening and treatment of OSA is increasing in certain industries. Parasomnia associated sleep-related violence represents a challenge to clinicians, who may be called on to consider parasomnia as a contributing, mitigating, or exculpatory factor in criminal proceedings. Improving access to sleep medicine care is an important aspect in reducing the consequences of sleep disorders.

  9. Aspects of Equality in Mandatory Partnerships – From the Perspective of Municipal Care in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Ljunggren, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper raises questions about equality in partnerships, since imbalance in partnerships may effect collaboration outcomes in integrated care. We address aspects of equality in mandatory, public-public partnerships, from the perspective of municipal care. We have developed a questionnaire wherein the Norwegian Coordination Reform is an illustrative example. The following research question is addressed: What equality dimensions are important for municipals related to mandatory partnerships with hospitals? Theory/methods: Since we did not find any instrument to measure equality in partnerships, an explorative design was chosen. The development of the instrument was based on the theory on partnership and knowledge about the field and context. A national online survey was emitted to all 429 Norwegian municipalities in 2013. The response rate was in total 58 percent (n = 248). The data were mainly analysed using Principal component analysis. Results: It seems that the two dimensions “learning and expertise equality” and “contractual equality” collects reliable and valid data to measure aspects of equality in partnerships. Discussion: Partnerships are usually based on voluntarism. The results indicate that mandatory partnerships, within a public health care system, can be appropriate to equalize partnerships between health care providers at different care levels. PMID:27616962

  10. Business Education: Addressing the "What" Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almoharby, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to diversify the economy and stimulate private enterprise development, government agencies and private institutions in many countries have emphasized the importance of setting up and developing small and medium-size enterprises and promoting entrepreneurship. An important question confronting policy makers, however, is how they can…

  11. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    designs could increase the combustion-noise component. The trend towards high-power-density cores also means that the noise generated in the low-pressure turbine will likely increase. Consequently, the combined result from these emerging changes will be to elevate the overall importance of turbomachinery core noise, which will need to be addressed in order to meet future noise goals.

  12. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  13. Reliably Addressing "What Matters" Through a Quality Improvement Process.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Patricia A

    2016-02-01

    Oncology nurses have a critical role in mitigating the intense vulnerability, loss of control, and fear of the unknown that characterizes the experiences of patients with cancer and their family members. Reliably inquiring about the issues that are at the forefront for patients and their loved ones can encourage a deeper dialogue-where nurses can understand and address the issues that are most important to them. A practical quality improvement approach can help to ensure that processes are in place to assist nurses in devoting time to reliably inquire about "what matters" to each patient at every encounter.

  14. Addressing Learning Style Criticism: The Unified Learning Style Model Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Elvira

    Learning style is one of the individual differences that play an important but controversial role in the learning process. This paper aims at providing a critical analysis regarding learning styles and their use in technology enhanced learning. The identified criticism issues are addressed by reappraising the so called Unified Learning Style Model (ULSM). A detailed description of the ULSM components is provided, together with their rationale. The practical applicability of the model in adaptive web-based educational systems and its advantages versus traditional learning style models are also outlined.

  15. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-making outcomes, and 2. the extent to which existing PtDAs a) account for health literacy, and b) are tested in lower health literacy populations. Methods We reviewed literature for evidence relevant to these two aims. When high-quality systematic reviews existed, we summarized their evidence. When reviews were unavailable, we conducted our own systematic reviews. Results Aim 1: In an existing systematic review of PtDA trials, lower health literacy was associated with lower patient health knowledge (14 of 16 eligible studies). Fourteen studies reported practical design strategies to improve knowledge for lower health literacy patients. In our own systematic review, no studies reported on values clarity per se, but in 2 lower health literacy was related to higher decisional uncertainty and regret. Lower health literacy was associated with less desire for involvement in 3 studies, less question-asking in 2, and less patient-centered communication in 4 studies; its effects on other measures of patient involvement were mixed. Only one study assessed the effects of a health literacy intervention on outcomes; it showed that using video to improve the salience of health states reduced decisional uncertainty. Aim 2: In our review of 97 trials, only 3 PtDAs overtly addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. In 90% of trials, user health literacy and readability of the PtDA were not reported. However, increases in knowledge and informed choice were reported in those studies

  16. Aspects of design and statistical analysis in the Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Stig Johan; Agurell, Eva

    2003-03-01

    Some aspects of the statistical design and analysis of the Comet (single cell gel electrophoresis) assay have been evaluated by means of a simulation study. The tail length and tail moment were selected for the quantification of DNA migration. Results from the simulation study showed that the choice of measure to summarize the cells on each slide is extremely important in order to facilitate an efficient analysis. For tail moment, the mean of log transformed data is clearly superior to the other evaluated measures, whereas using the mean of raw data without transformation can lead to very inefficient analyses. The 90th percentile, capturing the upper tail of the distribution, performs well for the tail length, with a slight improvement obtained by applying a log transformation prior to calculations. Furthermore, the simulation study has been used to assess the appropriateness of some models for statistical analysis and to address the issue of design (i.e. number of cultures or animals in each group, number of slides per animal/culture and number of cells scored per slide). Combining the results from the simulations with practical experience from the pharmaceutical industry, we conclude the paper by providing concise recommendations regarding the design and statistical analysis in the Comet assay.

  17. [Ethical aspects of clinical trials in rare diseases].

    PubMed

    Hasford, Joerg; Koch, Armin

    2017-03-08

    It is estimated that there are about four million people suffering from rare diseases in Germany. For roughly the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in therapeutic research for rare diseases. Drug research is highly regulated via numerous laws, regulations and ethical conventions that do not offer any waivers for clinical trials in rare diseases. Thus the ethical assessment of the clinical trial application for a rare disease is basically the same as for a common disease. As the ethical standards of clinical research, for example regarding informed consent, are derived from constitutional rights and have been codified in the German drug law, it is no surprise that they cannot depend on the frequency of a disease. A very important aspect of the ethical assessment is the biometric quality with regard to study design, sample size estimation and statistical analysis, as methodologically poor research with humans is per se unethical. Problems with sample size estimations and pilot studies will be addressed in more detail. Pilot studies should be avoided and sample size estimations should not assume overoptimistic effect sizes and should not increase the error probability beyond 5% two-sided.

  18. Psychological Aspects of Contraception, Unintended Pregnancy, and Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Julia R.; Rubin, Lisa R.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of important biopsychosocial factors linking women's reproductive health and mental health is increasing. This review focuses on psychological aspects of contraception, unintended pregnancy, and abortion because these are common reproductive health experiences in U.S. women's lives. This review addresses the mental-health antecedents and consequences of these experiences, mostly focusing on depression and depressive symptoms before and after unintended pregnancy and contraception. As mental-health antecedents, depressive symptoms predict contraceptive behaviors that lead to unintended pregnancy, and mental-health disorders have been associated with having subsequent abortions. In examining the mental-health consequences, most sound research does not find abortion or contraceptive use to cause mental-health problems. Consequently, evidence does not support policies based on the notion that abortion harms women's mental health. Nevertheless, the abortion-care setting may be a place to integrate mental-health services. In contrast, women who have births resulting from unintended pregnancies may be at higher risk of postpartum depression. Social policies (e.g., paid maternity leave, subsidized child care) may protect women from mental-health problems and stress of unplanned children interrupting employment, education, and pre-existing family care responsibilities. PMID:25938133

  19. Safety aspects of the IFR pyroprocess fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, R.J.; Lineberry, M.J.; Charak, I.; Tessier, J.H.; Solbrig, C.W.; Gabor, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the important safety considerations related to the unique Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle technology, the pyroprocess. Argonne has been developing the IFR since 1984. It is a liquid metal cooled reactor, with a unique metal alloy fuel, and it utilizes a radically new fuel cycle. An existing facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility-South (HFEF/S) is being modified and equipped to provide a complete demonstration of the fuel cycle. This paper will concentrate on safety aspects of the future HFEF/S operation, slated to begin late next year. HFEF/S is part of Argonne's complex of reactor test facilities located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. HFEF/S was originally put into operation in 1964 as the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) (Stevenson, 1987). From 1964--69 FCF operated to demonstrate an earlier and incomplete form of today's pyroprocess, recycling some 400 fuel assemblies back to EBR-II. The FCF mission was then changed to one of an irradiated fuels and materials examination facility, hence the name change to HFEF/S. The modifications consist of activities to bring the facility into conformance with today's much more stringent safety standards, and, of course, providing the new process equipment. The pyroprocess and the modifications themselves are described more fully elsewhere (Lineberry, 1987; Chang, 1987). 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Sexual Aspects of Multilateral Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Joan M.; Constantine, Larry L.

    1971-01-01

    This study involved a variety of data gathering techniques focusing on almost every aspect of multilateral marriages. Specific topics covered included sex as motivation, group sex, sleeping arrangements, cohesion, sexual problems, jealousy, roles and sex differences. (Author/CG)

  1. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  2. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  3. Epidemiological aspects of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Garvey, John F; Pengo, Martino F; Drakatos, Panagis; Kent, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is probably the most common respiratory disorder, with recent data from the United States and Europe suggesting that between 14% and 49% of middle-aged men have clinically significant OSA. The intimate relationship between OSA and obesity means that its prevalence will only increase as the global obesity epidemic evolves. At an individual level, OSA leads to a significant decrease in quality of life (QOL) and functional capacity, alongside a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Emerging data also suggest that the presence and severity of OSA and associated nocturnal hypoxemia are associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cancer. At a societal level, OSA not only leads to reduced economic productivity, but also constitutes a major treatable risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. This article addresses OSA from an epidemiological perspective, from prevalence studies to economic aspects to co-morbidity.

