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Sample records for addresses medium-term development

  1. Development of a Medium-term Animal Model Using gpt Delta Rats to Evaluate Chemical Carcinogenicity and Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Kohei; Kijima, Aki; Ishii, Yuji; Takasu, Shinji; Jin, Meilan; Kuroda, Ken; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Noriaki; Nohmi, Takehiko; Ogawa, Kumiko; Umemura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the potential for development of an animal model (GPG46) capable of rapidly detecting chemical carcinogenicity and the underlying mechanisms of action were examined in gpt delta rats using a reporter gene assay to detect mutations and a medium-term rat liver bioassay to detect tumor promotion. The tentative protocol for the GPG46 model was developed based on the results of dose-response exposure to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and treatment with phenobarbital over time following DEN administration. Briefly, gpt delta rats were exposed to various chemicals for 4 weeks, followed by a partial hepatectomy (PH) to collect samples for an in vivo mutation assay. The mutant frequencies (MFs) of the reporter genes were examined as an indication of tumor initiation. A single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 10 mg/kg DEN was administered to rats 18 h after the PH to initiate hepatocytes. Tumor-promoting activity was evaluated based on the development of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci at week 10. The genotoxic carcinogens 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f] quinolone (IQ) and safrole (SF), the non-genotoxic carcinogens piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and phenytoin (PHE), the non-carcinogen acetaminophen (APAP) and the genotoxic non-hepatocarcinogen aristolochic acid (AA) were tested to validate the GPG46 model. The validation results indicate that the GPG46 model could be a powerful tool in understanding chemical carcinogenesis and provide valuable information regarding human risk hazards. PMID:23723564

  2. Third Advisory Committee on the Health Manpower Development Medium-Term Programme. Report on a Meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark, November 3-5, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    A report of the 1981 Health Manpower Development Medium-Term Programme, sponsored by the World Health Organization's (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, is presented. The document "European Regional Strategy for Attaining Health for All by the Year 2000" was reviewed, and attention was directed to the present structure of the Regional…

  3. Medium-term exposure of the North Atlantic copepod Calanus finmarchicus (Gunnerus, 1770) to CO2-acidified seawater: effects on survival and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Hansen, B. H.; Altin, D.; Olsen, A. J.

    2013-11-01

    The impact of medium-term exposure to CO2-acidified seawater on survival, growth and development was investigated in the North Atlantic copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Using a custom developed experimental system, fertilized eggs and subsequent development stages were exposed to normal seawater (390 ppm CO2) or one of three different levels of CO2-induced acidification (3300, 7300, 9700 ppm CO2). Following the 28-day exposure period, survival was found to be unaffected by exposure to 3300 ppm CO2, but significantly reduced at 7300 and 9700 ppm CO2. Also, the proportion of copepodite stages IV to VI observed in the different treatments was significantly affected in a manner that may indicate a CO2-induced retardation of the rate of ontogenetic development. Morphometric analysis revealed a significant increase in size (prosome length) and lipid storage volume in stage IV copepodites exposed to 3300 ppm CO2 and reduced size in stage III copepodites exposed to 7300 ppm CO2. Together, the findings indicate that a pCO2 level ≤2000 ppm (the highest CO2 level expected by the year 2300) will probably not directly affect survival in C. finmarchicus. Longer term experiments at more moderate CO2 levels are, however, necessary before the possibility that growth and development may be affected below 2000 ppm CO2 can be ruled out.

  4. 24 CFR 576.106 - Short-term and medium-term rental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short-term and medium-term rental... and Eligible Activities § 576.106 Short-term and medium-term rental assistance. (a) General provisions... assistance may be short-term rental assistance, medium-term rental assistance, payment of rental arrears, or...

  5. 24 CFR 576.106 - Short-term and medium-term rental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Short-term and medium-term rental... and Eligible Activities § 576.106 Short-term and medium-term rental assistance. (a) General provisions... assistance may be short-term rental assistance, medium-term rental assistance, payment of rental arrears, or...

  6. 24 CFR 576.106 - Short-term and medium-term rental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short-term and medium-term rental... and Eligible Activities § 576.106 Short-term and medium-term rental assistance. (a) General provisions... assistance may be short-term rental assistance, medium-term rental assistance, payment of rental arrears, or...

  7. Proclamation No. 51 approving and adopting the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan for 1987 to 1992, including the supportive regional development plans and investment programs, 12 December 1986.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains certain provisions of the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan for 1987-92. Chapter 7 covers health, nutrition, and family planning (FP) and describes objectives in these areas as 1) improving the health and nutritional status of the population, 2) working toward achieving health for all by the year 2000 through primary health care, and 3) promoting FP to improve family well-being. Specific strategies include 1) improving provision and use of accessible, appropriate, and adequate services, especially to the poor and to high-risk groups; 2) integrating efforts within the planning sectors and ensuring multisectoral consistency and support; 3) promoting individual and collective responsibility for health, nutrition, and FP; 4) placing greater reliance on indigenous resources and technology; 5) strengthening and sustaining effective collaboration with the private sector; 6) placing greater emphasis on measures which promote good health and nutrition: 7) strengthening promotion of FP as a component of comprehensive maternal and child health; 8) enhancing the status and role of women as program benefactors and implementors; 9) increasing government allocations to the health, nutrition, and FP sector; 10) strengthening information and research-based decision-making and implementation; 11) developing manpower; and 12) improving regulations.

  8. Medium-Term Results After Treatment of Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Meknas, Khaled; Al Hassoni, Thabit N.; Odden-Miland, Åshild; Castillejo, Miguel; Kartus, Jüri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (elbow extensor–origin tendinosis) is a common cause of elbow pain with many treatment options. In the present study, the medium-term results after open release and radiofrequency microtenotomy are reported. Hypothesis: Microtenotomy would provide long-term pain relief that was as good as the open release method. Study Design: Prospective, randomized trial. Methods: Twenty-four patients randomized to either open release or microtenotomy were assessed after 5 to 7 years. Clinical examination and dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT) of both elbows were performed preoperatively and at the medium-term follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both elbows was performed at the medium-term follow-up. Results: Significant pain reduction was found using a visual analog scale (VAS) at the medium-term follow-up in both groups compared with the preoperative assessment (P < .005). The Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) increased significantly in both groups (P < .01). The improvement in grip strength was not significant in either group. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of VAS, strength, and the MEPS. On the DIRT examinations, there were significantly fewer hot spots at the medium-term follow-up than preoperatively (P = .0067, both study groups together). The MRI examinations revealed grade II changes in the operated elbow in 1 patient in each group at the medium-term follow-up, while all the other MRI examinations revealed a normal tendon. Conclusion: In this prospective, randomized trial with a medium-term follow-up, the results were similar after surgical release and microtenotomy in patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis. The hypothesis was thus verified. PMID:26535247

  9. Medium-term bioassays as alternative carcinogenicity test.

    PubMed

    Ito, N; Imaida, K; Tamano, S; Hagiwara, A; Shirai, T

    1998-07-01

    A medium-term liver bioassay system for rapid detection of carcinogenic agents using male F344 rats has been developed, in order to bridge the gap between long-term carcinogenicity tests and short-term screening assays. The system is fundamentally based on the two-stage hypothesis of carcinogenesis: initiation with diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg bw, i.p.) is followed by test chemical administration during the second, in combination with 2/3 partial hepatectomy. It requires only 8 weeks for animal experimental treatment and a further few weeks for quantitative analysis of immunohistochemically-demonstrated glutathione S-transferase placental form positive hepatic foci. A total of 291 chemicals/substances have already been analyzed in this laboratory and the efficacy of the system for hepatocarcinogens has thereby been well established. This bioassay is particularly useful for dose-response and chemical mixture studies, usually requiring large-scale experiments and also for evaluation of chemopreventive agents. Another bioassay, a medium-term multiorgan bioassay system, using 5 different chemical carcinogens, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), N-methylnitrosourea (MNU), N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine (DHPN), has also been established for rapid detection of not only hepatocarcinogens, but also other organ-target carcinogens. Rats were initially treated with a single i.p. administration of 100 mg/kg DEN, 4 i.p. administrations of 20 mg/kg MNU, 4 s.c. doses of 40 mg/kg DMH for 2 weeks and then 0.1% DHPN for 2 weeks. Test chemicals are administered after the carcinogens exposure. Animals were sacrificed at the end of week 36, and major organs were examined histologically. Carcinogenic activities of test chemicals were compared between the test chemical treated group and carcinogen exposures group (control group). It is increasingly becoming regarded that these bioassays are useful methods and are

  10. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  11. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  12. Medium term ecohydrological response of peatland bryophytes to canopy disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Rhoswen; Kettridge, Nick; Krause, Stefan; Devito, Kevin; Granath, Gustaf; Petrone, Richard; Mandoza, Carl; Waddington, James Micheal

    2016-04-01

    Canopy disturbance in northern forested peatlands is widespread. Canopy changes impact the ecohydrological function of moss and peat, which provide the principal carbon store within these carbon rich ecosystems. Different mosses have contrasting contributions to carbon and water fluxes (e.g. Sphagnum fuscum and Pleurozium schreberi) and are strongly influenced by canopy cover. As a result, changes in canopy cover lead to long-term shifts in species composition and associated ecohydrological function. Despite this, the medium-term response to such disturbance, the associated lag in this transition to a new ecohydrological and biogeochemical regime, is not understood. Here we investigate this medium term ecohydrological response to canopy removal using a randomised plot design within a north Albertan peatland. We show no significant ecohydrological change in treatment plots four years after canopy removal. Notably, Pleurozium schreberi and Sphagnum fuscum remained within respective plots post treatment and there was no significant difference in plot resistance to evapotranspiration or carbon exchange. Our results show that canopy removal alone has little impact on bryophyte ecohydrology in the short/medium term. This resistance to disturbance contrasts strongly with dramatic short-term changes observed within mineral soils suggesting that concurrent shifts in the large scale hydrology induced within such disturbances are necessary to cause rapid ecohydrological transitions. Understanding this lagged response is critical to determine the decadal response of carbon and water fluxes in response to disturbance and the rate at which important medium term ecohydrological feedbacks are invoked.

  13. Medium term hurricane catastrophe models: a validation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonazzi, Alessandro; Turner, Jessica; Dobbin, Alison; Wilson, Paul; Mitas, Christos; Bellone, Enrica

    2013-04-01

    Climate variability is a major source of uncertainty for the insurance industry underwriting hurricane risk. Catastrophe models provide their users with a stochastic set of events that expands the scope of the historical catalogue by including synthetic events that are likely to happen in a defined time-frame. The use of these catastrophe models is widespread in the insurance industry but it is only in recent years that climate variability has been explicitly accounted for. In the insurance parlance "medium term catastrophe model" refers to products that provide an adjusted view of risk that is meant to represent hurricane activity on a 1 to 5 year horizon, as opposed to long term models that integrate across the climate variability of the longest available time series of observations. In this presentation we discuss how a simple reinsurance program can be used to assess the value of medium term catastrophe models. We elaborate on similar concepts as discussed in "Potential Economic Value of Seasonal Hurricane Forecasts" by Emanuel et al. (2012, WCAS) and provide an example based on 24 years of historical data of the Chicago Mercantile Hurricane Index (CHI), an insured loss proxy. Profit and loss volatility of a hypothetical primary insurer are used to score medium term models versus their long term counterpart. Results show that medium term catastrophe models could help a hypothetical primary insurer to improve their financial resiliency to varying climate conditions.

  14. Medium-term dynamics of a middle Adriatic barred beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postacchini, Matteo; Soldini, Luciano; Lorenzoni, Carlo; Mancinelli, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, attention has been paid to beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscape feature and around 70 % of the Marche region's coast (central Adriatic) is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the region includes the beach of Senigallia, frequently monitored in the last decades and characterized by a multiple bar system, which represents a natural beach defense. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show long-term stability, confirmed by a good adaptation of an analyzed stretch of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short- to medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. The medium-term dynamics of the beach, which deal with the evolution of submerged bars and are of the order of years or seasons, have been related to the wave climate collected, during the analyzed temporal windows, by a wave buoy located about 40 km off Senigallia. An overall interpretation of the hydrodynamics, sediment characteristics and seabed morphology suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term. These medium-term time ranges during which waves mainly come from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and by a larger/smaller relative wave height, and seem to induce seaward/shoreward bar migration as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southeastward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile shape suggests the adaptation to a decreasing sediment size in the submerged beach. This is probably due to the presence of both the harbor jetty and river mouth north of the investigated area.

  15. Addressing climate challenges in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, Simone; Monaghan, Andrew; Done, James

    2012-04-01

    Advanced Study Program/Early Career Scientist Assembly Workshop on Regional Climate Issues in Developing Countries; Boulder, Colorado, 19-22 October 2011 The Early Career Scientist Assembly (ECSA) and the Advanced Study Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) invited 35 early-career scientists from nearly 20 countries to attend a 3-day workshop at the NCAR Mesa Laboratory prior to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Open Science Conference in October 2011. The goal of the workshop was to examine a range of regional climate challenges in developing countries. Topics included regional climate modeling, climate impacts, water resources, and air quality. The workshop fostered new ideas and collaborations between early-career scientists from around the world. The discussions underscored the importance of establishing partnerships with scientists located in typically underrepresented countries to understand and account for the local political, economic, and cultural factors on which climate change is superimposed.

  16. HVDC control developments - addressing system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Patel, H.S.; Piwko, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This article describes typical high voltage direct current (HVDC) control systems and some of the new developments in the control area. HVDC control systems are showing their flexible characteristics as demonstrated, for example, by the new modulation, torsional damping, and alternating current voltage and reactive power controllers. Extensive studies are conducted to design and integrate such controllers into HVDC systems and to assure against any detrimental interactions within the total control system. 8 figures.

  17. Developments in Digital Addressable Lighting Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, Martin

    In DALI control, a small built-in chip acts as the de-central controller in the ballast. DALI complies with an open source protocol based on standard IEC60929. One small controller controls up to 64 ballasts. Today, manufacturers are adding more devices, such as sensors, blind motor controllers, and switches. Recently, web browser based remote control was developed for the DALI Lighting Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University. This paper reports on first experiences with advanced DALI features.

  18. Development of tools for addressing device interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeras, A. P.; Papadopoulos, George D.; Koubias, Stavros

    1997-01-01

    The great diversity of the devices that need to be interconnected in the industrial environment creates the need for interoperability. Communication interoperability is dealt with by using the Manufacturing Message Specification ISO 9506 standard in the application layer of industrial networks, which provides an abstract representation of the external characteristics of real manufacturing devices. In addition to the communication interoperability, the need for device interoperability has led to the definition of the user layer: an eighth layer in the OSI-RM for fieldbuses. The ISA/IEC SP50 emerging standard on fieldbuses defines the characteristics of the user layer functionality and the required objects. This paper presents an integrated solution for problems associated with industrial communications and control being developed at the University of Patras, Greece. Specific object oriented tools are being developed for the user layer. The function block builder tool allows the definition and creation of function block objects according to the emerging fieldbus standard. The graphical editing tool provides an integrated environment for the creation of logical node objects by means of interconnecting function block objects. The above tools are part of an integrated environment consisting of the application layer and the network management software. Furthermore, the graphical editing tool provides the capability of run-time monitoring as well as of dynamic reconfiguration of the industrial application. FInally, the complete systems has been installed in industrial test-bed applications.

  19. Influence of market factors on the pricing of exchange traded metals in the medium term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Shevelev, I. M.; Chernyi, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    On the basis of comparison of the influence of the stock exchange factors on the pricing of nonferrous metals for medium term with similar results for short term, it has been established that the main attention should be paid to the changes in the pricing environment on the metal market as a function of the prices of exchange traded metals. The situation on the market of energy carriers (hydrocarbons) and the European, American, and Asian stock exchanges can be based on parity and even significantly influence the variation of the metal prices. In the medium term, constructive development of metal trade should be reasonably promoted by changing the elasticity of supply with regard to prices for exchange traded metals and by applying the stock exchange factors that positively influence the pricing on commodity and stock markets.

  20. Towards medium-term (order of months) morphodynamic modelling of the Teign estuary, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, Marcos E. C.; Davidson, Mark A.; Dyer, Keith R.; George, Ken J.

    2006-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to address the principal mechanisms involved in the medium-term (order of months to years) morphodynamic evolution of estuaries through the application of a process-based numerical modelling. The Teign estuary (Teignmouth, UK) is the selected site. The system is forced by the macrotidal semi-diurnal tide in the English Channel and is perturbed to a minor extent by high river discharge events (freshets). Although waves have a definite influence on the adjacent coastal area, Wells (Teignmouth Quay Development Environmental Statement: Changes to Physical Processes. Report R.984c:140. ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd., Southampton, 2002b) suggested that swell waves do not enter the estuary. Hence, wave effects are neglected in this study, as only tides and the river discharge are taken into account. The sediment grain size is highly variable, but mainly sandy. Within the frame of the COAST3D project ( http://www.hrwallingford.co.uk/projects/COAST3D Address="http://www.hrwallingford.co.uk/projects/COAST3D" TargetType="URL"/> ), four bathymetric surveys of the adjacent coastal area were carried out at a nearly weekly intervals. The outer estuary and the adjacent coastal area were also surveyed every 6 months as part of the COASTVIEW project ( http://thecoastviewproject.org Address="http://thecoastviewproject.org" TargetType="URL"/> ). Based on these data and on continuously measured parameters, such as water level, waves, wind and river discharge, numerical modelling of the morphodynamic processes can be tested. To replicate the morphological changes in the medium-term within a feasible simulation time, forcing conditions are reduced through the use of an input reduction method (called ensemble technique). In this study, simulations are based on the coupling between Telemac-2D and its non-cohesive sediment

  1. A Kalman Filter Technique for Improving Medium-Term Predictions of the Sunspot Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podladchikova, T.; van der Linden, R.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we describe a technique developed to improve medium-term prediction methods of monthly smoothed sunspot numbers. Each month, the predictions are updated using the last available observations (see the monthly output in real time at http://sidc.oma.be/products/kalfil). The improvement of the predictions is provided by applying an adaptive Kalman filter to the medium-term predictions obtained by any other method, using the six-monthly mean values of sunspot numbers covering the six months between the last available value of the 13-month running mean (the starting point for the predictions) and the "current time" ( i.e. now). Our technique provides an effective estimate of the sunspot index at the current time. This estimate becomes the new starting point for the updated prediction that is shifted six months ahead in comparison with the last available 13-month running mean, and it provides an increase of prediction accuracy. Our technique has been tested on three medium-term prediction methods that are currently in real-time operation: The McNish-Lincoln method (NGDC), the standard method (SIDC), and the combined method (SIDC). With our technique, the prediction accuracy for the McNish-Lincoln method is increased by 17 - 30%, for the standard method by 5 - 21% and for the combined method by 6 - 57%.

  2. Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    pmodigliani@mitre.org May 2015 Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD MITRE Defense Agile Acquisition Guide Naval Postgraduate School’s...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...How DoD Acquisition professionals can apply Agile concepts within the unique and complex Defense Acquisition Environment  DoD IT

  3. The medium term outcome of the Omnifit constrained acetabular cup.

    PubMed

    Bigsby, Ewan; Whitehouse, Michael R; Bannister, Gordon C; Blom, Ashley W

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent dislocation requiring revision surgery occurs in approximately 4% of primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs). To reduce this risk, or to treat those patients who recurrently dislocate, a constrained acetabular component may be used, however there are concerns over the success of such components due to increased mechanical stresses. The purpose of this study was to analyse the survivorship and radiological results for the Omnifit constrained acetabular component, providing a longer patient reported outcome follow-up than previous studies. 117 patients (median age 82 years) underwent a THA with an Omnifit constrained acetabular component. Of these, 45 were primary replacements and 72 were revisions. Survivorship analysis was performed and patients were assessed both radiologically and functionally. At follow-up, 53 patients (45.3%) had died at a median time of 33 months from operation. The median overall follow-up was 7.0 (5.5-8.2) years. Survivors (median age 83 years) reported a median Oxford Hip Score (OHS) of 16.6 (0-48), 87.8% were satisfied with their surgery. 45 (91.8%) of the acetabular components were stable radiologically, 48 (96%) of the femoral components were stable (5 uncemented, 43 cemented) and two possibly unstable. Four of the 117 patients underwent further surgery. Only one required revision of the prosthesis and this was for a periprosthetic fracture. In the medium term the Omnifit constrained acetabular component prevents dislocation and does not cause excessive loosening of either the acetabular or femoral components in our patient population. Our results support the use of the Omnifit constrained acetabular component in elderly patients at risk of dislocation with low functional demand.

  4. Acute and medium term effects of a 10-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Katrin; von Haaren, Birte; Löffler, Simone; Härtel, Sascha; Jansen, Carl-Philipp; Werner, Christian; Stumpp, Jürgen; Bös, Klaus; Hey, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants' physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can impact results. In addition the transition from mood enhancement induced by acute exercise to medium or long-term effects due to regular exercise is not yet determined. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effects of an aerobic running training on mood and trends in medium term changes of mood in everyday life of young adults. We conducted a 10-week aerobic endurance training with frequent mood assessments and continuous activity monitoring. 23 apprentices, separated into experimental and control group, were monitored over 12 weeks. To control the effectiveness of the aerobic exercise program, participants completed a progressive treadmill test pre and post the intervention period. The three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness were assessed via electronic diaries. Participants had to rate their mood state frequently on 3 days a week at five times of measurement within 12 weeks. Participants' physical activity was assessed with accelerometers. All mood dimensions increased immediately after acute endurance exercise but results were not significant. The highest acute mood change could be observed in valence (p = 0.07; η2 = 0.27). However, no medium term effects in mood states could be observed after a few weeks of endurance training. Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the development of

  5. The short- to medium-term predictive accuracy of static and dynamic risk assessment measures in a secure forensic hospital.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D M; Ogloff, James R P; Daffern, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Although violence risk assessment knowledge and practice has advanced over the past few decades, it remains practically difficult to decide which measures clinicians should use to assess and make decisions about the violence potential of individuals on an ongoing basis, particularly in the short to medium term. Within this context, this study sought to compare the predictive accuracy of dynamic risk assessment measures for violence with static risk assessment measures over the short term (up to 1 month) and medium term (up to 6 months) in a forensic psychiatric inpatient setting. Results showed that dynamic measures were generally more accurate than static measures for short- to medium-term predictions of inpatient aggression. These findings highlight the necessity of using risk assessment measures that are sensitive to important clinical risk state variables to improve the short- to medium-term prediction of aggression within the forensic inpatient setting. Such knowledge can assist with the development of more accurate and efficient risk assessment procedures, including the selection of appropriate risk assessment instruments to manage and prevent the violence of offenders with mental illnesses during inpatient treatment.

  6. An Example of National Literacy Strategy Medium-Term Planning. The National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    These medium-term plans have been produced to support, but not prescribe, teachers' planning. They exemplify ways in which England's National Literacy Strategy (NLS) Framework objectives (and the Early Learning Goals) can be clustered. The Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 medium term plans cluster the NLS text, sentence and word level objectives into…

  7. Using The GLOBE Program to address the Global Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, K.; Murphy, T.; Wigbels, L.; Mauriello, H.; Kucera, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The GLOBE Program (globe.gov) is an international science and education program in more than 110 countries that provides students and the public worldwide the opportunity to participate in the scientific process through Earth observations and geospatial information. To address the Global Goals for Sustainable Development, The GLOBE Program has collaborated with with international organizations such as the UNEP, Peace Corps, USAID, UNESCO, Eco-Schools, and SciStarter to address the Goals for Sustainable Development. In this presentation, GLOBE will share the alignment materials that they have created to provide pathways to achieving the goals, as well as present case studies that demonstrate how the GLOBE community uses GLOBE protocols as Earth observations to monitor and communicate environmental indicators aligned to the Global Development Goals.

  8. Challenges of recovery in medium-term residential centers (camps)

    PubMed Central

    Shamsalinia, Abbas; Nourozi, Kian; Khoshknab, Masoud Fallahi; Farhoudian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Addiction is a global problem for which effective treatment is crucial. Stopping the consumption of abused substances in a camp is a strong predictor of the success for the recovery process. The present study employed a qualitative approach to explore the camp recovery experiences in individuals with substance addictions. Methods: The research conducted in Iran’s northern cities with participants that included 17 men with a history of substance abuse, who were all engaged in the recovery process at the time of the study. They were invited to participate in the research based on a purposive and snowball sampling method. The data were collected by individual face-to-face and phone interviews using semi-structured questions. Data were then analyzed using conventional content analysis Results: three main categories were identified: selecting a camp: an appeal for rescue, substance deprivation crisis, and out of the frying pan into the frying pan or into the fire. Conclusion: Results showed that participants can be helped in the recovery process by the provision of public facilities and financial support for camps, by monitoring the performance of these centers and by attempting to address existing deficiencies. We concluded with three recommendations for improving services and preventing physical, psychological, and emotional damage to addicted individuals: remove unauthorized camps, establish camps with treatment designated to the needs of addicted individuals. PMID:25664307

  9. Addressing gaps in the contraceptive method mix: methods in development.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kavita; Callahan, Rebecca; Dorflinger, Laneta

    2015-11-01

    Despite the availability of a variety of contraceptive methods, millions of women still have an unmet need for contraceptive choices. Short-acting methods are plagued by issues with adherence, leading to imperfect or inconsistent use and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraceptive methods such as intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants, while providing highly effective and safe contraception, do not meet the needs of all women, often due to cost, access or acceptability issues. Several new methods are in various stages of development and are designed to address the shortcomings of current methods. Providers should be aware of these future options and how they might better meet women's needs.

  10. Developing the capacity to better address societal concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holoviak, Judy C.

    1997-02-01

    During the 1996 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting, representatives of 18 scientific societies from Australia, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States agreed on a number of issues facing society that Earth and space scientists can help resolve. Despite the near unanimity on the issues, the group did not develop a clear plan for how they might collectively address these problems. Rather, the products of the convocation were a better understanding of the missions and approaches of the societies represented and a commitment to develop ways to share information on a continuing basis. Knowing more about the activities and interests of the different scientific societies will facilitate bilateral arrangements on matters of mutual concern. Electronic communication systems will be used to facilitate this sharing and several specific actions were agreed to as a follow-on from the convocation.

  11. Three innovative curricula for addressing medical students' career development.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Anita M; Taylor, Anita D; Pokorny, Anita P

    2011-01-01

    Medical students make specialty decisions that are critically important to their long-term career satisfaction and overall well-being. The dynamic of larger class sizes set against stagnant numbers of residency positions creates an imperative for students to make and test specialty decisions earlier in medical school. Ideally, formal career advising begins in medical school. Medical schools typically offer career development programs as extracurricular offerings. The authors describe three curricular approaches and the innovative courses developed to address medical students' career development needs. The models differ in complexity and cost, but they share the goals of assisting students to form career identities and to use resources effectively in their specialty decision processes. The first model is a student-organized specialties elective. To earn course credit, students must complete questionnaires for the sessions, submit results from two self-assessments, and report on two physician informational interviews. The second model comprises two second-year career development courses that have evolved into a longitudinal career development program. The third model integrates career topics through a doctoring course and advising teams. The authors discuss challenges and lessons learned from implementing each of the programs, including marshaling resources, achieving student buy-in, and obtaining time in the curriculum. Invoking a curricular approach seems to normalize the tasks associated with career development and puts them on par in importance with other medical school endeavors.

  12. Strategies to address low drug solubility in discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Williams, Hywel D; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Charman, Susan A; Shanker, Ravi M; Charman, William N; Pouton, Colin W; Porter, Christopher J H

    2013-01-01

    Drugs with low water solubility are predisposed to low and variable oral bioavailability and, therefore, to variability in clinical response. Despite significant efforts to "design in" acceptable developability properties (including aqueous solubility) during lead optimization, approximately 40% of currently marketed compounds and most current drug development candidates remain poorly water-soluble. The fact that so many drug candidates of this type are advanced into development and clinical assessment is testament to an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the approaches that can be taken to promote apparent solubility in the gastrointestinal tract and to support drug exposure after oral administration. Here we provide a detailed commentary on the major challenges to the progression of a poorly water-soluble lead or development candidate and review the approaches and strategies that can be taken to facilitate compound progression. In particular, we address the fundamental principles that underpin the use of strategies, including pH adjustment and salt-form selection, polymorphs, cocrystals, cosolvents, surfactants, cyclodextrins, particle size reduction, amorphous solid dispersions, and lipid-based formulations. In each case, the theoretical basis for utility is described along with a detailed review of recent advances in the field. The article provides an integrated and contemporary discussion of current approaches to solubility and dissolution enhancement but has been deliberately structured as a series of stand-alone sections to allow also directed access to a specific technology (e.g., solid dispersions, lipid-based formulations, or salt forms) where required.

  13. Addressing new analytical challenges in protein formulation development.

    PubMed

    Mach, Henryk; Arvinte, Tudor

    2011-06-01

    As the share of therapeutic proteins in the arsenal of modern medicine continue increasing, relatively little progress has been made in the development of analytical methods that would address specific needs encountered during the development of these new drugs. Consequently, the researchers resort to adaptation of existing instrumentation to meet the demands of rigorous bioprocess and formulation development. In this report, we present a number of such adaptations as well as new instruments that allow efficient and precise measurement of critical parameters throughout the development stage. The techniques include use of atomic force microscopy to visualize proteinacious sub-visible particles, use of extrinsic fluorescent dyes to visualize protein aggregates, particle tracking analysis, determination of the concentration of monoclonal antibodies by the analysis of second-derivative UV spectra, flow cytometry for the determination of subvisible particle counts, high-throughput fluorescence spectroscopy to study phase separation phenomena, an adaptation of a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) system for the measurement of solution viscosity and a variable-speed streamlined analytical ultracentrifugation method. An ex vivo model for understanding the factors that affect bioavailability after subcutaneous injections is also described. Most of these approaches allow not only a more precise insight into the nature of the formulated proteins, but also offer increased throughput while minimizing sample requirements.

  14. Addressing Disproportionality through Undoing Racism, Leadership Development, and Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Joyce; Green, Deborah; Rodriguez, Carolyne; Fong, Rowena

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 the Texas 79th legislature passed Senate Bill 6, which included mandates to address disproportionality. This article will describe how the Texas Department of Family Protective Services in collaboration with Casey Family Programs' Texas State Strategy systems improvement initiative is addressing disproportionality statewide through…

  15. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  16. Short-term and medium-term health effects of 9/11.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Sharon E; Friedman, Stephen; Galea, Sandro; Nair, Hemanth P; Eros-Sarnyai, Monika; Stellman, Steven D; Hon, Jeffrey; Greene, Carolyn M

    2011-09-03

    The New York City terrorist attacks on Sept 11, 2001 (9/11), killed nearly 2800 people and thousands more had subsequent health problems. In this Review of health effects in the short and medium terms, strong evidence is provided for associations between experiencing or witnessing events related to 9/11 and post-traumatic stress disorder and respiratory illness, with a correlation between prolonged, intense exposure and increased overall illness and disability. Rescue and recovery workers, especially those who arrived early at the World Trade Center site or worked for longer periods, were more likely to develop respiratory illness than were other exposed groups. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder included proximity to the site on 9/11, living or working in lower Manhattan, rescue or recovery work at the World Trade Center site, event-related loss of spouse, and low social support. Investigators note associations between 9/11 exposures and additional disorders, such as depression and substance use; however, for some health problems association with exposures related to 9/11 is unclear.

  17. Validation of short and medium term operational solar radiation forecasts in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Richard; Kivalov, Sergey; Schlemmer, James; Hemker, Karl Jr.; Renne, David; Hoff, Thomas E.