  4. The Development and Evaluation of a Measure Assessing School Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Addressing Pediatric Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…

  5. Examining How Web Designers' Activity Systems Address Accessibility: Activity Theory as a Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    While accessibility of information technologies is often acknowledged as important, it is frequently not well addressed in practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the work of web developers and content managers to explore why and how accessibility is or is not addressed as an objective as websites are planned, built and maintained.…

  6. A Digital Solar Aspect Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1961-01-01

    The solar aspect sensor described herein performs the analog-to-digital conversion of data optically. To accomplish this, it uses a binary "Gray code" light mask to produce a digital indication, in vehicle-fixed coordinates, of the elevation and azimuth angles of incident light from the sun. This digital solar aspect sensor system, in Explorer X, provided measurements of both elevation and azimuth angles to +/- 2 degrees at a distance of over 140,000 statute miles.

  7. Multi-Sectoral Action for Addressing Social Determinants of Noncommunicable Diseases and Mainstreaming Health Promotion in National Health Programmes in India

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Monika; Chauhan, Kavita; John, Shoba; Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2011-01-01

    Major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) share common behavioral risk factors and deep-rooted social determinants. India needs to address its growing NCD burden through health promoting partnerships, policies, and programs. High-level political commitment, inter-sectoral coordination, and community mobilization are important in developing a successful, national, multi-sectoral program for the prevention and control of NCDs. The World Health Organization's “Action Plan for a Global Strategy for Prevention and Control of NCDs” calls for a comprehensive plan involving a whole-of-Government approach. Inter-sectoral coordination will need to start at the planning stage and continue to the implementation, evaluation of interventions, and enactment of public policies. An efficient multi-sectoral mechanism is also crucial at the stage of monitoring, evaluating enforcement of policies, and analyzing impact of multi-sectoral initiatives on reducing NCD burden in the country. This paper presents a critical appraisal of social determinants influencing NCDs, in the Indian context, and how multi-sectoral action can effectively address such challenges through mainstreaming health promotion into national health and development programs. India, with its wide socio-cultural, economic, and geographical diversities, poses several unique challenges in addressing NCDs. On the other hand, the jurisdiction States have over health, presents multiple opportunities to address health from the local perspective, while working on the national framework around multi-sectoral aspects of NCDs. PMID:22628911

  8. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  9. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  10. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  11. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  12. Presidential address, 2001. Advice to young surgeons.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, John K

    2002-04-01

    In his 2001 presidential address to the Canadian Association of General Surgeons, the author offers advice to young surgeons, based on his lifetime experience as a surgical educator, researcher and practitioner. He offers the following samples of wisdom for young surgeons: they should be prepared for a lifetime of learning and be willing and able to adapt to new advances; they should listen to their patients as they describe their presenting complaints and not be tempted to interrupt; they should take time in an emergency situation and remember that split-second decisions can affect the patient for a lifetime; they should be willing to take advice from fellow professionals; they should take time to maintain a quality family life and take adequate time away from the workplace; they should be active be a role model in their community; and, finally, they should get involved and adopt an advocacy role in their profession.

  13. Presidential address, 2001. Advice to young surgeons

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, John K.

    2002-01-01

    In his 2001 presidential address to the Canadian Association of General Surgeons, the author offers advice to young surgeons, based on his lifetime experience as a surgical educator, researcher and practitioner. He offers the following samples of wisdom for young surgeons: they should be prepared for a lifetime of learning and be willing and able to adapt to new advances; they should listen to their patients as they describe their presenting complaints and not be tempted to interrupt; they should take time in an emergency situation and remember that split-second decisions can affect the patient for a lifetime; they should be willing to take advice from fellow professionals; they should take time to maintain a quality family life and take adequate time away from the workplace; they should be active be a role model in their community; and, finally, they should get involved and adopt an advocacy role in their profession. PMID:11939654

  14. SkBQ - prooxidant addressed to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Vyssokikh, M Y; Chernyak, B V; Domnina, L V; Esipov, D S; Ivanova, O Y; Korshunova, G A; Symonyan, R A; Skulachev, M V; Zinevich, T V; Skulachev, V P

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the key links in the chain of development of pathologies associated with the violation of cellular energy metabolism. Development of mitochondria-addressed compounds highly specific for chemical processes is one of the most promising ways to develop approaches to the treatment of inherited and age-related diseases with mitochondrial etiology. Correlation of structure and chemical activity of the test compounds from a class of lipophilic cations revealed the key role of substituents in the aromatic ring of 1,4-benzoquinones in the manifestation of high antioxidant properties. In this work, it is shown that a synthesized benzoquinone derivative conjugated in position 6 with membrane-penetrating cation of decyltriphenylphosphonium and with substituents at position 2, 3, and 5 (SkBQ) has much lower antioxidant and significantly higher prooxidant activity in comparison with similar derivatives of plasto- and toluquinone SkQ1 and SkQT1 in experiments on isolated mitochondria. At the same time, SkBQ, like SkQ1 and SkQT1, can be reduced by the respiratory chain in the center i of complex III and decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. In cell cultures of human fibroblasts, it was revealed that SkBQ does not protect cells from apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide. Under the same conditions, SkQ1 and SkQT1 exhibit a powerful protective effect. Thus, SkBQ can be seen as a mitochondria-addressed prooxidant. The possibility of using SkBQ as an anticancer drug for the treatment of cancers such as prostate cancer whose cells are sensitive to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is discussed.

  15. Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Karan K.; Bruzewicz, Colin D.; McConnell, Robert; Ram, Rajeev J.; Sage, Jeremy M.; Chiaverini, John

    2016-12-01

    The long coherence times and strong Coulomb interactions afforded by trapped ion qubits have enabled realizations of the necessary primitives for quantum information processing and the highest-fidelity quantum operations in any qubit to date. Although light delivery to each individual ion in a system is essential for general quantum manipulations and readout, experiments so far have employed optical systems that are cumbersome to scale to even a few tens of qubits. Here we demonstrate lithographically defined nanophotonic waveguide devices for light routing and ion addressing that are fully integrated within a surface-electrode ion trap chip. Ion qubits are addressed at multiple locations via focusing grating couplers emitting through openings in the trap electrodes to ions trapped 50 μm above the chip; using this light, we perform quantum coherent operations on the optical qubit transition in individual 88Sr+ ions. The grating focuses the beam to a diffraction-limited spot near the ion position with 2 μm 1/e2 radius along the trap axis, and we measure crosstalk errors between 10-2 and 4 × 10-4 at distances 7.5-15 μm from the beam centre. Owing to the scalability of the planar fabrication technique employed, together with the tight focusing and stable alignment afforded by the integration of the optics within the trap chip, this approach presents a path to creating the optical systems required for large-scale trapped-ion quantum information processing.

  16. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  17. Treating Haitian patients: key cultural aspects.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Astrid; St Fleurose, Sheila

    2002-01-01

    The Haitian community in the United States is growing steadily. They make up a significant portion of many cities. As a group, Haitian immigrants are a challenge to mental health professionals. Their view and concepts of the world are unique. Non-Haitian clinicians need to be knowledgeable of the culture in order to provide competent care. The goal of this article is to help clinicians understand aspects of Haitian culture that will facilitate mental health treatment. A historical perspective is offered since the history of Haiti has shaped society, families and therefore individuals. The role of the supernatural is addressed to provide a better understanding of the Haitian psyche. The political and economic climate in Haiti has led to a significant increase in the number of Haitians migrating to the United States. Haitians are faced with the challenge of adapting to a new culture; they experience stress and become vulnerable to mental illness. As a result, there is increasing demand for mental health services. This article highlights aspects of Haitian culture relevant to mental health clinicians. It provides an overview of Haitians' attitudes toward mental health and the utilization of psychotherapy. Concepts relevant to Voodoo beliefs and practices are discussed since these beliefs can shape attitudes, and compliance with treatment. Recommendations for engaging and maintaining Haitian clients in psychotherapy are made. Case vignettes are provided for illustration.

  18. Analytical aspects of hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Engen, John R.; Wales, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The analytical aspects of measuring hydrogen exchange by mass spectrometry are reviewed. The nature of analytical selectivity in hydrogen exchange is described followed by review of the analytical tools required to accomplish fragmentation, separation, and the mass spectrometry measurements under restrictive exchange quench conditions. In contrast to analytical quantitation that relies on measurements of peak intensity or area, quantitation in hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry depends on measuring a mass change with respect to an undeuterated or deuterated control, resulting in a value between zero and the maximum amount of deuterium that could be incorporated. Reliable quantitation is a function of experimental fidelity and to achieve high measurement reproducibility, a large number of experimental variables must be controlled during sample preparation and analysis. The method also reports on important qualitative aspects of the sample, including conformational heterogeneity and population dynamics. PMID:26048552

  19. Health-Related Aspects of Milk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Davoodi, Seyed Hossein; Shahbazi, Roghiyeh; Esmaeili, Saeideh; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Mortazavian, AmirMohamamd; Jazayeri, Sahar; Taslimi, Aghdas

    2016-01-01

    Milk is an important component of a balanced diet and contains numerous valuable constituents. Considerable acclaimed health benefits of milk are related to its proteins, not only for their nutritive value but also for their biological properties. Scientific evidence suggests that anticarcinogenic activities, antihypertensive properties, immune system modulation, and other metabolic features of milk, are affiliated with its proteins (intact proteins or its derivatives). In this article, the main health-related aspects of milk proteins, such as anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, anticariogenic, antihypertensive, and hypocholesterolemic effects are reviewed. Collectively, the findings indicate the effectiveness of milk proteins on reduction of risk factors for cancer, cardiovascular diseases and overall improvement of health aspects. PMID:27980594

  20. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir shall not be imported into the United States... export an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir to the United States; (2) The name and address...

  1. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir shall not be imported into the United States... export an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir to the United States; (2) The name and address...

  2. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir shall not be imported into the United States... export an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir to the United States; (2) The name and address...

  3. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir shall not be imported into the United States... export an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir to the United States; (2) The name and address...

  4. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir shall not be imported into the United States... export an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir to the United States; (2) The name and address...

  5. Algebraic and Computational Aspects of Network Reliability and Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-15

    7 -A175 075 ALGEBRAIC AND COMPUTATIONAL ASPECTS OF KETUORK / IRELIABILITY AND PROBLEMS(U) CLEMSON UNIV SC D SHIER 15 JUL 86 AFOSR-TR-86-2115 AFOSR...MONITORING ORGANIZATION I, afpplhcable) Clemson University AFOSR/NM 6C. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Codej 7b. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) Mlartin...Hall Bldg 410 Clemson , SC 29634-1907 Bolling AFB OC 20332-6448 S& NAME OF FUNOING/SPONSORING Bb. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION

  6. Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM). Part 1, Section 4: Statistical Design. Aspects of Incremental Sampling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-26

    1 Statistical Aspects of Incremental Sampling Kelly Black Neptune and Company, Inc. kblack@neptuneinc.org EMDQ – La Jolla, CA March 26, 2012 Report...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Neptune and Company, Inc,1435 Garrison St Ste 110,Denver,CO,80215 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  7. Epilepsy: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Seetha; Iyer, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change, both physical and psychosocial for any young person. It can be challenging when they have ongoing health problems and when their care needs to be transitioned to the adult health care system. Transition should be a planned process of addressing the medical and associated comorbid conditions from pediatric to adult care in a coordinated manner. In most cases, the young person and their family are well known to the pediatrics services and have built a relationship based on trust and often friendship over many years. Understandably, there is significant apprehension about moving from this familiar setting to the unknown adult services. Apart from having a sound knowledge of specific childhood epileptic conditions and associated comorbid disorders, it is important that both the pediatric and adult epilepsy teams are motivated to provide a successful and safe transition for these patients. It is essential that transition is seen as a continual process and not as a single event, and good preparation is the key to its success. It is also important that general practitioners are closely engaged to ensure successful transition. An overview of how to effectively address transition in epilepsy, different models of transition, transition of relevant epilepsies, and their management is discussed. PMID:27390536

  8. Assessing what to address in science communication

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  9. Addressing Underrepresentation: Physics Teaching for All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifkin, Moses

    2016-02-01

    Every physics teacher wants to give his or her students the opportunity to learn physics well. Despite these intentions, certain groups of students—including women and underrepresented minorities (URMs)—are not taking and not remaining in physics. In many cases, these disturbing trends are more significant in physics than in any other science. This is a missed opportunity for our discipline because demographic diversity strengthens science. The question is what we can do about these trends in our classrooms, as very few physics teachers have been explicitly prepared to address them. In this article, I will share some steps that I've taken in my classroom that have moved my class in the right direction. In the words of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Carl Wieman and psychologists Lauren Aguilar and Gregory Walton: "By investing a small amount of class time in carefully designed and implemented interventions, physics teachers can promote greater success among students from diverse backgrounds. Ultimately, we hope such efforts will indeed improve the diversity and health of the physics profession."

  10. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions.

  11. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-10-06

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis.

  12. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    SciTech Connect

    DURHAM, L.A.; JOHNSON, R.L.; RIEMAN, C.R.; SPECTOR, H.L.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO DISTRICT

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  13. The Value of Addressing Patient Preferences.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jeff D; Stewart, Mark D; Roberts, Samantha A; Sigal, Ellen V

    2017-02-01

    Recent scientific progress is, in some cases, leading to transformative new medicines for diseases that previously had marginal or even no treatment options. This offers great promise for people affected by these diseases, but it has also placed stress on the health care system in terms of the growing cost associated with some new interventions. Effort has been taken to create tools to help patients and health care providers assess the value of new medical innovations. These tools may also provide the basis for assessing the price associated with new medical products. Given the growing expenditures in health care, value frameworks present an opportunity to evaluate new therapeutic options in the context of other treatments and potentially lead to a more economically sustainable health care system. In summary, the contribution to meaningful improvements in health outcomes is the primary focus of any assessment of the value of a new intervention. A component of such evaluations, however, should factor in timely access to new products that address an unmet medical need, as well as the magnitude of that beneficial impact. To achieve these goals, value assessment tools should allow for flexibility in clinical end points and trial designs, incorporate patient preferences, and continually evolve as new evidence, practice patterns, and medical progress advance.

  14. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis. PMID:25121647

  15. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    PubMed

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake.

  16. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus.1 Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  17. Management of type 2 diabetes: more evidence is required to address the clinical and contextual facets.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Jimenez, Sergio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Mehta, Roopa; Rull, Juan A; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J

    2011-03-01

    Evidence based medicine has changed the manner in which medicine is practiced and learned. Epidemiological studies, meta-analyses and systematic reviews have been used to create algorithms for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, several randomized controlled trials (i.e. ACCORD, ADVANCE, VADT) have generated new and valuable information regarding the benefits and risks of achieving optimal glucose control. As a result, guidelines and algorithms have been updated. However, many aspects remain controversial. In this article, the clinical implications of the existing guidelines are critically analyzed. The limitations of the current guidelines include the lack of applicability to relevant diabetic subgroups, the exclusion of important factors that modify the therapeutic response to glucose-lowering agents and the limited recognition of the importance of the socioeconomic situation on treatment efficacy. Many subgroups of patients have not been included in the studies used to generate recommendations. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of current treatment recommendations in patients with early onset type 2 diabetes, patients with advanced microvascular complications, and the elderly with or without chronic complications. The characteristics of the candidates for conservative or intensive treatment are poorly defined. Interventions are recommended without considering clinical variables (i.e. obesity, time since diagnosis or prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia) that may modify treatment efficacy and the occurrence of side effects. Finally, no consideration is given to the socioeconomic context of the population in which the guidelines are to be applied. In summary, this manuscript highlights the key areas which require further work. If these issues are adequately addressed, the guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes will be relevant and applicable to all diabetic groups.

  18. Addressing the "Essences": Making English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Larissa McLean; Grant, Ashleigh; Hehir, Emily; Matthews, Hagan; May, Caitlin; Thiel, Philip; Sparrow, Catherine; Trevaskis, Glen; Barton, Katherine; Elliot, Amelia; Ogden, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Garth Boomer's democratic and often provocative vision for English teaching continues to play an important part in the professional development of English teachers. In particular, Boomer's work is often used by Teacher Educators in preservice degrees to introduce emerging English teachers to key ideas such as curriculum negotiation and…

  19. Teaching Mathematics That Addresses Learners' Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouws, E.; Dicker, A-M.

    2011-01-01

    To meet the demands of our highly technological and globally competitive society, it is becoming increasingly important for all learners in South Africa to obtain skills and knowledge in mathematics. However, South Africa performed the worst of all the countries who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS).…

  20. Addressing Orthodox Challenges in the Pluralist Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindewald, Benjamin J.; Rosenblith, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The American public landscape has shifted in concert with a newly emboldened political right, and the public school has again become an important battlefield in the latest culture wars. In addition to confrontations over educational policy issues is a largely untheorized area where the everyday classroom takes center stage: Teachers face a…

  1. Use Existing Laws to Address Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Mark; Cote, Felicia; Allmendinger, James

    2016-01-01

    The focus on using the courts to abolish tenure is a distraction from the important work of improving teacher quality. Unfortunately, the recent decision of Vergara v. California has only perpetuated the mistaken notion that only after tenure is abolished can underperforming teachers be removed. But the authors contend that administrators,…

  2. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  3. Subjective Aspects of Cognitive Control at Different Stages of Processing

    PubMed Central

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Wilson, Lilian E.; Berger, Christopher C.; Honhongva, Mikaela; Gazzaley, Adam; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    While research on cognitive control has addressed the effects that different forms of cognitive interference have on behavior and the activities of certain brain regions, until recently scientific approaches have been silent regarding the effects of interference on subjective experience. We demonstrate that, at the level of the individual trial, participants can reliably introspect the subjective aspects (e.g., perceptions of difficulty, competition, and control) of responding in interference paradigms. Similar subjective effects were obtained for both expressed and unexpressed (subvocalized) actions. Few participants discerned the source of these effects. These basic findings illuminate aspects of cognitive control and cognitive effort. In addition, these data have implications for the study of response interference in affect and self-control, and they begin to address theories regarding the function of consciousness. PMID:19933564

  4. Pharmacotherapeutic Aspects of Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2004-01-01

    produced by any drug depend upon rates of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the drug; space flight-induced changes in blood flow and the function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or kidneys may alter these processes. Another important aspect of clinical efficacy of medications in space is the stability of pharmaceuticals. As the U.S. space program is moving toward extended Space Shuttle flights and beyond, to space station missions and planetary explorations, understanding how space flight affects organ systems and clinical pharmacology is necessary to optimize pharmacotherapeutics in space and ensure adequate safety and health of crewmembers.

  5. Noise of Embedded High Aspect Ratio Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2011-01-01

    future design work be done more by physics-based computations and less by experiments, several codes under development were evaluated against these test cases. Preliminary results show that the RANS-based code JeNo predicts the spectral directivity of the low aspect ratio jets well, but has no capability to predict the non-axisymmetry. An effort to address this limitations, used in the RANS-based code of Leib and Goldstein, overpredicted the impact of aspect ratio. The broadband shock noise code RISN, also limited to axisymmetric assumptions, did a good job of predicting the spectral directivity of underexpanded 2:1 cold jet case but was not as successful on high aspect ratio jets, particularly when they are hot. All results are preliminary because the underlying CFD has not been validated yet. An effort using a Large Eddy Simulation code by Stanford University predicted noise that agreed with experiments to within a few dB.

  6. State of the Union Address, 1997. Remarks by the President in State of the Union Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the text of President Clinton's State of the Union Address, delivered on February 4, 1997. The President issues a call to action to work together to prepare America for the twenty-first century. The United States must attend to the unfinished business of balancing the budget, enacting bipartisan campaign-finance reform, and…

  7. Aspects of Complexity in Sleep Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, José M. N.; Da Rosa, Agostinho C.

    The paper presents a selection of sleep analysis problems where some aspects and concepts of complexity come about. Emphasis is given to the electroencephalogram (EEG) as the most important sleep related variable. The conception of the EEG as a message to be deciphered stresses the importance of the communication and information theories in this field. An optimal detector of K complexes and vertex sharp waves based on a stochastic model of sleep EEG is considered. Besides detecting, the algorithm is also able to follow the evolution of the basic ongoing activity. It is shown that both the ostructure and microstructure of sleep can be described in terms of symbols and interpreted as sentences of a language. Syntactic models and Markov chain representations play in this context an important role.