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a validation of the short and medium term global irradiance forecasts that are produced as part of the US data set. The short term forecasts that extend up to 6-h ahead are based upon cloud motion derived from consecutive geostationary satellite images. The medium term forecasts extend up to 6-days-ahead and are modeled from gridded cloud cover forecasts from the US National Digital Forecast Database. The forecast algorithms are validated against ground measurements for seven climatically distinct locations in the United States for 1 year. An initial analysis of regional performance using satellite-derived irradiances as a benchmark reference is also presented. (author)

  18. [Medium-term strategy for the specific management of pneumology hospitals and wards after the decentralization of the sanitary system].

    PubMed

    Muşat, Simona Nicoleta; Ioniţa, Diana; Paceonea, Mirela; Chiriac, Nona Delia; Stoicescu, Ileana Paula; Mihălţan, F D

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and promoting new management techniques for the descentralized pneumology hospitals or wards was one of the most ambitious objectives of the project "Quality in the pneumology medical services through continuous medical education and organizational flexibility", financed by the Human Resourses Development Sectorial Operational Programme 2007-2013 (ID 58451). The "Medium term Strategy on the specific management of the pneumology hospitals or wards after the descentralization of the sanitary system" presented in the article was written by the project's experts and discussed with pneumology managers and local authorities representatives. This Strategy application depends on the colaboration of the pneumology hospitals with professional associations, and local and central authorities.

  19. Global Workforce Development - Addressing the Changing Geography of Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElvy, G. W.; Loudin, M. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Geography of professional workforce hiring is changing significantly and rapidly in the petroleum industry, mostly in response to shifting investment patterns. These geographical changes pose daunting challenges as well as new opportunities for philanthropic institutions such as the ExxonMobil Foundation, and especially for academia. Our Angolan affiliate illustrates the challenges brought about by investment in new areas. Although we will continue to require access to numerous Angolan Geoscience graduates who can fully participate in our global Geoscience community, there is only one Angolan institution that grants a relatively small number of Geoscience degrees. Our access to other locally-educated Angolan professional graduates is similarly limited. The Petroleum sector's response to this situation has been to seek indigenous students who are already enrolled, often in North American or European academic institutions, or to sponsor Angolan students there. If one multiplies our Angolan Geoscience example by the number of competing employers in Angola, and then by the number of countries around the world that are experiencing strong economic growth, the magnitude of the unfilled demand for international educational development seems daunting. However, several academic institutions have already taken the initiative and have provided educational, linguistic, and cultural pathways that encourage Angolans and others to obtain a world-class educational preparation on their respective campuses. This strategy has indeed begun to address the need for capacity-building for many indigenous students, and has aided various industries in their efforts to build indigenous workforces. Nevertheless, growing the capacity of indigenous academic infrastructure is also essential for the long term, and only a few academic institutions have begun to explore this educational frontier. Increased engagement and collaboration in international educational activities would clearly confer

  20. The Medium Term Schooling and Health Effects of Low Birth Weight: Evidence from Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that low birth weight is linked to infant mortality as well as longer term outcomes. This paper examines the medium term outcomes that may link low birth weight to adult disadvantage using a national longitudinal sample with a large sample of siblings (Add Health). Results show strong effects on several educational outcomes,…

  1. Short- and medium-term prognosis in patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation: the CODEX index.

    PubMed

    Almagro, Pedro; Soriano, Joan B; Cabrera, Francisco J; Boixeda, Ramon; Alonso-Ortiz, M Belen; Barreiro, Bienvenido; Diez-Manglano, Jesus; Murio, Cristina; Heredia, Josep L

    2014-05-01

    No valid tools exist for evaluating the prognosis in the short and medium term after hospital discharge of patients with COPD. Our hypothesis was that a new index based on the CODEX (comorbidity, obstruction, dyspnea, and previous severe exacerbations) index can accurately predict mortality, hospital readmission, and their combination for the period from 3 months to 1 year after discharge in patients hospitalized for COPD. A multicenter study of patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations was used to develop the CODEX index, and a different patient cohort was used for validation. Comorbidity was measured using the age-adjusted Charlson index, whereas dyspnea, obstruction, and severe exacerbations were calculated according to BODEX (BMI, airfl ow obstruction, dyspnea, and previous severe exacerbations) thresholds. Information about mortality and readmissions for COPD or other causes was collected at 3 and 12 months after hospital discharge. Two sets of 606 and 377 patients were included in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. The CODEX index was associated with mortality at 3 months ( P < .0001; hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8) and 1 year ( P < .0001; HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.5 ), hospital readmissions in the same periods, and their combination (all P < .0001). All CODEX C statistics were superior to those of the BODEX, DOSE (dyspnea, airfl ow obstruction, smoking status, and exacerbation frequency), and updated ADO (age, dyspnea, and airfl ow obstruction) indexes. The CODEX index was a useful predictor of survival and readmission at both 3 months and 1 year after hospital discharge for a COPD exacerbation, with a prognostic capacity superior to other previously published indexes.

  2. Medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether in rats.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Doi, Yuko; Imai, Norio; Nakashima, Hironao; Ono, Takahiro; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Tamano, Seiko; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2011-11-18

    The modifying potential of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) on tumor development was investigated in a medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay using male F344 rats. Animals were sequentially given 5 carcinogens with different target sites in the first 4 weeks for multi-organ initiation. After one week they received ETBE by gavage at dose levels of 0 (control), 300 or 1000mg/kg/day until experimental week 28. Further groups were also given ETBE at doses of 0 or 1000mg/kg/day without prior carcinogen application. Incidences and multiplicities of follicular cell hyperplasias and neoplasms in the thyroid were significantly increased at dose levels of more than 300mg/kg/day. Combined incidences of squamous cell hyperplasias and papillomas of the forestomach were also significantly increased at 300 and 1000mg/kg/day. Incidences and multiplicities of adenocarcinomas in the colon were increased at 1000mg/kg/day. The numbers and areas of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci per unit area of the liver sections, and the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas were also significantly increased at 1000mg/kg/day, along with multiplicities of atypical hyperplasias of renal tubules of the kidney and the incidence of papillomatosis of the urinary bladder. This latter lesion was also seen at low incidence at 1000mg/kg/day without initiation. Thus, the current results indicate that ETBE has tumor promoting potential for the thyroid and forestomach at dose levels of 300mg/kg/day and more, and for the colon, liver, kidney and urinary bladder at 1000mg/kg/day, under the present experimental conditions.

  3. Rat medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay of Agaricus blazei Murrill fruit-body extract.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuko; Furukawa, Fumio; Suguro, Mayuko; Ito, Hikaru; Imai, Norio; Nabae, Kyoko; Toda, Yosuke; Inatomi, Satoshi; Kinugasa, Satomi; Kobayashi, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The modifying potential of Agaricus blazei Murrill fruit-body extract (ABFE) on tumor development was investigated in a medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay. Male 6-week-old F344 rats were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), N-butyl-N-(hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN), and diisopropanolnitrosamine (DHPN) for initiation (DMBDD treatment). After a 1-week withdrawal period, the animals received distilled water (vehicle control) or ABFE A, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) at 0.8 mg/kg, ABFE B (GABA level of 3.0mg/kg) or ABFE C (GABA level of 12.0mg/kg) by gavage for 24 weeks. There were no effects of ABFE on survival rate, general condition, body weight, food and water consumption, and organ weights. The multiplicity of large intestinal nodules, smaller than 2mm was significantly increased in the ABFE C group with DMBDD treatment. However, there were no significantly inter-group differences in incidences of hyperplastic or neoplastic lesions in colon or other organs, or in immunohistochemically identified preneoplastic lesions in the liver. In conclusion, A. blazei Murrill fruit-body extract, even at a GABA level up to 12 mg/kg, did not exert modifying potential in the present medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay in male F344 rats (DMBDD method).

  4. Development of individually-addressable parylene microtube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuefa; Tu, Hongen; Iezzi, Raymond; Finlayson, Paul; Xu, Yong

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports a novel technology of microfabricating out-of-plane parylene microtube arrays with integrated in-plane microchannels. The integrated microchannels enable the individual addressing of the microtubes. These devices permit the delivery of chemicals with controlled temporal and spatial patterns and facilitate the study of neurotransmitter-based retinal prosthesis. To fabricate these devices, through-silicon vias and horizontal trenches are first created by deep reactive-ion etching and isotropic XeF2 etching. Then, the parylene microtubes and microchannels are simultaneously formed by depositing parylene inside the vias and trenches conformally. Two types of devices have been fabricated and characterized. One type of device is rigid with microtube arrays and microchannels fabricated on the same chip. The other type is flexible, integrated with flexible parylene cables, which can be used for in vivo animal study of retinal prosthesis.

  5. A case-control study of medium-term exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide pollution and hospitalization for stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are several plausible mechanisms whereby either short or long term exposure to pollution can increase the risk of stroke. Over the last decade, several studies have reported associations between short-term (day-to-day) increases in ambient air pollution and stroke. The findings from a smaller number of studies that have looked at long-term exposure to air pollution and stroke have been mixed. Most of these epidemiological studies have assigned exposure to air pollution based on place of residence, but these assignments are typically based on relatively coarse spatial resolutions. To date, few studies have evaluated medium-term exposures (i.e, exposures over the past season or year). To address this research gap, we evaluated associations between highly spatially resolved estimates of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker of traffic pollution, and emergency department visits for stroke in Edmonton, Canada. Methods This was a case-control study with cases defined as those who presented to an Edmonton area hospital emergency department between 2007 and 2009 with an acute ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, or transient ischemic attack. Controls were patients who presented to the same emergency departments for lacerations, sprains, or strains. A land-use regression model provided estimates of NO2 that were assigned to the place of residence. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios for stroke in relation to an increase in the interquartile range of NO2 (5 ppb), adjusted for age, sex, meteorological variables, and neighborhood effects. Results The study included 4,696 stroke (cases) and 37,723 injury patients (controls). For all strokes combined, there was no association with NO2. Namely, the odds ratio associated with an interquartile increase in NO2 was 1.01 (95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.94-1.08). No associations were evident for any of the stroke subtypes examined. Conclusion When combined with our earlier work in

  6. Health innovation networks to help developing countries address neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Morel, Carlos M; Acharya, Tara; Broun, Denis; Dangi, Ajit; Elias, Christopher; Ganguly, N K; Gardner, Charles A; Gupta, R K; Haycock, Jane; Heher, Anthony D; Hotez, Peter J; Kettler, Hannah E; Keusch, Gerald T; Krattiger, Anatole F; Kreutz, Fernando T; Lall, Sanjaya; Lee, Keun; Mahoney, Richard; Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo; Mashelkar, R A; Matlin, Stephen A; Mzimba, Mandi; Oehler, Joachim; Ridley, Robert G; Senanayake, Pramilla; Singer, Peter; Yun, Mikyung

    2005-07-15

    Gross inequities in disease burden between developed and developing countries are now the subject of intense global attention. Public and private donors have marshaled resources and created organizational structures to accelerate the development of new health products and to procure and distribute drugs and vaccines for the poor. Despite these encouraging efforts directed primarily from and funded by industrialized countries, sufficiency and sustainability remain enormous challenges because of the sheer magnitude of the problem. Here we highlight a complementary and increasingly important means to improve health equity: the growing ability of some developing countries to undertake health innovation.

  7. The Virtual Extension Annual Conference: Addressing Contemporary Professional Development Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.; Brekke, Robin; Coates, Deb; Kress, Cathann; Hlas, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Extension systems are experimenting with new models for conducting professional development to enhance staff competence and other returns on professional development investments. The ISUEO virtual annual conference provides a successful flipped classroom model of asynchronous and synchronous learning events for conducting an Extension annual…

  8. The Virtual Extension Annual Conference: Addressing Contemporary Professional Development Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.; Brekke, Robin; Coates, Deb; Kress, Cathann; Hlas, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Extension systems are experimenting with new models for conducting professional development to enhance staff competence and other returns on professional development investments. The ISUEO virtual annual conference provides a successful flipped classroom model of asynchronous and synchronous learning events for conducting an Extension annual…

  9. [Medium-term forecast of solar cosmic rays radiation risk during a manned Mars mission].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M; Vlasov, A G

    2006-01-01

    Medium-term forecasting radiation hazard from solar cosmic rays will be vital in a manned Mars mission. Modern methods of space physics lack acceptable reliability in medium-term forecasting the SCR onset and parameters. The proposed estimation of average radiation risk from SCR during the manned Mars mission is made with the use of existing SCR fluence and spectrum models and correlation of solar particle event frequency with predicted Wolf number. Radiation risk is considered an additional death probability from acute radiation reactions (ergonomic component) or acute radial disease in flight. The algorithm for radiation risk calculation is described and resulted risk levels for various periods of the 23-th solar cycle are presented. Applicability of this method to advance forecasting and possible improvements are being investigated. Recommendations to the crew based on risk estimation are exemplified.

  10. Morphological characteristics and medium-term evolution of the beaches between Ceuta and Cabo Negro (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, G.; Martínez Del Pozo, J. A.; Nachite, D.; Benavente, J.; Macias, A.

    2007-05-01

    This work presents the results of a combined study on the beach morphology and the evolution at short- and medium-term of the littoral between Ceuta and Cabo Negro (Morocco). It is an interesting sector showing a great increase of human occupation and coastal structures. The monitoring program allowed for the reconstruction of the beach morphological behavior and the seasonal changes. The studied beaches presented reflective profiles recording little seasonality, with the most notable morphological changes being strictly related to storms. Surf Similarity and Surf Scaling parameters highlighted the existence of intermediate and reflective beach states, characterized by plunging breakers. Aerial photographs and a satellite image have been geo-referenced and elaborated with GIS tools to reconstruct the short- and medium-term evolution of the littoral and the sediment transport pathways. The littoral showed important erosion at short- and medium-term related to a negative sedimentary budget because of offshore transport. Sand accumulation was recorded close to the main ports, i.e., Marina Smir and Marina Kabila. These port structures constituted impermeable, fixed limits, which divided the studied area into littoral cells. Other free, transit limits were also observed.

  11. [Short- and medium-term results of cavo-pulmonary anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Kane, A; Godart, F; Rey, C; Brevière, G M; Vaksmann, G; Francart, C

    1998-05-01

    The authors report the medium term results of total cavo-pulmonary connections in 50 patients treated between 1988 and 1997. the cardiac lesions were single ventricle (n = 27), tricuspid atresia (n = 11), mitral atresia (n = 2), pulmonary atresia with intact septum (n = 2) or more complex lesions (n = 8). The mean age at surgery was 75 +/- 6 months. There were no operative deaths but two early reoperations were required. After surgery, oxygen saturation increased from 76 to 91% (p = 0.001). Early complications included: 11 mild cardiac failures, 19 pericordial or pleural effusions and 6 supraventricular arrhythmias. At medium term (average follow-up of 59 months), there were no fatalities and all were in NYHA Classes I and II. Cyanosis was observed in 12 patients: right-to-left atrial shunt (n = 7), 2 of which were closed percutaneously, shunt from the azygos system to the suprahepatic veins in 5 cases with Kawashima, 2 of which were reoperated, pulmonary arterio-venous fistula (n = 3). Six patients had arrhythmias and 3 had regressive thromboses. At the end of follow-up, 8 patients remained cyanotic, 4 had antiarrhythmic therapy and 2 had mild ventricular dysfunction. In conclusion, the results of total cavo-pulmonary connections are satisfactory at short and medium term and may be proposed for patients with complex univentricular cardiac malformations.

  12. New ways to develop biosensors towards addressing practical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, N. F.

    2013-11-01

    The main modern approaches which were realized at the development of new generation of biosensors intended for application in field of diagnostics, food quality control and environmental monitoring are presented. The main attention was paid to creation of the multi-parametrical and multi-functional enzymatic and immune biosensors which were realized for the complex diagnostics of diabetes, autoimmune state and for the control of process of sugar production. The label-free bioaffine devices based on the nano-porouse silicon (NPS) with the registration of specific formed signal by chemiluminescence (ChL) and photoresistivity and intended for the determination mycotoxins and diagnostics of retroviral bovine leukemia (RBL) are analyzed too. Improving of ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) through changing silicon nitride on the cerium oxide is discussed as perspective approach in case of micotoxins and Salmonella control. In the conclusion the possibility to replace biological sensitive elements by artificial ones is considered.

  13. Technical Note: Medium-term morphodynamics in an unprotected sandy beach of the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postacchini, M.; Soldini, L.; Lorenzoni, C.; Mancinelli, A.

    2015-08-01

    In the recent years attention has been paid to the beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscapes and around 70 % of the Marche-Region coasts (central Adriatic), is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the Region includes the beach of Senigallia, characterized by a multiple barred beach, frequently monitored during the last decades. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show a good adaptation of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short-/medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. This suggests a slight influence of wave forcing on the long-term profiles, which seems to only depend on the sediment size. Further, the medium-term dynamics of the submerged bars and their geometric features have been related to the wave climate collected by a wave buoy located 40 km off Senigallia during the analyzed temporal windows. An overall interpretation of the complete dynamics, i.e. hydrodynamics (buoy data), sediment characteristics (equilibrium-profile A parameter) and morphodynamics (bathymetric surveys), suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term: waves coming from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and induce seaward/shoreward bar migration, as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile suggests a decrease of the sediment size in the submerged beach, this probably due to the presence of both harbor jetty and river mouth North of the investigated area.

  14. A medium-term rat liver bioassay for rapid in vivo detection of carcinogenic potential of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ito, Nobuyuki; Tamano, Seiko; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2003-01-01

    A reliable medium-term bioassay system for rapid detection of carcinogenic potential of chemicals in the human environment has been developed. The 8-week-protocol consists of 2 stages; male F344 rats are given a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg) for initiation of liver carcinogenesis, followed by a 6-week test chemical treatment starting 2 weeks thereafter. Test chemicals are usually given in the diet or the drinking water and in the 2nd week of test chemical treatment, all rats are subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy in order to induce regenerative cell replication. The end-point marker is the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive hepatic focus, the numbers and sizes of which are analyzed using an image-analyzer and expressed as values per unit liver section (1 cm2). When the yield of GST-P-positive foci is significantly enhanced (P<0.05) over the control value, a chemical is judged to possess carcinogenic or promotion potential for the liver. Among 313 chemicals already tested in this system in our laboratory, 30/31 (97%) mutagenic hepatocarcinogens and 29/33 (88%) non-mutagenic hepatocarcinogens gave positive results. Ten out of 43 (23%) agents known to be carcinogenic in organs other than the liver were also positive. It is particularly important that only one of 48 non-carcinogens gave a very weak positive result, so that the system has a very low false-positivity rate. It is now well documented that the assay system is highly effective for detecting hepatocarcinogens, bridging the gap between traditional long-term carcinogenicity tests and short-term screening assays. At the Fourth International Conference on Harmonization, our medium-term liver bioassay based on an initiation and promotion protocol was recommended in the guidelines as an acceptable alternative to the long-term rodent carcinogenicity test.

  15. Assessment of myocardial deformation: Predicting medium-term left ventricular dysfunction after surgery in patients with chronic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    de Agustín, José A; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo; Núñez-Gil, Iván J; Vivas, David; Manzano, María del C; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Corros, Cecilia; Almería, Carlos; Rodrigo, José L; Aubele, Adalia; Herrera, Dionisio; Rodríguez, Enrique; Macaya, Carlos; Zamorano, José

    2010-05-01

    The development of left ventricular dysfunction after mitral valve replacement is a common problem in patients with chronic severe mitral regurgitation. Assessment of myocardial deformation enables myocardial contractility to be accurately estimated. Our aim was to compare the value of the preoperative strain and strain rate derived by either speckle-tracking echocardiography or tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) for predicting the medium-term decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) following surgery. This prospective study involved 38 consecutive patients with chronic severe mitral regurgitation who were scheduled for mitral valve replacement. The longitudinal strain and strain rate in the interventricular septum were measured preoperatively using speckle-tracking echocardiography and TDI. The LVEF was determined preoperatively and postoperatively using 3-dimensional echocardiography. Echocardiographic assessments were performed in the 48 hours prior to surgery and 6 months postoperatively. The patients' mean age was 59.9+/-11.3 years and 10 (29.4%) were male. Both speckle-tracking echocardiography and TDI were found to be predictors of a >10% decrease in LVEF at 6 months. However, the predictive value of speckle-tracking echocardiography was greater than that of TDI. The longitudinal strain at baseline in the interventricular septum as measured by speckle-tracking echocardiography was the most powerful predictor; the area under the curve was 0.85 and the optimal cut-off value was -0.11. Speckle-tracking echocardiography can be used to predict a decrease in LVEF over the medium term after mitral valve replacement. Moreover, the predictive accuracy of speckle-tracking echocardiography was greater than that of TDI.

  16. Medium-term analysis of modern ceramic-on-ceramic bearing in THA.

    PubMed

    Aldrian, Silke; Nau, Thomas; Gillesberger, Felix; Petras, Nina; Ehall, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    A variety of different bearing surfaces have been used to avoid osteolysis following hip replacement. We report a retrospective review of medium-term results of a modern ceramic-ceramic bearing (Biolox, CeramTec, Plochingen, Germany) and uncemented components (Alpha Cera Fit Alphanorm, Lassnitzhohe, Austria) in 107 hip arthroplasties. The clinical outcome based on serial radiographs and scoring was assessed with a minimum follow-up of 7 years (mean, 7, 6 years; range, 7, 1-8, 3 years). The average age of the patients at surgery was 64, 6 + 11, 7 years (range: 21-88 years). The mean Harris hip score was 90, 4 (range, 84, 7-99, 2). Three patients with an extra long femoral neck experienced fracture of the ceramic femoral head, resulting in cessation of use of this combination. Radiological evaluation did not reveal any signs of lysis or loosening. Massive heterotopic ossification was seen in three patients. Medium-term follow-up showed excellent clinical and radiological results. Continued follow-up will be required to determine if this ceramic-on-ceramic bearing is associated with extended survivorship.

  17. Medium-term evolution of water repellency and aggregate stability in Mediterranean calcareous soils after wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel; García-Moreno, Jorge; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio; Granged, Arturo JP; Gil, Juan

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires are a common feature of Mediterranean ecosystems due to environmental factors and anthropic influence, especially in those areas where land use change and the development of touristic infrastructures are more intense. Wildfires induce a series of soil changes affecting their physical and chemical properties and the hydrological and erosive response. Two of the properties that are commonly affected by burning are soil water repellency (WR) and aggregate stability (AS). Both properties play an important role in the hydrological response of soils and other processes, and may be used as indices for assessing burn severity (Gordillo-Rivero et al., 2013). OBJECTIVES The field study was carried out between August 2006 (date of burning) and August 2011 with the following objectives: [i] to study the changes in SWR and AS immediately after fire and in the medium-term (6 years after burning) and its distribution within aggregate size fractions (<2, 1-2, 0.5-1 and 0.25-0.5 mm), [ii] to assess the relationships between postfire AS and WR, and [iii] to investigate interactions between AS and WR and different factors (site, time since burning, lithology and vegetation type) in calcareous Mediterranean soils. METHODS Five areas affected by wildfires during summer 2006 were selected for this research. Vegetation was characterized by grassland and Mediterranean shrubland. Soils were calcareous, with loam to clayey texture. As shown from adjacent areas, soils were wettable or slightly water-repellent immediately before burning. Soil WR and AS were measured in soil samples (0-15 mm deep) in fine earth (<2 mm) and aggregate sieve fractions (1-2, 0.5-1 and 0.25-0.5 mm). WR was assessed using the WDPT test, and AS was determined as the percentage of stable aggregates after laboratory rainfall simulation. RESULTS Both properties showed different tendencies in different aggregate size fractions. Results showed that soil WR was induced in wettable soils or enhanced in slightly or

  18. [Medium-term effectiveness of total hip arthroplasty with straight tapered rectangular femoral prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongwei; Gu, Weidong; Sun, Junying

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the medium-term effectiveness of straight tapered rectangular femoral prosthesis in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Between May 2004 and June 2006, 58 cases (61 hips) of hip joint disease underwent THA with straight tapered rectangular femoral prosthesis and the clinical data of 43 cases (45 hips) followed up more than 6 years were retrospectively analyzed. There were 21 males (23 hips) and 22 females (22 hips) with an average age of 51.6 years (range, 25-75 years), including 12 cases (12 hips) of congenital developmental dysplasia of the hip, 1 case (1 hip) of osteoarthritis secondary to acetabular dysplasia, 1 case (1 hip) of hip deformity after poliomyelitis, 9 cases (9 hips) of femoral neck fractures, 8 cases (8 hips) of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, 8 cases (8 hips) of osteoarthritis of the hip joint, 2 cases (3 hips) of rheumatoid arthritis, and 2 cases (3 hips) of ankylosing spondylitis. Unilateral replacement was performed in 41 cases and bilateral replacement in 2 cases. The Harris score was 41.7 +/-10.4 before operation. X-ray examination was performed to analyze the location of femoral prostheses and evaluate the stability of the prosthesis-bone interface, and Harris score was used to evaluate the hip function. Periprosthetic fracture occurred in 3 hips, and thigh pain in 4 hips after operation. Forty-three cases (45 hips) were followed up 74-99 months (mean, 85 months). Harris score was 87.6 +/- 8.3 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=23.14, P=0.00). The X-ray examination showed that 9 hips had heterotopic ossification; bone resorption caused by stress shielding was observed at the proximal femur in 42 hips. But the stability of the prosthesis-bone interface was good; no infection or dislocation occurred; and no revision for aseptic loosening was performed in all cases. The survival rate of the femoral prosthesis was 100% during medium-term follow-up. THA with straight tapered

  19. Mound measurements - quantifying medium-term soil erosion under olive trees in Northern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, S.; Herrmann, N.; Ollesch, G.; Vogel, H.-J.; Siebert, C.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last few decades many quantitative erosion studies have revealed that olive orchard expansion and increased mechanization in southern European countries have led to increased soil erosion under olive trees. Consequently, these studies have suggested different methods of mitigation. In light of the 2014 European trading zone expansion to countries east and south of the Mediterranean, a further intensification of olive plantations is postulated to meet market demands. To attain first medium-term estimates of erosion in Northern Jordan and its driving factors, a new method measuring olive mounds was implemented. Seven fields with clearly erosive structures were chosen throughout the Wadi Al-Arab catchment in Northern Jordan. Topographic measurements were used to reconstruct the historical and recent surface level and calculate the volume eroded since the planting of the trees. A total of 81 bulk density measurements and 14 tree cores allowed the estimation of the soil loss in tons per hectare. The combination of modified land use map and slope information helped to identify similar olive fields with high erosive potential. Results show that the method provides medium-term quantitative estimates for averaged soil loss consistent with some existing results from similar research areas in the Mediterranean. They clearly indicate the significant potential for erosion in olive orchards with around 95 ± 8 t ha- 1 yr- 1. Tillage practice and water erosion were identified as critical erosion processes, both depending on tillage characteristics, tillage timing, and soil parent material. The investigated fields represent about 19% of the catchment's surface area and are likely to contribute to the measured yearly sediment yield that fills up the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir with sediments.

  20. Navigated Cementless Total Knee Arthroplasty - Medium-Term Clinical and Radiological Results§

    PubMed Central

    Schüttrumpf, Jan P; Balcarek, Peter; Sehmisch, Stephan; Frosch, Stephan; Wachowski, Martin M; Stürmer, Klaus M; Walde, Hans-Joachim; Walde, Tim A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the medium-term clinical and radiological results after navigated cementless implantation, without patella resurfacing, of a total knee endoprosthesis with tibial and femoral press-fit components, with a focus on survival rate and clinical outcome. The innovation is the non-cemented fixation together with the use of a navigation system. Scope and Methods: Sixty patients with gonarthrosis were included consecutively in this study. In all cases, the cementless Columbus total knee endoprosthesis with a coating out of pure titanium was implanted, using a navigation system. The Knee Society Score showed a statistically significant increase from 75 (± 21.26) before surgery to 180 (± 16.15) after a mean follow-up of 5.6 (± 0.25) years. The last radiological examination revealed no osteolysis. No radiolucent lines were seen at any time in the area of the femoral prosthetic components. In the tibial area, radiolucent lines were seen in 24.4 % of the cases, mostly in the distal uncoated part of the stem. During follow-up, no prosthesis had to be replaced because of aseptic loosening while in 2 cases revision surgery was necessary due to septic loosening and in 1 case due to unexplainable pain. Results and Conclusions: Navigated cementless implantation of the Columbus total knee endoprosthesis yielded good clinical and radiological results in the medium term. The excellent radiological osteointegration of the prosthetic components, coated with a microporous pure titanium layer and implanted with a press-fit technique, should be emphasized. PMID:22550552

  1. On the analysis of the medium term planform dynamics of meandering rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Ronald R.; Abad, Jorge D.

    2014-05-01

    The continuous wavelet transform is applied to the analysis of curvature signals from both synthetic meanders and 52 realizations from 16 natural meanders ranging from class B to class G (Brice classification), thus providing information on the spatial distribution of their arc-wavelength spectrum, and therefore, representing an objective characterization of meanders. Past research has studied the meander dynamics by using the centerline (short-term frame) and the valley centerline (long-term frame). The present study introduces a medium term frame, termed the mean center (MC), which is defined as the medium term coherent wave being present in the meander planimetry for a period that is strongly governed by the occurrence of cutoff events; although in the absence of them, it is present for ˜10 to ˜30 years. The MC is obtained by using a methodology that combines the capabilities of the principal component analysis and the discrete wavelet transforms. The application of wavelet cross correlation shows that peaks in the centerline curvature are strongly correlated with those of the MC suggesting that (1) a linear relationship between them may be associated to bank processes and, (2) in all other cases, a higher nonlinear relationship may be induced by autogenic hydrodynamic processes. In freely meandering rivers, compound bends, multiple loops, and cutoff events are associated to peaks in the MC local curvature. We define the planform amplitudes as the orthogonal distance of the centerline from mean center. Planform amplitudes (orthogonal distance of the centerline from mean center) are normally distributed and ranges from 2 to 20 river mean widths.

  2. The Development and Evaluation of a Measure Assessing School Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Addressing Pediatric Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…

  3. A Case Study on Science Teacher Leadership to Address Diversity and Equity through Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doraiswamy, Nithya

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study focused on the multifaceted issue of exploring science teacher leaders understanding and addressing of issues of diversity and equity with peers through professional development. The purpose of the study was to highlight the opportunities and barriers to the addressing of issues of diversity and equity through the work…

  4. The Development and Evaluation of a Measure Assessing School Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Addressing Pediatric Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…

  5. Texts, Structure, and Collaboration: Reflections of a Professional Development Addressing Homophobia in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Homophobia is an incredible problem within educational settings. Therefore, we must begin examining how we can address the challenge in an effective manner. Researchers postulate professional development (PD) discussing homophobia is an appropriate method to address the problem. To date, there is little published literature that discusses how a PD…

  6. Medium-term Morphologic Response to Variations in Spatial and Temporal Forcing: Fire Island New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, C. J.; List, J. H.; Plant, N. G.; Schwab, W. C.; Lentz, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Fire Island, located off the south shore of Long Island, NY, is a relatively long (52 km) barrier that has evolved in different modes - a stable central segment, a transgressive segment to the east and a prograding spit to the west. The spatial variation in formative and evolution processes is expressed in both the long-term (geologic) time scales via the geomorphic characteristics of the island and in the multi-decade to century (medium-term) shoreline record that is the focus of this study. We hypothesize that interaction between oceanographic forcing and antecedent geology influences coastal response on both temporal and spatial scales. To test this hypothesis, we examine the spatial and temporal behavior of the medium-term record using thirty-three shorelines spanning seventy-eight years. Both changes in shoreline form (shape) and a regression time series of shoreline change are assessed. Patterns emerge that indicate different scales of both temporal and spatial forcing, dominantly along the central and western portions of the barrier. Both the century-scale regression pattern and the averaged shoreline form mimic the shape of the island as a whole suggesting modern change is influenced by the same processes and constraints that are documented in the geologic record. High modern rates of shoreline and dune retreat along the eastern portion of the island provide evidence that this portion of the island is continuing to transgress in response to storms and sea-level rise. The behavior of the central portion of the barrier appears to be geologically constrained by a glacial outwash lobe on the adjacent inner shelf which may reduce the wave energy reaching this portion of the island as well as contribute sediment to the littoral budget. Shoreline behavior along the western portion of the island is more variable than along the other portions of the island, and there are pervasive and repeating patterns of change that appear to have a spatial scaling similar to the

  7. Linear accelerator radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: Results of medium-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Jonathan R; Waqar, Mueez; Kinshuck, Andrew J; Jenkinson, Michael D; Lesser, Tristram H J; Husband, David; Javadpour, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    To examine tumour control, via volume changes, and the complications of linear accelerator (LINAC)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment of vestibular schwannomas (VSs) on medium-term follow-up. Between September 2003 and November 2009 fifty consecutive patients with VSs treated with SRS using a marginal dose of 12.5 Gy utilizing a LINAC equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator were identified. Evaluation included serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neurological and hearing examinations. The median tumour volume at treatment was 2.4 (range: 0.24-10.59) cm3. The intracranial diameter of the tumours ranged between 7.7 and 28.7 (median: 15.8) mm. Follow-up MRI was available for analysis on 49 patients. The median radiological follow-up period was 5.8 (range: 1.4-9.2) years. The median tumour volume at last follow-up was 1.1 (range: 0.03-5.3) cm3. VS decreased in size in 45 (90%) patients, with a median reduction in tumour volume of 1.46 (range: 0.06-9.29) cm3 or a median tumour size reduction of 59% of the baseline (range: 6-90%) in these patients. VS remained stable in 2 patients and increased in size in 2 patients. Only 1 patient (2%) required additional intervention (surgery). 15 patients had useful hearing pre-treatment; 10 post-treatment pure-tone audiograms of these patients were available. 5 (50%) patients still had useful hearing post treatment. Non-auditory adverse radiation effects included new (House-Brackmann grade II) or worsened facial nerve palsy (House-Brackmann grade II to grade V) in 2 (4%) patients and trigeminal sensory disturbance in 2 (4%) patients. At medium term, the vast majority of VSs treated with LINAC-based SRS exhibit tumour shrinkage. The slightly higher rate of facial nerve palsy compared with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) results may be related to the learning curve. Other complications were similar to reported GKS results for VSs of comparable sizes.

  8. Healthcare resource utilization after medium-term residential assessment for epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James; Hill, Joanne; Alford, Max; Oto, Maria; Russell, Aline; Razvi, Saif

    2016-09-01

    Epilepsy and epilepsy mimics may lead to high healthcare resource utilization (HRU) including diagnostic resources. The William Quarrier Scottish Epilepsy Centre (SEC) provides medium-term residential assessment (MTRA; average length of stay: 28days) and treatment for complex presentations of epilepsy and related conditions (principally psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, PNES). We studied the effect of MTRA on HRU in a defined health board area in Scotland. A retrospective audit of individuals admitted to the SEC from a defined health board area using SEC and health board medical records. Neurological HRU assessed included emergency department visits, hospital admissions, outpatient clinic appointments, and brain imaging prior to and post-MTRA. Healthcare resource utilization was also compared with individuals referred but not admitted to the SEC because of individual circumstances and choice. Seventy-three individuals (51 female, average age: 37.51; 22 men, average age: 43.72) were identified from three years of admissions (1st April 2010 to 31st March 2013). Final diagnosis was epilepsy (ES), 32; ES and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (ES+PNES), 17; and PNES alone, 24. Twenty-two individuals were identified as a comparison group (8 men, 14 women; average age: 37.21 and 43.90, respectively). Total average contacts per patient per year (CPY) was significantly different pre- and post-MTRA (4.16 vs. 1.32; t(72)=6.11, p<.0001, d=.72). Comparison of HRU in the first year of baseline and last full year of follow-up showed a post-MTRA reduction in HRU for PNES of 92.28%, for ES of 46.81%, and for ES+PNES of 28.3%. During the course of follow-up, PNES CPY continued to drop (1.13 first year vs. 0.10 at 3years post-MTRA). For individuals with epilepsy (with or without PNES), HRU use dropped significantly in the year after admission, and these gains remained stable (total first vs. third postdischarge CPY, 1.74 vs. 1.29). The participants in the comparison group, who were

  9. Short- and medium-term response to storms on three Mediterranean coarse-grained beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grottoli, Edoardo; Bertoni, Duccio; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The storm response of three Italian coarse-grained beaches was investigated to better understand the morphodynamics of coarse-clastic beaches in a microtidal context. Two of the studied sites are located on the eastern side of the country (Portonovo and Sirolo) and the third one (Marina di Pisa) is on the western side. Portonovo and Sirolo are mixed sand and gravel beaches where the storms approach from two main directions, SE and NE. Marina di Pisa is a coarse-grained, gravel-dominated beach, exposed to storms driven by SW winds. Gravel nourishments were undertaken in recent years on the three sites. Beach topography was monitored measuring the same network of cross sections at a monthly (i.e. short-term) to seasonal frequency (i.e. medium-term). Geomorphic changes were examined before and after storm occurrences by means of profile analyses and shoreline position evaluations. The beach orientation and the influence of hard structures are the main factors controlling the transport and accumulation of significant amount of sediments and the consequent high variability of beach morphology over the medium-term. For Marina di Pisa, storms tend to accumulate material towards the upper part of the beach with no shoreline rotation and no chance to recover the initial configuration. Sirolo and Portonovo showed a similar behaviour that is more typical of pocket beaches. Both beaches show shoreline rotation after storms in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction according to the incoming wave direction. The wider and longer beach at Sirolo allows the accumulation of a thin layer of sediment during storms, rather than at Portonovo where, given its longshore and landward boundaries, the beach material tends to accumulate in greater thickness. After storms, Sirolo and especially Portonovo can quickly recover the initial beach configuration, as soon as another storm of comparable energy approaches from the opposite direction of the previous one. Large morphological

  10. A medium-term, stochastic forecast model to support sustainable, mixed fisheries management in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rätz, H-J; Charef, A; Abella, A J; Colloca, F; Ligas, A; Mannini, A; Lloret, J

    2013-10-01

    A medium-term (10 year) stochastic forecast model is developed and presented for mixed fisheries that can provide estimations of age-specific parameters for a maximum of 10 stocks and 10 fisheries. Designed to support fishery managers dealing with complex, multi-annual management plans, the model can be used to quantitatively test the consequences of various stock-specific and fishery-specific decisions, using non-equilibrium stock dynamics. Such decisions include fishing restrictions and other strategies aimed at achieving sustainable mixed fisheries consistent with the concept of maximum sustainable yield (MSY). In order to test the model, recently gathered data on seven stocks and four fisheries operating in the Ligurian and North Tyrrhenian Seas are used to generate quantitative, 10 year predictions of biomass and catch trends under four different management scenarios. The results show that using the fishing mortality at MSY as the biological reference point for the management of all stocks would be a strong incentive to reduce the technical interactions among concurrent fishing strategies. This would optimize the stock-specific exploitation and be consistent with sustainability criteria. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Towards smart energy systems: application of kernel machine regression for medium term electricity load forecasting.

    PubMed

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Bargiotas, Dimitrios; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H

    2016-01-01

    Integration of energy systems with information technologies has facilitated the realization of smart energy systems that utilize information to optimize system operation. To that end, crucial in optimizing energy system operation is the accurate, ahead-of-time forecasting of load demand. In particular, load forecasting allows planning of system expansion, and decision making for enhancing system safety and reliability. In this paper, the application of two types of kernel machines for medium term load forecasting (MTLF) is presented and their performance is recorded based on a set of historical electricity load demand data. The two kernel machine models and more specifically Gaussian process regression (GPR) and relevance vector regression (RVR) are utilized for making predictions over future load demand. Both models, i.e., GPR and RVR, are equipped with a Gaussian kernel and are tested on daily predictions for a 30-day-ahead horizon taken from the New England Area. Furthermore, their performance is compared to the ARMA(2,2) model with respect to mean average percentage error and squared correlation coefficient. Results demonstrate the superiority of RVR over the other forecasting models in performing MTLF.

  12. Prospective medium-term results of multimodal pain management in patients with lumbar radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Benditz, A.; Madl, M.; Loher, M.; Grifka, J.; Boluki, D.; Linhardt, O.

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is one of the most common diseases of modern civilisation. Multimodal pain management (MPM) represents a central approach to avoiding surgery. Only few medium-term results have been published in the literature so far. This study compared subjective and objective as well as anamnestic and clinical parameters of 60 patients who had undergone inpatient MPM because of lumbar radiculopathy before and 1 year ±2 weeks after treatment. The majority of patients were very satisfied (35%) or satisfied (52%) with the treatment outcome. Merely 8 patients commented neutrally and none negatively. The finger-floor distance had decreased significantly (p < 0.01), and 30 patients (50%) had shown improved mobility of the spine after therapy. The need for painkillers had also been significantly reduced after 1 year. The arithmetical average of pain on a visual analogue scale was 7.21 before treatment, which had significantly decreased to 3.58 at follow-up (p < 0.01). MPM is an effective approach for treating lumbar radiculopathy by mechanical nerve root irritation. Therefore, in the absence of an absolute indication for surgery or an absolute contradiction for MPM, patients should first be treated with this minimally invasive therapy. PMID:27305956

  13. Clinical and Radiological Results over the Medium Term of Isolated Acetabular Revision

    PubMed Central

    Andreani, Lorenzo; Bonicoli, Enrico; Niccolai, Francesco; Lisanti, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Acetabular cup loosening is associated with pain, reduced function, and instability of the implant. If such event happens while the femoral implant is in a satisfactory position and is well fixed to the bone, isolated acetabular revision surgery is indicated. The aim of this single-center retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results over the medium term (12-month follow-up mean 36, max 60) of isolated acetabular revisions surgery using a porous hemispheric revision shell matched with a cemented all-poly cup and large diameter femoral head (>32). 33 patients were enrolled. We collect any relevant data from the clinical board. Routine clinical and radiographic examinations were performed preoperatively; the postoperative follow-up was made at 1, 3, and 6 months and yearly thereafter. At the last available follow-up, we report satisfactory improvement of functional scores in all the patients; 2 patients (6.1%) showed thigh pain and only 4 hips (12.11%) presented mild groin pain; all the femoral components are well fixed and there were no potential or pending rerevisions. With bias due to the follow-up and to the retrospective design of the study, we report clinical, functional, and radiological satisfactory results. PMID:25610894

  14. [Medium-term results of arthroscopic repair of relapsing anteroinferior glenohumeral instability].

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, R; Díez-Nicolás, E; Vilá-y-Rico, J; Martín-López, C M; Cano-Egea, J M

    2011-01-01

    Arthroscopic repair of Bankart lesion has become the treatment of choice of anterior shoulder instability. Our objective is to analyze the medium-term results of arthroscopic Bankart repair. Between January 1999 and November 2007, 86 shoulders of 85 patients with diagnosis of relapsing shoulder dislocation were treated arthroscopically. After a mean 62-month follow-up (minimum 24 months) the results obtained were retrospectively assessed according the Rowe and Constant functional scales. A statistical analysis was done of the relation between functional results and age, sex, the side operated, capsulorrhaphy, rehabilitation and postoperative immobilization in our series. Moreover, the validity of MRI for diagnosing Bankart lesion was assessed. Eighty-five percent of patients had good or excellent results according to the Rowe scale. The mean Constant scale score was 90.6. There-dislocation rate in our series was 9%. The statistical analysis showed that female sex and immobilization time were related with worse results according to the Constant scale. In our hands, arthroscopic Bankart repair provides results similar to those in other published series. MRI is a useful diagnostic test in our setting, albeit its important implications for the diagnosis of Bankart lesion. Female sex and prolonged immobilization were related with worse functional results.

  15. The development of an educational intervention to address workplace bullying: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chipps, Esther Maria; McRury, Mary

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research on workplace bullying which addresses the detrimental consequences of bullying in nursing has emerged. This quasi-experimental pilot study was aimed at examining the effect of an educational program provided to nursing staff on workplace bullying. The development of an educational program and use of a registered nurse educator in a group setting is an effective method for addressing workplace bullying.

  16. Progress Addressing Safeguards Capability Development Needs through Educational Outreach and Knowledge Management

    SciTech Connect

    Leek, K. M.; Seward, Amy M.; Dickman, Deborah A.; Toomey, Charles J.; Greenfield, Bryce A.; Mathews, Caroline E.; Fishbone, L.; Graham, T.; Rosenthal, Michael; Ward, B.

    2010-11-08

    This paper describes the NGSI Human Capital Development Program's domestic and international activities, and offers specific case studies to exemplify the outcomes and progress achieved in this area over the past several years. The paper highlights the importance of a sustained effort to address the human dimension of safeguards and nonproliferation and to address critical work force issues in the U.S. and abroad.

  17. From Professional Development to Classroom Instruction: Addressing Issues Related to Science Inquiry Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, I first provide a more detailed account of the discourse-focused professional development activities facilitated as part of the SMIT'N program, specifically addressing issues raised by van Zee with regard to the institute's overall format, goals and development strategies. Next, I resort to Peter Medawar's metaphorical view of…

  18. Development of a Community Readiness Survey for Coalitions to Address Prescription Opioid Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J.

    2015-01-01

    A community readiness survey for coalitions to address the growing epidemic of prescription opioid misuse was developed in this four-part study. A total of 70 coalition members participated. 1) We conducted 30-minute phone interviews with coalition members (n = 30) and a literature review to develop an item list. 2) Coalition members rated these…

  19. The Cross-linguistic Development of Address Form Use in Telecollaborative Language Learning: Two Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belz, Julie A.; Kinginger, Celeste

    2002-01-01

    Explores the influences of the telecollaborative learning environment on the development of second language (L2) pragmatic competence in foreign language learning from a sociocultural perspective. Focuses on "microgenesis," or development of the T/V distinction in pronouns of address as a test case representative of broader L2 pragmatic…

  20. Nonshaved cranial surgery in black Africans: technical report and a medium-term prospective outcome study.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, Amos O

    2016-07-01

    Nonshaved neurosurgery, cranial or spinal, is well reported among Caucasians but hardly among native Africans. The ungroomed scalp hairs of black Africans have unique anthropological characteristics needing special attention for shaveless cranial surgery. A technical report of the execution of this surgical procedure among an indigenous patient population in a sub-Sahara African country is presented, as well as an outcome analysis in a prospective cohort over a 7-year period. A total of 303 patients (211 males, 70 %) fulfilled the criteria for this study. The surgical procedure was primary in 278 (92 %) and redo in 8 %. It was emergency surgery in 153 (51 %). They were trauma craniotomies or decompressive craniectomies in 95 cases (31 %), craniotomies for tumour resections in 86 (28 %), and the surgical dissections for other conditions in 122 (41 %). The duration of surgery ranged from 30 min to 8.5 h, mean 2.5 (SD, 1.6), median 2. In-hospital clinical outcome was good (normal status or moderate deficit on dichotomized Glasgow outcome scale (GOS)) in 273 (90.1 %) cases while surgical site infections occurred in only 10 cases (3.3 %). The type of surgery, redo or primary, did not have any significant association with the in-hospital outcome (p = 0.5), nor with the presence of surgical site infection (SSI) (p = 0.7). The length of follow-up ranged from 2 to 63 months (mean, 7) with no untoward complications reported so far. Medium-term outcome of nonshaved neurosurgery in this indigenous black Africans remains favourable with no attendant significant adverse after-effects.

  1. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in very elderly patients: immediate results and medium term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Isaac; Muñoz-García, Antonio J; López-Otero, Diego; Avanzas, Pablo; Jimenez-Navarro, Manuel F; Cid-Alvarez, Belén; del Valle, Raquel; Alonso-Briales, Juan H; Ocaranza-Sanchez, Raimundo; Hernández, José M; Trillo-Nouche, Ramiro; Morís, César

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate immediate transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) results and medium-term follow-up in very elderly patients with severe and symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Methods This multicenter, observational and prospective study was carried out in three hospitals. We included consecutive very elderly (> 85 years) patients with severe AS treated by TAVI. The primary endpoint was to evaluate death rates from any cause at two years. Results The study included 160 consecutive patients with a mean age of 87 ± 2.1 years (range from 85 to 94 years) and a mean logistic EuroSCORE of 18.8% ± 11.2% with 57 (35.6%) patients scoring ≥ 20%. Procedural success rate was 97.5%, with 25 (15.6%) patients experiencing acute complications with major bleeding (the most frequent). Global mortality rate during hospitalization was 8.8% (n = 14) and 30-day mortality rate was 10% (n = 16). Median follow up period was 252.24 ± 232.17 days. During the follow-up period, 28 (17.5%) patients died (17 of them due to cardiac causes). The estimated two year overall and cardiac survival rates using the Kaplan-Meier method were 71% and 86.4%, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression showed that the variable EuroSCORE ≥ 20 was the unique variable associated with overall mortality. Conclusions TAVI is safe and effective in a selected population of very elderly patients. Our findings support the adoption of this new procedure in this complex group of patients. PMID:26345138

  2. Medium term water deficit elicits distinct transcriptome responses in Eucalyptus species of contrasting environmental origin.

    PubMed

    Spokevicius, Antanas V; Tibbits, Josquin; Rigault, Philippe; Nolin, Marc-Alexandre; Müller, Caroline; Merchant, Andrew

    2017-04-07

    Climatic and edaphic conditions over geological timescales have generated enormous diversity of adaptive traits and high speciation within the genus Eucalyptus (L. Hér.). Eucalypt species occur from high rainfall to semi-arid zones and from the tropics to latitudes as high as 43°S. Despite several morphological and metabolomic characterizations, little is known regarding gene expression differences that underpin differences in tolerance to environmental change. Using species of contrasting taxonomy, morphology and physiology (E. globulus and E. cladocalyx), this study combines physiological characterizations with 'second-generation' sequencing to identify key genes involved in eucalypt responses to medium-term water limitation. One hundred twenty Million high-quality HiSeq reads were created from 14 tissue samples in plants that had been successfully subjected to a water deficit treatment or a well-watered control. Alignment to the E. grandis genome saw 23,623 genes of which 468 exhibited differential expression (FDR < 0.01) in one or both ecotypes in response to the treatment. Further analysis identified 80 genes that demonstrated a significant species-specific response of which 74 were linked to the 'dry' species E. cladocalyx where 23 of these genes were uncharacterised. The majority (approximately 80%) of these differentially expressed genes, were expressed in stem tissue. Key genes that differentiated species responses were linked to photoprotection/redox balance, phytohormone/signalling, primary photosynthesis/cellular metabolism and secondary metabolism based on plant metabolic pathway network analysis. These results highlight a more definitive response to water deficit by a 'dry' climate eucalypt, particularly in stem tissue, identifying key pathways and associated genes that are responsible for the differences between 'wet' and 'dry' climate eucalypts. This knowledge provides the opportunity to further investigate and understand the mechanisms and

  3. Early and medium term results of the sleeve valve-sparing procedure for aortic root ectasia.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Amando; Tasca, Giordano; Giannico, Floriana; Lobiati, Elisabetta; Skouse, Douglas; Galanti, Andrea; Martino, Antonello Stefano; Triggiani, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate our experience of using a simplified aortic valve sleeve procedure to treat aortic root ectasia and aneurysms with or without aortic regurgitation. In experienced hands, 2 aortic valve-sparing procedures, ie, Yacoub and David, have yielded excellent long-term results in the treatment of aortic root aneurysms, with or without aortic regurgitation. However, these techniques are demanding and not widely used. Recently, a new and simplified valve-sparing technique, named "sleeve procedure," has been proposed, and has yielded encouraging early results. Ninety consecutive patients with aortic root aneurysms underwent sleeve procedures from October 2006 to October 2012. Follow-up data (clinical 100% complete and echocardiographic 93% complete) were acquired from our outpatient clinic or from the referring cardiologist. The mean age of the patients was 61.5 ± 12.5 years, 79% were male, 16 (18%) had a bicuspid valve, 3 had Marfan syndrome, and 2 had aortic dissection. Over a mean clinical follow-up of 34 ± 19 months, 2 patients died from noncardiac causes and 1 was reoperated on for the recurrence of aortic regurgitation. On follow-up echocardiography after a mean of 18 ± 9 months, aortic regurgitation was absent/negligible, mild or moderate in 62%, 37%, and 1% of patients, respectively, and the diameters of the annulus, Valsalva sinuses, and sinotubular junction were 27.3 + 2.2, 37.0 + 3.4, and 30.6 + 3.1 mm, respectively. Our encouraging early and medium term results suggest that the sleeve procedure is a safe and effective aortic valve-sparing technique for the treatment of aortic root ectasia and aneurysm. However, longer follow-up is needed in order to draw definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Short- and medium-term efficacy of specific hydrotherapy in inherited ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Bodemer, C; Bourrat, E; Mazereeuw-Hautier, J; Boralevi, F; Barbarot, S; Bessis, D; Blanchet-Bardon, C; Bourdon-Lanoy, E; Stalder, J-F; Ribet, V; Guerrero, D; Sibaud, V

    2011-11-01

    Management of inherited ichthyoses is symptomatic. Despite treatment, skin symptoms have a major impact on patients' quality of life (QoL). To assess the short- and medium-term efficacy of hydrotherapy on QoL and clinical symptoms of patients with inherited ichthyosis. In this 9-month prospective, open-label, multicentre study, 20 children and 24 adults with ichthyosis were enrolled in several French reference and competence centres, 2 months before undergoing a 3-week treatment with specific hydrotherapeutic management at Avène Hydrotherapy Centre. At baseline (2 months before hydrotherapy), beginning (D0) and end of hydrotherapy (D18), and 3 and 6 months later at the reference and competence centres, patients self-assessed QoL using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) or its paediatric version (Children's DLQI), and investigators evaluated ichthyosis severity using a specific clinical ichthyosis score. The DLQI scores were significantly improved not only at the end of the hydrotherapy treatment (-56% vs. baseline; mean ± SD 3·59 ± 4·30 at D18 vs. 8·35 ± 5·71 at D0; P < 0·0001), but also at 3 months (-28% vs. baseline; P = 0·01) and 6 months after hydrotherapy (-26% vs. baseline; mean ± SD 5·21 ± 5·11 vs. 6·89 ± 5·38; P = 0·03) (primary criterion). Clinical symptoms were also significantly improved at all post-treatment visits, with a decrease of the mean clinical ichthyosis score by -38% between D0 and D18, by -30% at 3 months and by -31% at 6 months vs. baseline. A 3-week treatment at Avène Hydrotherapy Centre provided significant and persisting improvement of QoL and clinical symptoms in patients with inherited ichthyoses. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Policy Guidelines for Medium-Term Priorities 1997 to 2000 = Politische Leitlinien fur die mittelfristigen Prioritaten von 1997 bis 2000 = Orientations de politique concernant les priorites a moyen terme de 1997 a l'an 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This booklet details the policy guidelines to which the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) will adhere when working to achieve its medium-term priorities in 1997-2000. The following items are stated in the booklet's six sections: legal requirements, agreements, and publications on which CEDEFOP's policy guidelines…

  6. Short-term and medium-term clinical outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted and open surgery for colorectal cancer: a single center retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic procedure is a rapid developed technique in colorectal surgery. In this investigation we aim at assessing the diversities of short-term and medium-term clinical outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted versus open surgery for colorectal cancer. Methods A total number of 519 patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer were enrolled for this study. The patients underwent either laparoscopic-assisted surgery (LAP) (n = 254) or open surgery (OP) (n = 265). Surgical techniques, perioperative managements and clinical follow-ups were standardized. Short-term perioperative data and medium-term recurrence and survival were compared and analyzed between the two groups. Results There were no differences in perioperative parameters between the two groups except in regards to a trend of faster recovery in laparoscopic procedures. There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative complications, reoperation rate, or perioperative mortality. Statistically significant differences in a faster return of gastrointestinal function and shorter hospital stay were identified in favor of laparoscopic-assisted resection. In colon and rectal cancer cases separately, the overall survival, cancer-free survival and recurrence rate were similar in two groups. There was also no tendency of significant differences in overall survival, cancer-free survival and recurrence in stage I-II and stage III patients in two cancer categories between the two groups, respectively. pT, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage were independent predictors of overall death risk, while pT, pN, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage were found to be the independent predictors of recurrence risk in enrolled patients database. Conclusions Laparoscopic-assisted procedure has more benefits on postoperative recovery, while has the same effects on medium-term recurrence and survival compared with open surgery in the treatment of non-metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:21794159

  7. The Medium-Term Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from North Carolina. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Liu, Yuen Ting; Trimble, Madeline Joy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the relative labor market gains for first-time college students who enrolled in the North Carolina Community College System in 2002-03. The medium-term returns to diplomas, certificates, and degrees are compared with returns for students who accumulated college credits but did not graduate. The authors also…

  8. The Short- to Medium-Term Predictive Accuracy of Static and Dynamic Risk Assessment Measures in a Secure Forensic Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D. M.; Ogloff, James R. P.; Daffern, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although violence risk assessment knowledge and practice has advanced over the past few decades, it remains practically difficult to decide which measures clinicians should use to assess and make decisions about the violence potential of individuals on an ongoing basis, particularly in the short to medium term. Within this context, this study…

  9. The Short- to Medium-Term Predictive Accuracy of Static and Dynamic Risk Assessment Measures in a Secure Forensic Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D. M.; Ogloff, James R. P.; Daffern, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although violence risk assessment knowledge and practice has advanced over the past few decades, it remains practically difficult to decide which measures clinicians should use to assess and make decisions about the violence potential of individuals on an ongoing basis, particularly in the short to medium term. Within this context, this study…

  10. Open tension-free hernioplasty using a novel lightweight self-gripping mesh: medium-term experience from two institutions.

    PubMed

    Pedano, Nicolás; Pastor, Carlos; Arredondo, Jorge; Poveda, Ignacio; Ruiz, Jaime; Montón, Soledad; Molina, María; Hernández-Lizoain, José Luis

    2012-02-01

    The process of mesh fixation and the potential risk of associated chronic pain are always surgeon's main concerns in hernia surgery. A wide variety of lightweight mesh models are currently available on the market to overcome some of these problems showing good preliminary results, but no data representing the medium- or long-term results. The present study aims to report the clinical outcomes of two institutional series of patients who underwent hernia repair using a partially absorbable auto adherent mesh (Parietene™ Progrip™--PP). A prospective analysis was performed including unselected patients with primary groin hernia who underwent a standardized Lichtenstein procedure using the PP mesh at two tertiary institutions. During the 2-year study period, 181 patients (167 males; 14 females) with a median age of 63 years (19-85 years) were operated on at both centers. Short-term complications occurred in 27 patients (15%), the most commonly seen being urinary retention (6%) followed by hematoma (5%) and acute orchitis (2%). With a median follow-up of 17 months (12-29 months), 4 patients (2%) had a feeling of a foreign body in the groin, and 7 (4%) developed chronic pain. A total of four patients (2%) developed recurrence. In our experience, the use of the PP mesh for hernioplasties offers a potential benefit not only in the short-term period but also in a medium-term follow-up with low recurrence and late chronic pain rates. However, this particular mesh does not fully prevent all complications and chronic pain and recurrent hernias have been reported for the first time.

  11. A Case Study on Science Teacher Leadership to Address Diversity and Equity Through Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doraiswamy, Nithya

    This qualitative case study focused on the multifaceted issue of exploring science teacher leaders understanding and addressing of issues of diversity and equity with peers through professional development. The purpose of the study was to highlight the opportunities and barriers to the addressing of issues of diversity and equity through the work of a community of teachers leaders in science professional development. To frame this study, the researcher drew from the interdisciplinary field of multicultural education, transformative learning, and teacher leadership. In drawing out the connections from these vast bodies of literature, the study speaks to the need of both, creating teacher leaders in science education who are capable of meeting the twin demands of excellence and equity, and also attending to the challenges in the professional learning continuums of teachers leaders and their peers towards addressing issues of diversity and equity in science education.

  12. Short- and Medium-term Atmospheric Effects of Very Large Solar Proton Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Marsh, Daniel R.; Vitt, Francis M.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Fleming, Eric L.; Labow, Gordon J.; Randall, Cora E.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Long-term variations in ozone have been caused by both natural and humankind related processes. In particular, the humankind or anthropogenic influence on ozone from chlorofluorocarbons and halons (chlorine and bromine) has led to international regulations greatly limiting the release of these substances. These anthropogenic effects on ozone are most important in polar regions and have been significant since the 1970s. Certain natural ozone influences are also important in polar regions and are caused by the impact of solar charged particles on the atmosphere. Such natural variations have been studied in order to better quantify the human influence on polar ozone. Large-scale explosions on the Sun near solar maximum lead to emissions of charged particles (mainly protons and electrons), some of which enter the Earth's magnetosphere and rain down on the polar regions. "Solar proton events" have been used to describe these phenomena since the protons associated with these solar events sometimes create a significant atmospheric disturbance. We have used the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to study the short- and medium-term (days to a few months) influences of solar proton events between 1963 and 2005 on stratospheric ozone. The four largest events in the past 45 years (August 1972; October 1989; July 2000; and October-November 2003) caused very distinctive polar changes in layers of the Earth's atmosphere known as the stratosphere (12-50 km; -7-30 miles) and mesosphere (50-90 km; 30-55 miles). The solar protons connected with these events created hydrogen- and nitrogen- containing compounds, which led to the polar ozone destruction. The hydrogen-containing compounds have very short lifetimes and lasted for only a few days (typically the duration of the solar proton event). On the other hand, the nitrogen-containing compounds lasted much longer, especially in the Winter. The nitrogen oxides were predicted

  13. Developing an Integrative Play Therapy Group Model for Middle School Male Students to Address Bullying Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Jakarla

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the systematic process of developing an integrative play therapy group model for middle school male students, ages 11-15 who participate in bullying behaviors. Play therapy approaches and evidence-based practices are documented as effective measures for addressing bullying behaviors with children and adolescents. This group…

  14. 5 CFR 9701.408 - Developing performance and addressing poor performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.408... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Developing performance and addressing poor performance. 9701.408 Section 9701.408 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.408 - Developing performance and addressing poor performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.408... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Developing performance and addressing poor performance. 9701.408 Section 9701.408 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.408 - Developing performance and addressing poor performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.408... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Developing performance and addressing poor performance. 9701.408 Section 9701.408 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  17. How California's Postsecondary Education Systems Address Workforce Development. Commission Report 07-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report on the nexus between postsecondary education and workforce development discusses the question of how California's colleges and universities address the state's need for a highly educated and skilled workforce. It includes a detailed review of the systems and their roles, and considers issues regarding how those roles are being carried…

  18. Developing Survey Research Infrastructure At An Historically Black College/University To Address Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Daniel L.; Boyd, Carlton L.; Kalsbeek, Bill; Godley, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Center for Survey Research at Shaw University, a Historically Black College and University (HBCU), and its efforts to build a data collection infrastructure that addresses issues germane to health disparities research in the African American population. Academic institutions that are similar to Shaw in size, mission, and background can use the Project EXPORT collaboration and the Center for Survey Research as models for establishing their own research infrastructure and subsequent survey center in order to address health disparities through the use of survey methodology. PMID:22090795

  19. Simulation of medium-term soil redistributions for different land use and landscape design scenarios within a vineyard landscape in Mediterranean France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Mélodie; Follain, Stéphane; Ciampalini, Rossano; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Couturier, Alain; Walter, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Inappropriate agricultural land management practices cause irreversible soil losses in many parts of Europe. Soil degradation is predicted to increase in the next future as an effect of climate and cropping system changes. The most concerned areas are expected to be those already severely affected by erosion, as is the whole of the Mediterranean. Medium-term soil erosion models could be useful tools to analyse, understand and simulate complex interactions between geomorphic processes and human pressures for better assessment of medium-term soil redistributions associated with land use and landscape design change. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of various agricultural land uses and landscape design strategies on water and tillage erosion. The first step was to develop land use and landscape design scenarios of an agricultural Mediterranean landscape. Then, all of the scenarios were compared in terms of the soil redistribution using the LandSoil model. The results indicate that potential soil conservation associated with the adoption of sustainable land uses surpasses the potential conservation associated with certain landscape design. A detailed analysis of within-landscape soil redistributions suggests that land use is a major factor controlling sediment production, whereas landscape design is a major factor controlling hillslope connectivity.