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ATOMIC DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Edward C.

    1954-01-01

    Increasing attention to the psychological aspects of atomic disaster will help improve the ability of the citizens of this country to withstand attack and survive as a free people. Since an enemy may be expected to exploit any internal weaknesses it can find, preparation must be made against the onslaught. The ability to deal effectively with any situation, even the most awesome, depends on knowledge of what to expect, and there is no reason to believe that facts about atomic disaster are an exception to this time proven truth. The psychological aspects need to be considered from two points of view, namely, the effect on masses of people and on individuals. PMID:13182616

  9. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  10. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, C.R.; Spector, H.L.; Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.

    2007-07-01

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the pre-remedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in pre-design data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in pre-design characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland 1, Ashland 2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate pre-design contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District. (authors)

  11. USGS Science: Addressing Our Nation's Challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Tania M.

    2009-01-01

    With 6.6 billion people already living on Earth, and that number increasing every day, human influence on our planet is ever more apparent. Changes to the natural world combined with increasing human demands threaten our health and safety, our national security, our economy, and our quality of life. As a planet and a Nation, we face unprecedented challenges: loss of critical and unique ecosystems, the effects of climate change, increasing demand for limited energy and mineral resources, increasing vulnerability to natural hazards, the effects of emerging diseases on wildlife and human health, and growing needs for clean water. The time to respond to these challenges is now, but policymakers and decisionmakers face difficult choices. With competing priorities to balance, and potentially serious - perhaps irreversible - consequences at stake, our leaders need reliable scientific information to guide their decisions. As the Nation's earth and natural science agency, the USGS monitors and conducts scientific research on natural hazards and resources and how these elements and human activities influence our environment. Because the challenges we face are complex, the science needed to better understand and deal with these challenges must reflect the complex interplay among natural and human systems. With world-class expertise in biology, geology, geography, hydrology, geospatial information, and remote sensing, the USGS is uniquely capable of conducting the comprehensive scientific research needed to better understand the interdependent interactions of Earth's systems. Every day, the USGS helps decisionmakers to minimize loss of life and property, manage our natural resources, and protect and enhance our quality of life. This brochure provides examples of the challenges we face and how USGS science helps decisionmakers to address these challenges.

  12. Addressing Free Radical Oxidation in Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Criscito, Maressa C.; Schlesinger, Todd E.; Verdicchio, Robert; Szoke, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparatively little attention has been paid to the role of free radical oxidation in acne vulgaris. Here, using the traditional abnormalities cited for acne, the authors address the role of free radical oxidation throughout the pathogenesis by detailing the chemistry that may contribute to clinical changes. To probe the effects of free radical oxidation and test an antioxidant, they conducted a preliminary study of topically applied vitamin E. Methods: Seventeen patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated over an eight-week period in two private dermatology practices in this open-label study. All patients enrolled were on the same baseline regimen of salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide. This regimen was then supplemented with topical vitamin E in sunflower seed oil. Results: At the end of the eight-week period, all patients demonstrated clinical improvement, as indicated by a reduction in the number of lesions and global mean difference. A statistically significant reduction was noted as early as Week 2. Enrolled patients also expressed a positive experience due to good tolerability and easy application. Conclusion: Although the exact pathogenesis of acne vulgaris remains unknown, the presence of excessive reactive oxygen species can be implicated in each of the major abnormalities involved. This presence, along with the positive results of the authors’ preliminary study, demonstrates the need for more exploration on the use of topical antioxidants in limiting free radical oxidation in the acne model. This paper is designed to stimulate academic discussion regarding a new way of thinking about the disease state of acne. PMID:26962389

  13. Address burnout with a caring, nurturing environment.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    With their hectic schedules and demanding work responsibilities, emergency physicians are particularly vulnerable to symptoms of burnout. One study showed that more than half of emergency providers reported at least one symptom of burnout when they were asked to fill out a survey tool used to measure burnout--more than any other type of provider. It's a concern because physicians experiencing burnout may be less attentive to their patients, and some ultimately choose to leave medicine because they are no longer satisfied with their work. However, there are steps health systems and administrators can take to help physicians who are struggling, and prevent isolated problems from escalating into larger issues. When a national sample of more than 7,200 physicians agreed to take the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a survey tool used to measure burnout, nearly half (45.8%) reported at least one symptom of burnout, and 65% of the emergency providers reported symptoms of burnout. Burnout is not just fatigue. It involves disappointment in a relationship or relationships, and lack of satisfaction or fulfillment with work, according to experts. Symptoms may include moodiness, irritability, sarcasm, and may result in performance issues as well. Further, there may be physical changes such as weight loss or changes in appetite. To prevent or address burnout, experts advise health systems to nurture a caring, collaborative environment, and to make sure that providers have mentors or resources to reach out to if they are experiencing any work-related problems. They also advise administrators to make sure that burnout is a safe topic of conversation.

  14. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter

    2001-08-27

    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  15. Multicultural Aspects in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs).

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiucai; Francisconi, Carlos F; Fukudo, Shin; Gerson, Mary-Joan; Kang, Jin-Yong; Schmulson W, Max J; Sperber, Ami D

    2016-02-15

    Cross-cultural factors are important in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). In the setting of FGIDs, the aims of this review were to: 1) engender interest in global aspects; 2) gain a clearer understanding of culture, race and ethnicity and their effect on patient care and research; 3) facilitate cross-cultural clinical and research competency; and 4) improve and foster the quality and conduct of cross-cultural, multinational research. Cultural variables are inevitably present in the physician-patient context. Food and diets, which differ among cultural groups, are perceived globally as related to or blamed for symptoms. From an individual perspective, biological aspects, such as genetics, the microbiome, environmental hygiene, cytokines and the nervous system, which are affected by cultural differences, are all relevant. Of equal importance are issues related to gender, symptom reporting and interpretation, and family systems. From the physician's viewpoint, understanding the patient's explanatory model of illness, especially in a cultural context, affects patient care and patient education in a multicultural environment. Differences in the definition and use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and other issues related to healthcare services for the FGIDs are also a relevant cross-cultural issue. This paper highlights the importance of cross-cultural competence in clinical medicine and research.

  16. Ecology of Anopheles darlingi Root with respect to vector importance: a review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is one of the most important malaria vectors in the Americas. In this era of new tools and strategies for malaria and vector control it is essential to have knowledge on the ecology and behavior of vectors in order to evaluate appropriateness and impact of control measures. This paper aims to provide information on the importance, ecology and behavior of An. darlingi. It reviews publications that addressed ecological and behavioral aspects that are important to understand the role and importance of An. darlingi in the transmission of malaria throughout its area of distribution. The results show that Anopheles darlingi is especially important for malaria transmission in the Amazon region. Although numerous studies exist, many aspects determining the vectorial capacity of An. darlingi, i.e. its relation to seasons and environmental conditions, its gonotrophic cycle and longevity, and its feeding behavior and biting preferences, are still unknown. The vector shows a high degree of variability in behavioral traits. This makes it difficult to predict the impact of ongoing changes in the environment on the mosquito populations. Recent studies indicate a good ability of An. darlingi to adapt to environments modified by human development. This allows the vector to establish populations in areas where it previously did not exist or had been controlled to date. The behavioral variability of the vector, its adaptability, and our limited knowledge of these impede the establishment of effective control strategies. Increasing our knowledge of An. darlingi is necessary. PMID:21923902

  17. Engineering aspects of seismological studies in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ocola, L.

    1982-01-01

    In retrospect, the Peruvian national long-range earthquake-study program began after the catastrophic earthquake of May 31, 1970. This earthquake triggered a large snow avalanche from Huascaran mountain, killing over 60,000 people, and covering with mud small cities and tens of villages in the Andean valley of Callejon de Huaylas, Huaraz. Since then, great efforts have been made to learn about the natural seismic environment and its engineering and social aspects. The Organization of American States (OAS)has been one of the most important agencies in the development of the program. 

  18. Simulation of electromagnetic aspects of lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic processes peculiar to the direct-strike case are reviewed with respect to their implications for lightning electromagnetic simulation. At low frequencies (quasistatic) there are important surface-charge-density and corona effects in addition to the surface-current-density effects. At resonant frequencies the frequency-spectral content of the excitation and properties of the arc (attachment, detachment, time history, spatial distribution, resistance, etc.) are significant. Of great complexity in all this are nonlinear aspects of the arc and corona around the system of interest. The complexity of these various processes requires rigor in the simulator design. Potential simulation concepts are presented and their relative merits are discussed.

  19. Statistical aspects of food safety sampling.

    PubMed

    Jongenburger, I; den Besten, H M W; Zwietering, M H

    2015-01-01

    In food safety management, sampling is an important tool for verifying control. Sampling by nature is a stochastic process. However, uncertainty regarding results is made even greater by the uneven distribution of microorganisms in a batch of food. This article reviews statistical aspects of sampling and describes the impact of distributions on the sampling results. Five different batch contamination scenarios are illustrated: a homogeneous batch, a heterogeneous batch with high- or low-level contamination, and a batch with localized high- or low-level contamination. These batch contamination scenarios showed that sampling results have to be interpreted carefully, especially when heterogeneous and localized contamination in food products is expected.

  20. [Infantile apnea. The etiopathogenic aspects. I].

    PubMed

    Târdea, A

    1989-01-01

    The paper reports on etiopathogenesis aspects of apnea, on the basis of the literature data. After showing the importance of the problem and the definitions accepted, the author presents the physiological and physiopathological framework of the breathing control. The paper deals with apnea and periodic breathing associated with evident diseases and procedures, and idiopathic apnea. The central, obstructive and mixed types of apnea and their characteristics are described. The final part of the paper dwells on other mechanisms involved in apnea: gastroesophageal flux, endorphines, increased serum level of catecholamines and abnormal awakening hypoxic threshold, tobacco and coffee consumption.