  20. Large developing receptive fields using a distributed and locally reprogrammable address-event receiver.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Simeon A; Murray, Alan F; Willshaw, David J

    2010-02-01

    A distributed and locally reprogrammable address-event receiver has been designed, in which incoming address-events are monitored simultaneously by all synapses, allowing for arbitrarily large axonal fan-out without reducing channel capacity. Synapses can change the address of their presynaptic neuron, allowing the distributed implementation of a biologically realistic learning rule, with both synapse formation and elimination (synaptic rewiring). Probabilistic synapse formation leads to topographic map development, made possible by a cross-chip current-mode calculation of Euclidean distance. As well as synaptic plasticity in rewiring, synapses change weights using a competitive Hebbian learning rule (spike-timing-dependent plasticity). The weight plasticity allows receptive fields to be modified based on spatio-temporal correlations in the inputs, and the rewiring plasticity allows these modifications to become embedded in the network topology.

  1. Developing Research and Community Literacies to Recruit Latino Researchers and Practitioners to Address Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Granberry, Phillip J; Torres, María Idalí; Allison, Jeroan J; Rosal, Milagros C; Rustan, Sarah; Colón, Melissa; Fontes, Mayara; Cruz, Ivettte

    2016-03-01

    Engaging community residents and undergraduate Latino students in developing research and community literacies can expose both groups to resources needed to address health disparities. The bidirectional learning process described in this article developed these literacies through an ethnographic mapping fieldwork activity that used a learning-by-doing method in combination with reflection on the research experience. The active efforts of research team members to promote reflection on the research activities were integral for developing research and community literacies. Our findings suggest that, through participating in this field research activity, undergraduate students and community residents developed a better understanding of resources for addressing health disparities. Our research approach assisted community residents and undergraduate students by demystifying research, translating scientific and community knowledge, providing exposure to multiple literacies, and generating increased awareness of research as a tool for change among community residents and their organizations. The commitment of the community and university leadership to this pedagogical method can bring out the full potential of mentoring, both to contribute to the development of the next generation of Latino researchers and to assist community members in their efforts to address health disparities.

  2. Developing Effective Interuniversity Partnerships and Community-Based Research to Address Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Timothy S.; Howard, Daniel L.; Goldmon, Moses; Roberson, James T.; Godley, Paul A.; Ammerman, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Health disparities are an enormous challenge to American society. Addressing these disparities is a priority for U.S. society and especially for institutions of higher learning, with their threefold mission of education, service, and research. Collaboration across multiple intellectual disciplines will be critical as universities address health disparities. In addition, universities must collaborate with communities, with state partners, and with each other. Development of these collaborations must be sensitive to the history and unique characteristics of each academic institution and population. The authors describe the challenges of all three types of collaboration, but primarily focus on collaboration between research-intensive universities and historically black colleges and universities. The authors describe a four-year collaboration between Shaw University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). These universities strategically developed multiple research initiatives to address health disparities, building on modest early success and personal relationships. These activities included participation by Shaw faculty in faculty development activities, multiple collaborative pilot studies, and joint participation in securing grants from the Agency for Health care Research and Quality of the federal Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes of Health, including a P-60 Project EXPORT center grant. These multiple activities were sometimes led by UNC-CH, sometimes by Shaw University. Open discussion of problems as they arose, realistic expectations, and mutual recognition of the strengths of each institution and its faculty have been critical in achieving successful collaboration to date. PMID:16249303

  3. AACP Strategy for Addressing the Professional Development Needs of Department Chairs

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Tobias E.; Weinstein, George; Sorofman, Bernard A.; Bosso, John A.; Kerr, Robert A.; Haden, N. Karl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Characterize the skills and abilities required for department chairs, identify development needs, and then create AACP professional development programs for chairs. Methods. A 30-question electronic survey was sent to AACP member department chairs related to aspects of chairing an academic department. Results. The survey identified development needs in the leadership, management, and personal abilities required for effective performance as department chair. The information was used to prioritize topics for subsequent AACP development programs. Subsequent programs conducted at AACP Interim and Annual Meetings were well attended and generally received favorable reviews from participants. A list of development resources was placed on the AACP website. Conclusions. This ongoing initiative is part of an AACP strategy to identify and address the professional development needs of department chairs. Survey results may also inform faculty members and other academic leaders about the roles and responsibilities of department chairs. PMID:22919099

  4. Developing person-centred care: addressing contextual challenges through practice development.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Brendan; Dewing, Jan; McCance, Tanya

    2011-05-31

    Developing person-centred care is not a one-time event; rather it requires a sustained commitment from organisations to the ongoing facilitation of developments, a commitment both in clinical teams and across organizations. Contextual factors pose the greatest challenge to person-centredness and the development of cultures that can sustain person-centred care. We will begin with a general comment on 'context' and its meaning before exploring three particular factors that influence the practice context, namely, workplace culture, learning culture, and the physical environment. Next we explore a particular approach to developing person-centred care through emancipatory practice development. We highlight the importance of facilitation through emancipatory practice development programmes and describe how person-centred care can be developed through the presentation of a case study that illustrates the principles and processes of emancipatory practice development as well as the outcomes achieved. We conclude with an application to clinical practice. A key consideration for all organisations in the development of person-centred care is to move from what we suggest are 'person-centred moments' (individual, ad hoc experiences of person-centredness) to 'person-centred care' as an underpinning culture of teams and organisations.

  5. Population aging and international development: addressing competing claims of distributive justice.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Michal; Johnson, Summer

    2007-04-01

    To date, bioethics and health policy scholarship has given little consideration to questions of aging and intergenerational justice in the developing world. Demographic changes are precipitating rapid population aging in developing nations, however, and ethical issues regarding older people's claim to scarce healthcare resources must be addressed. This paper posits that the traditional arguments about generational justice and age-based rationing of healthcare resources, which were developed primarily in more industrialized nations, fail to adequately address the unique challenges facing older persons in developing nations. Existing philosophical approaches to age-based resource allocation underemphasize the importance of older persons for developing countries and fail to adequately consider the rights and interests of older persons in these settings. Ultimately, the paper concludes that the most appropriate framework for thinking about generational justice in developing nations is a rights-based approach that allows for the interests of all age groups, including the oldest, to be considered in the determination of health resource allocation.

  6. Health as freedom: addressing social determinants of global health inequities through the human right to development.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2009-02-01

    In spite of vast global improvements in living standards, health, and well-being, the persistence of absolute poverty and its attendant maladies remains an unsettling fact of life for billions around the world and constitutes the primary cause for the failure of developing states to improve the health of their peoples. While economic development in developing countries is necessary to provide for underlying determinants of health--most prominently, poverty reduction and the building of comprehensive primary health systems--inequalities in power within the international economic order and the spread of neoliberal development policy limit the ability of developing states to develop economically and realize public goods for health. With neoliberal development policies impacting entire societies, the collective right to development, as compared with an individual rights-based approach to development, offers a framework by which to restructure this system to realize social determinants of health. The right to development, working through a vector of rights, can address social determinants of health, obligating states and the international community to support public health systems while reducing inequities in health through poverty-reducing economic growth. At an international level, where the ability of states to develop economically and to realize public goods through public health systems is constrained by international financial institutions, the implementation of the right to development enables a restructuring of international institutions and foreign-aid programs, allowing states to enter development debates with a right to cooperation from other states, not simply a cry for charity.

  7. Developing assays to address identity, potency, purity and safety: cell characterization in cell therapy process development.

    PubMed

    Carmen, Jessica; Burger, Scott R; McCaman, Michael; Rowley, Jon A

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge to commercializing cell-based therapies is developing scalable manufacturing processes while maintaining the critical quality parameters (identity, potency, purity, safety) of the final live cell product. Process development activities such as extended passaging and serum reduction/elimination can facilitate the streamlining of cell manufacturing process as long as the biological functions of the product remain intact. Best practices in process development will be dependent on cell characterization; a thorough understanding of the cell-based product. Unique biological properties associated with different types of cell-based products are discussed. Cell characterization may be used as a tool for successful process development activities, which can promote a candidate cell therapy product through clinical development and ultimately to a commercialized product.

  8. NASA DEVELOP Program: Students Extending Earth Science Research to Address Community Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, A. L.; Ross, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Eight years ago, several students at NASA Langley Research Center launched the DEVELOP Program. DEVELOP is now at six NASA centers and is a program element of the NASA Applied Sciences Human Capital Development Program that extends the use of Earth observation sources to address Earth science issues in local communities. Students in the program strengthen their leadership and academic skills by analyzing scientific data, experimenting with novel technology, and engaging in cooperative interactions. Graduate, undergraduate and high school students from across the United States collaborate to integrate NASA space-based Earth observation sources and partner agencies' science data, models and decision support tools. Information from these collaborations result in rapid prototype projects addressing local policy and environmental issues. Following a rigorous 10-week term, DEVELOP students present visual products demonstrating the application of NASA scientific information to community leaders at scientific and public policy forums such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), and the Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB). Submission of written products to peer-reviewed scientific publications and other public databases is also done. Student experiences and interactions working with NASA data, advanced technological programs and community leaders have, and continue to prove, beneficial to student professional development. DEVELOP's human capital development focus affords students real world experience, making them a valuable asset to the scientific and global community and to the continuation of a scientifically aware society. NASA's DEVELOP Program is more than scientific exploration and valuable results; DEVELOP fosters human capital development by bridging the gap between NASA science research and federal, state, local and tribal resource managers.

  9. Development of Individually Addressable Micro-Mirror-Arrays for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sanghamitra B.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Jhabvala, Murzy; Kotecki, Carl A.; Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Mott, D. Brent

    2000-01-01

    We have been developing a 32 x 32 prototype array of individually addressable Micro-Mirrors capable of operating at cryogenic temperature for Earth and Space Science applications. Micro-Mirror-Array technology has the potential to revolutionize imaging and spectroscopy systems for NASA's missions of the 21st century. They can be used as programmable slits for the Next Generation Space Telescope, as smart sensors for a steerable spectrometer, as neutral density filters for bright scene attenuation etc. The, entire fabrication process is carried out in the Detector Development Laboratory at NASA, GSFC. The fabrication process is low temperature compatible and involves integration of conventional CMOS technology and surface micro-machining used in MEMS. Aluminum is used as the mirror material and is built on a silicon substrate containing the CMOS address circuit. The mirrors are 100 microns x l00 microns in area and deflect by +/- 10 deg induced by electrostatic actuation between two parallel plate capacitors. A pair of thin aluminum torsion straps allow the mirrors to tilt. Finite-element-analysis and closed form solutions using electrostatic and mechanical torque for mirror operation were developed and the results were compared with laboratory performance. The results agree well both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature. The development demonstrates the first cryogenic operation of two-dimensional Micro-Mirrors with bi-state operation. Larger arrays will be developed meeting requirements for different science applications. Theoretical analysis, fabrication process, laboratory test results and different science applications will be described in detail.

  10. Developing sustainable global health technologies: insight from an initiative to address neonatal hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajesh; Patel, Rajan; Murty, Naganand; Panicker, Rahul; Chen, Jane

    2015-02-01

    Relative to drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines, efforts to develop other global health technologies, such as medical devices, are limited and often focus on the short-term goal of prototype development instead of the long-term goal of a sustainable business model. To develop a medical device to address neonatal hypothermia for use in resource-limited settings, we turned to principles of design theory: (1) define the problem with consideration of appropriate integration into relevant health policies, (2) identify the users of the technology and the scenarios in which the technology would be used, and (3) use a highly iterative product design and development process that incorporates the perspective of the user of the technology at the outset and addresses scalability. In contrast to our initial idea, to create a single device, the process guided us to create two separate devices, both strikingly different from current solutions. We offer insights from our initial experience that may be helpful to others engaging in global health technology development.

  11. Development of Individually Addressable Micro-Mirror-Arrays for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sanghamitra B.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Jhabvala, Murzy; Kotecki, Carl A.; Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Mott, D. Brent

    2000-01-01

    We have been developing a 32 x 32 prototype array of individually addressable Micro-Mirrors capable of operating at cryogenic temperature for Earth and Space Science applications. Micro-Mirror-Array technology has the potential to revolutionize imaging and spectroscopy systems for NASA's missions of the 21st century. They can be used as programmable slits for the Next Generation Space Telescope, as smart sensors for a steerable spectrometer, as neutral density filters for bright scene attenuation etc. The, entire fabrication process is carried out in the Detector Development Laboratory at NASA, GSFC. The fabrication process is low temperature compatible and involves integration of conventional CMOS technology and surface micro-machining used in MEMS. Aluminum is used as the mirror material and is built on a silicon substrate containing the CMOS address circuit. The mirrors are 100 microns x l00 microns in area and deflect by +/- 10 deg induced by electrostatic actuation between two parallel plate capacitors. A pair of thin aluminum torsion straps allow the mirrors to tilt. Finite-element-analysis and closed form solutions using electrostatic and mechanical torque for mirror operation were developed and the results were compared with laboratory performance. The results agree well both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature. The development demonstrates the first cryogenic operation of two-dimensional Micro-Mirrors with bi-state operation. Larger arrays will be developed meeting requirements for different science applications. Theoretical analysis, fabrication process, laboratory test results and different science applications will be described in detail.

  12. Medium Term Follow-up of Achilles Tendon Lengthening in the Treatment of Ankle Equinus in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Frederick R; Albright, Jay C; Dolan, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The optimal treatment for equinus of the ankle in ambulatory patients with cerebral palsy is not known. This study assessed the medium term follow-up results of treatment of spastic ankle equinus deformity in cerebral palsy using Hoke or coronal Z-lengthening of the Achilles tendon. It was hypothesized that the use of Achilles tendon lengthening (TAL) as a treatment for spastic ankle equinus during gait results in a high rate of over-weakening of the triceps surae resulting in crouch gait. We also investigated patient characteristics that could identify which patients are at risk for crouch gait due to triceps surae weakening from Achilles tendon lengthening. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients (114 procedures) who had undergone Achilles lengthening were retrospectively reviewed to determine how many patients developed crouch gait with dorsiflexion of the ankle throughout stance phase requiring anterior-floor-reaction bracing. The following patient characteristics were evaluated: age at surgery, geographic type of cerebral palsy, length of follow-up, need for anterior-floor-reaction bracing, length of time after surgery when brace was prescribed, age at time of need for bracing, side of surgery, technique used, additional procedures performed at time of TAL, previous or later procedures performed, and walking ability. Results: The average age at the time of TAL was 7 years and 3 months, and the average follow-up was seven years. The geographic type of cerebral palsy greatly affected the outcome. None of the twenty-three hemiplegic patients required bracing. Fourteen of 34 (41%) patients with spastic diplegia and seven of fourteen (50%) patients with spastic quadriplegia required bracing. There was no significant difference in outcome between the Hoke and the Z-lengthening procedures. Patients who underwent more procedures and bilateral procedures were more likely to require anterior-floor-reaction bracing. Conclusions: Achilles tendon

  13. The Applied and Workforce Baccalaureate at South Texas College: Specialized Workforce Development Addressing Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Juan E.

    2012-01-01

    South Texas College (STC), created in 1993 as South Texas Community College (STCC), has developed from a concept by visionary leaders in the region to currently offering more than one hundred degree and certificate options for students from the counties of Hidalgo and Starr, including two bachelor of applied technology (B.A.T.) degrees. These…

  14. The Applied and Workforce Baccalaureate at South Texas College: Specialized Workforce Development Addressing Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Juan E.

    2012-01-01

    South Texas College (STC), created in 1993 as South Texas Community College (STCC), has developed from a concept by visionary leaders in the region to currently offering more than one hundred degree and certificate options for students from the counties of Hidalgo and Starr, including two bachelor of applied technology (B.A.T.) degrees. These…

  15. Shaping NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Workforce Development Initiative to Address Industry Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosage, David; Meeson, Blanche W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    It has been well recognized that the commercial remote sensing industry will expand in new directions, resulting in new applications, thus requiring a larger, more skilled workforce to fill the new positions. In preparation for this change, NASA has initiated a Remote Sensing Professional Development Program to address the workforce needs of this emerging industry by partnering with the private sector, academia, relevant professional societies, and other R&D organizations. Workforce needs will in part include understanding current industry concerns, personnel competencies, current and future skills, growth rates, geographical distributions, certifications, and sources of pre-service and in-service personnel. Dave Rosage of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and a panel of MAPPS members will lead a discussion to help NASA specifically address private firms' near and long-term personnel needs to be included in NASA's Remote Sensing Professional Development Program. In addition, Dave Rosage will present perspectives on how remote sensing technologies are evolving, new NASA instruments being developed, and what future workforce skills are expected to support these new developments.

  16. Shaping NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Workforce Development Initiative to Address Industry Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosage, David; Meeson, Blanche W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    It has been well recognized that the commercial remote sensing industry will expand in new directions, resulting in new applications, thus requiring a larger, more skilled workforce to fill the new positions. In preparation for this change, NASA has initiated a Remote Sensing Professional Development Program to address the workforce needs of this emerging industry by partnering with the private sector, academia, relevant professional societies, and other R&D organizations. Workforce needs will in part include understanding current industry concerns, personnel competencies, current and future skills, growth rates, geographical distributions, certifications, and sources of pre-service and in-service personnel. Dave Rosage of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and a panel of MAPPS members will lead a discussion to help NASA specifically address private firms' near and long-term personnel needs to be included in NASA's Remote Sensing Professional Development Program. In addition, Dave Rosage will present perspectives on how remote sensing technologies are evolving, new NASA instruments being developed, and what future workforce skills are expected to support these new developments.

  17. Community health centers and community development financial institutions: joining forces to address determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Kotelchuck, Ronda; Lowenstein, Daniel; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2011-11-01

    Community health centers and community development financial institutions share similar origins and missions and are increasingly working together to meet community needs. Addressing the social and economic determinants of health is a common focus. The availability of new federal grants and tax credits has led these financial institutions to invest in the creation and expansion of community health centers. This article reviews the most recent trends in these two sectors and explores opportunities for further collaboration to transform the health and well-being of the nation's low-income communities.

  18. Short- and Medium-Term Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Periodontal Status in Lingual Orthodontic Patients.

    PubMed

    Abellán, Rosa; Gómez, Clara; Oteo, María Dolores; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Palma, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short- and medium-term effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied in repeated doses in adults with a healthy periodontium treated by lingual orthodontic appliances. Plaque accumulation, in combination with difficulty in removing it in lingual orthodontic patients, can cause gingival inflammation. Twelve orthodontic patients scheduled for fixed lingual orthodontic treatment were selected. Clinical measurements [visible plaque index (VPI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and probing depth (PD), and collection of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)], which was used to measure the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), was performed before bonding the lingual device, and at the short-term (1, 2, 3 months) and medium-term (12 months) follow-up appointments. For each patient, quadrant 1 or 2 was randomly chosen for irradiation by a diode laser (λ = 670 nm, 190 mW, 6.05 W/cm(2), 60 sec/ tooth) (Laser Group) and the contralateral quadrant was used as the Control Group. In both studied groups, a slight worsening of the periodontal condition was observed, which was evident at the 3rd month follow-up and which was mainly at the lingual side in the Control Group. The levels of IL-1β in the GCF were significantly increased in the Control Group compared with the Laser Group at the 2nd and 3rd months after bonding. At the 12th month follow-up, an improvement of the inflammation was observed in both groups in the study. LLLT showed short-term effects by preventing a substantial increase in IL-1β levels. At medium-term follow-up, LLLT diminished VPI, BOP, and PD scores.

  19. Bipolar plasma vaporization versus standard transurethral resection in secondary bladder neck sclerosis: a prospective, medium-term, randomized comparison

    PubMed Central

    Geavlete, Bogdan; Moldoveanu, Cristian; Iacoboaie, Catalin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, randomized, medium-term trial aimed to assess the efficiency, safety and postoperative results of bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) in comparison with monopolar transurethral resection (TUR) in cases of secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS). Methods: A total of 70 patients with BNS secondary to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP; 46 cases), open prostatectomy for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; 18 cases) and radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer (6 cases) were enrolled in the trial. The inclusion criteria consisted of maximum flow rate (Q max) <10 ml/s and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) >19. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after surgery by IPSS, quality of life score (QoL), Q max and postvoiding residual urinary volume (PVR). Results: The mean operation time (10.3 versus 14.9 minutes), catheterization period (0.75 versus 2.1 days) and hospital stay (1.1 versus 3.2 days) were significantly reduced in the BPV series. During the immediate postoperative follow up, recatheterization for acute urinary retention only occurred in the TUR series (5.7%). The medium-term retreatment requirements due to BNS recurrence were lower in the BPV study arm (2.8% versus 8.5%). At the 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months assessments, statistically similar parameters were found concerning the IPSS and QoL symptom scores, Q max and PVR values specific for the two therapeutic alternatives. Conclusions: BPV constitutes a valuable endoscopic treatment approach for secondary BNS. The method emphasized superior efficacy, a satisfactory safety profile and similar medium-term follow-up features when compared with standard TUR. PMID:23554842

  20. Addressing Health Disparities in the Undergraduate Curriculum: An Approach to Develop a Knowledgeable Biomedical Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Benabentos, Rocio; Ray, Payal

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in health and healthcare are a major concern in the United States and worldwide. Approaches to alleviate these disparities must be multifaceted and should include initiatives that touch upon the diverse areas that influence the healthcare system. Developing a strong biomedical workforce with an awareness of the issues concerning health disparities is crucial for addressing this issue. Establishing undergraduate health disparities courses that are accessible to undergraduate students in the life sciences is necessary to increase students’ understanding and awareness of these issues and motivate them to address these disparities during their careers. The majority of universities do not include courses related to health disparities in their curricula, and only a few universities manage them from their life sciences departments. The figures are especially low for minority-serving institutions, which serve students from communities disproportionally affected by health disparities. Universities should consider several possible approaches to infuse their undergraduate curricula with health disparities courses or activities. Eliminating health disparities will require efforts from diverse stakeholders. Undergraduate institutions can play an important role in developing an aware biomedical workforce and helping to close the gap in health outcomes. PMID:25452486

  1. Development of a Community Readiness Survey for Coalitions to Address Prescription Opioid Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J.

    2016-01-01

    A community readiness survey for coalitions to address the growing epidemic of prescription opioid misuse was developed in this four-part study. A total of 70 coalition members participated. 1) We conducted 30-minute phone interviews with coalition members (n=30) and a literature review to develop an item list. 2) Coalition members rated these 60 items for three criteria: importance, confidence in own answer, confidence in others’ answer. 3) Highly rated items were included in a revised survey that was tested with coalition members (n=10) using in-person cognitive interviewing to assess how coalition members were interpreting the questions. 4) Lastly, pre-testing and satisfaction testing with additional coalition members (n=30). Most (83%) of the respondents reported positive overall impressions of the survey. PMID:27516644

  2. Clustering of symptoms of mental disorder in the medium-term following conflict: an epidemiological study in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Silove, Derrick; Ivancic, Lorraine; Rees, Susan; Bateman-Steel, Catherine; Steel, Zachary

    2014-10-30

    It is important to define subpopulations with mental health and psychosocial reactions in the medium-term following conflict to ensure that an appropriate array of services are provided to meet the diversity of needs. We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on epidemiological data drawn from an urban and rural sample of 1221 adults (581 men and 640 women, response 82%) in post-conflict Timor Leste 4 years after the cessation of violence. The prevalence of PTSD was 4.9%; severe distress 4.8%; anger attacks 38.3%; and paranoid-like symptoms 10.9%. The best fitting LCA yielded three classes comprising those with no or minimal symptoms (86%), a class with anger-paranoia (13%) and a comorbid mental disorder class (1.5%) characterized by PTSD (100%) and severe distress (98%). The comorbid mental disorder class had an over-representation of men, the unemployed, residents in the urban area and persons with the greatest exposure to human rights trauma, murder and health stress. The anger-paranoia class experienced moderate levels of trauma and had an over-representation of urban dwellers, women, and those with higher levels of education. The analysis assists in clarifying the populations with mental disorder and adverse psychosocial reactions in need of intervention in the medium-term following conflict. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Medium-term outcome of recipients of marginal donor hearts selected with new stress-echocardiographic techniques over standard criteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart transplantation is limited by severe donor organ shortage. Regardless of the changes made in the acceptance of marginal donors, any such mechanism cannot be considered successful unless recipient graft survival rates remain acceptable. A stress echo-driven selection of donors has proven successful in older donors with normal left ventricular resting function and in standard donors with reversible resting left ventricular dysfunction acutely improving during stress, or slowly improving (over hours) during intensive hormonal treatment. Aim of this study is to assess the medium-term outcome of recipients of marginal donor hearts selected with new echocardiographic techniques over standard criteria. Methods and results We enrolled 43 recipients of marginal donor hearts: age > 55 years, or < 55 years but with concomitant risk factors, n = 32; acutely improving during stress, n = 3; or slowly improving during hormonal treatment, n = 8. At follow-up (median, 30 months; interquartile range, 21–52 months), 37 of the recipients were still alive. One-year survival was 93%. Conclusion The strict use of new stress-echocardiographic techniques over standard criteria of marginal donor management, together with comprehensive monitoring of the donor, has the potential to substantially increase the number of donor hearts without adverse effects on recipient medium-term outcome. PMID:24935114

  4. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  5. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  6. 77 FR 18251 - Development of Animal Models of Pregnancy To Address Medical Countermeasures for Influenza in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Development of Animal Models of Pregnancy To Address Medical... Research are announcing a 2-day public workshop entitled ``Development of Animal Models of Pregnancy To...-influenza drugs) that may be given during pregnancy. Specifically, this workshop will address experimental...

  7. Addressing risk factors, screening, and preventative treatment for diabetic retinopathy in developing countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Stephanie; Ramulu, Pradeep; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-05-01

    The number of people with diabetic retinopathy (DR) has increased with the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus worldwide, especially in developing countries. In recent years, the successful implementation of public health programs in developed countries has been thought to contribute to decreases in blindness from DR. Developing countries, however, have not seen the same improvements, and their public health interventions still face significant challenges. In this review we describe the current state of public health approaches including risk factor control, screening and treatment techniques for DR in developing countries, and suggest recommendations. While the awareness of DR is variable, specific knowledge about DR is low, such that many patients have already experienced vision loss by the time they are screened. Attempts to improve rates of screening, in particular through non-mydriatic cameras and tele-screening, are ongoing and promising, although challenges include collaboration with healthcare systems and technology failures. Laser treatment is the most readily available, with anti-VEGF therapy and vitreo-retinal surgery increasingly sought after and provided. Recommendations include the use of 'targeted mydriasis' for fundus imaging to address high rates of ungradable images, increased communication with diabetes management services to improve patient retention and mobilization of access to DR treatments.

  8. Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: medial pain and functional outcome in the medium term

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In our experience results of the Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement have not been as good as had been expected. A common post operative complaint is of persistent medial knee discomfort, it is not clear why this phenomenon occurs and we have attempted to address this in our study. Methods 48 patients were retrospectively identified at a mean of 4.5 years (range = 3 to 6 years) following consecutive Oxford medial Unicompartmental Knee arthroplasties for varus anteromedial osteoarthritis. The mean age at implantation was 67 years (range 57-86). Of these 48 patients, 4 had died, 4 had undergone revision of their unicompartmental knee replacements and 2 had been lost to follow up leaving 38 patients with 40 replaced knees available for analysis using the 'new Oxford Knee Score' questionnaire. During assessment patients were asked specifically whether or not they still experienced medial knee discomfort or pain. Results The mean 'Oxford score' was only 32.7 (range = 16 to 48) and 22 of the 40 knees were uncomfortable or painful medially. The accuracy of component positioning was recorded, using standard post operative xrays, by summing the angulation or displacement of each component in two planes from the ideal position (according to the 'Oxford knee system radiographic criteria'). No correlation was demonstrated between the radiographic scores and the 'Oxford scores', or with the presence or absence of medial knee discomfort or pain. Conclusion In our hands the functional outcome following Oxford Unicompartmental knee replacement was variable, with a high incidence of medial knee discomfort which did not correlate with the postoperative radiographic scores, pre-op arthritis and positioning of the prosthesis. PMID:21981987

  9. Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: medial pain and functional outcome in the medium term.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Mark C; Isaac, David; Wijeratna, Malin; Brink, Sean; Gibb, Paul; Skinner, Paul

    2011-10-10

    In our experience results of the Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement have not been as good as had been expected. A common post operative complaint is of persistent medial knee discomfort, it is not clear why this phenomenon occurs and we have attempted to address this in our study. 48 patients were retrospectively identified at a mean of 4.5 years (range = 3 to 6 years) following consecutive Oxford medial Unicompartmental Knee arthroplasties for varus anteromedial osteoarthritis. The mean age at implantation was 67 years (range 57-86). Of these 48 patients, 4 had died, 4 had undergone revision of their unicompartmental knee replacements and 2 had been lost to follow up leaving 38 patients with 40 replaced knees available for analysis using the 'new Oxford Knee Score' questionnaire. During assessment patients were asked specifically whether or not they still experienced medial knee discomfort or pain. The mean 'Oxford score' was only 32.7 (range = 16 to 48) and 22 of the 40 knees were uncomfortable or painful medially.The accuracy of component positioning was recorded, using standard post operative xrays, by summing the angulation or displacement of each component in two planes from the ideal position (according to the 'Oxford knee system radiographic criteria'). No correlation was demonstrated between the radiographic scores and the 'Oxford scores', or with the presence or absence of medial knee discomfort or pain. In our hands the functional outcome following Oxford Unicompartmental knee replacement was variable, with a high incidence of medial knee discomfort which did not correlate with the postoperative radiographic scores, pre-op arthritis and positioning of the prosthesis.

  10. Addressing health disparities in the undergraduate curriculum: an approach to develop a knowledgeable biomedical workforce.

    PubMed

    Benabentos, Rocio; Ray, Payal; Kumar, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in health and healthcare are a major concern in the United States and worldwide. Approaches to alleviate these disparities must be multifaceted and should include initiatives that touch upon the diverse areas that influence the healthcare system. Developing a strong biomedical workforce with an awareness of the issues concerning health disparities is crucial for addressing this issue. Establishing undergraduate health disparities courses that are accessible to undergraduate students in the life sciences is necessary to increase students' understanding and awareness of these issues and motivate them to address these disparities during their careers. The majority of universities do not include courses related to health disparities in their curricula, and only a few universities manage them from their life sciences departments. The figures are especially low for minority-serving institutions, which serve students from communities disproportionally affected by health disparities. Universities should consider several possible approaches to infuse their undergraduate curricula with health disparities courses or activities. Eliminating health disparities will require efforts from diverse stakeholders. Undergraduate institutions can play an important role in developing an aware biomedical workforce and helping to close the gap in health outcomes. © 2014 R. Benabentos et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Characterization of barrier properties and inducible VEGF expression of several types of retinal pigment epithelium in medium-term culture.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Pete; McColm, Janet R; King, Bradley M; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2006-09-01

    levels of VEGF protein in media and cell lysates (777.2; 54.4 pg/mg protein, respectively), whereas hfRPE and D407 produced significantly less (media: 5.7 [p = 0.001], 323.6 pg/mg protein [p = 0.01]; lysate: 0 [p < 0.001], 3.5 pg/mg protein [p < 0.001], respectively). Primary RPE cells and those from cell lines had different responses to medium-term culture or hypoxic stress. Primary isolation of hfRPE cells with careful control of culture conditions to assure adequate differentiation is recommended when using this cell as an example of a highly polarized epithelium. For disease, use of RPE cells that do not require long-term culture are more efficient and may be more relevant to study certain pathologies.

  12. Development of an Internet Intervention to Address Behaviors Associated with Skin Cancer Risk among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn; Darlow, Susan; Munshi, Teja; Caruso, Carolyn; Ritterband, Lee; Raivitch, Stephanie; Fleisher, Linda; Manne, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the US, and its incidence is increasing. The major risk factor for skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV). Young adults tend to expose themselves to large amounts of UV and engage in minimal skin protection, which increases their skin cancer risk. Interventions are needed to address risk behaviors among young adults that may lead to skin cancer. The nternet offers a cost-effective way to widely disseminate efficacious interventions. The current paper describes the development of an online skin cancer risk reduction intervention (UV4.me) for young adults. Procedures The iterative development process for UV4.me followed best-practice guidelines and included the following activities: individual interviews, focus groups, content development by the expert team, acceptability testing, cognitive interviewing for questionnaires, quality control testing, usability testing, and a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participant acceptability and usability feedback was assessed. Principal Results The development process produced an evidence-informed intervention that is individually-tailored, interactive, and multimedia in nature based on the Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction, a model for internet interventions, and other best-practice recommendations, expert input, as well as user acceptability and usability feedback gathered before, during, and after development. Major Conclusions Development of an acceptable intervention intended to have a significant public health impact requires a relatively large investment in time, money, expertise, and ongoing user input. Lessons learned and recommendations are discussed. The comprehensive process used may help prepare others interested in creating similar behavioral health interventions. PMID:26640776

  13. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Roger; MacDonell, Margaret

    2007-07-01

    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  14. Developing a pediatric oral health therapist to help address oral health disparities among children.

    PubMed

    Nash, David A

    2004-01-01

    Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General documented the profound and significant disparities that exist in the oral health of children in the United States. Recently, the country has been issued a National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health, under the leadership of the Office of the Surgeon General. Among the significant factors contributing to the disparities problem is the access to oral health care by disadvantaged populations. There are inadequate numbers of dentists able and willing to treat children, particularly poor and minority children. In the early part of the twentieth century, New Zealand faced a significant problem with oral disease among its children and introduced a School Dental Service staffed by allied dental professionals, known as "school dental nurses," who had received two years training in caring for the teeth of children. A number of other countries have since adopted this model. This article reviews attempts to develop a comparable approach in the United States. Furthermore, it justifies and advocates the development of pediatric oral health therapists in the United States as a means of addressing the disparities problem that exists in this nation. These pediatric oral health therapists would be trained in a two-year program to provide dental care services to children. The article concludes by asserting that such action is a practical and cost-effective way for dentistry to fulfill its professional obligation to care for the oral health of all children, thus ensuring justice in oral health for America's children.

  15. Evolution of a remedial CME course in professionalism: addressing learner needs, developing content, and evaluating outcomes.

    PubMed

    Parran, Theodore V; Pisman, Amy Ross; Youngner, Stuart J; Levine, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Scant information is available about the nature of the professional violations resulting in referral of physicians for remedial continuing medical education (CME). The CME program at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) School of Medicine has developed the Intensive Course in Medical Ethics, Boundaries, and Professionalism (medical ethics course) for physician referrals due to ethical breaches. In this report, the authors present 7 years of data regarding the type of behavior that resulted in course referral as well as information regarding course and outcome evaluation development and participant demographics. The medical ethics course has been designed in consultation with licensure agencies to address the learning needs of physicians with problems in the areas of boundary maintenance and ethics. Teaching methods and outcome evaluations include lectures, case discussions, multiple-choice question tests, skill practice sessions, and writing a reflective essay based on the participants' ethical lapse. Information is also gathered regarding participant demographics, training, and practice characteristics. Between September 2005 and February 2012, 358 learners participated in the course. The average age was 52 years and 73% were board certified. Of the 269 physicians who wrote a reflective essay, the reasons for referral included prescribing of controlled drugs, sexual boundary issues, providing services to family or friends, not maintaining proper medical records, and billing issues. This report outlines the strategies used by CWRU to develop remedial CME courses using the medical ethics course as an example for course and outcome evaluation development. This is the first report characterizing the type and frequency of the medical ethics violations that result in mandatory participation in remedial CME. Copyright © 2013 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME

  16. Evaluation of the medium-term outcomes and impact of the Rowan Nicks Scholarship Programme.

    PubMed

    Masterton, John P; Moss, Daliah; Korin, Stephanie J; Watters, David A K

    2014-03-01

    Rowan Nicks was a cardiothoracic surgeon in Sydney. He endowed the Rowan Nicks Scholarship Programme of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, which was initiated in 1991 to provide opportunities for clinicians from developing countries so that they return to their countries as leaders and teachers. This paper's objective was to evaluate the outcomes and impact of the scholarship on individuals and their communities. A survey was undertaken of 34 eligible scholars of whom 29 participated. It was directed at whether objectives were achieved in technical skills, patient management and in competency in research and leadership. Ninety-eight per cent of scholars returned to work in their home country. Twenty-eight of 29 were working in their chosen specialty and had returned to their former positions. The clinical/operative skills obtained were regarded as useful by 86%, and 22/29 (76%) scholars reported they had gained worthwhile leadership and administrative skills. Improved clinical outcomes for patients were achieved as evidenced by reduced mortality and less disability. There was also a positive impact on health systems. The best documented of these were improved trauma management, development of paediatric surgery in rural Bangladesh, a new cardiac unit in Myanmar, organ transplantation and better injury outcomes in Papua New Guinea. The programme has resulted in potential and actual leaders returning to their home countries where they positively impacted on health and surgical services. This has resulted in a reduced burden of surgical disease in the scholars' countries as measured by less death, disability and deformity. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  17. Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takashi; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Tsutsui, Tatsuo

    2013-02-01

    The MERA monopivot centrifugal pump has been developed for use in open-heart surgery, circulatory support, and bridge-to-decision for up to 4 weeks. The pump has a closed-type, 50-mm diameter impeller with four straight paths. The impeller is supported by a monopivot bearing and is driven by a radial-flux magnet-coupling motor. Because flow visualization experiments have clarified sufficient pivot wash and stagnation at the sharp corner of the pivot support was suggested, sharp corners were removed in the design stage. The index of hemolysis of the pump operating at more than 200 mm Hg was found to be lower than that of a commercial pump. Four-week animal tests were then conducted two times; improvement of thrombus formation was seen in the female pivot through modification of female pivot geometry. Overall antithrombogenicity was also recorded. Finally, to assure mid-term use, an additional 4-week durability test revealed that the rate of the axial pivot wear was as small as 1.1 µm/day. The present in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump has sufficient hemocompatibility and durability for up to 4 weeks.

  18. Medium-term predictions of cumulative runoff in a Mediterranean mountain river.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliver, Zacarías; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    It is important to find patterns and hidden connections between data to assess the development of decision-making tools for water management. The climate variability of the Mediterranean environments makes it necessary the establishment of methodological/hydrological frameworks that allow us to limit the uncertainty on the decision for further periods within the year, and thus achieve better resource utilization. For that, a study of different machine learning methods has been applied in a Mediterranean mountainous basin in South Spain, by means of an ensemble classification and regression approach to predict the river flow volumes for further periods on a quarterly scale. The predictions are made within the same hydrological year and under two different time schemes, after three (A-scheme) and six months (B-scheme), testing the further periods. The study was carried out with the longest streamflow time series registered in the basin (43 years), collected at a high mountain gauge station (Narila, 975 metres above sea level) in the Guadalfeo River. This station is located in the upstream part of the river (with an associated 67 km2 contributing area), where there are not significant human alterations of the natural hydrological cycle (withdrawals or discharges) and with a strong influence of the snow regime. The set of selected predictors for the river water volumes includes cumulated runoff, cumulated rainfall and the average of different Climate indexes. The results show that the nature of future periods can be classified accurately in our study case by the methods proposed, classifying correctly more than 90 % of the values during the testing period.

  19. Medium-term outcomes following limb salvage for severe open tibia fracture are similar to trans-tibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Penn-Barwell, J G; Myatt, R W; Bennett, P M; Sargeant, I D

    2015-02-01

    Extremity injuries define the surgical burden of recent conflicts. Current literature is inconclusive when assessing the merits of limb salvage over amputation. The aim of this study was to determine medium term functional outcomes in military casualties undergoing limb salvage for severe open tibia fractures, and compare them to equivalent outcomes for unilateral trans-tibial amputees. Cases of severe open diaphyseal tibia fractures sustained in combat between 2006 and 2010, as described in a previously published series, were contacted. Consenting individuals conducted a brief telephone interview and were asked to complete a SF-36 questionnaire. These results were compared to a similar cohort of 18 military patients who sustained a unilateral trans-tibial amputation between 2004 and 2010. Forty-nine patients with 57 severe open tibia fractures met the inclusion criteria. Telephone follow-up and SF-36 questionnaire data was available for 30 patients (61%). The median follow-up was 4 years (49 months, IQR 39-63). Ten of the 30 patients required revision surgery, three of which involved conversion from initial fixation to a circular frame for non- or mal-union. Twenty-two of the 30 patients (73%) recovered sufficiently to complete an age-standardised basic military fitness test. The median physical component score of SF-36 in the limb salvage group was 46 (IQR 35-54) which was similar to the trans-tibial amputation cohort (p=0.3057, Mann-Whitney). Similarly there was no difference in mental component scores between the limb salvage and amputation groups (p=0.1595, Mann-Whitney). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients in either the amputation or limb salvage group reporting pain (p=0.1157, Fisher's exact test) or with respect to SF-36 physical pain scores (p=0.5258, Mann-Whitney). This study demonstrates that medium term outcomes for military patients are similar following trans-tibial amputation or limb salvage following combat trauma.

  20. Diphenylarsinic acid exerts promotion effects on hepatobiliary carcinogenesis in a rat medium-term multiorgan carcinogenicity bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Naomi; Gi, Min; Fujioka, Masaki; Yamano, Shotaro; Okumura, Mai; Kakehashi, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) promotes liver carcinogenesis in rats in a medium-term liver carcinogenicity bioassay. However, the effects of DPAA on other organs have not been determined. In the present study, the effects of DPAA on carcinogenesis were investigated using a rat multiorgan carcinogenicity bioassay. A total of 60 six-week-old male F344 rats were treated with the carcinogens diethylnitrosamine, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, N-bis (2-hydroxypropyl) nitrosamine, and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride to initiate carcinogenesis in multiple organs. After initiation, DPAA was given at a dose of 0, 5, or 20 ppm in drinking water for 27 weeks. The incidences of moderate and severe bile duct hyperplasia were significantly increased in the 20 ppm DPAA group (29.4%, 70.6%, respectively) compared with the 0 ppm DPAA group (0%, 0%, respectively), and the incidence and multiplicity of cholangioma were significantly increased in the 20 ppm DPAA group (29.4%, 0.4 ± 0.8/rat) compared with the 0 ppm DPAA group (0%, 0/rat). The total number and average area of glutathione S-transferase placenta form-positive foci, preneoplastic lesions in rat livers, were significantly increased in the 20 ppm DPAA group (10.5 ± 2.2/cm2, 5.3 ± 1.7 mm2/cm2) compared with the 0 ppm DPAA group (6.2 ± 2.9/cm2, 2.4 ± 1.4 mm2/cm2). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that DPAA promotes hepatobiliary carcinogenesis in a rat medium-term multiorgan carcinogenicity bioassay; no promotion effects were observed in other organs. PMID:28190923

  1. Enhancement of preneoplastic lesion yield by Chios Mastic Gum in a rat liver medium-term carcinogenesis bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Kenichiro Wei, Min; Kitano, Mitsuaki; Uematsu, Naomi; Inoue, Masayo; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    The mastic (Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) tree is native throughout the Mediterranean region and has long proved a source of food additives and medical treatments. To investigate the modifying effects of Chios Mastic Gum on rat liver carcinogenesis, 6-week-old male F344 rats were subjected to the established rat liver medium-term carcinogenesis bioassay (Ito-test). At the commencement, rats (groups 1-4) were intraperitoneally injected with 200 mg/kg body weight of diethylnitrosamine (DEN). After two weeks, mastic was added to CRF (Charles River Formula)-1 powdered basal diet at doses of 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1% in groups 1-4, respectively. At week 3, all rats were underwent two-thirds partial hepatectomy. The experiment was terminated at week 8. As results show, liver weights were significantly increased in a mastic dose-dependent manner among groups 1-4. The numbers (/cm{sup 2}) and the areas (mm{sup 2}/cm{sup 2}) of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive cell foci ({>=} 0.2 mm in diameter) were significantly increased in the DEN-1% group compared to the DEN-alone group, along with the average areas per foci and larger-sized foci ({>=} 0.4 mm). 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) + GST-P double-immunohistochemistry showed the highest BrdU-labeling indices within GST-P foci in the DEN-1% group. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in liver DNA did not vary, while real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of livers revealed many up- or down-regulated genes in the DEN-1% group. In conclusion, this is the first report to display a promotion potential of Chios Mastic Gum on the formation of preneoplastic lesions in the established rat liver medium-term carcinogenesis bioassay.

  2. [Medium-term results of a Day Hospital insulin therapy program for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Quirós, Carmen; Amor, Antonio J; de Hollanda, Ana M; Yago, Gemma; Ara, Pilar; Conget, Ignacio

    2014-03-20

    The profile of the patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) who requires insulin therapy is very diverse as are the results of this intervention and short/middle-term patient management. We evaluated the midterm results of an outpatient program starting insulin therapy with≥2 insulin injections/day in terms of metabolic control in different groups of patients. We analyzed prospectively 131 patients with DM2, without previous insulin treatment, who were prescribed treatment with≥2 insulin injections/day and who were enrolled in a specific ambulatory program in order to start insulin therapy in a Day Hospital for 6 months. The initial glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was 11.3 (2.3) % and decreased to 6.3 (1.4) % in 6 months, with HbA1c<7% in 72.5% of them. The group of recently diagnosed patients (<3 months, symptomatic severe hyperglycemia, D-group) were younger (57.1 [10.8] vs 64.2 [12.1] years; P<.01) and had a higher starting HbA1c (12.1 [1.8] vs 10.5 [2.5] %; P<.001) than patients included in the program for oral antidiabetic drugs' failure (F-group). At the end of the program 50% of D-group patients did not need insulin (6.3% on F-group [P<.001]). There were no significant differences in either of 2 groups at study ends according to the final treatment scheme. Counselling patients with DM2 to start insulin with more than one injection per day in Day Hospital setting achieves and maintains a good metabolic control in the medium term in different patient profiles. Among symptomatic and recently diagnosed patients, insulin therapy can be stopped in 50% of them at the medium term. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Novel In Vivo Chemical Probes to Address CNS Protein Kinase Involvement in Synaptic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, D. Martin; Grum-Tokars, Valerie L.; Roy, Saktimayee M.; Schavocky, James P.; Bradaric, Brinda Desai; Bachstetter, Adam D.; Xing, Bin; Dimayuga, Edgardo; Saeed, Faisal; Zhang, Hong; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Pelletier, Jeffrey C.; Minasov, George; Anderson, Wayne F.; Arancio, Ottavio; Van Eldik, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Serine-threonine protein kinases are critical to CNS function, yet there is a dearth of highly selective, CNS-active kinase inhibitors for in vivo investigations. Further, prevailing assumptions raise concerns about whether single kinase inhibitors can show in vivo efficacy for CNS pathologies, and debates over viable approaches to the development of safe and efficacious kinase inhibitors are unsettled. It is critical, therefore, that these scientific challenges be addressed in order to test hypotheses about protein kinases in neuropathology progression and the potential for in vivo modulation of their catalytic activity. Identification of molecular targets whose in vivo modulation can attenuate synaptic dysfunction would provide a foundation for future disease-modifying therapeutic development as well as insight into cellular mechanisms. Clinical and preclinical studies suggest a critical link between synaptic dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders and the activation of p38αMAPK mediated signaling cascades. Activation in both neurons and glia also offers the unusual potential to generate enhanced responses through targeting a single kinase in two distinct cell types involved in pathology progression. However, target validation has been limited by lack of highly selective inhibitors amenable to in vivo use in the CNS. Therefore, we employed high-resolution co-crystallography and pharmacoinformatics to design and develop a novel synthetic, active site targeted, CNS-active, p38αMAPK inhibitor (MW108). Selectivity was demonstrated by large-scale kinome screens, functional GPCR agonist and antagonist analyses of off-target potential, and evaluation of cellular target engagement. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that MW108 ameliorates beta-amyloid induced synaptic and cognitive dysfunction. A serendipitous discovery during co-crystallographic analyses revised prevailing models about active site targeting of inhibitors, providing insights that will

  4. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs.

  5. Addressing the needs for international training, qualifications, and career development in occupational hygiene.

    PubMed

    Alesbury, Roger J; Bailey, Stephen R

    2014-03-01

    Thirteen member societies of the International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA), all 11 national certification bodies, and IOHA itself are now cooperating in a new international training and qualification system. The structure broadens access to occupational hygiene education and training worldwide and complements existing professional accreditation schemes. There are currently 46 Approved Training Providers in the scheme and up to the end of June 2013, approaching 200 courses had been delivered in more than 32 countries, with nearly 2400 examinations taken in 7 languages. This influx of students, particularly in developing countries, is helping to address the worldwide need to combat occupational illness and is creating the foundation for sustainable growth in provision of occupational hygiene globally. The scheme originated in 2006, when the authors were instrumental in bringing together a group of senior hygienists to review the needs of industry. The resulting position paper, reflecting the perspective of major multi-national companies, was subject to widespread consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from across the world. This led to the formation of the Occupational Hygiene Training Association (OHTA), as a not-for-profit organization, to operate the system. It is accessible through the OHlearning website that provides free downloads of educational materials and details of training events. In this commentary, we outline the needs that brought this about, identify the key stakeholders involved, review what has been done so far, and discuss some plans for the future.

  6. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs. PMID:26594252

  7. An Adaptation Strategy to Address Sea Level Rise Along Coastal Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Historic tidal records indicate that mean sea level in San Francisco Bay has risen at a rate of about 2 mm/yr over the past 100 years. Over the past 20 years, the annual rate has accelerated to about 3 mm/yr. Recent climate change studies related to greenhouse gas emissions indicate that sea levels could rise much faster than even this rate, which would have a significant effect on coastal communities. Several communities in the San Francisco Bay area, which were not mapped to be within a flood zone by FEMA, are now prone to flooding due to rising sea levels. There is a significant amount of uncertainty associated with quantifying the rate of sea level change because climate change science is still evolving and feedback loops such as temperature-ice melt, temperature-sea levels, and CO2-temperature are still under investigation. Therefore, the traditional engineering approach to solving a problem, which includes defining the problem, assessing existing conditions, analyzing data, and developing solutions is difficult when addressing climate change induced sea level change. This paper describes work completed for two major proposed communities in the City of San Francisco. Peer-reviewed literature included the body of work by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, US federal and state agencies, and scientific papers by academia. Rates of sea level rise were statistically analyzed using the end values and start or end rates specified in the studies. Probabilistic analyses of extreme values using Generalized Extreme Value Distributions (GEVD) and the Maximum Likelihood Approach were completed to develop extreme values for water levels including the effects of astronomical tides, storm events, ocean swell events, and tsunami events. These values were subsequently combined with sea level rise estimates, and various scenarios of required coastal improvements were developed for discussions with stakeholders and project developers. Based on the analysis and

  8. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2010-06-16

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad

  9. High incidence of osteochondral lesions after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced ankle fractures: Medium-term follow-up of 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Regier, Marc; Petersen, Jan Philipp; Hamurcu, Ahmet; Vettorazzi, Eik; Behzadi, Cyrus; Hoffmann, Michael; Großterlinden, Lars G; Fensky, Florian; Klatte, Till Orla; Weiser, Lukas; Rueger, Johannes M; Spiro, Alexander S

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of osteochondral lesions (OCLs) in association with displaced ankle fractures has only been examined in two previous studies. In both studies magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed prior to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Because MRI may overdiagnose or overestimate the extent of OCLs in an acute trauma setting the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of OCLs after ORIF of displaced ankle fractures using MRI at medium-term follow-up, and to analyse if the severity of fracture or the clinical outcome correlates with the incidence of OCLs. Following institutional review board approval a total of 100 patients (mean age, 41.3 years; range, 17.9-64.3 years) with a displaced ankle fracture who had undergone ORIF according to the AO principles were included in this study. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score was used to quantify the clinical outcome and MR images were evaluated for OCLs of the talus and distal tibia after a mean of 34.5 months (range, 17.5-54.1 months). OCLs were found in 40.4% of the patients. Logistic regression revealed a significant correlation between the severity of fracture and the incidence of OCLs. Patients with a trimalleolar fracture (p=0.04) or an ankle fracture dislocation (p=0.003) had a significantly higher risk for developing an OCL compared to those with a type B fracture. Logistic regression also demonstrated a significant correlation between the clinical outcome (AOFAS score) and the incidence of OCLs (p=0.01). The risk for developing an OCL increases up to 5.6% when the AOFAS score decreases by one point. OCLs were frequently found in association with acute ankle fractures at medium-term follow-up, and the severity of fracture was associated with an increased number of OCLs. Considering the disadvantages of MRI including the high cost and limited availability, the results of this study may help to explain why anatomic surgical realignment of displaced

  10. Novel developments in benthic modelling to address scientific and policy challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Artioli, Yuri; Bruggeman, Jorn; Aldridge, John; Blackford, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of benthic systems in supporting, regulating and providing marine ecosystem services requires better understanding of their functioning and their response and resilience to stressors. Novel observational methods for the investigation of dynamics of benthic-pelagic coupling in shelf seas are being developed and new data is being collected. Therefore there is an increasing demand for robust representation of benthic processes in marine biogeochemical and ecosystem models, which would improve our understanding of whole systems and benthic-pelagic coupling, rather than act as mere closure terms for pelagic models. However, for several decades development of benthic models has lagged behind their pelagic counterparts. To address contemporary scientific, policy and societal challenges, the biogeochemical and ecological model ERSEM (European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model), including its benthic sub-model, was recently recoded in a scalable and modular format adopting the approach of FABM (Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models). Within the Shelf Sea Biogeochemistry research programme, a series of additional processes have been included, such as a sedimentary carbonate system, a resuspendable fluff layer, and the simulation of advective sediments. It was shown that the inclusion of these processes changes the dynamics of benthic-pelagic fluxes as well as modifying the benthic food web. Comparison of model results with in-situ data demonstrated a general improvement of model performance and highlighted the importance of the benthic system in overall ecosystem dynamics. As an example, our simulations have shown that inclusion of a resuspendable fluff layer facilitates regeneration of inorganic nutrients in the water column due to degradation of resuspended organic material by pelagic bacteria. Moreover, the composition of fluff was found to be important for trophic interactions, and therefore indirectly affects benthic community composition. Where

  11. AAPS workshop report: strategies to address therapeutic protein-drug interactions during clinical development.

    PubMed

    Girish, Sandhya; Martin, Steven W; Peterson, Mark C; Zhang, Lei K; Zhao, Hong; Balthasar, Joseph; Evers, Raymond; Zhou, Honghui; Zhu, Min; Klunk, Lewis; Han, Chao; Berglund, Eva Gil; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Joshi, Amita

    2011-09-01

    Therapeutic proteins (TPs) are increasingly combined with small molecules and/or with other TPs. However preclinical tools and in vitro test systems for assessing drug interaction potential of TPs such as monoclonal antibodies, cytokines and cytokine modulators are limited. Published data suggests that clinically relevant TP-drug interactions (TP-DI) are likely from overlap in mechanisms of action, alteration in target and/or drug-disease interaction. Clinical drug interaction studies are not routinely conducted for TPs because of the logistical constraints in study design to address pharmacokinetic (PK)- and pharmacodynamic (PD)-based interactions. Different pharmaceutical companies have developed their respective question- and/or risk-based approaches for TP-DI based on the TP mechanism of action as well as patient population. During the workshop both company strategies and regulatory perspectives were discussed in depth using case studies; knowledge gaps and best practices were subsequently identified and discussed. Understanding the functional role of target, target expression and their downstream consequences were identified as important for assessing the potential for a TP-DI. Therefore, a question-and/or risk-based approach based upon the mechanism of action and patient population was proposed as a reasonable TP-DI strategy. This field continues to evolve as companies generate additional preclinical and clinical data to improve their understanding of possible mechanisms for drug interactions. Regulatory agencies are in the process of updating their recommendations to sponsors regarding the conduct of in vitro and in vivo interaction studies for new drug applications (NDAs) and biologics license applications (BLAs).

  12. Medium-Term Outcomes Following Endovascular Repair of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms with an Unfavourable Proximal Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Prakash Hughes, John Patel, Ashish S. Donati, Tommaso Sallam, Morad Patel, Sanjay D. Bell, Rachel E.; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Modarai, Bijan Zayed, Hany A.

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to evaluate medium-term outcomes following endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) with unfavourable neck anatomy using stent grafts with a 36 mm or larger proximal diameter.Materials and MethodsA retrospective review of 27 patients who underwent elective EVAR between 2006 and 2008 using a stent graft with a 36 mm or larger proximal diameter was carried out. All patients had computed tomography angiography (CTA) for procedure planning, and detailed assessment of the aneurysm neck was performed using a three-dimensional CTA workstation. Patients were followed up with CTA at 3 and 12 months and annual duplex thereafter.ResultsThe median aneurysm diameter was 7 cm, and the median aneurysm neck diameter was 31 mm. Cook Zenith stent grafts were used in all patients, with a proximal diameter of 36 mm (n = 25) and 40 mm (n = 2). Primary and assisted primary technical success rates were 74 and 93 %, respectively. The follow-up period ranged from 62 to 84 months, with a median of 72 months. 15 patients died during follow-up. Two patients died from aortic rupture, and the remaining patients died from cardiac disease (n = 4), chest sepsis (n = 6), cancer (n = 2) and renal failure (n = 1). Complications included type I endoleak (n = 5), limb occlusion (n = 2), limb stenosis (n = 2), limb kinking (n = 1), dissection of an artery (n = 1), occlusion of a femorofemoral cross-over graft (n = 1) and poor attachment of a distal limb (n = 1).ConclusionsEVAR using stent grafts in the presence of an unfavourable neck has a high risk of complications. Medium-term survival in this group is low but mainly due to patient co-morbidities.

  13. Medium-term post-Katrina health sequelae among New Orleans residents: predictors of poor mental and physical health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Son Chae; Plumb, Ruth; Gredig, Quynh-Nga; Rankin, Larry; Taylor, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    To assess the medium-term post-Katrina mental and physical health of New Orleans residents and to determine demographic, social and environmental factors that predict poor mental and physical health. Major disasters can have a negative impact on the health of survivors for prolonged periods. Although the initial and short-term impacts of Hurricane Katrina have been well described, the medium-term impacts have not been studied as thoroughly. Cross-sectional survey. A convenience sample (n = 222) of residents in Gentilly area of New Orleans completed questionnaires between 16 and 18 December 2006. Multivariate logistic regression and multiple regression models were employed to determine predictors of poor mental and physical health. Poor mental health was reported by 52% of the respondents. Pre-Katrina depression [odds ratio (OR) = 19.1], post-Katrina depression (OR = 7.2), poor physical health (OR = 5.6), feeling unsafe from crime (OR = 4.3) and female gender (OR = 2.6) were significant predictor variables of poor mental health. Twenty-four percent of the variance in number of days of poor mental health was explained by the independent variables (R(2) = 0.24; p < 0.001). Poor physical health was reported by 48% of the respondents. Poor mental health (OR = 3.9), lack of money to buy food (OR = 2.7) and pre-Katrina arthritis (OR = 2.6) were significant predictor variables of poor physical health. Twenty-three percent of the variance in number of days of poor physical health was explained by the independent variables (R(2) = 0.23; p < 0.001). Approximately half of the New Orleans residents continue to experience poor mental and physical health 15 months after Katrina. The results support focusing post-Katrina efforts to protect residents from crime, improve mental health services to the depressed and improve food supply to the poor. Identifying predictors of poor mental and physical health may help clinicians and policy makers to focus their efforts in ameliorating the

  14. Impact of Parkinson's disease on the acute care treatment and medium-term functional outcome in geriatric hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Bliemel, Christopher; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Eschbach, Daphne-Asimenia; Lechler, Philipp; Balzer-Geldsetzer, Monika; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Buecking, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a heightened risk of sustaining hip fractures due to disturbed balance and gait insecurity. This study aims to determine the impact of PD on the perioperative course and medium-term functional outcome of patients with hip fractures. A total of 402 hip fracture patients, aged ≥60 years, were prospectively enrolled. On admission, the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Barthel Index (BI), among other scales, were documented. The Hoehn and Yahr scale was used to assess the severity of PD. The functional outcome was assessed by performance on the BI, Tinetti test (TT), and Timed Up and Go test (TUG) at discharge and at the 6-month follow-up. Additionally, the length of hospitalization, perioperative complications, and discharge management were documented. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to control for influencing factors. A total of 19 patients (4.7%) had a concomitant diagnosis of PD. The functional outcome (BI, TT, and TUG) was comparable between groups (all p > 0.05). Grade II (52.6 vs. 26.1%; OR = 4.304, p = 0.008) and IV complications (15.8 vs. 4.4%; OR = 7.785, p = 0.012) occurred significantly more often among PD patients. While the diagnosis of PD was associated with a significantly longer mean length of hospital stay (β = 0.119, p = 0.024), the transfer from acute hospital care showed no significant difference (p = 0.246). Patients with an additional diagnosis of PD had inferior results in BI at the 6-month follow-up (p = 0.038). PD on hospital admission is not an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality or an inferior functional outcome at hospital discharge. However, patients with PD are at risk for specific complications and longer hospitalization at the time of transfer from acute care so as for reduced abilities in activities of daily living in the medium term.

  15. Peyton's 4-Steps-Approach in comparison: Medium-term effects on learning external chest compression – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Münster, Tobias; Stosch, Christoph; Hindrichs, Nina; Franklin, Jeremy; Matthes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The external chest compression is a very important skill required to maintain a minimum of circulation during cardiac arrest until further medical procedures can be taken. Peyton’s 4-Steps-Approach is one method of skill training, the four steps being: Demonstration, Deconstruction, Comprehension and Execution. Based on CPR skill training, this method is widely, allegedly predominantly used, although there are insufficient studies on Peyton’s 4-Steps-Approach for skill training in CPR in comparison with other methods of skill training. In our study, we compared the medium- term effects on learning external chest compression with a CPR training device in three different groups: PEY (Peyton’s 4-Steps-Approach), PMOD (Peyton’s 4-Steps-Approach without Step 3) and STDM, the standard model, according to the widely spread method “see one, do one” (this is equal to Peyton’s step 1 and 3). Material and Methods: This prospective and randomised pilot study took place during the summer semester of 2009 at the SkillsLab and Simulation Centre of the University of Cologne (Kölner interprofessionelles Skills Lab und Simulationszentrum - KISS). The subjects were medical students (2nd and 3rd semester). They volunteered for the study and were randomised in three parallel groups, each receiving one of the teaching methods mentioned above. One week and 5/6 months after the intervention, an objective, structured single assessment was taken. Compression rate, compression depth, correct compressions, and the sum of correct checklist items were recorded. Additionally, we compared cumulative percentages between the groups based on the correct implementation of the resuscitation guidelines during that time. Results: The examined sample consisted of 134 subjects (68% female; age 22±4; PEY: n=62; PMOD: n=31; STDM: n=41). There was no difference between the groups concerning age, gender, pre-existing experience in CPR or time of last CPR course. The only

  16. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods: To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results: Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001) and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58) respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001). On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001), was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the

  17. Research and Technology Development Activities to Address the DOE-EM Environmental Mercury Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M; Peterson, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Technology Development Program, Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR), and EM s Minority Serving Institutions Partnership Program. Collectively, these multi-institutional and multidisciplinary programs are generating new tools, knowledge, and remediation approaches that will enable efficient cleanup of mercury contaminated systems locally and globally. In this talk we will highlight the progress made to date in addressing key knowledge gaps required to solve this watershed-scale conundrum.