  1. [New aspects in age related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Turlea, C

    2012-01-01

    Being the leading cause of blindness in modern world Age Related Macular Degeneration has beneficiated in the last decade of important progress in diagnosis, classification and the discovery of diverse factors who contribute to the etiology of this disease. Treatments have arised who can postpone the irreversible evolution of the disease and thus preserve vision. Recent findings have identified predisposing genetic factors and also inflamatory and imunological parameters that can be modified trough a good and adequate prevention and therapy This articole reviews new aspects of patology of Age Related Macular Degeneration like the role of complement in maintaining inflamation and the role of oxidative stress on different structures of the retina.

  2. Additional aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    An up-to-date review of the varying aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is presented.. Some recent work on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of materials of low elastic modulus as well as on hydrodynamic lubrication is included. Both these topics are applicable for contacts with any ellipticity parameter (ranging from a circular contact to a line contact).

  3. TWO ASPECT MARKERS IN MANDARIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, WILLIAM S-Y.

    TWO ASPECT MARKERS IN MANDARIN CHINESE ARE STUDIED WITHIN THE GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. THEY ARE COMMONLY REPRESENTED AS "-LE," INDICATING COMPLETION OF ACTION, AND "-GUO," INDICATING THAT AN ACTION HAS TAKEN PLACE AT LEAST ONCE. THE PROBLEM INVOLVES SEVERAL SEEMING IRREGULARITIES IN THE FORMATION OF…

  4. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  5. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  6. Neurologic aspects of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Harold W; Murtaugh, Reed; Fernandez, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Neurologic aspects of drug abuse vary. This article explains the general nature of drug abuse, identifies the physiologic effects of certain drugs, and briefly describes the neurobiology of addiction. This article also reviews available treatment options for those addicted to substances of abuse, and clarifies common misconceptions, including the differences between tolerance, abuse, and addiction.

  7. Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Patricia

    This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

  8. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  9. [Scientometric aspects of medical eponyms].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2014-09-07

    Eponyms, scientific concepts named after persons, have a long tradition in medical sciences. Their emergence and use are rather instructive from the aspects of scientometrics, as well. Using a medical sample it is shown that although references to publications giving origin to the eponyms inevitably get obliterated, their citation rate is still many times higher than that of other publications of the same age.

  10. Mathematical Aspects of Electoral Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, M. M.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we consider some mathematical aspects of electoral systems. Sometimes the results from elections seem paradoxical although they are mathematically correct. These cases are known as electoral paradoxes. A number of paradoxes of proportional and majoritarian electoral systems are considered.

  11. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP…

  12. Pragmatic Aspects of Scalar Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pragmatic aspects of scalar modifiers from the standpoint of the interface between semantics and pragmatics, focusing on (i) the (non) parallelism between the truth-conditional scalar modifiers and the non-truth-conditional scalar modifiers, (ii) the compositionality and dimensionality of non-truth-conditional…

  13. Addressing Learning Strategies for the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. A.; Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.

    2009-12-01

    Access to computers and interactive toys such as X Box have had impacts on learning strategies. New types of simulations and entertainment approaches will be increasingly important to reach out and encourage careers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines including space science. Examples of effective tools are planetarium shows and CD’s and DVD’s that can be distributed to teachers, students and the general public. Planetarium shows are no longer restricted to fixed dome venues but are increasingly being adapted to portable domes that have the advantage of transporting the activity to a school, community event or neighborhood center. Groups of individuals who may not normally consider a planetarium show as a family or group event are exposed to a learning experience which is also entertaining. Selected planetarium shows are available in languages other than English, including Spanish. Hands-on interactive activities are available that will enhance the experience of the attendees. Pre and post testing have shown [Sumners et al., 2006, 2008] that these activities are effective for improving STEM knowledge. New planetarium technology includes using a Wii controller for navigating through buildings. These so far have been applied to games but could be applied to a virtual tour of the space station, for example. CD’s and DVD’s are important for augmenting the activities of the planetarium shows as they provide additional learning activities that can be used either in the home, the classroom or as an enhancement for planetarium events. Simulations on the Sun, planetary or solar events, related games such as TIC TAC TOE are easily incorporated. It is important to provide additional support for the teachers that will enable them to incorporate the data into their curriculum and state mandated achievement levels.

  14. Role of Prelimbic GABAergic Circuits in Sensory and Emotional Aspects of Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zizhen; Gadotti, Vinicius M; Chen, Lina; Souza, Ivana A; Stemkowski, Patrick L; Zamponi, Gerald W

    2015-08-04

    Noxious stimuli are detected by peripheral nociceptors and then transmitted to higher CNS centers, where they are perceived as an unpleasant sensation. The mechanisms that govern the emotional component associated with pain are still incompletely understood. Here, we used optogenetic approaches both in vitro and in vivo to address this issue. We found that peripheral nerve injury inhibits pyramidal cell firing in the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex as a result of feed-forward inhibition mediated by parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic interneurons. In addition, activation of inhibitory archaerhodopsin or excitatory channelrhodopsin-2 in these neurons decreased and increased pain responses, respectively, in freely moving mice and accordingly modulated conditioned place preference scores and place escape/avoidance behavior. Our findings thus demonstrate an important role of the prelimbic area in sensory and emotional aspects of pain and identify GABAergic circuits in this region as a potential target for pain therapeutics.

  15. An investigation into the socioeconomic aspects of two major earthquakes in Iran.

    PubMed

    Amini Hosseini, Kambod; Hosseinioon, Solmaz; Pooyan, Zhila

    2013-07-01

    An evaluation of the socioeconomic consequences of earthquakes is an essential part of the development of risk reduction and disaster management plans. However, these variables are not normally addressed sufficiently after strong earthquakes; researchers and relevant stakeholders focus primarily on the physical damage and casualties. The importance of the socioeconomic consequences of seismic events became clearer in Iran after the Bam earthquake on 26 December 2003, as demonstrated by the formulation and approval of various laws and ordinances. This paper reviews the country's regulatory framework in the light of the socioeconomic aspects of two major and destructive earthquakes: in Manjil-Rudbar in 1990, and in Bam in 2003. The results take the form of recommendations and practical strategies for incorporating the socioeconomic dimensions of earthquakes in disaster risk management planning. The results presented here can be applied in other countries with similar conditions to those of Iran in order to improve public preparedness and risk reduction.

  16. [Importance of psychology in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, P

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the venezuelan dentists express their necessities of knowing certain aspects of psychology that could be useful in the relations with their patients. In the investigation a 16 item questionnaire was elaborated, taking 5 areas in consideration: a. Psychological management of the dental patient. b. Psychological consequences of the dental disease. c. Dental disease psychogenesis. d. Patient first contact behavior. e. Aspects of work organization. 100 dentists and 100 dental students of the last 2 years were inquired, in order to compare these two populations at the XXXth Congress of the venezuelan dentists. The two proportion coefficient test was used with: P less than or equal to 0.01. As a result 4 groups of items had a significant difference: a. Patient dissertation. b. Children with problematic behavior. c. Anxious patients; and d. Professional fees. Quantitatively 16 items were recognized as items in with Psychology could be useful to be applied in dentistry. The article concludes with 6 recommendations underlining the important role of the dental psychology in the dental school as well as in private practice.

  17. Addressing sleep disturbances: An opportunity to prevent cardiometabolic disease?

    PubMed Central

    GRANDNER, MICHAEL A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of the role of sleep disturbance as an important factor in health and disease. Although subclinical sleep disturbances (insufficient sleep duration or inadequate sleep quality) may be difficult to assess with conceptual and/or methodological clarity, this review attempts to summarize and synthesize these findings. First, the concept of sleep disturbance in a public health context is introduced, to provide context and rationale. Second, operational definitions of ‘cardiometabolic disease’ and ‘sleep disturbance’ are offered, to address many unclear operationalizations. Third, the extant literature is summarized regarding short or long sleep duration and/or insufficient sleep, insomnia and insomnia symptoms, general (non-specific sleep disturbances), circadian rhythm abnormalities that result in sleep disturbances, and, briefly, sleep-disordered breathing. Fourth, the review highlights the social/behavioural context of sleep, including discussions of sleep and race/ethnicity, socio-economic position, and other social/environmental factors, in order to place these findings in a social-environmental context relevant to public health. Fifth, the review highlights the issue of sleep as a domain of health behaviour and addresses issues regarding development of healthy sleep interventions. Finally, a research agenda of future directions is proposed. PMID:24892892

  18. Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty.

    PubMed

    Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty.

  19. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  20. Addressing climate challenges in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, Simone; Monaghan, Andrew; Done, James

    2012-04-01

    Advanced Study Program/Early Career Scientist Assembly Workshop on Regional Climate Issues in Developing Countries; Boulder, Colorado, 19-22 October 2011 The Early Career Scientist Assembly (ECSA) and the Advanced Study Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) invited 35 early-career scientists from nearly 20 countries to attend a 3-day workshop at the NCAR Mesa Laboratory prior to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Open Science Conference in October 2011. The goal of the workshop was to examine a range of regional climate challenges in developing countries. Topics included regional climate modeling, climate impacts, water resources, and air quality. The workshop fostered new ideas and collaborations between early-career scientists from around the world. The discussions underscored the importance of establishing partnerships with scientists located in typically underrepresented countries to understand and account for the local political, economic, and cultural factors on which climate change is superimposed.

  1. A knowledge-based agent prototype for Chinese address geocoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xuehu; Ding, Linfang; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2009-10-01

    Chinese address geocoding is a difficult problem to deal with due to intrinsic complexities in Chinese address systems and a lack of standards in address assignments and usages. In order to improve existing address geocoding algorithm, a spatial knowledge-based agent prototype aimed at validating address geocoding results is built to determine the spatial accuracies as well as matching confidence. A portion of human's knowledge of judging the spatial closeness of two addresses is represented via first order logic and the corresponding algorithms are implemented with the Prolog language. Preliminary tests conducted using addresses matching result in Beijing area showed that the prototype can successfully assess the spatial closeness between the matching address and the query address with 97% accuracy.