  18. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-03-01

    Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001) and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58) respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001). On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001), was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the analysis of locally relevant, actionable

  19. CenteringPregnancy-Africa: a pilot of group antenatal care to address Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Patil, Crystal L; Abrams, Elizabeth T; Klima, Carrie; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Leshabari, Sebalda C; Vonderheid, Susan C; Kamanga, Martha; Norr, Kathleen F

    2013-10-01

    severe health worker shortages and resource limitations negatively affect quality of antenatal care (ANC) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Group ANC, specifically CenteringPregnancy (CP), may offer an innovative approach to enable midwives to offer higher quality ANC. our overarching goal was to prepare to conduct a clinical trial of CenteringPregnancy-Africa (CP-Africa) in Malawi and Tanzania. In Phase 1, our goal was to determine the acceptability of CP as a model for ANC in both countries. In Phase 2, our objective was to develop CP-Africa session content consistent with the Essential Elements of CP model and with national standards in both Malawi and Tanzania. In Phase 3, our objective was to pilot CP-Africa in Malawi to determine whether sessions could be conducted with fidelity to the Centering process. Phases 1 and 2 took place in Malawi and Tanzania. Phase 3, the piloting of two sessions of CP-Africa, occurred at two sites in Malawi: a district hospital and a small clinic. we used an Action Research approach to promote partnerships among university researchers, the Centering Healthcare Institute, health care administrators, health professionals and women attending ANC to develop CP-Africa session content and pilot this model of group ANC. for Phases 1 and 2, members of the Ministries of Health, health professionals and pregnant women in Malawi and Tanzania were introduced to and interviewed about CP. In Phase 2, we finalised CP-Africa content and trained 13 health professionals in the Centering Healthcare model. In Phase 3, we conducted a small pilot with 24 pregnant women (12 at each site). participants enthusiastically embraced CP-Africa as an acceptable model of ANC health care delivery. The CP-Africa content met both CP and national standards. The pilot established that the CP model could be implemented with process fidelity to the 13 Essential Elements. Several implementation challenges and strategies to address these challenges were identified

  20. CENTERING PREGANCY- AFRICA: A PILOT OF GROUP ANTENATAL CARE TO ADDRESS MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Crystal L.; Abrams, Elizabeth T.; Klima, Carrie; Kaponda, Chrissie P.N.; Leshabari, Sebalda C.; Vonderheid, Susan C.; Kamaga, Martha; Norr, Kathleen F.

    2013-01-01

    challenges and strategies to address these challenges were identified. Key Conclusions Preliminary data suggest that CP-Africa is feasible in resource-constrained, low-literacy, high-HIV settings in sub-Saharan Africa. By improving the quality of ANC delivery, midwives have an opportunity to make a contribution towards Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targeting improvements in child, maternal and HIV-related health outcomes (MDGs 4, 5 and 6). A clinical trial is needed to establish efficacy. Implications for Practice CP-Africa also has the potential to reduce job-related stress and enhance job satisfaction for midwives in low income countries. If CP can be transferred with fidelity to process in sub-Saharan Africa and retain similar results to those reported in clinical trials, it has the potential to benefit pregnant women and their infants and could make a positive contribution to MGDs 4, 5 and .6. PMID:23871278

  1. Medium-term results of Mini-arc for urinary stress incontinence in ambulatory patients under local anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Almog; Nasra, Rasha; Shachar, Inbar Ben; Braun, Naama Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the medium-term outcome and patient's satisfaction after Single-incision mini-sling (SIMS) procedure done under local anesthesia in ambulatory set up for patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study, including all patients submitted to SIMS procedure for SUI with MiniArc (AMS, U.S.A) without concomitant surgery between January 2011 and March 2013. Patients were followed up during 12 months after surgery and once a year subsequently. Telephone interviews were conducted to evaluate patient satisfaction. Outcome masseurs included: SUI cure rate, urinary urge incontinence (UUI) cure rate in patients with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI), intra and post-operative complications and patient satisfaction. Results Ninety-three patients were included with mean follow-up of 23 months. Fifty percent had MUI with predominant SUI. The cure rates of SUI (objective and subjective) were 89%. UUI was cured in 40% of patients. No major complications occur, neither voiding obstruction or groin pain. Telephone interviews conducted after 26 months on average revealed high satisfaction rate from the procedure (8.8 out of 10) and from the local anesthesia. Visual analog scale (VAS) rating was low during and after the procedure (2.38 and 2.69 respectively). Conclusions The SIMS procedure is safe and highly effective for SUI and it can be performed successfully under local anesthesia in an ambulatory setup. PMID:27813384

  2. Medium-term comparison of uterus preservation versus hysterectomy in pelvic organ prolapse treatment with Prolift™ mesh.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Yi; Chu, Li-Ching; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chuang, Fei-Chi; Kung, Fu-Tsai; Huang, Kuan-Hui

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a medium-term assessment of clinical outcomes and complications after surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) using Prolift™ mesh, and sought to determine whether concomitant hysterectomy clinically influenced the outcome of pelvic reconstruction in patients without a prior history of urogenital surgery. Patients diagnosed with POP-Q stage 3/4 uterine prolapse at a tertiary referral urogynecology unit in South Taiwan who had undergone POP repair with Prolift mesh from May 2007 to July 2010 were identified by chart review. Concomitant hysterectomy was performed in 24 patients (hysterectomy group), and uterus-sparing surgery in 78 (uterus-sparing group) Preoperative and postoperative subjective assessments of urinary and prolapse symptoms, objective POP-Q score, urodynamic examination, and postoperative adverse events were compared between the groups. The mean follow-up periods were 25.7 months (range 6.2 - 73.1 months) and 31.7 months (range 6.0 - 78.4 months) in the concomitant hysterectomy and uterus-sparing groups, respectively. There were no between-group differences in functional and anatomic outcomes after surgery. No statistically significant differences were found in postoperative adverse events between the groups. Pelvic reconstruction using Prolift with concomitant hysterectomy and uterus-sparing surgery have similar anatomic and functional results at 2.5 years. Therefore, we consider uterus-sparing surgery to be an alternative to hysterectomy in uterine prolapse repair.

  3. Chemopreventive activity of apple extract following medium-term oral carcinogenesis assay induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávia Andressa Pidone; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Gollucke, Andrea Pitelli Boiago; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Aguiar, Odair; Spadari, Regina Celia; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive activity of an apple extract following medium-term oral carcinogenesis assay induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). A total of 30 male Wistar rats were distributed into five groups as follows (n=6 per group): Group 1, negative control group (non-treated group); Group 2, received 4NQO during 8 weeks in drinking water and treated with apple extract at 1% by gavage between the first and fourth weeks daily (initiation phase); Group 3, received 4NQO for 8 weeks in drinking water and treated with apple extract by gavage at 1% between the fifth and eighth weeks daily (promotion phase); Group 4, received apple extract at 1% by gavage for 8 consecutive weeks only; and Group 5, received 4NQO for 8 weeks in drinking water daily. Histopathological analysis revealed decreased hyperplasic lesions in Group 2 when compared with Group 5. Likewise, decreased dysplastic lesions in Group 3 were observed when compared with Group 5. In Groups 2 and 3, decreased COX-2 and TNF-alpha gene expressions were observed when compared with Group 5. Cytochrome c and caspase 3 levels increased in Groups 2 and 3 when compared with Group 5. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that apple extract suppresses rat tongue carcinogenesis as a result of anti-inflammatory activity and apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stress related to chlorpyrifos exposure in rainbow trout: Acute and medium term effects on genetic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Squadrone, S; Scanzio, T; Righetti, M; Gasco, L; Prearo, M; Abete, M C

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are derivatives of phosphoric acid widely used in agriculture as pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an OP that is extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is considered as a sentinel model species for ecotoxicology assessment in freshwater ecosystems. An exposure study was carried out on rainbow trout to investigate genetic responses to CPF-induced oxidative stress by Real-Time PCR, and to determine the accumulation dynamics of CPF and toxic metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-ox) in edible parts, by HPLC-MS/MS. Among the genes considered to be related to oxidative stress, a significant increase in HSP70 mRNA levels was observed in liver samples up to 14 days after CPF exposure (0.05 mg/L). CPF concentrations in muscle samples reach mean values of 285.25 ng/g within 96 hours of exposure, while CPF-ox concentrations were always under the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the applied method. Our findings lead us to consider HSP70 as a suitable genetic marker in rainbow trout for acute and medium-term monitoring of CPF exposure, complementary to analytical determinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Medium-Term Variability of the Human Serum Metabolome in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan; Yu, Bing; Alexander, Danny; Couper, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Metabolomics is a systems biology tool providing small molecule signatures of disease etiology. In order to estimate the biologic variability of the human serum metabolome, this study calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for 178 stably-detected metabolites measured by untargeted chromatography/mass spectrometry. We studied a subsample of 60 participants (57% males, 70% Caucasians, aged 73.77±5.3 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who provided two fasting serum samples 4–6 weeks apart. The median ICC across all metabolites was 0.60, and 82% of metabolites had at least fair variability (i.e., ICC>= 0.40). There was variation in the medium-term variability among metabolites, with those in the pathways of amino acid and lipid metabolism showing relatively high ICCs, and those in the carbohydrate pathway showing relatively low ICCs. The results of this study provide a valuable resource for future study design and outcome interpretation of mass spectrometry-based metabolomic studies in epidemiology. PMID:24910946

  6. Medium-term outcomes after combined trachelectomy and uterosacral ligament suspension among young women with severe uterine prolapse.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhixing; Zhu, Lan; Hu, Huiying; Lang, Jinghe; Shi, Honghui; Gong, Xiaoming

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate anatomic and sexual outcomes among young women with severe pelvic organ prolapse undergoing combined trachelectomy and laparoscopic high uterosacral ligament suspension (LHUS). In a prospective study in Beijing, China, patients (aged ≤50 years) with pelvic organ prolapse of stage III or higher according to the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) were enrolled between November 2007 and August 2011. After combined trachelectomy and LHUS, patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter. Anatomic success was defined as POP-Q lower than stage II. Sexual outcomes were assessed at 6 months via the validated Short-Form Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12), and compared with a control group of 39 healthy age-matched women. Among 49 patients, surgical success and patient satisfaction rates were 100% after a median follow-up of 54 months. Among 48 patients who were sexually active at follow-up, 39 (81%) completed the PISQ-12 questionnaire. The 6-month PISQ-12 score was higher than the preoperative score overall (38.1 vs 26.4, P<0.001) and for all three subscale domains (P≤0.001). The PISQ-12 score of postoperative patients was similar to that of control women (36.8, P=0.52). Trachelectomy combined with LHUS produced satisfactory medium-term anatomic and functional outcomes for young women with severe uterine prolapse. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. A dual-fluorescence reporter in the Eomes locus for live imaging and medium-term lineage tracing.

    PubMed

    Probst, Simone; Daza, Ray A; Bader, Natalie; Hummel, Jonas F; Weiß, Matthias; Tanriver, Yakup; Hevner, Robert F; Arnold, Sebastian J

    2017-08-01

    The T-box transcription factor Eomes (also known as Tbr2) shows short-lived expression in various localized domains of the embryo, including epiblast cells during gastrulation and intermediate progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex. In these tissues Eomes fulfills crucial roles for lineage specification of progenitors. To directly observe Eomes-dependent cell lineages in the living embryo, we generated a novel dual-fluorescence reporter allele that expresses a membrane-bound tdTomato protein for investigation of cell morphology and a nuclear GFP for cell tracing. This allele recapitulates endogenous EOMES protein expression and is suitable for live imaging. We found that the allele can also be used as a short-to-medium-term lineage tracer, as GFP persists in cells longer than EOMES protein and marks Eomes-dependent lineages with a timeframe of days to weeks depending on the proliferation rate. In summary, we present a novel genetic tool for investigation of Eomes-dependent cell types by live imaging and lineage tracing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Professional Development Program for the Mother Tongue-Based Teacher: Addressing Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes about MTBMLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson Stone, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates teacher attitudes about language and education. The purpose of the study is to help program designers develop professional development efforts that successfully address some of the major identified challenges teachers face when transitioning into Mother Tongue Based Multi-Lingual Education (MTBMLE), including negative…

  9. A Blueprint to Address Research Gaps in the Development of Biomarkers for Pediatric Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Mark Patrick; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Browning, Renee; Click, Eleanor S; Cuevas, Luis E; Detjen, Anne; Graham, Steve M; Levin, Michael; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Nahid, Payam; Perez-Velez, Carlos M; Reither, Klaus; Song, Rinn; Spiegel, Hans M L; Worrell, Carol; Zar, Heather J; Walzl, Gerhard

    2015-10-15

    Childhood tuberculosis contributes significantly to the global tuberculosis disease burden but remains challenging to diagnose due to inadequate methods of pathogen detection in paucibacillary pediatric samples and lack of a child-specific host biomarker to identify disease. Accurately diagnosing tuberculosis in children is required to improve case detection, surveillance, healthcare delivery, and effective advocacy. In May 2014, the National Institutes of Health convened a workshop including researchers in the field to delineate priorities to address this research gap. This blueprint describes the consensus from the workshop, identifies critical research steps to advance this field, and aims to catalyze efforts toward harmonization and collaboration in this area.

  10. Emerging Developments in Pharmacists' Scope of Practice to Address Unmet Health Care Needs.

    PubMed

    Burns, Anne L

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacists' comprehensive training is being leveraged in emerging patient care service opportunities that include prescriptive authority under collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) with prescribers or through state-based protocols. CPAs and state-based protocols expand pharmacists' scope of practice to allow the pharmacist to perform designated functions under the terms of the agreement or protocol. For patient-specific CPAs, this often includes initiating, modifying, or discontinuing therapy and ordering laboratory tests. For population-based CPAs and state-based protocols, pharmacists are often authorized to initiate medications to address a public health need. CPAs and state-based protocols are mechanisms to optimally use pharmacists' education and training.

  11. A Blueprint to Address Research Gaps in the Development of Biomarkers for Pediatric Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Mark Patrick; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Browning, Renee; Click, Eleanor S.; Cuevas, Luis E.; Detjen, Anne; Graham, Steve M.; Levin, Michael; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Nahid, Payam; Perez-Velez, Carlos M.; Reither, Klaus; Song, Rinn; Spiegel, Hans M. L.; Worrell, Carol; Zar, Heather J.; Walzl, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Childhood tuberculosis contributes significantly to the global tuberculosis disease burden but remains challenging to diagnose due to inadequate methods of pathogen detection in paucibacillary pediatric samples and lack of a child-specific host biomarker to identify disease. Accurately diagnosing tuberculosis in children is required to improve case detection, surveillance, healthcare delivery, and effective advocacy. In May 2014, the National Institutes of Health convened a workshop including researchers in the field to delineate priorities to address this research gap. This blueprint describes the consensus from the workshop, identifies critical research steps to advance this field, and aims to catalyze efforts toward harmonization and collaboration in this area. PMID:26409279

  12. Psychological predictors of short- and medium term outcome in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) and individuals with somatoform disorders.

    PubMed

    Bailer, Josef; Witthöft, Michael; Rist, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), also known as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), is defined as a chronic polysymptomatic condition that cannot be explained by an organic disease. Previous studies suggest that IEI may be a variant of somatoform disorders (SFD), because both disorders overlap with respect to symptoms and psychological features of somatization. However, little is known about the short- and medium-term outcome of IEI and psychological outcome predictors. Two clinical groups (IEI and SFD) and a comparison group (CG) were followed through 32 mo to assess both the outcome, and the extent to which trait anxiety and somatic symptom attribution (assessed at first examination) predict outcome presented 12 and 32 mo later. Outcome measures were the number of self-reported IEI symptoms, IEI triggers, IEI-associated functional impairments, and the number of somatoform symptoms. In addition, the course of the 2 syndromes over the 32-mo follow-up period was investigated with standardized screening scales. The 3 diagnostic groups consisted of 46 subjects with IEI, 38 subjects with SFD but without IEI, and 46 subjects (CG) with neither IEI nor SFD. Syndrome stability was high over the 32-mo follow-up period, and at both follow-ups IEI and non-IEI subjects differed on all IEI outcome measures (symptoms, triggers, functional impairments). Both trait anxiety and somatic attribution (the tendency to attribute common somatic complaints to an illness) predicted outcome. In addition, somatic attribution was found to partially mediate the effect of trait anxiety on outcome in the IEI group. In conclusion, these results suggest that IEI is a chronic and disabling condition and that trait anxiety contributes to the maintenance of the disorder via somatic attributions.

  13. Temporal evolution in PPCP removal from urban wastewater by constructed wetlands of different configuration: a medium-term study.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Contreras, Carolina; Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; Bayona, Josep M; Bécares, Eloy

    2012-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely distributed in urban wastewaters and can be removed to some extent by constructed wetlands (CWs). The medium-term (3-5 years) behaviour of these systems regarding PPCP removal is still unknown. Seven mesocosm-scale (1 m(2)) CWs of different configurations were operated outdoors for 39 months under the same conditions to assess their PPCP removal ability and temporal evolution. CWs differed in some design parameters, namely plant presence, species chosen (Typha angustifolia vs Phragmites australis), flow configuration and presence/absence of gravel bed (floating macrophytes surface flow, FM-SF; free-water surface flow, FW-SF; free-water subsurface flow, FW-SSF; or conventional horizontal subsurface flow, SSF). PPCP efficiencies decreased throughout time and performance differences among CWs disappeared with the systems aging. This could be due to a homogenization process in the systems caused by detrimental factors like saturation, clogging and shading. Winter efficiencies were lower than summer ones for salicylic acid, caffeine, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide, and seasonal biological activities seem key factors to explain this fact. Maximal removal efficiencies were achieved in an unplanted-FW-SSF for ketoprofen (47-81%), naproxen (58-81%) and salicylic acid (76-98%); in an unplanted-SSF for caffeine (65-99%); in a Phragmites-FM-SF for ibuprofen (49-96%) and diclofenac (16-68%); in a Typha-FM-SF for carbamazepine (35-71%); and in a Typha-FW-SSF for methyl dihydrojasmonate (71-96%), galaxolide (67-82%) and tonalide (55-74%). Photodegradation could be involved in ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac removal. Carbamazepine and diclofenac were moderately removed by the most efficient CWs studied. Carbamazepine might be eliminated by vegetal uptake.

  14. Variations of solar UV irradiance related to short-term and medium-term changes of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, O. A.; Gabis, I. P.

    1998-09-01

    Index of variability of the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the composite Mg II core-to-wing ratio, has been used to study relationship between the short-term (τ<27days) changes of solar activity and solar UV irradiance. Such manifestations of the solar activity have been examined, as the solar central meridian passage of active regions, the solar proton events, and the central meridian passage of hypothetical regions responsible for the Forbush decrease in the galactic cosmic rays. Our results show that all these short-term changes of the solar activity are accompanied by an increase of the solar UV irradiance. The interplanetary magnetic field sector structure is also related to changes in the UV irradiance. After a proper adjustment of the dates of the sector boundary occurrence for the solar disk, the irradiance was found to be maximal on the toward/away boundary and minimal on the away/toward boundary. It has been found that the UV irradiance undergoes quasi-biennial periodicity (QBP), reaching maximum in years of the east QBP phase and decreasing in years of the west QBP phase. Superposition of the quasi-biennial periodicity and effects connected with short-term variations in the solar activity account for the change of the Mg II index up to 2% of the mean level. Thus a new very important agent was found to be responsible for a short-term and medium-term influence of the solar activity upon atmospheric processes and hence on the weather and climate.

  15. [Medium-term outcome, follow-up, and quality of life in children treated for type III esophageal atresia].

    PubMed

    Lepeytre, C; De Lagausie, P; Merrot, T; Baumstarck, K; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium-term outcome (health status, medical and surgical French National Health Authority-recommended follow-up, and quality of life) of children born with type III esophageal atresia (EA). Previous events (during the perinatal period, associated abnormalities, respiratory and digestive complications) of children treated for type III EA at the Marseille university hospitals between 1999 and 2009 were noted. Parents completed a standardized questionnaire concerning the health of their children during the previous year, and a quality-of-life questionnaire (PedsQL 4.0) was also completed by children aged more than 8 years. Among the 68 children treated, 44 responded to our solicitation (mean age, 7.6 years; range, 3-12.8 years). Previous important events were : pneumonia(s) (65%), asthma before the age of 3 years (66%), hospitalization for a respiratory event (45%), fundoplication (20%), and esophageal dilatation (45%). We noted current chronic cough (16%), asthma (30%), dysphagia (39%), and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (9%). National guidelines were not respected, except for the surgical indications in children aged less than 6 years. The quality-of-life scores (n=43 children) were similar to healthy controls but were negatively influenced by a gastrostomy procedure (P=0.020), pneumonia (P=0.013), and hospitalization due to a respiratory event (P=0.006) or a digestive event (P=0.010), and also by current asthma (P=0.004). In conclusion, despite recurrent respiratory or digestive symptoms and inadequate recommended follow-up, the quality of life of children treated for type III of EA is good. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Medium term outcome of bipolar plasma vaporization in prostate cancer patients – A palliative modality of preserving spontaneous voiding

    PubMed Central

    Geavlete, B; Moldoveanu, C; Niţă, G; Stănescu, F; Jecu, M; Geavlete, P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives:This retrospective analysis evaluated the efficiency, safety, and medium term postoperative results of bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) in prostate cancer (PCa) cases associating complete urinary retention. Materials and Methods: A series of 40 patients diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic PCa and complete urinary retention requiring a Foley catheter indwelling underwent BPV aiming to restore spontaneous voiding. A total of 35 patients completed the one year evaluation protocol consisting of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life score (QoL), maximum flow rate (Qmax) and post-voiding residual urinary volume (PVR), measured at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Results: BPV was successfully performed in all cases with satisfactory efficiency, as confirmed by the mean operation time (42.8 minutes) and hemoglobin drop (0.7 g/dl). A fast and safe postoperative recovery period was described in this series (hematuria rate – 7.5%; mean catheterization period – 36 hours; mean hospital stay – 2.5 days; early-irritative symptoms’ rate – 15%). At 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, satisfactory values were determined in terms of IPSS, Qmax, QoL and PVR. These parameters emphasized a stable evolution throughout the entire follow-up, as 88.6% of the patients maintained spontaneous voiding. Conclusions: The present trial confirmed the plasma-button vaporization as a promising therapeutic approach in PCa cases associating complete urinary retention. The technique displayed good efficacy, low perioperative morbidity, short convalescence, and satisfactory urodynamics and symptom score parameters during the one-year follow-up period. Abbreviations: BPV – bipolar plasma vaporization; PCa – prostate cancer; TURP – transurethral resection of the prostate; BPH – benign prostatic hyperplasia; BOO – bladder outlet obstruction; LUTS – lower urinary tract symptoms; IPSS – International Prostate Symptom Score; QoL – quality of life

  17. Medium-term results of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy in the treatment of symptomatic developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    PubMed

    Garras, D N; Crowder, T T; Olson, S A

    2007-06-01

    We studied the medium-term outcome of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy in 52 patients (58 hips) with symptomatic developmental dysplasia of the hip and a mean age of 37.6 years (13 to 48). The operations were performed between 1993 and 2005 by the senior author with a mean follow-up of 66.7 months (13 to 153). There were 42 women (47 hips) and ten men (11 hips). Of these patients, 24 (30 hips) had an osteotomy on the right side and 22 (28 hips) on the left. Six patients had bilateral operations. The clinical outcome was assessed using the modified Merle d'Aubigne scale, and pre- and post-operative radiological evaluation using the modified Tonnis osteoarthritis score, the centre-edge angle, the acetabular index, the status of Shenton's line, and the cross-over sign. The mean centre-edge angle and the acetabular index were 14 degrees (2 degrees to 34 degrees ) and 23.6 degrees (0 degrees to 40 degrees ) before operation, and 36.6 degrees (16 degrees to 72 degrees ) and 7.9 degrees (0 degrees to 28 degrees ) after, respectively (p < 0.001, analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Shenton's line was intact in 23 hips (39.6%) before operation and in 48 hips (82.8%) after. The cross-over sign was present in 31 hips (53.4%) before and in three hips (5.2%) after operation (p < 0.001, ANOVA). The total Merle d'Aubigne clinical score improved from a mean of 12.6 (9 to 15) to 16.0 (12 to 18) points (p < 0.001, ANOVA). Only four hips required subsequent total hip replacement. Our results indicate that the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy provides good symptomatic relief for patients with little to no arthritis (Tonnis type 0 or 1) with an underlying deformity that can be corrected to a position of a stable, congruent hip joint.

  18. Prosthesis-patient mismatch in bovine pericardial aortic valves: evaluation using 3 different modalities and associated medium-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Satish Jacob; Ansari, Asimul H; McCarthy, Patrick M; Malaisrie, S Chris; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Li, Zhi; Lee, Richard; McGee, Edwin; Bonow, Robert O; Puthumana, Jyothy J

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) and its impact on survival after aortic valve replacement have not been clearly defined. Historically, the presence of PPM was identified from postoperative echocardiograms or preoperative manufacturer-provided charts, resulting in wide discrepancies. The 2009 American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) guidelines proposed an algorithmic approach to calculate PPM. This study compared PPM prevalence and its impact on survival using 3 modalities: (1) the ASE guidelines-suggested algorithm (ASE PPM); (2) the manufacturer-provided charts (M PPM); and (3) the echocardiographically measured, body surface area-indexed, effective orifice area (EOAi PPM) measurement. A total of 614 patients underwent aortic valve replacement with bovine pericardial valves from 2004 to 2009 and had normal preoperative systolic function. EOAi PPM was severe if EOAi was ≤ 0.60 cm(2)/m(2), moderate if EOAi was 0.60 to 0.85 cm(2)/m(2), and absent (none) if EOAi was ≥ 0.85 cm(2)/m(2). ASE PPM was severe in 22 (3.6%), moderate in 6 (1%), and absent (none) in 586 (95.4%). ASE PPM was similar to manufacturer-provided PPM (P=1.00). ASE PPM differed significantly from EOAi PPM (P<0.001), which identified severe mismatch in 170 (29.7%), moderate in 191 (33.4%), and absent (none) in 211 patients (36.9%). Irrespective of the PPM classification method, PPM did not adversely affect midterm survival (average follow-up, 4.1 ± 1.8 years; median, 3.9 years; range, 0.01-8 years). There were no reoperations for PPM. In patients with normal systolic function undergoing bovine pericardial aortic valve replacement, the prevalence of PPM using the algorithmic-ASE approach was low and correlated well with manufacturer-provided PPM. Independent of the method of PPM assessment, PPM was not associated with medium-term mortality.

  19. Including personal development in palliative care education to address death anxiety.

    PubMed

    Melo, Carol Gouveia; Billings, Jenny

    2017-01-02

    Death anxiety may interfere with health care workers' (HCW) relationship with patients and their families. Evaluate an intervention to address death anxiety and improve HCW skills dealing with patients/families in palliative and end-of-life care. Quasi-experimental mixed methods approach with a pre-test/post-test design. 208 HCWs receiving the intervention and working in end-of-life care, in and out of palliative care units, were invited to answer quantitative and qualitative questionnaires. In the end, 150 returned with quantitative answers and of these, 94 with qualitative answers as well. Additionally, out of the 150 participants, 26 were recruited for interview. Pre-and post-test results revealed a significant reduction in levels of death anxiety, an increase in existential wellbeing, and a significant improvement in HCWs' perception of the quality of their helping relationship skills with patients/families. Content analysis provided an understanding of the difficulties experienced by the HCWs and the positive impact of the intervention. An intervention to address death anxiety and help relationship skills can reduce the use of avoidance mechanisms and improve HCW self-perceived psycho-existential support to patients/families.

  20. Scientifically defensible fish conservation and recovery plans: Addressing diffuse threats and developing rigorous adaptive management plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maas-Hebner, Kathleen G.; Schreck, Carl B.; Hughes, Robert M.; Yeakley, Alan; Molina, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the importance of addressing diffuse threats to long-term species and habitat viability in fish conservation and recovery planning. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmonid management plans have typically focused on degraded freshwater habitat, dams, fish passage, harvest rates, and hatchery releases. However, such plans inadequately address threats related to human population and economic growth, intra- and interspecific competition, and changes in climate, ocean, and estuarine conditions. Based on reviews conducted on eight conservation and/or recovery plans, we found that though threats resulting from such changes are difficult to model and/or predict, they are especially important for wide-ranging diadromous species. Adaptive management is also a critical but often inadequately constructed component of those plans. Adaptive management should be designed to respond to evolving knowledge about the fish and their supporting ecosystems; if done properly, it should help improve conservation efforts by decreasing uncertainty regarding known and diffuse threats. We conclude with a general call for environmental managers and planners to reinvigorate the adaptive management process in future management plans, including more explicitly identifying critical uncertainties, implementing monitoring programs to reduce those uncertainties, and explicitly stating what management actions will occur when pre-identified trigger points are reached.

  1. Detection of initiation activity of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay system using 4-week-old rats without hepatocellular proliferative stimuli during the test chemical treatment period.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Yoshiji; Sakai, Hiroki; Hirata, Akihiro; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu; Miyamoto, Yohei; Yanai, Tokuma; Masegi, Toshiaki; Okada, Kosuke

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay system to detect initiation activities of chemicals on multi-organ carcinogenesis. However, cell proliferation stimuli during the test chemical treatment period, required in the previously used assay models using adult rats, are laborious; moreover, those cause decrease of hepatic metabolic enzymes and psychological and physical discomfort to animals resulting in inaccurate interpretation. Therefore, we investigated the utility of another in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay model using 4-week-old rats without the cell proliferation stimuli. In this study, we confirmed that 4-week-old and 4.5-week-old male rats have high hepatocyte proliferation activity and similar enzyme activities of hepatic Cytochrome P450 subtypes as compared with 8-week-old male rats. Next, the in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay model using 4-week-old rats without cell proliferation stimuli was evaluated for the detection of the initiation activity of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), which is a well-known genotoxic carcinogen. Four-week-old rats were orally administered DMH (single dose, 4 or 16 mg/kg; or 4-day repeat, 1 or 4 mg/kg); subsequently, these rats were treated promotion treatment consisted of administration of 2-acetylaminofluorene and carbon tetrachloride. Four weeks after the first DMH administration, the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci induced by DMH in the liver was measured immunohistochemically. The inductions of GST-P-positive foci in all DMH-treated groups were dose-dependent, duration-dependent and significantly higher than that in non-DMH-treated group. From these results, our assay model was detected the initiation activity of DMH simply, and would be useful to evaluate the carcinogenicity of chemicals.

  2. External-to-Internal Iliac Stent-Graft: Medium-Term Patency Following Exclusion of a Retrogradely Perfused Common Iliac Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, Marcus John; McPherson, Simon

    2010-08-15

    Following complicated aortic aneurysm surgery a complete left iliac occlusion resulted in buttock claudication. A retrogradely perfused right common iliac aneurysm expanded. Exclusion was by external-to-internal iliac stent-graft. No deterioration in claudication occurred with medium-term stent-graft patency.

  3. Mental health and addiction workforce development: federal leadership is needed to address the growing crisis.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Michael A; Stuart, Gail W; Morris, John; Flaherty, Michael T; Paris, Manuel; Goplerud, Eric

    2013-11-01

    The mental health and addiction workforce has long been plagued by shortages, high turnover, a lack of diversity, and concerns about its effectiveness. This article presents a framework to guide workforce policy and practice, emphasizing the need to train other health care providers as well as individuals in recovery to address behavioral health needs; strengthen recruitment, retention, and training of specialist behavioral health providers; and improve the financial and technical assistance infrastructure to better support and sustain the workforce. The pressing challenge is to scale up existing plans and strategies and to implement them in ways that have a meaningful impact on the size and effectiveness of the workforce. The aging and increasing diversity of the US population, combined with the expanded access to services that will be created by health reform, make it imperative to take immediate action.

  4. A Multi-scale Spatial Approach to Address Environmental Effects of Small Hydropower Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Hetrick, Shelaine C.

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  5. A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole M; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine L

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  6. A multi-scale spatial approach to address environmental effects of small hydropower development.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  7. Addressing the Complexity of Writing Development: Toward an Ecological Model of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Elizabeth; Roozen, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article offers one potential response to Yancey's (1999) call for a fourth wave of writing assessment able to capture writing development in all of its complexity. Based on an ecological perspective of literate development that situates students' growth as writers across multiple engagements with writing, including those outside of school,…

  8. Professional Co-Development Groups: Addressing the Teacher Training Needs of Social Work Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Valérie; Genest Dufault, Sacha; Châteauvert, Joanie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a professional development initiative organized by two junior university social work teachers. Along with three experienced colleagues, the two teachers experimented with a professional co-development group. The purpose of this group modality, which has much in common with peer supervision, is to reflect on professional…

  9. Presidential Address: Social Change and Human Development--Experiences from German Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that human development is influenced by social change. In particular, as evidenced by research on German unification, the rapid change of social institutions can impact on various aspects of behaviour and development. Based on my own research experience in this field, I want to show the necessity for a better interdisciplinary…

  10. Children's Services Planning in Northern Ireland: Developing a Planning Model to Address Rights and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTernan, Eamon; Godfrey, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This article reflects on a number of key concepts and planning tools that have been developed or adapted through the inter-agency planning of services for children and young people in Northern Ireland (Children's Services Planning). These conceptual models have been developed between 1999 and 2005 and illustrate the key contribution of Children's…

  11. Professional Co-Development Groups: Addressing the Teacher Training Needs of Social Work Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Valérie; Genest Dufault, Sacha; Châteauvert, Joanie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a professional development initiative organized by two junior university social work teachers. Along with three experienced colleagues, the two teachers experimented with a professional co-development group. The purpose of this group modality, which has much in common with peer supervision, is to reflect on professional…

  12. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  13. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  14. A comparison of medium-term survival between peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis in accordance with the initial vascular access.

    PubMed

    García-Cantón, César; Rufino-Hernández, Juana M; Vega-Díaz, Nicanor; Pérez-Borges, Patricia; Bosch-Benítez-Parodi, Elvira; Saavedra, Pedro; García-Gómez, Carolina; Marrero-Robayna, Silvia; Maceira-Cruz, Benito; Rodríguez-Pérez, José C; Checa-Andrés, M Dolores

    2013-01-01

    A study published in 2011 showed that patients in the Canary Islands, who were incident in peritoneal dialysis (PD) had better survival than those who were incident in hemodialysis (HD). Since initiating hemodialysis with central venous catheter is associated with worse prognosis, it would be possible that the initial vascular access influences the results of survival comparison between both groups. To conduct a comparative medium-term survival study of patients incident in renal replacement therapy with different modalities in our community, classifying those incident in hemodialysis according to the initial vascular access: established arteriovenous vascular access or central venous catheter. Retrospective longitudinal cohort study including all patients who were incident in renal replacement therapy between January 2005 and December 2010, with follow-up until December 2011, in three large hospitals of the Canary Islands. Patients were classified according to the initial modality: PD, HD with established vascular access (HD-FAV) or HD with central venous catheter (HD-Cat). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were estimated for each group and a Cox proportional hazards survival model was used to estimate relative mortality risk for DP as compared to HD-FAV and HD-Cat, adjusting for age and Charlson comorbidity index. An equivalent analysis was then conducted on subgroups defined by age or by the presence of diabetes. 1110 patients were included, with a median age of 63 years, 56% of them were diabetic. A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed better survival for PD (66 months) as compared to HD-Cat (41 months), Log Rank p<.001, with no difference between DP and HD-FAV (67 months). Cox regression RR of mortality for HD-Cat versus PD was 2.270 (1.573-3.276); p<.001; no differences were found between HD-FAV and PD patients 0.993 (0.646-1.525) n.s. Subgroup analysis showed equivalent results for diabetic and non-diabetic patients as well as for younger or older ones. better survival

  15. A medium-term gpt delta rat model as an in vivo system for analysis of renal carcinogenesis and the underlying mode of action.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kohei; Ishii, Yuji; Takasu, Shinji; Kuroda, Ken; Kijima, Aki; Tsuchiya, Takuma; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Noriaki; Nohmi, Takehiko; Ogawa, Kumiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Umemura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The kidney is a major target site of chemical carcinogenesis. However, a reliable in vivo assay for rapid identification of renal carcinogens has not been established. The purpose of this study was to develop a new medium-term gpt delta rat model (the GNP model) to facilitate identification of renal carcinogens. In this model, we carried out an in vivo mutation assay using unilaterally nephrectomized kidney tissue and a tumor-promoting assay using residual kidney tissue, with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as the renal tumor initiator. To clarify the optimal time of DEN injection after nephrectomy, time-dependent changes in bromodeoxyuridine-labeling indices in the tubular epithelium of nephrectomized rats were examined. The optimal dose of DEN injection and sufficient duration of subsequent nitrilotriacetic acid treatment were determined for detection of renal preneoplastic lesions. The standard protocol for the GNP model was determined as follows. Six-week-old female gpt delta rats were treated with test chemicals for 4 weeks, followed by a 2-week washout period, and 40 mg/kg DEN was administered intraperitoneally to initiate renal carcinogenesis. Unilateral nephrectomy was performed 48 h before DEN injection, followed by gpt assays using excised kidney tissues. One week after DEN injection, rats were further exposed to test chemicals for 12 weeks, and histopathological analysis of renal preneoplastic lesions was performed as an indicator of tumor-promoting activity in residual kidney tissue. Validation studies using aristolochic acid, potassium dibasic phosphate, phenylbutazone, and d-limonene indicated the reliability of the GNP model for predicting renal carcinogens and the underlying mode of action.

  16. Improvement and validation of a medium-term gpt delta rat model for predicting chemical carcinogenicity and underlying mode of action.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kohei; Kuroda, Ken; Ishii, Yuji; Takasu, Shinji; Kijima, Aki; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Noriaki; Nohmi, Takehiko; Ogawa, Kumiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Umemura, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a new medium-term animal model, "GPG", in which an in vivo mutation assay in partially hepatectomized tissue and a tumor-promoting assay were performed. The tumor-promoting assay measures glutathione S-transferase placental form positive foci induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in the residual tissue. Given that a limitation of the original protocol is the potential interaction between the test chemical and DEN, the present study establishes a modified protocol that includes a test chemical washout period. Using CYP2E1 inhibitor and CYP1A or CYP2B inducers, a period of 2 weeks after cessation of exposure to the chemicals was confirmed to be sufficient to return their enzymatic activities to normal levels. Additionally, to avoid the effects of DEN on the pharmacokinetics of the test chemical, re-exposure to the test chemical started 1 week after DEN injection, in which tumor-promoting activities were clearly detected. Consequently, a modified protocol has been established with 2- and 1-week washout periods before and after DEN injection, respectively. The applicability of the modified protocol was demonstrated using the genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, estragole (ES), the genotoxic renal carcinogen, aristolochic acid (AA), and the non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, β-naphthoflavone and barbital. Furthermore, the increase of cell cycle-related parameters in ES-treated livers, but not in AA-treated livers, may indicate that the liver is not the carcinogenic target site of AA despite its genotoxic role. Thus, since various parameters related to carcinogenesis can be evaluated concurrently, the GPG model could be a rapid and reliable assay for the assessment of human cancer hazards.

  17. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  18. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  19. The Child Development-Community Policing Program: a partnership to address the impact of violence.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, S J; Marans, S M

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the development, evolution and current status of the New Haven Child Development-Community Policing (CDCP) Program, a partnership between child mental health professionals at the Yale Child Study Center and the New Haven Department of Police Service. The central mission of the program is to intervene early in an attempt to ameliorate the effects of children's exposure to violence. Recent programmatic expansion of the CDCP program into areas of juvenile offenders, specialized protocols for children affected by domestic violence, and school based groups are also explained. There are five core elements of the CDCP program: (1) Seminars in applied child development for police officers; (2) Fellowships for advanced police officers; (3) Fellowships for clinicians who are trained both in seminars and experientially in police practice and procedure; (4) A weekly program conference; and (5) A clinical consultation service in which clinicians are available 24 hours per day, 7 days a week are explicated.

  20. Use of Group Counseling to Address Ethnic Identity Development: Application with Adolescents of Mexican Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Krista M.; Paone, Tina R.; Humphreys, Kourtney; Martinez, Triana

    2010-01-01

    This article provides qualitative outcomes from a group counseling intervention whose goal was to facilitate the ethnic identity development of Mexican-origin youth. Outcomes revealed that participants perceived group participation as meaningful. Themes that emerged from the data included the importance of the relationship to engender change,…

  1. Comparing Faculty Perceptions of an Online Development Course: Addressing Faculty Needs for Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terantino, Joseph M.; Agbehonou, Edoh

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of hybrid and online instructional delivery for college and university courses, a principal issue has been training faculty to design and deliver these courses. The present study examines a faculty development course, "Build a Web Course," offered to educate faculty members about how to design, create, and implement technology and…

  2. New Strategies to Develop Novel Pain Therapies: Addressing Thermoreceptors from Different Points of View

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Carvajal, Asia; Fernández-Ballester, Gregorio; Devesa, Isabel; González-Ros, José Manuel; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    One approach to develop successful pain therapies is the modulation of dysfunctional ion channels that contribute to the detection of thermal, mechanical and chemical painful stimuli. These ion channels, known as thermoTRPs, promote the sensitization and activation of primary sensory neurons known as nociceptors. Pharmacological blockade and genetic deletion of thermoTRP have validated these channels as therapeutic targets for pain intervention. Several thermoTRP modulators have progressed towards clinical development, although most failed because of the appearance of unpredicted side effects. Thus, there is yet a need to develop novel channel modulators with improved therapeutic index. Here, we review the current state-of-the art and illustrate new pharmacological paradigms based on TRPV1 that include: (i) the identification of activity-dependent modulators of this thermoTRP channel; (ii) the design of allosteric modulators that interfere with protein-protein interaction involved in the functional coupling of stimulus sensing and gate opening; and (iii) the development of compounds that abrogate the inflammation-mediated increase of receptor expression in the neuronal surface. These new sites of action represent novel strategies to modulate pathologically active TRPV1, while minimizing an effect on the TRPV1 subpopulation involved in physiological and protective roles, thus increasing their potential therapeutic use. PMID:24288041

  3. National Information Policy Developments Worldwide II: Universal Access-Addressing the Digital Divide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Adrienne; Oppenheim, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Describes the results of a literature survey on recent developments in national information policies in the area of universal access that tries to ensure equal access to information, and considers the digital divide. Highlights include policies in Australia, Canada, the European Union, Hong Kong, the United States, and Okinawa. (Contains 64…

  4. Teaching to Address Diverse Learning Needs: Development and Validation of a Differentiated Instruction Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Amélie; Guay, Frédéric; Valois, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In the province of Quebec, Canada, a trend towards full inclusion has impelled teachers to adapt their instruction to meet the needs of both advanced and weaker learners in regular school settings. The main purpose of the present investigation was to develop and validate the Differentiated Instruction Scale (DIS), which assesses the use of…

  5. Addressing the Time Lag Dilemma in Curriculum Renewal towards Engineering Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desha, Cheryl J.; Hargroves, Karlson; Smith, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the case for engineering departments to undertake rapid curriculum renewal (RCR) towards engineering education for sustainable development (EESD), to minimise the department's risk exposure to rapidly shifting industry requirements, government regulations and program accreditation. This paper then…

  6. Development of the Indicators of Successful Inclusion Scale (ISIS): Addressing Ecological Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandes, Joyce A.; McWhirter, Paula T.; Haring, Kathryn A.; Crowson, Michael H.; Millsap, Clay A.

    2012-01-01

    The Indicators of Successful Inclusion Scale (ISIS) was developed to measure pre-service and practicing educators' beliefs regarding factors that contribute to educating students with disabilities in general education classrooms. The measure was designed to assess teachers' beliefs and attitudes related to inclusive education and to consider their…

  7. Pedagogy for Addressing the Worldview Challenge in Sustainable Development of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Nicholas R.; Bawden, Richard J.; Bergmann, Luke

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is offering new forms of support to society, as evidenced by rapid development of an agricultural "bio-economy," and increasing emphasis on production of ecological services in farmed landscapes. The advent of these innovations will engage agricultural professionals in critical civic debates about matters that are complex and…

  8. Teaching to Address Diverse Learning Needs: Development and Validation of a Differentiated Instruction Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Amélie; Guay, Frédéric; Valois, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In the province of Quebec, Canada, a trend towards full inclusion has impelled teachers to adapt their instruction to meet the needs of both advanced and weaker learners in regular school settings. The main purpose of the present investigation was to develop and validate the Differentiated Instruction Scale (DIS), which assesses the use of…

  9. Knowledge Diffusion in the Context of Development in Rural Areas. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.

    This paper analyzes principles of knowledge diffusion and provides a framework for applying new ideas or innovations, particularly in relation to rural community development. As new knowledge is created or old knowledge is found to have new applications, the art of spreading knowledge and managing innovation has become more crucial in both urban…

  10. Addressing Health Disparities in the Undergraduate Curriculum: An Approach to Develop a Knowledgeable Biomedical Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benabentos, Rocio; Ray, Payal; Kumar, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in health and healthcare are a major concern in the United States and worldwide. Approaches to alleviate these disparities must be multifaceted and should include initiatives that touch upon the diverse areas that influence the healthcare system. Developing a strong biomedical workforce with an awareness of the issues concerning health…

  11. Surface Warfare Center Contributions for Addressing Warfare System Development Challenges and Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    during IOT &E"." "there was a loss of a large number of the most experienced management and technical personnel ...without an adequate replacement...Project Management IPT Lead Government Leadership and Development Oversight: Technical Direction Activity Dev Team Management IPT Dev Org’s Project

  12. Addressing the Time Lag Dilemma in Curriculum Renewal towards Engineering Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desha, Cheryl J.; Hargroves, Karlson; Smith, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the case for engineering departments to undertake rapid curriculum renewal (RCR) towards engineering education for sustainable development (EESD), to minimise the department's risk exposure to rapidly shifting industry requirements, government regulations and program accreditation. This paper then…

  13. Student Growth within the School Garden: Addressing Personal/Social, Academic, and Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Swank, David E.

    2013-01-01

    School counselors have the challenging task of implementing a comprehensive, developmental school counseling program to serve a large number of students. We present the creative use of a garden program to promote the development of students through the integration of the natural environment. Additionally, we describe activities and metaphors…

  14. Pedagogy for Addressing the Worldview Challenge in Sustainable Development of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Nicholas R.; Bawden, Richard J.; Bergmann, Luke

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is offering new forms of support to society, as evidenced by rapid development of an agricultural "bio-economy," and increasing emphasis on production of ecological services in farmed landscapes. The advent of these innovations will engage agricultural professionals in critical civic debates about matters that are complex and…

  15. Addressing Health Disparities in the Undergraduate Curriculum: An Approach to Develop a Knowledgeable Biomedical Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benabentos, Rocio; Ray, Payal; Kumar, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in health and healthcare are a major concern in the United States and worldwide. Approaches to alleviate these disparities must be multifaceted and should include initiatives that touch upon the diverse areas that influence the healthcare system. Developing a strong biomedical workforce with an awareness of the issues concerning health…

  16. Use of Group Counseling to Address Ethnic Identity Development: Application with Adolescents of Mexican Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Krista M.; Paone, Tina R.; Humphreys, Kourtney; Martinez, Triana

    2010-01-01

    This article provides qualitative outcomes from a group counseling intervention whose goal was to facilitate the ethnic identity development of Mexican-origin youth. Outcomes revealed that participants perceived group participation as meaningful. Themes that emerged from the data included the importance of the relationship to engender change,…

  17. Development of the Indicators of Successful Inclusion Scale (ISIS): Addressing Ecological Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandes, Joyce A.; McWhirter, Paula T.; Haring, Kathryn A.; Crowson, Michael H.; Millsap, Clay A.

    2012-01-01

    The Indicators of Successful Inclusion Scale (ISIS) was developed to measure pre-service and practicing educators' beliefs regarding factors that contribute to educating students with disabilities in general education classrooms. The measure was designed to assess teachers' beliefs and attitudes related to inclusive education and to consider their…

  18. Development of Quality Indicators to Address Abuse and Neglect in Home-Based Primary Care and Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Orla C; Ritchie, Christine S; Fathi, Roya; Garrigues, Sarah K; Saliba, Debra; Leff, Bruce

    2016-12-01

    To develop candidate quality indicators (QIs) for the quality standard of "addressing abuse and neglect" in the setting of home-based medical care. Systematic literature review of both the peer-reviewed and gray literature. Home-based primary and palliative care practices. Homebound community-dwelling older adults. Articles were identified to inform the development of candidate indicators of the quality by which home-based primary and palliative care practices addressed abuse and neglect. The literature guided the development of patient-level QIs and practice-level quality standards. A technical expert panel (TEP) representing exemplary home-based primary care and palliative care providers then participated in a modified Delphi process to assess the validity and feasibility of each measure and identify candidate QIs suitable for testing in the field. The literature review yielded 4,371 titles and abstracts that were reviewed; 25 publications met final inclusion criteria and informed development of nine candidate QIs. The TEP rated all but one of the nine candidate indicators as having high validity and feasibility. Translating the complex problem of addressing abuse and neglect into QIs may ultimately serve to improve care delivered to vulnerable home-limited adults who receive home-based medical care. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. International Models of Care that Address the Growing Diabetes Prevalence in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Ranjani, Harish; Rhodes, Elizabeth; Weber, Mary Beth

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes care involves a complex interaction between patients, physicians, the health care system, and society. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the majority of individuals with diabetes live, there is a shortage of resources and infrastructure for diabetes care. Translation of proven interventions for diabetes prevention and care from experimental settings to the real world is a major challenge, and there is limited evidence from LMICs. To curtail the diabetes burden in LMICs, it is crucial to develop and execute innovative diabetes care models that improve access to care, knowledge, and outcomes. Additionally, adequate training of local health professionals and community engagement can help LMICs become self-sufficient in delivery of diabetes care. In this paper, we reviewed the existing models of diabetes care and prevention in LMICs and provided recommendations to guide the development of a comprehensive and effective future model for diabetes care in LMICs.

  20. Developing a contextual consciousness: learning to address gender, societal power, and culture in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Esmiol, Elisabeth E; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Delgado, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Despite the growing number of culturally sensitive training models and considerable literature on the importance of training clinicians in larger contextual issues, research examining how students learn to apply these issues is limited. In this participatory action research project, we systematically studied our own process as marriage and family therapy (MFT) practicum students developing a contextual consciousness. Using grounded theory, we identified a three-stage process: (a) raised awareness through clinical experimentation and developing a theoretical rationale, (b) reflective questioning involving challenging old perspectives and experiencing positive client-therapist interactions, and (c) an intentional new lens based on personal responsibility and commitment. Creating and maintaining a contextual lens required a safe, empowering group dynamic and accessing other forms of support and accountability after the practicum.

  1. Environmental Impact Statement Addressing Campus Development at Fort George Meade, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    requirement that consists of an area approximately 22 feet long, 8.5 feet wide, and 10 feet high ( Caterpillar 2008). Depending on the size of the...At Fort Meade, approximately 1,632 Italian and 2,000 German POWs were housed for the remainder of the war in temporary structures and tents ... tentative to develop new properties (if the existing vacancies were to increase drastically), and office parks and buildings becoming less desirable (if

  2. Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in the Department of Defense: Program Structure, Requirements, and Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    progress, reduce technical and programmatic risk, and respond to feedback and changes more quickly than traditional waterfall methods (Modigliani...approach directly contrast with the traditional DoD acquisition model designed for a single big-bang waterfall approach (Broadus, 2013). Currently...years of failed Agile development attempts. The program finally retreated to a waterfall -based process. It simply could not execute the Agile strategy

  3. Addressing critical issues in the development of an Oncology Information System.

    PubMed

    Urda, D; Ribelles, N; Subirats, J L; Franco, L; Alba, E; Jerez, J M

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the experience on the design and implementation of a user-centered Oncology Information System developed for the Medical Oncology Department at the "Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria", in Málaga, Spain. The project focused on the aspects considered in the literature as critical factors for a successful deployment and usage of a health information system. System usability, adequate technology, integration of clinical routines, real-time statistical analysis of data, information confidentiality and standard protocol-based external interconnection were the key aspects considered. The developed system is based on a web application with a modular and layered architecture accounting for usability, ease of maintenance and further system development. Evaluation of system usability was carried at three and fifteen months after system deployment to analyze the advantages/disadvantages experienced by the end-users. A thorough prior analysis of clinical activities and workflows, the use of the adequate technology, and the availability of data analysis tools will almost guarantee success in the deployment of an Oncology Information System. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Addressing Unmet Medical Needs in Type 1 Diabetes: A Review of Drugs under Development.

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, Friedrich; Caveney, Erica; De Oliveira, Claudia; Alexander Fleming, G; Gourgiotis, Loukas; Puri, Mala; Tai, Li-Jung; Rick Turner, J

    2016-04-13

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing worldwide and there is a very large need for effective therapies. Besides pramlintide, there are essentially no pharmacologic therapies other than insulin currently approved for the treatment of T1D. Drugs already in use for type 2 diabetes and many new drugs are under clinical development for T1D, including compounds with both established and new mechanisms of action. Most of the new compounds in clinical development are currently in Phase 1 and Phase 2. Drug classes discussed in this review include new insulins, SGLT inhibitors, GLP-1 agonists, immunomodulatory drugs including autoantigens and anti-cytokines, and agents that regenerate β-cells. In addition, considerations are provided with regard to the regulatory environment for the clinical development of drugs for T1D, with a focus on the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. Future opportunities, such as combination treatments of immunomodulatory and β-cell regenerating therapies, are also discussed.

  5. Development of an Individualized Yoga Intervention to Address Fatigue in Hospitalized Children Undergoing Intensive Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Diorio, Caroline; Celis Ekstrand, Amanda; Hesser, Tanya; O'Sullivan, Cathy; Lee, Michelle; Schechter, Tal; Sung, Lillian

    2016-09-01

    Purpose Fatigue is an important problem in children receiving intensive chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Exercise may be an effective intervention for fatigue. Individualized yoga represents an ideal intervention because it can be tailored according to an individual child's needs. Little is known about how to structure a standardized yoga program for intensivelytreated children. Therefore, this study describes the development of a yoga program and an approach to monitoring sessions suitable for hospitalized children receiving intensive chemotherapy or HSCT. Methods The yoga program was designed to increase mobility in hospitalized children and to provide children with relaxation techniques that could be used independently in a variety of environments. The program was founded on 4 key tenets: safety, adaptability, environmental flexibility, and appeal to children. We also developed quality and consistency assurance procedures. Results A menu format with a fixed structure was selected for the yoga program. Each yoga session contained up to 6 sections: breathing exercises, warmup exercises, yoga poses, balancing poses, cool-down poses, and final relaxation. Yoga instructors selected specific yoga poses for each session from a predetermined list organized by intensity level (low, moderate, or high). Monitoring procedures were developed using videotaping and multirater adjudication. Conclusion We created a standardized yoga program and an approach to monitoring that are now ready for incorporation in clinical trials. Future work should include the adaptation of the program to different pediatric populations and clinical settings.

  6. Does addressing gender inequalities and empowering women and girls improve health and development programme outcomes?

    PubMed

    Taukobong, Hannah F G; Kincaid, Mary M; Levy, Jessica K; Bloom, Shelah S; Platt, Jennifer L; Henry, Sarah K; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2016-12-01

    This article presents evidence supporting the hypothesis that promoting gender equality and women's and girls' empowerment (GEWE) leads to better health and development outcomes. We reviewed the literature across six sectors-family planning (FP); maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH); nutrition; agriculture; water, sanitation and hygiene; and financial services for the poor-and found 76 studies from low and middle-income countries that met our inclusion criteria. Across these studies, we identified common GEWE variables that emerged repeatedly as significant predictors of sector outcomes. We grouped these variables into 10 thematic categories, which we termed 'gender-related levers'. These levers were then classified by the strength of evidence into Wedges, Foundations and Facilitators. Wedges are gender-related levers that had strong associations with improved outcomes across multiple sectors. They include: 'control over income/assets/resources', 'decision-making power' and 'education'. Elements of these levers overlap, but combined, they encapsulate agency. Increasing female agency promotes equality and broadly improves health and development for women, their families and their communities. The second classification, Foundations, displayed strong, positive associations across FP, MNCH and nutrition. Foundations have a more proximal relationship with sector outcomes and include: 'equitable interpersonal relationships', 'mobility' and 'personal safety'. Finally, the third group of levers, Facilitators, was associated with improved outcomes in two to three sectors and include: 'access to information', 'community groups', 'paid labour' and 'rights'. These levers make it easier for women and girls to achieve their goals and are more traditional elements of development programmes. Overall, gender-related levers were associated with improvements in a variety of health and development outcomes. Furthermore, these associations were cross-sectoral, suggesting that to

  7. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  8. CPTAC Collaborates with Molecular & Cellular Proteomics to Address Reproducibility in Targeted Assay Development | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The journal Molecular & Cellular Proteomics (MCP), in collaboration with the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, announce new guidelines and requirements for papers describing the development and application of targeted mass spectrometry measurements of peptides, modified peptides and proteins (Mol Cell Proteomics 2017; PMID: 28183812).  NCI’s participation is part of NIH’s overall effort to address the r

  9. Addressing the Real-World Challenges in the Development of Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Christopher E.; Balaban, Edward; Sweet, Adam; Hayden, Sandra Claire; Bajwa, Anupa

    2005-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) has been an on-going research effort conducted over several years. PITEX has developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the main propulsion system of the X-34 reusable launch vehicle, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The application was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real-time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, these PITEX algorithms were subject to numerous real-world effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. The current research has demonstrated the potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined the performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  10. Addressing oral health disparities, inequity in access and workforce issues in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M

    2013-10-01

    The health sector challenges in India like those in other low and middle income countries are formidable. India has almost one-third of the world's dental schools. However, provisions of oral health-care services are few in rural parts of India where the majority of the Indian population resides. Disparities exist between the oral health status in urban and rural areas. The present unequal system of mainly private practice directed towards a minority of the population and based on reparative services needs to be modified. National oral health policy needs to be implemented as a priority, with an emphasis on strengthening dental care services under public health facilities. A fast-changing demographic profile and its implications needs to be considered while planning for the future oral health-care workforce. Current oral health status in developing countries, including India, is a result of government public health policies, not lack of dentists. The aim of the article is to discuss pertinent issues relating to oral health disparities, equity in health-care access, dental workforce planning and quality concerns pertaining to the present-day dental education and practices in India, which have implications for other developing countries. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  11. Developing priorities for addressing surgical conditions globally: furthering the link between surgery and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Mock, Charles; Cherian, Meena; Juillard, Catherine; Donkor, Peter; Bickler, Stephen; Jamison, Dean; McQueen, Kelly

    2010-03-01

    Efforts to promote wider access to surgical services globally would be aided by developing consensus among clinicians, the public health policy community, and other stakeholders as to which surgical conditions warrant the most focused attention and investment. This would add value to other, ongoing efforts, especially in helping to define unmet need and effective coverage. In this concept paper, we introduce preliminary ideas on how priorities for surgical care could be better defined, especially as regards the interface between the surgical and public health worlds. Factors that would come into play in this process include the public health burden of the condition and the successfulness and feasibility of the procedures to treat those conditions. The implications of the prioritization process are that those conditions with the highest public health burden and that have procedures that are highly successful and feasible to promote globally, including in the most resource-constrained environments, should be the main focus of national and international efforts.

  12. Addressing Unmet Medical Needs in Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review of Drugs under Development

    PubMed Central

    Mittermayer, Friedrich; Caveney, Erica; Oliveira, Claudia De; Gourgiotis, Loukas; Puri, Mala; Tai, Li-Jung; J, Rick Turner

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, and successful treatment of this disease needs constant provision of new drugs. Twelve classes of antidiabetic drugs are currently available, and many new drugs are under clinical development. These include compounds with known mechanisms of action but unique properties, such as once-weekly DPP4 inhibitors or oral insulin. They also include drugs with new mechanisms of action, the focus of this review. Most of these compounds are in Phase 1 and 2, with only a small number having made it to Phase 3 at this time. The new drug classes described include PPAR agonists/modulators, glucokinase activators, glucagon receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory compounds, G-protein coupled receptor agonists, gastrointestinal peptide agonists other than GLP-1, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) inhibitors, SGLT1 and dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitors, and 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors. PMID:25537454

  13. Addressing unmet medical needs in type 2 diabetes: a narrative review of drugs under development.

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, Friedrich; Caveney, Erica; De Oliveira, Claudia; Gourgiotis, Loukas; Puri, Mala; Tai, Li-Jung; Turner, J Rick

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, and successful treatment of this disease needs constant provision of new drugs. Twelve classes of antidiabetic drugs are currently available, and many new drugs are under clinical development. These include compounds with known mechanisms of action but unique properties, such as once-weekly DPP4 inhibitors or oral insulin. They also include drugs with new mechanisms of action, the focus of this review. Most of these compounds are in Phase 1 and 2, with only a small number having made it to Phase 3 at this time. The new drug classes described include PPAR agonists/modulators, glucokinase activators, glucagon receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory compounds, G-protein coupled receptor agonists, gastrointestinal peptide agonists other than GLP-1, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) inhibitors, SGLT1 and dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitors, and 11beta- HSD1 inhibitors.

  14. Shaping up: boot camp and other programs addressing professional development needs of science librarians.

    PubMed

    Gore, Sally A

    2011-01-01

    Scientists work collaboratively with online tools, relying almost exclusively on online resources and sharing publications freely online while generating and utilizing large datasets. As a result, librarians charged with providing services to the scientific community face both opportunities and challenges in keeping up in this electronic, digital environment. To meet these challenges, library leaders from the five campuses of the University of Massachusetts System established an on-going e-Science initiative. This initiative focuses on increasing awareness and understanding of the principles of e-Science while improving general knowledge within different scientific disciplines. Programs of varying lengths and focus provide local and affordable professional development opportunities that improve the working librarian's ability to better serve scientific researchers and students.