  2. Communication Aspects of Hospice Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Marvin D.

    No theories of communication can minimize the crisis of dying. But those who study commmunication can suggest ways of offering comfort and dignity to the dying person. Many of these ways go beyond words, for death cannot be addressed with verbal cliches. The theoretical work from which a communication scholar draws can help hospice volunteers and…

  3. 21 CFR 1312.18 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... furnish a controlled substances import declaration on DEA Form 236 to the Import/Export Unit, Drug... distribute four copies of same as hereinafter directed in § 1312.19. See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the current mailing address. (c) DEA Form 236 must be executed...

  4. 21 CFR 1312.18 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... furnish a controlled substances import declaration on DEA Form 236 to the Import/Export Unit, Drug... distribute four copies of same as hereinafter directed in § 1312.19. See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the current mailing address. (c) DEA Form 236 must be executed...

  5. 21 CFR 1312.18 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... furnish a controlled substances import declaration on DEA Form 236 to the Import/Export Unit, Drug... distribute four copies of same as hereinafter directed in § 1312.19. See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the current mailing address. (c) DEA Form 236 must be executed...

  6. 21 CFR 1312.18 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... furnish a controlled substances import declaration on DEA Form 236 to the Import/Export Unit, Drug... distribute four copies of same as hereinafter directed in § 1312.19. See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the current mailing address. (c) DEA Form 236 must be executed...

  7. 21 CFR 1312.18 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... furnish a controlled substances import declaration on DEA Form 236 to the Import/Export Unit, Drug... distribute four copies of same as hereinafter directed in § 1312.19. See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the current mailing address. (c) DEA Form 236 must be executed...

  8. Balance of the Sexes: Addressing Sex Differences in Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mazure, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical research is fundamental for the advancement of biomedical sciences and enhancing healthcare. Considering sex differences in all studies throughout the entire biomedical research pipeline is necessary to adequately inform clinical research and improve health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of information to date on sex differences in preclinical work. As of 2009, most (about 80 percent) rodent studies across 10 fields of biology were still conducted with only male animals. In 2016, the National Institutes of Health implemented a policy aimed to address this concern by requiring the consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research grant applications. This perspective piece aims to (1) provide a brief history of female inclusion in biomedical research, (2) describe the importance of studying sex differences, (3) explain possible reasons for opposition of female inclusion, and (4) present potential additional solutions to reduce sex bias in preclinical research. PMID:27354851

  9. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  10. Balance of the Sexes: Addressing Sex Differences in Preclinical Research.

    PubMed

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Potenza, Marc N; Mazure, Carolyn M

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical research is fundamental for the advancement of biomedical sciences and enhancing healthcare. Considering sex differences in all studies throughout the entire biomedical research pipeline is necessary to adequately inform clinical research and improve health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of information to date on sex differences in preclinical work. As of 2009, most (about 80 percent) rodent studies across 10 fields of biology were still conducted with only male animals. In 2016, the National Institutes of Health implemented a policy aimed to address this concern by requiring the consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research grant applications. This perspective piece aims to (1) provide a brief history of female inclusion in biomedical research, (2) describe the importance of studying sex differences, (3) explain possible reasons for opposition of female inclusion, and (4) present potential additional solutions to reduce sex bias in preclinical research.

  11. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  12. Pandemic Influenza Planning: Addressing the Needs of Children

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Lisa; Cordell, Ralph; Delozier, David; Gorman, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Odom, Erica; Polder, Jacquelyn; Randolph, Jean; Shimabukuro, Tom; Singleton, Christa

    2009-01-01

    Children represent one quarter of the US population. Because of its enormous size and special needs, it is critically important to address this population group in pandemic influenza planning. Here we describe the ways in which children are vulnerable in a pandemic, provide an overview of existing plans, summarize the resources available, and, given our experience with influenza A(H1N1), outline the evolving lessons we have learned with respect to planning for a severe influenza pandemic. We focus on a number of issues affecting children—vaccinations, medication availability, hospital capacity, and mental health concerns—and emphasize strategies that will protect children from exposure to the influenza virus, including infection control practices and activities in schools and child care programs. PMID:19797738

  13. How healthcare IT can address the nursing shortage.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Rick

    2006-01-01

    But if applied correctly, IT can play an important role in redefining the way nursing is conducted. It can do so by introducing flexible models of nursing education to increase the pool of qualified nursing professionals; automating and standardizing nursing workflows; eliminating paperwork; supporting patient care delivery models that address the needs of an older workforce; establishing point-of-care clinical decision support tools to improve patient safety; and making health, wellness, and patient education information available. If healthcare IT solutions are deployed in direct response to nursing's ills, particularly job dissatisfaction, the positive image of nursing can be restored, once again making it a career of choice. IT can further reverse the tide of nursing defections, which continually drain the healthcare industry of experienced and dedicated professionals. Finally, both individually and collectively, healthcare IT technologies can reorient nursing activity back towards its principal role of delivering quality patient care.

  14. Constraints to addressing food insecurity in protracted crises

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Daniel; Russo, Luca; Alinovi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    A substantial portion of the world's people have not made adequate progress toward overcoming hunger or achieving sustainable livelihoods. The classic approach to addressing chronic food insecurity has been a strategy of agricultural development, supplemented by humanitarian assistance in the event of a shock or crisis—an approach predicated on assumptions that do not fit the context of protracted crises. This article describes protracted crises and argues that they are sufficiently different to warrant special consideration, but there are unique constraints to engagement in protracted crises. The article explores the constraints promoting sustainable livelihoods in these contexts and proposes elements of an alternative approach. It evaluates the limited evidence available about such an approach and outlines important questions for further research. PMID:21646522

  15. Python import replacement

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-01

    SmartImport.py is a Python source-code file that implements a replacement for the standard Python module importer. The code is derived from knee.py, a file in the standard Python diestribution , and adds functionality to improve the performance of Python module imports in massively parallel contexts.

  16. Environmental aspects of congenital scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Yu, Xin; Shen, Jianxiong

    2015-04-01

    Growing evidence has proved that many aspects of our lifestyle and the environment contribute to the development of congenital disease. Congenital spinal deformities are due to anomalous development of the vertebrae including failure of formation and segmentation during embryogenesis. The causes of congenital scoliosis have not been fully identified. A variety of factors are implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. Previous studies have demonstrated that both genetics and environmental factors are implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. However, no specific cause for congenital scoliosis has been identified. In our review, we focus on the environmental factors for the development of congenital scoliosis. Various maternal exposures during pregnancy including hypoxia, alcohol use, vitamin deficiency, valproic acid, boric acid, and hyperthermia have been observed to be associated with the occurrence of congenital scoliosis. This review describes the major environmental contributors of congenital scoliosis with an emphasis on treatment aspects associated with environmental disposition in congenital scoliosis.

  17. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    PubMed Central

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  18. The enduring importance of animal modelsin understanding periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Hajishengallis, George; Lamont, Richard J; Graves, Dana T

    2015-01-01

    Whereas no single animal model can reproduce the complexity of periodontitis, different aspects of the disease can be addressed by distinct models. Despite their limitations, animal models are essential for testing the biological significance of in vitro findings and for establishing cause-and-effect relationships relevant to clinical observations, which are typically correlative. We provide evidence that animal-based studies have generated a durable framework for dissecting the mechanistic basis of periodontitis. These studies have solidified the etiologic role of bacteria in initiating the inflammatory response that leads to periodontal bone loss and have identified key mediators (IL-1, TNF, prostaglandins, complement, RANKL) that induce inflammatory breakdown. Moreover, animal studies suggest that dysbiosis, rather than individual bacterial species, are important in initiating periodontal bone loss and have introduced the concept that organisms previously considered commensals can play important roles as accessory pathogens or pathobionts. These studies have also provided insight as to how systemic conditions, such as diabetes or leukocyte adhesion deficiency, contribute to tissue destruction. In addition, animal studies have identified and been useful in testing therapeutic targets. PMID:25574929

  19. Household food waste separation behavior and the importance of convenience.

    PubMed

    Bernstad, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Two different strategies aiming at increasing household source-separation of food waste were assessed through a case-study in a Swedish residential area (a) use of written information, distributed as leaflets amongst households and (b) installation of equipment for source-segregation of waste with the aim of increasing convenience food waste sorting in kitchens. Weightings of separately collected food waste before and after distribution of written information suggest that this resulted in neither a significant increased amount of separately collected food waste, nor an increased source-separation ratio. After installation of sorting equipment in households, both the amount of separately collected food waste as well as the source-separation ratio increased vastly. Long-term monitoring shows that results where longstanding. Results emphasize the importance of convenience and existence of infrastructure necessary for source-segregation of waste as important factors for household waste recycling, but also highlight the need of addressing these aspects where waste is generated, i.e. already inside the household.

  20. Addressing uncertainty in adaptation planning for agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Sonja J.; Challinor, Andrew J.; Thornton, Philip K.; Campbell, Bruce M.; Eriyagama, Nishadi; Vervoort, Joost M.; Kinyangi, James; Jarvis, Andy; Läderach, Peter; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Nicklin, Kathryn J.; Hawkins, Ed; Smith, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for prioritizing adaptation approaches at a range of timeframes. The framework is illustrated by four case studies from developing countries, each with associated characterization of uncertainty. Two cases on near-term adaptation planning in Sri Lanka and on stakeholder scenario exercises in East Africa show how the relative utility of capacity vs. impact approaches to adaptation planning differ with level of uncertainty and associated lead time. An additional two cases demonstrate that it is possible to identify uncertainties that are relevant to decision making in specific timeframes and circumstances. The case on coffee in Latin America identifies altitudinal thresholds at which incremental vs. transformative adaptation pathways are robust options. The final case uses three crop–climate simulation studies to demonstrate how uncertainty can be characterized at different time horizons to discriminate where robust adaptation options are possible. We find that impact approaches, which use predictive models, are increasingly useful over longer lead times and at higher levels of greenhouse gas emissions. We also find that extreme events are important in determining predictability across a broad range of timescales. The results demonstrate the potential for robust knowledge and actions in the face of uncertainty. PMID:23674681

  1. The Case for Addressing Operator Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Jeanne F; Zitting, Kirsi-Marja; Czeisler, Charles A

    2015-06-01

    Sleep deficiency, which can be caused by acute sleep deprivation, chronic insufficient sleep, untreated sleep disorders, disruption of circadian timing, and other factors, is endemic in the U.S., including among professional and non-professional drivers and operators. Vigilance and attention are critical for safe transportation operations, but fatigue and sleepiness compromise vigilance and attention by slowing reaction times and impairing judgment and decision-making abilities. Research studies, polls, and accident investigations indicate that many Americans drive a motor vehicle or operate an aircraft, train or marine vessel while drowsy, putting themselves and others at risk for error and accident. In this chapter, we will outline some of the factors that contribute to sleepiness, present evidence from laboratory and field studies demonstrating how sleepiness impacts transportation safety, review how sleepiness is measured in laboratory and field settings, describe what is known about interventions for sleepiness in transportation settings, and summarize what we believe are important gaps in our knowledge of sleepiness and transportation safety.

  2. Addressing uncertainty in adaptation planning for agriculture.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Sonja J; Challinor, Andrew J; Thornton, Philip K; Campbell, Bruce M; Eriyagama, Nishadi; Vervoort, Joost M; Kinyangi, James; Jarvis, Andy; Läderach, Peter; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Nicklin, Kathryn J; Hawkins, Ed; Smith, Daniel R

    2013-05-21

    We present a framework for prioritizing adaptation approaches at a range of timeframes. The framework is illustrated by four case studies from developing countries, each with associated characterization of uncertainty. Two cases on near-term adaptation planning in Sri Lanka and on stakeholder scenario exercises in East Africa show how the relative utility of capacity vs. impact approaches to adaptation planning differ with level of uncertainty and associated lead time. An additional two cases demonstrate that it is possible to identify uncertainties that are relevant to decision making in specific timeframes and circumstances. The case on coffee in Latin America identifies altitudinal thresholds at which incremental vs. transformative adaptation pathways are robust options. The final case uses three crop-climate simulation studies to demonstrate how uncertainty can be characterized at different time horizons to discriminate where robust adaptation options are possible. We find that impact approaches, which use predictive models, are increasingly useful over longer lead times and at higher levels of greenhouse gas emissions. We also find that extreme events are important in determining predictability across a broad range of timescales. The results demonstrate the potential for robust knowledge and actions in the face of uncertainty.

  3. Midwestern efforts to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Stenberg

    2008-12-15

    Six Midwestern governors and a Canadian premier signed the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord in November 2007. The governors agreed to begin the process of developing a market-based cap-and-trade program that would reduce GHG emissions (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro-fluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride) to meet reduction targets. Member jurisdictions include Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Manitoba, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Observer jurisdictions - those who are participating in the program design, but will decide later whether to be full members-include Indiana, Ohio, Ontario, and South Dakota. To date, the advisory group has proposed target ranges for GHG emissions reductions of 15-25% below 2005 levels by 2020 and 60-80% by 2050. The following sectors are currently being considered for the cap-and-trade program: electricity generation and imports (power plants); industrial combustion sources (factories and other industrial facilities); and industrial process sources (to the extent credible measurement and monitoring protocols exist or can be developed prior to inclusion).

  4. The Case for Addressing Operator Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Zitting, Kirsi-Marja; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deficiency, which can be caused by acute sleep deprivation, chronic insufficient sleep, untreated sleep disorders, disruption of circadian timing, and other factors, is endemic in the U.S., including among professional and non-professional drivers and operators. Vigilance and attention are critical for safe transportation operations, but fatigue and sleepiness compromise vigilance and attention by slowing reaction times and impairing judgment and decision-making abilities. Research studies, polls, and accident investigations indicate that many Americans drive a motor vehicle or operate an aircraft, train or marine vessel while drowsy, putting themselves and others at risk for error and accident. In this chapter, we will outline some of the factors that contribute to sleepiness, present evidence from laboratory and field studies demonstrating how sleepiness impacts transportation safety, review how sleepiness is measured in laboratory and field settings, describe what is known about interventions for sleepiness in transportation settings, and summarize what we believe are important gaps in our knowledge of sleepiness and transportation safety. PMID:26056516

  5. Legal aspects of satellite teleconferencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.

  6. Rights-based approaches to addressing food poverty and food insecurity in Ireland and UK.

    PubMed

    Dowler, Elizabeth A; O'Connor, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Food poverty is an important contributing factor to health inequalities in industrialised countries; it refers to the inability to acquire or eat an adequate quality or sufficient quantity of food in socially acceptable ways (or the uncertainty of being able to do so). Synonymous with household food insecurity, the issue needs to be located within a social justice framework. Recognising the clear interdependence between the right to food and the right to health, this paper explores how international human rights obligations could inform approaches to addressing food poverty and insecurity with specific reference to Ireland and the UK. Little attention has been paid to how countries should meet their obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the right to food in developed countries. The paper contributes by examining the social and policy circumstances which inhibit poor households from obtaining sufficient food to eat healthily, along with strategies and interventions from State and civil society actors in the two countries. In practice, problems and potential solutions have largely been directed towards the individual rather than at social determinants, particularly as research on environmental factors such as distance to shops has produced equivocal results. Other key structural aspects such as income sufficiency for food are broadly ignored by the State, and anti-poverty strategies are often implemented without monitoring for effects on food outcomes. Thus scant evidence exists for either Ireland or the UK meeting its rights to food obligations to date, in terms of roles and responsibilities in ensuring access to affordable, available and appropriate food for all.

  7. Addressing inconsistencies in black carbon literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonkoff, S. B.; Chafe, Z.; Smith, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    The literature describing black carbon (BC) emissions, and their effect on Earth’s climate, is growing rapidly. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in definitions; data collection and characterization; system boundaries; and time horizons have led to confusion about the relative importance of BC compared to other climate-active pollutant (CAPs). We discuss three sources of confusion: 1) Currently available BC inventories are not directly comparable to those used by the IPCC to track the greenhouse gases (GHGs) considered in the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O). In particular, BC inventories often include all emissions: natural and anthropogenic in origin, controllable and non-controllable. IPCC inventories include only anthropogenic emissions. This BC accounting is appropriate for atmospheric science deliberations, but risks being interpreted as an overstatement against official Kyoto GHG inventories in a policy or control context. The IPCC convention of using 1750 as the starting year for emission inventories further complicates matters: significant BC emissions were emitted previous to that date by both human and natural sources. Though none of the pre-1750 BC emissions remain in the atmosphere today, their legacy presents challenges in assigning historical responsibility for associated global warming among sectors and regional populations. 2) Inconsistencies exist in the specific emissions sources considered in atmospheric models used to predict net BC forcing often lead to widely varying climate forcing estimates. For example, while some analyses consider only fossil fuel 1, others include both open biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion 2, and yet others include sources beyond biomass and fossil fuel burning 3. 3) Inconsistencies exist in how analyses incorporate the relationship between BC emissions and the associated cooling aerosols and processes, such as organic carbon (OC), and aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Unlike Kyoto GHGs, BC is rarely emitted in pure

  8. 8 CFR 213a.3 - Change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.3 Change of address. (a) Submission of address change. (1) Filing... that the sponsored immigrant has received any means-tested public benefit, fails to give notice...

  9. 8 CFR 213a.3 - Change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.3 Change of address. (a) Submission of address change. (1) Filing... that the sponsored immigrant has received any means-tested public benefit, fails to give notice...

  10. 8 CFR 213a.3 - Change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.3 Change of address. (a) Submission of address change. (1) Filing... that the sponsored immigrant has received any means-tested public benefit, fails to give notice...

  11. Addressing poverty, education, and gender equality to improve the health of women worldwide.

    PubMed

    Tyer-Viola, Lynda A; Cesario, Sandra K

    2010-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) that target alleviating poverty, improving primary education, and fostering gender equity are important as a foundation to promote world health. Achieving these goals will create an environment for healthy lives for women and children. Poverty, education, and gender equality, although undeniably linked, need to be addressed individually. Nurses have the capacity and political will to address MDGs and to contribute to the health and well-being of the world population.

  12. Progress Addressing Safeguards Capability Development Needs through Educational Outreach and Knowledge Management

    SciTech Connect

    Leek, K. M.; Seward, Amy M.; Dickman, Deborah A.; Toomey, Charles J.; Greenfield, Bryce A.; Mathews, Caroline E.; Fishbone, L.; Graham, T.; Rosenthal, Michael; Ward, B.

    2010-11-08

    This paper describes the NGSI Human Capital Development Program's domestic and international activities, and offers specific case studies to exemplify the outcomes and progress achieved in this area over the past several years. The paper highlights the importance of a sustained effort to address the human dimension of safeguards and nonproliferation and to address critical work force issues in the U.S. and abroad.

  13. Quantitation of Cytomegalovirus: Methodologic Aspects and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Boeckh, Michael; Boivin, Guy

    1998-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in transplant recipients and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Major progress has been made in developing quantitative detection methods for CMV in recent years. Due to their high sensitivity, these assays can detect CMV early, and quantitation may be useful in predicting the patient’s risk for disease and in monitoring the effect of antiviral therapy. This review discusses methodological aspects of currently used quantitative assays for CMV (i.e., viral culture techniques, antigen detection assays, DNA detection assays including PCR, branched-DNA assay, and the DNA hybrid capture assay) and addresses the correlation of systemic and site-specific CMV load and CMV disease in different populations of immunosuppressed patients as well as the response to antiviral treatment. To date, direct antigen detection and molecular techniques have largely replaced traditional culture-based techniques for CMV quantitation. In general, a high systemic CMV load is correlated with CMV disease. This correlation is strong in the HIV-infected population and in solid-organ transplant recipients but less clear in allogeneic marrow transplant recipients. Measuring the viral load at specific anatomic sites may be an alternative way to assess disease activity in situations where the systemic viral load correlates poorly with disease activity. A reduction of the systemic CMV load also correlates with a response to antiviral treatment, but more research is needed to evaluate the role of viral load as a surrogate marker for drug resistance. Due to the widespread use of quantitative CMV detection techniques to direct and monitor antiviral treatment, there is a great need for an assessment of the reproducibility of test results and better standardization of the assays. PMID:9665982

  14. Relation between Aspects of Mother's Personality and Children's Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaee, Ensiyeh; Jain, Sachin

    2009-01-01

    Mothers' health is one of the most important and fundamental issues which the officials of health and care and supreme education should address as an important and effective part in society's individuals lives. The necessity of having a healthy society is having healthy mothers and this health would not be verified unless mother enjoys mental…

  15. Native Language Experience Shapes Neural Basis of Addressed and Assembled Phonologies

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, two key regions for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis. PMID:25858447

  16. Native language experience shapes neural basis of addressed and assembled phonologies.

    PubMed

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, one key region for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis.

  17. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  18. Loneliness: Clinical Import and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Grippo, Angela J.; London, Sarah; Goossens, Luc; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    In 1978, when the Task Panel report to the US President’s Commission on Mental Health emphasized the importance of improving health care and easing the pain of those suffering from emotional distress syndromes including loneliness, few anticipated that this issue would still need to be addressed 40 years later. A meta-analysis (Masi et al., 2011) on the efficacy of treatments to reduce loneliness identified a need for well-controlled randomized clinical trials focusing on the rehabilitation of maladaptive social cognition. We review assessments of loneliness and build on this meta-analysis to discuss the efficacy of various treatments for loneliness. With the advances made over the past 5 years in the identification of the psychobiological and pharmaceutical mechanisms associated with loneliness and maladaptive social cognition, there is increasing evidence for the potential efficacy of integrated interventions that combine (social) cognitive behavioral therapy with short-term adjunctive pharmacological treatments. PMID:25866548

  19. Implementing Subduction Models in the New Mantle Convection Code Aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, Katrina; Billen, Magali

    2014-05-01

    The geodynamic community has utilized various numerical modeling codes as scientific questions arise and computer processing power increases. Citcom, a widely used mantle convection code, has limitations and vulnerabilities such as temperature overshoots of hundreds or thousands degrees Kelvin (i.e., Kommu et al., 2013). Recently Aspect intended as a more powerful cousin, is in active development with additions such as Adaptable Mesh Refinement (AMR) and improved solvers (Kronbichler et al., 2012). The validity and ease of use of Aspect is important to its survival and role as a possible upgrade and replacement to Citcom. Development of publishable models illustrates the capacity of Aspect. We present work on the addition of non-linear solvers and stress-dependent rheology to Aspect. With a solid foundational knowledge of C++, these additions were easily added into Aspect and tested against CitcomS. Time-dependent subduction models akin to those in Billen and Hirth (2007) are built and compared in CitcomS and Aspect. Comparison with CitcomS assists in Aspect development and showcases its flexibility, usability and capabilities. References: Billen, M. I., and G. Hirth, 2007. Rheologic controls on slab dynamics. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. Kommu, R., E. Heien, L. H. Kellogg, W. Bangerth, T. Heister, E. Studley, 2013. The Overshoot Phenomenon in Geodynamics Codes. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. M. Kronbichler, T. Heister, W. Bangerth, 2012, High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophys. J. Int.

  20. 27 CFR 4.35 - Name and address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the stated address, or (C) Produced sparkling wine by secondary fermentation at the stated address... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.35 Name and address. (a) American wine—(1) Mandatory statement. A label on each container of American...

  1. 27 CFR 4.35 - Name and address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the stated address, or (C) Produced sparkling wine by secondary fermentation at the stated address... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.35 Name and address. (a) American wine—(1) Mandatory statement. A label on each container of American...

  2. 27 CFR 4.35 - Name and address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the stated address, or (C) Produced sparkling wine by secondary fermentation at the stated address... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.35 Name and address. (a) American wine—(1) Mandatory statement. A label on each container of American...

  3. 27 CFR 4.35 - Name and address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the stated address, or (C) Produced sparkling wine by secondary fermentation at the stated address... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.35 Name and address. (a) American wine—(1) Mandatory statement. A label on each container of American...

  4. 27 CFR 4.35 - Name and address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the stated address, or (C) Produced sparkling wine by secondary fermentation at the stated address... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.35 Name and address. (a) American wine—(1) Mandatory statement. A label on each container of American...

  5. Workplace Motivation and Addressing Sexual Harassment in the Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Motivation & Addressing Sexual Harassment, 17 orientation . From a total organization perspective, self-determination theory may be embraced by a...Workplace Motivation & Addressing Sexual Harassment in the Organization Major Rachel Castellon Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute...Director of Research July 2010 Technical Report No. 02-11 Workplace Motivation & Addressing Sexual Harassment, 2 Abstract This paper

  6. 14 CFR 25.1423 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Safety Equipment § 25.1423 Public address system. A public address system required by this chapter must— (a) Be powerable when the aircraft is in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public address system. 25.1423 Section...

  7. Thanksgiving Address of the North American Indian Ohenton Kariwatehkwen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Watenriio (Michael), Comp.; And Others

    Translated by the North American Indian Travelling College, this traditional Thanksgiving Address is delivered before and after all meetings and ceremonies of the Iroquois people. Through this address, the Creator is introduced into a ceremony, social dance, or council, and, at the end of the meeting, the address brings the minds of the people…

  8. 5 CFR 870.910 - Notification of current addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of current addresses. 870....910 Notification of current addresses. Each assignee and each beneficiary of an assignee must keep the office where the assignment is filed informed of his/her current address....

  9. 41 CFR 101-26.203 - Activity address codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Activity address codes... PROGRAM 26.2-Federal Requisitioning System § 101-26.203 Activity address codes. To obtain items through the FEDSTRIP system, each ordering activity is required to have an activity address code. The...

  10. 47 CFR 69.128 - Billing name and address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing name and address. 69.128 Section 69.128... Computation of Charges § 69.128 Billing name and address. Appropriate subelements shall be established for the use of equipment or facilities that are associated with offerings of billing name and address....

  11. 47 CFR 69.128 - Billing name and address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Billing name and address. 69.128 Section 69.128... Computation of Charges § 69.128 Billing name and address. Appropriate subelements shall be established for the use of equipment or facilities that are associated with offerings of billing name and address....

  12. 14 CFR 47.45 - Change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in a registered owner's mailing address, the registered owner must notify the Registry in writing of... registered owner also must provide that owner's physical address or location. Upon acceptance, the Registry... registered owner's physical address or location changes, the registered owner must notify the Registry...

  13. 14 CFR 47.45 - Change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in a registered owner's mailing address, the registered owner must notify the Registry in writing of... registered owner also must provide that owner's physical address or location. Upon acceptance, the Registry... registered owner's physical address or location changes, the registered owner must notify the Registry...

  14. 14 CFR 47.45 - Change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in a registered owner's mailing address, the registered owner must notify the Registry in writing of... registered owner also must provide that owner's physical address or location. Upon acceptance, the Registry... registered owner's physical address or location changes, the registered owner must notify the Registry...

  15. 14 CFR 47.45 - Change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in a registered owner's mailing address, the registered owner must notify the Registry in writing of... registered owner also must provide that owner's physical address or location. Upon acceptance, the Registry... registered owner's physical address or location changes, the registered owner must notify the Registry...

  16. Analyzing the Messages of the State of the Union Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissling, Mark T.; Martell, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    In the era of smartphones and 24-hour news networks, the State of the Union address is a major event. All national media outlets--in print, on television, on the Internet--report on the address, some almost exclusively in the days leading up to and after the speech. In this article, considering their experiences teaching about the address, and…

  17. Individually addressable cathodes with integrated focusing stack or detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Baylor, Larry R.; Voelkl, Edgar; Simpson, Michael L.; Paulus, Michael J.; Lowndes, Douglas; Whealton, John; Whitson, John C.; Wilgen, John B.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and method are described for addressable field emission array (AFEA) chips. A plurality of individually addressable cathodes are integrated with an electrostatic focusing stack and/or a plurality of detectors on the addressable field emission array. The systems and methods provide advantages including the avoidance of space-charge blow-up.

  18. SOME ASPECTS OF HEALTH CARE IN MEDIEVAL INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Rao, B. Rama

    1992-01-01

    It appears that from medieval period onwards the subjects having practical application were given more importance than the philosophical and theoretical aspects. But the physicians were keen observes and new drugs and information were added and the effect of religion, astrology and other systems is also seen. While the womenfolk used to collect from the nearby forests, drugs that were useful for common ailments, some drugs were also imported from other countries. Specialization in certain diseases or practices was prevalent and the physicians enjoyed a high status and respect in the society. Several such other aspects are dealt with in this article. PMID:22556577

  19. Mechanical engineering aspects of TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Citrolo, J.C.

    1983-04-01

    This paper briefly presents the principles which characterize a tokamak and discusses the mechanical aspects of TFTR, particularly the toroidal field coils and the vacuum chamber, in the context of being key components common to all tokamaks. The mechanical loads on these items as well as other design requirements are considered and the solutions to these requirements as executed in TFTR are presented. Future technological developments beyond the scope of TFTR, which are necessary to bring the tokamak concept to a full fusion-power system, are also presented. Additional methods of plasma heating, current drive, and first wall designs are examples of items in this category.

  20. Practical Aspects of Nonlinear Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-19

    14. E. Levitan and B . Polyak, "Constrained Minimization Methods", USSR Comp. Math. and Math. Physics 6, 1, (1966). 15. J. May, "Solving Nonlinear...AD-AIO 858 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB F/G 12/1 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION.U) JUN 81 R B HOLMES, J W TOLLESON...dj, l<j< m , (2) with the understanding the Q so defined has a non-empty interior (is "solid"). No qualitative assumptions on the objective - i