  15. Short- and medium-term effects of three fire fighting chemicals on the properties of a burnt soil.

    PubMed

    Couto-Vázquez, A; González-Prieto, S J

    2006-12-01

    The impact of three fire fighting chemicals (FFC) on 11 chemical soil properties and on soil recovery (0-2 cm depth) was evaluated 1, 30, 90 and 365 days after a prescribed fire. Five treatments were considered: unburnt soil (US) and burnt soil with 2 l m(-2) of water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquímica RFC-88 at 1% (BS+Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS+Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS+Ap). At t=1 day, soil pH increases in the order USmedium-term fire-triggered increment of N outputs ((15)N depleted). As is habitually the case, there was a transient post-fire increase of NH(4)(+)-N levels (significative for BS+FFC plots) that lasted for 30 (BS, BS+Fo and BS+Fi) to 90 days (BS+Ap). The high initial NH(4)(+)-N levels in BS+Ap (200x that of US; 9-18x those of BS, BS+Fo and BS+Fi), and its persistence can delay the post-fire vegetation recovery due to the toxicity of NH(4)(+) to seeds and seedlings. NO(3)-N levels changed significantly only in BS+Ap between t=30 and t=90 days due to the nitrification of its large NH(4)(+)-N pool. Except in BS+Ap, whose soil P levels were 70-140x (t=1 days) and 10-20x (t=365 days) higher than in the other treatments, available P content in BS and BS+FFC was not

  16. Effectiveness of a parenting program in Bangladesh to address early childhood health, growth and development.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances E; Singla, Daisy R; Nahil, Md Imam; Borisova, Ivelina

    2013-11-01

    A stratified cluster design was used to evaluate a 10-month parenting program delivered to mothers of children in rural Bangladesh. Intervention mothers through a combination of group meetings and home visits received messages along with an illustrative card concerning hygiene, responsive feeding, play, communication, gentle discipline, and nutritious foods. Control mothers received the standard government care. Three months prior, 463 children between 4 and 14 months in a subdistrict of western Bangladesh were administered the cognitive, receptive language and expressive language Bayley III subtests, their length was taken and past week illness recorded. Gross motor milestones were reported by the mother and verified through observation. Mothers were interviewed concerning their practices: preventive health practices, dietary diversity, home stimulation, and knowledge about development milestones. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed as a measure of emotional availability. Family sociodemographic variables included maternal education, family assets, decision-making and mobility autonomy. One month after the end of the program, mothers and their children were again assessed. Comparisons were made between intervention and control children who were under-12 months vs. 12 months and older at the start of the program. This may be a critical age, when children begin to be upright and mobile enough to explore on their own and be less dependent on parenting stimulation. Analyses yielded strong intervention effects on the three Bayley subtests and on parenting practices related to stimulation and knowledge of development milestones. Age effects were found only for dietary diversity in that younger children in the program benefited more than older ones. However, all children became more stunted. Findings are discussed in terms of theories of behaviour change and parenting, critical ages for parenting programs, and implications for program delivery.

  17. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  18. Using formative research to develop environmental and ecological interventions to address overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark G; Goetzel, Ron Z; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; DeJoy, Dave M; Della, Lindsay; Roemer, Enid Chung; Schneider, Jennifer; Tully, Karen J; White, John M; Baase, Catherine M

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents the formative research phase of a large multi-site intervention study conducted to inform the feasibility of introducing environmental and ecological interventions. Using mixed methods that included an environmental assessment, climate survey, leadership focus groups and interviews, and archival data, information was collected on employee health and job factors, the physical environment, social-organizational environment, and current health programs. Results show that 83% of employees at the study sites were overweight or obese. Leadership was very supportive of health initiatives and felt integrating the strategies into organizational operations would increase their likelihood of success. Environmental assessment scores ranged from 47 to 19 on a 100-point scale. Health services personnel tended to view the organizational climate for health more positively than site leadership (mean of 3.6 vs. 3.0, respectively). Intervention strategies chosen included increasing healthy food choices in vending, cafeterias, and company meetings, providing a walking path, targeting messages, developing site goals, training leaders, and establishing leaders at the work group level.

  19. Using Formative Research to Develop Environmental and Ecological Interventions to Address Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark G.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Ozminkowski, Ronald J.; DeJoy, Dave M.; Della, Lindsay; Roemer, Enid Chung; Schneider, Jennifer; Tully, Karen J.; White, John M.; Baase, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper presents the formative research phase of a large multi-site intervention study conducted to inform the feasibility of introducing environmental and ecological interventions. Methods Using mixed methods that included an environmental assessment, climate survey, leadership focus groups and interviews, and archival data, information was collected on employee health and job factors, the physical environment, social-organizational environment, and current health programs. Results Results show that 83% of employees at the study sites were overweight or obese. Leadership was very supportive of health initiatives and felt integrating the strategies into organizational operations would increase their likelihood of success. Environmental assessment scores ranged from 47 to 19 on a 100 point scale. Health services personnel tended to view the organizational climate for health more positively than site leadership (mean of 3.6 vs 3.0 respectively). Conclusions Intervention strategies chosen included increasing healthy food choices in vending, cafeterias, and company meetings, providing a walking path, targeting messages, developing site goals, training leaders, and establishing leaders at the work group level. PMID:18073340

  20. Addressing asthma and obesity in children with community health workers: proof-of-concept intervention development.

    PubMed

    Martin, Molly A; Rothschild, Steven K; Lynch, Elizabeth; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Pagán, Militza M; Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Barnes, Anna; Karavolos, Kelly; Diaz, Antonieta; Hoffman, Lucretia M; Plata, Diana; Villalpando, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to design and test the feasibility and impact of a community health worker (CHW) intervention for comorbid asthma and obesity. Using a proof of concept study design, we collected pre/post outcomes from a single intervention cohort of urban low-income in a single community area. A community-based participatory research approach was employed. Forty-six children and their caregivers were recruited. Children were 5-12 years old with physician-diagnosed asthma and body mass index (BMI) > 85%. Families were offered 12 home visits from CHWs that integrated asthma and obesity core curriculums. The primary asthma outcome was asthma control, measured via the Childhood Asthma Control Test (cACT). The primary obesity outcome was child body mass index (BMI). Families received a median of 10 out of the 12 home visits over 1 year. At 1 year, there was a significant improvement in the number of children with controlled asthma as measured via cACT (85.7% at 1 year compared to 61.9% at baseline, p = 0.01). Activity limitations and emergency utilization were reduced while inhaler technique improved (p < 0.01 for all). Child BMI z-score was reduced: mean = 1.97 (SD 0.79) at 1 year compared to mean = 2.13 (SD 0.40) at baseline, p < 0.01. No association was seen between change in child BMI and change in asthma control. Worse baseline child depression scores were associated with less improvement in asthma control (p = 0.003) and higher baseline caregiver post-traumatic stress disorder scores were associated with increased child BMI (p = 0.012). The CHW intervention has promise for improving asthma and weight outcomes in high-risk children with comorbid asthma and obesity; this model warrants further development and investigation.

  1. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages.

    PubMed

    Ruhago, George M; Ngalesoni, Frida N; Norheim, Ole F

    2012-12-27

    Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of -0.11 (maternal) and -0.12 (children) to a more equitable concentration index of -0,03 and -0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  2. Langley's DEVELOP Team Applies NASA's Earth Observations to Address Environmental Issues Across the Country and Around the Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Miller, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program was established over a decade ago to provide students with experience in the practical application of NASA Earth science research results. As part of NASA's Applied Sciences Program, DEVELOP focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to address environmental issues. Cultivating a diverse and dynamic group of students and young professionals, the program conducts applied science research projects during three terms each year (spring, summer, and fall) that focus on topics ranging from water resource management to natural disasters.

  3. Development of a Systems Science Curriculum to Engage Rural African American Teens in Understanding and Addressing Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, Leah; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Young, Tiffany L; Dave, Gaurav; Stith, Doris; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-08-01

    Engaging youth from racial and ethnic minority communities as leaders for change is a potential strategy to mobilize support for addressing childhood obesity, but there are limited curricula designed to help youth understand the complex influences on obesity. Our aim was to develop and pilot test a systems science curriculum to elicit rural African American youth perspectives on childhood obesity and enhance their understanding of and support for obesity prevention solutions. The curriculum was designed so it could be integrated with existing positive youth development curricula that help youth advocate for and implement identified solutions. We conducted four workshop sessions with youth that engaged them in systems learning activities such as guided systems diagramming activities. The participants ( n = 21) completed validated surveys presession and postsession that assessed their causal attributions of obesity and support for obesity prevention policies. The youths' perception that environmental factors cause obesity increased ( p < .05), and perceptions that individual behavior and biology cause obesity did not change. Their support for policies that addressed food access and food pricing significantly increased ( p < .05). The youths' system diagrams elucidated links between multilevel factors such as personal attitudes, social influence, and the built environment, which provides important information for designing synergistic solutions. The changes we observed in youths' perceptions of obesity and support for policy changes have important implications for youths' interest and willingness to advocate for social and environmental changes in their community. The strategies have a promising role in supporting community mobilization to address childhood obesity.

  4. Short- to Medium-Term Geomorphic Response of the Souhegan River to the 2008 Removal of the Merrimack Village Dam in Southern New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, N. P.; Collins, M. J.; Armistead, C. C.; Conlon, M.; David, G. C.; Lisius, G.; Lucy, C. O.; Munz, K. T.; Pearson, A.; Santaniello, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    controlling the medium-term response of the former impoundment.

  5. Neuromodulation using percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the management of trigeminal-mediated headshaking: A safe procedure resulting in medium-term remission in five of seven horses.

    PubMed

    Roberts, V L H; Patel, N K; Tremaine, W H

    2016-03-01

    for trigeminal-mediated headshaking, with encouraging efficacy for amelioration of clinical signs in the short- to medium term. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  7. Development of the role of public health nurses in addressing child and family poverty: a framework for action.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Benita E; Reutter, Linda

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to invite dialogue about how public health nurses could best address child and family poverty. Their current role is reviewed and a framework for expanding this role is presented. The negative health consequences of poverty for children are well-documented worldwide. The high levels of children living in poverty in wealthy industrialized countries such as Canada should be of concern to the health sector. What role(s) can public health nurses play in addressing child and family poverty? A review of scholarly literature from Canada, the United States of America and the United Kingdom was conducted to ascertain support for public health nurses' roles in reducing poverty and its effects. We then reviewed professional standards and competencies for nursing practice in Canada. The data were collected between 2005 and 2006. Numerous nursing scholars have called for public health nurses to address the causes and consequences of poverty through policy advocacy. However, this role was less likely to be identified in professional standards and competencies, and we found little empirical evidence documenting Canadian public health nurses' efforts to engage in this role. Public health nurses' roles in relation to poverty focus primarily on assisting families living in poverty to access appropriate services rather than directing efforts at the policy level. Factors associated with this limited involvement are identified. We suggest that the conceptual framework developed by Blackburn in the United Kingdom offers direction for a more fully developed public health nursing role. Prerequisites to engaging in the strategies articulated in the framework are discussed. Given more organizational support and enhanced knowledge and skills, public health nurses could be playing a greater role in working with others to make child and family poverty history.

  8. Community Wise: Development of a Model to Address Oppression in Order to Promote Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane; Pinto, Rogério M.; Benoit, Ellen; Jessell, Lauren; Jemal, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Communities with histories of oppression have shown great resilience. Yet few health interventions focus on structural oppression as a contributor to health problems in these communities. This paper describes the development and active ingredients of Community Wise, a unique behavioral-health intervention designed to reduce substance use frequency, related health risk behaviors, and recidivism among individuals with a history of incarceration and substance abuse residing in distressed and predominantly African American communities. Community Wise, developed through the collaborative efforts of a board of service providers, researchers, consumers, and government officials, is a 12-week group intervention that aims to address behavioral-health problems by raising critical consciousness in distressed communities. PMID:26190947

  9. Translating patient education theory into practice: developing material to address the cardiovascular education needs of people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    John, Holly; Hale, Elizabeth D; Bennett, Paul; Treharne, Gareth J; Carroll, Douglas; Kitas, George D

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the rationale and design of a theory-informed patient education programme addressing cardiovascular disease for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to illustrate how theory can explicitly be translated into practice. A steering group of rheumatologists and psychologists was convened to design the programme. The Common Sense Model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Stages of Change Model were used to underpin the topics and activities in the programme. User involvement was sought. The programme was formatted into a manual and the reading age of the materials was calculated. A small group 8-week programme was designed. The structure of the patient education programme, including topics, underlying psychological theory as well as behaviour change techniques, is described. This patient education programme addresses a currently unmet educational need for patients with RA and uses theory to design, not just evaluate, the programme. This will allow both enhanced interpretation of the results when the programme is implemented and replication by other units if successful. The actual design and detail of education programmes merit wider dissemination to facilitate progress in the process of development and application. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lack of carcinogenicity of daminozide, alone or in combination with its contaminant 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, in a medium-term bioassay.

    PubMed

    Cabral, R; Hakoi, K; Hoshiya, T; Hasegawa, R; Ito, N

    The carcinogenicity of daminozide (succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide; Alar), a plant growth regulator used primarily in apple orchards, has been the subject of recent investigations by several national and international organizations because of contradictory study results. The aim of the present study was to assess the carcinogenicity of daminozide alone and in combination with 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), its major contaminant, in a novel medium-term bioassay in Fischer 344 rats, the DEN-PH model. Rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at 200 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally and then 2 weeks later were given daminozide at 20,000 ppm or daminozide plus UDMH at 75, 150, or 300 ppm in the diet for 6 weeks and were then killed; all rats underwent a partial (two-thirds) hepatectomy (PH) at week 3. Hepatocarcinogenic potential was assessed by comparing the number and area of preneoplastic foci positive for the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P+) in the liver of treated rats, with those in controls given DEN alone. Daminozide, UDMH, and the combination were not carcinogenic in this model. This novel medium-term bioassay for carcinogenicity is considered to be practical for the rapid evaluation of both agrochemical formulations and contaminants found in agrochemicals and other compounds.

  11. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  12. Addressing the Disconnect between the Estimated, Reported, and True Rabies Data: The Development of a Regional African Rabies Bulletin

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Terence P.; Coetzer, Andre; Fahrion, Anna S.; Nel, Louis H.

    2017-01-01

    It is evident that rabies continues to be a neglected tropical disease; however, a recent global drive aims to eliminate canine-mediated human rabies by 2030. Global efforts have been vested into creating and developing resources for countries to take ownership of and overcome the challenges that rabies poses. The disconnect between the numbers of rabies cases reported and the numbers estimated by prediction models is clear: the key to understanding the epidemiology and true burden of rabies lies within accurate and timely data; poor and discrepant data undermine its true burden and negate the advocacy efforts needed to curb this lethal disease. In an effort to address these challenges, the Pan-African Rabies Control Network is developing a regional rabies-specific disease surveillance bulletin based on the District Health Information System 2 platform—a web-based, open access health information platform. This bulletin provides a data repository from which specific key indicators, essential to any rabies intervention program, form the basis of data collection. The data are automatically analyzed, providing useful outputs for targeted intervention. Furthermore, in an effort to reduce reporting fatigue, the data submitted, under authority from the respective governments, can automatically be shared with approved international authorities. The implementation of a rabies-specific bulletin will facilitate targeted control efforts and provide measurements of success, while also acting as a basis for advocacy to raise the priority of this neglected disease. PMID:28265562

  13. Addressing weight stigma in physiotherapy: Development of a theory-driven approach to (re)thinking weight-related interactions.

    PubMed

    Setchell, J; Gard, M; Jones, L; Watson, B M

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we propose a theory-driven approach to developing interventions for reducing weight stigma in physiotherapy and discuss the design and exploratory trial of such an intervention. Weight stigma has been identified in physiotherapists in empirical investigations. However, there has been little consideration of how this stigma might be addressed. We highlight Goffman's work on stigma that provides social and embodied understandings of stigma. Goffman's approach, however, is notably apolitical, ahistorical and lacks mechanisms for understanding power. We suggest that post-structuralist perspectives can provide insight into these areas. Drawing on these theories, we critically examine the literature on weight stigma reduction, finding that trials have largely been unsuccessful. We argue that this may be due to overly passive and simplistic intervention designs. As context-specific understandings are desirable, we examine the nature of physiotherapy to determine what might be relevant to (re)thinking weight in this profession. We then discuss the development of a multifactorial, active weight stigma intervention we trialed with eight physiotherapists. Supported by theory, the outcomes of the exploratory study suggest that physiotherapy-specific factors such as fostering professional reflexivity and improving understandings of stigma need to be incorporated into an active intervention that considers the complex determinants of weight stigma.

  14. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  15. 2016 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address: Developing Productive Researchers Through Mentoring, Rethinking Doctoral Dissertations, and Facilitating Positive Publishing Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    In her acceptance address, Wendy Sims provides a unique perspective based on thoughts and reflections resulting from her 8 years of service as the ninth Editor of the "Journal of Research in Music Education" ("JRME"). Specifically, she addresses how college-level music education researchers can promote positive attitudes toward…

  16. 2016 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address: Developing Productive Researchers Through Mentoring, Rethinking Doctoral Dissertations, and Facilitating Positive Publishing Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    In her acceptance address, Wendy Sims provides a unique perspective based on thoughts and reflections resulting from her 8 years of service as the ninth Editor of the "Journal of Research in Music Education" ("JRME"). Specifically, she addresses how college-level music education researchers can promote positive attitudes toward…

  17. From Rain Tanks to Catchments: Use of Low-Impact Development To Address Hydrologic Symptoms of the Urban Stream Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Askarizadeh, Asal; Rippy, Megan A; Fletcher, Tim D; Feldman, David L; Peng, Jian; Bowler, Peter; Mehring, Andrew S; Winfrey, Brandon K; Vrugt, Jasper A; AghaKouchak, Amir; Jiang, Sunny C; Sanders, Brett F; Levin, Lisa A; Taylor, Scott; Grant, Stanley B

    2015-10-06

    Catchment urbanization perturbs the water and sediment budgets of streams, degrades stream health and function, and causes a constellation of flow, water quality, and ecological symptoms collectively known as the urban stream syndrome. Low-impact development (LID) technologies address the hydrologic symptoms of the urban stream syndrome by mimicking natural flow paths and restoring a natural water balance. Over annual time scales, the volumes of stormwater that should be infiltrated and harvested can be estimated from a catchment-scale water-balance given local climate conditions and preurban land cover. For all but the wettest regions of the world, a much larger volume of stormwater runoff should be harvested than infiltrated to maintain stream hydrology in a preurban state. Efforts to prevent or reverse hydrologic symptoms associated with the urban stream syndrome will therefore require: (1) selecting the right mix of LID technologies that provide regionally tailored ratios of stormwater harvesting and infiltration; (2) integrating these LID technologies into next-generation drainage systems; (3) maximizing potential cobenefits including water supply augmentation, flood protection, improved water quality, and urban amenities; and (4) long-term hydrologic monitoring to evaluate the efficacy of LID interventions.

  18. From rain tanks to catchments: Use of low-impact development to address hydrologic symptoms of the urban stream syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Catchment urbanization perturbs the water and sediment budgets of streams, degrades stream health and function, and causes a constellation of flow, water quality and ecological symptoms collectively known as the urban stream syndrome. Low-impact development (LID) technologies address the hydrologic symptoms of the urban stream syndrome by mimicking natural flow paths and restoring a natural water balance. Over annual time scales, the volumes of storm water that should be infiltrated and harvested can be estimated from a catchment-scale water-balance given local climate conditions and pre-urban land cover. For all but the wettest regions of the world, the water balance predicts a much larger volume of storm water runoff should be harvested than infiltrated to restore stream hydrology to a pre-urban state. Efforts to prevent or reverse hydrologic symptoms associated with the urban stream syndrome will therefore require: (1) selecting the right mix of LID technologies that provide regionally tailored ratios of storm water harvesting and infiltration; (2) integrating these LID technologies into next-generation drainage systems; (3) maximizing potential co-benefits including water supply augmentation, flood protection, improved water quality, and urban amenities; and (4) long-term hydrologic monitoring to evaluate the efficacy of LID interventions.

  19. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  20. A Feasibility Study of Medium-term Earthquake Forecasting Using Numerical Earthquake Simulators: Comparison to the WGCEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morein, G.; Rundle, J.; van Aalsburg, J.; Turcotte, D.; Grant-Ludwig, L.; Donnellan, A.; Tiampo, K.; Klein, W.

    2008-12-01

    We have carried out simulations for earthquakes on models of California's fault system (Virtual California -- "VC") for simulation runs over time intervals from tens of thousands of years to millions of years. Using these simulations, we have now developed techniques to assimilate observed earthquake variability into the simulations. Our technique is based on mining the simulation data to identify time intervals that look most like the recent past history of earthquakes on the California fault system. We then use these optimal time intervals to "look into the future" and forecast the likely locations of future major earthquakes. We note that the parameters that enter into the model are set using the long term average properties of the fault system -- earthquake and plate rate variability are not used at this stage of the simulation. Here we describe this method and carry out a feasibility study of its application. We develop fault-based relative spatial probabilities that can be compared with recent results from the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP 2008). Both VC and WGCEP forecast elevated relative probabilities for the Southern San Andreas fault (40.4% VC; 35.5% WGCEP). However, the relative probabilities are significantly different for the Northern San Andreas fault (22.6% VC; 12.7% WGCEP); the Calaveras fault (13.5% VC; 4.2% WGCEP); the Hayward-Rodgers Creek faults (5.0% VC; 18.7% WGCEP); and the San Jacinto fault (10.5% VC; 18.7% WGCEP). An important qualification is that since our model has not been systematically validated, these first probabilistic results should be treated with caution.

  1. Successful Drug Development Despite Adverse Preclinical Findings Part 1: Processes to Address Issues and Most Important Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Prentice, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected adverse preclinical findings (APFs) are not infrequently encountered during drug development. Such APFs can be functional disturbances such as QT prolongation, morphological toxicity or carcinogenicity. The latter is of particular concern in conjunction with equivocal genotoxicity results. The toxicologic pathologist plays an important role in recognizing these effects, in helping to characterize them, to evaluate their risk for man, and in proposing measures to mitigate the risk particularly in early clinical trials. A careful scientific evaluation is crucial while termination of the development of a potentially useful drug must be avoided. This first part of the review discusses processes to address unexpected APFs and provides an overview over typical APFs in particular classes of drugs. If the mode of action (MoA) by which a drug candidate produces an APF is known, this supports evaluation of its relevance for humans. Tailor-made mechanistic studies, when needed, must be planned carefully to test one or several hypotheses regarding the potential MoA and to provide further data for risk evaluation. Safety considerations are based on exposure at no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAEL) of the most sensitive and relevant animal species and guide dose escalation in clinical trials. The availability of early markers of toxicity for monitoring of humans adds further safety to clinical studies. Risk evaluation is concluded by a weight of evidence analysis (WoE) with an array of parameters including drug use, medical need and alternatives on the market. In the second part of this review relevant examples of APFs will be discussed in more detail. PMID:22272031

  2. Addressing Low Colorectal Cancer Screening in African Americans: Using Focus Groups to Inform the Development of Effective Interventions.

    PubMed

    May, Folasade P; Whitman, Cynthia B; Varlyguina, Ksenia; Bromley, Erica G; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2016-09-01

    African Americans have the highest burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States of America (USA) yet lower CRC screening rates than whites. Although poor screening has prompted efforts to increase screening uptake, there is a persistent need to develop public health interventions in partnership with the African American community. The aim of this study was to conduct focus groups with African Americans to determine preferences for the content and mode of dissemination of culturally tailored CRC screening interventions. In June 2013, 45-75-year-old African Americans were recruited through online advertisements and from an urban Veterans Affairs system to create four focus groups. A semi-structured interview script employing open-ended elicitation was used, and transcripts were analyzed using ATLAS.ti software to code and group data into a concept network. A total of 38 participants (mean age = 54) were enrolled, and 59 ATLAS.ti codes were generated. Commonly reported barriers to screening included perceived invasiveness of colonoscopy, fear of pain, and financial concerns. Facilitators included poor diet/health and desire to prevent CRC. Common sources of health information included media and medical providers. CRC screening information was commonly obtained from medical personnel or media. Participants suggested dissemination of CRC screening education through commercials, billboards, influential African American public figures, Internet, and radio. Participants suggested future interventions include culturally specific information, including details about increased risk, accessing care, and dispelling of myths. Public health interventions to improve CRC screening among African Americans should employ media outlets, emphasize increased risk among African Americans, and address race-specific barriers. Specific recommendations are presented for developing future interventions.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Medium Term Morphological Changes at Manavgat River Mouth Due to Combined Action of Waves and River Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, E.; Baykal, C.; Guler, I.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, hydrodynamic conditions due to river discharge, wave action and sea level fluctuations within a seven month period and the morphological response of the Manavgat river mouth are modeled with XBeach, a two-dimensional depth-averaged (2DH) numerical model developed to compute the natural coastal response during time-varying storm and hurricane conditions (Roelvink et al., 2010). The study area shows an active behavior on its nearshore morphology, thus, two jetties were constructed at the river mouth between years 1996-2000. Recently, Demirci et al. (2016) has studied the impacts of an excess river discharge and concurrent wave action and tidal fluctuations on the Manavgat river mouth morphology for the duration of 12 days (December 4th and 15th, 1998) while the construction of jetties were carried on. It is concluded that XBeach has presumed the final morphology fairly well with the calibrated set of input parameters. Here, the river mouth modeled at a further past date before the construction of jetties with the similar set of input parameters (between August 1st, 1995-March 8th, 1996) to reveal the drastic morphologic change near the mouth due to high river discharge and severe storms happened in a longer period of time. Wave climate effect is determined with the wave hindcasting model, W61, developed by Middle East Technical University-OERC with the NCEP-CFSR wind data as well as the sea level data. River discharge, wave and sea level data are introduced as input parameters in the XBeach numerical model and the final output morphological change is compared with the final bed level measurements. References:Demirci, E., Baykal, C., Guler, I., Ergin, A., & Sogut, E. (postponed). Numerical Modelling on Hydrodynamic Flow Conditions and Morphological Changes Using XBeach Near Manavgat River Mouth. Accepted as Oral presentation at the 35thInt. Conf. on Coastal Eng., Istanbul, Turkey. Guler, I., Ergin, A., Yalçıner, A. C., (2003). Monitoring Sediment

  4. Medium-term Earthquake Forecasting with Numerical Earthquake Simulators: A Feasibility Study with a Comparison to the WGCEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; van Aalsburg, J.; Morein, G.; Turcotte, D. L.; Grant-Ludwig, L.; Donnellan, A.; Tiampo, K. F.; Klein, W.

    2008-12-01

    Topologically realistic earthquake simulations are now possible using numerical codes such as Virtual California (VC). Currently, VC is written in modern object-oriented C++ code, and runs under MPI-II protocols on parallel HPC machines such as the NASA Columbia supercomputer. In VC, an earthquake fault system is modeled by a large number of Boundary Elements interacting by means of linear elasticity. A friction law is prescribed for each boundary element, and the faults are driven at a stressing rate that is consistent with their observed long-term average offset rate. We note that the parameters that enter into the model are set using the long term average properties of the fault system -- earthquake and plate rate variability are not used at this stage of the simulation. We have carried out simulations for earthquakes on models of California's fault system for simulation runs over time intervals from tens of thousands of years to millions of years. Using these simulations, we have now developed techniques to assimilate observed earthquake variability into the simulations. Our technique is based on mining the simulation data to identify time intervals that look most like the recent past history of earthquakes on the California fault system. We then use these optimal time intervals to "look into the future" and forecast the likely locations of future major earthquakes. Here we describe this method and carry out a feasibility study of its application. We develop fault-based relative spatial probabilities that can be compared with recent results from the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP 2008). Both VC and WGCEP forecast elevated relative probabilities for the Southern San Andreas fault (40.4% VC; 35.5% WGCEP). However, the relative probabilities are significantly different for the Northern San Andreas fault (22.6% VC; 12.7% WGCEP); the Calaveras fault (13.5% VC; 4.2% WGCEP); the Hayward-Rodgers Creek faults (5.0% VC; 18.7% WGCEP); and the

  5. Current status and use of short/medium-term models for assessment of carcinogenicity of human pharmaceuticals: regulatory perspectives.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, J W

    2000-03-15

    In the summer of 1997 international governmental organizations and industry partners agreed upon a new document on 'Testing for Carcinogenicity of Pharmaceuticals'. The most important element in the new guidance was the acceptability of only one life-time carcinogenicity study in a rodent species (preferably the rat). In addition a choice could be made to test the pharmaceutical in one of the newly developed models, i.e. the newborn mouse assay or one of the various transgenic mouse assays. In the present paper the strengths and weaknesses of various models are discussed from a regulatory point of view. The aim of the new animal models would eventually be replacing animal life-span studies without compromizing human safety. Such studies should supplement the life-span studies and provide additional information not readily available from the long-term assay. At present there is insufficient information to predict or offer guidance on which of the models may be the most suitable. New models are not useful to test the carcinogenic potential of biotechnological products.

  6. A simple colony-formation assay in liquid medium, termed 'tadpoling', provides a sensitive measure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability.

    PubMed

    Welch, Aaron Z; Koshland, Douglas E

    2013-12-01

    Here we describe the first high-throughput amenable method of quantifying Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability. Current high-throughput methods of assessing yeast cell viability, such as flow cytometry and SGA analysis, do not measure the percentage viability of a culture but instead measure cell vitality or colony fitness, respectively. We developed a method, called tadpoling, to quantify the percentage viability of a yeast culture, with the ability to detect as few as one viable cell amongst ~10(8) dead cells. The most important feature of this assay is the exploitation of yeast colony formation in liquid medium. Utilizing a microtiter dish, we are able to observe a range of viability of 100% to 0.0001%. Comparison of tadpoling to the traditional plating method to measure yeast culture viability reveals that, for the majority of Saccharomyces species analyzed there is no significant difference between the two methods. In comparison to flow cytometry using propidium iodide, the high-throughput method of measuring yeast culture viability, tadpoling is much more accurate at culture viabilities < 1%. Thus, we show that tadpoling provides an easy, inexpensive, space-saving method, amenable to high-throughput screens, for accurately measuring yeast cell viability.

  7. Medium-term effects of cardiac rehabilitation in Germany: systematic review and meta-analysis of results from national and international trials.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Oskar; Schramm, Susanne; Böhmen, Stephan; Hüppe, Angelika; Meyer, Thorsten; Raspe, Heiner

    2011-08-01

    Contrary to international practice, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in Germany is predominantly offered as comprehensive inpatient treatment lasting for 3 weeks. Evidence for this kind of health care is poor, comprising observational cohort studies only. We conducted a systematic search for relevant German studies (1990-2004). International studies were selected from recent meta-analyses. Medium-term (12 month) results for blood lipids, blood pressure, functional capacity and psychological wellbeing, as well as cardiac morbidity and mortality are reported. For most outcomes, effect sizes in national studies are poorer than those from international interventions or, in the case of blood pressure and depression, even poorer than international controls. Altogether, our analysis does not suggest that comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation treatment is superior to international practice of long-term outpatient rehabilitation.

  8. Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change

    PubMed Central

    Little, Chelsea J.; Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Molau, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-term responses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years. The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity–diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant–plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic. PMID

  9. [Short- and medium-term intraocular pressure lowering effects of combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without scleral implant or antifibrotics].

    PubMed

    Moreno-López, M; Pérez-Alvarez, M J

    2006-02-01

    To examine the short- and medium-term intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects of combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without the use of scleral implant or antifibrotics in open-angle glaucoma (primary and pseudoexfoliative) and coexisting cataract in eyes with no known risk factors for bleb failure. Retrospective study of 15 eyes of 12 patients with medically uncontrolled open-angle glaucoma or open-angle glaucoma treated with two or more drugs and coexisting cataract with no known risk factors for glaucoma surgery failure. All patients received combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without scleral implant or antifibrotics performed by the same surgeon. Nd-YAG perforation of the trabeculodescemetic membrane and/or needling with mitomycin-C was performed postoperatively for IOP control. Main outcome measures were postoperative IOP, percentage of eyes with IOP < 17 mmHg, complications and final visual acuity (VA). Median follow-up was 12.0 months (SD: 0.6) and ranged from 1 to 30 months. Mean preoperative IOP with medical treatment was 21.80 mmHg (SD: 5.14) and decreased to 14.42 mmHg (SD: 2.15) at 12-month visit. Mean antiglaucoma medication preoperative was 1.93 (SD: 0.70) and was reduced to 0.13 (DE: 0.35) postoperative. At 12-month visit, 80% had an IOP lower than 17 mmHg with a mean VA gain of 2.50 Snellen lines. Conjuntival wound leakage was the most frequent complication (20%; 3/15). Primary combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without collagen implant or antifibrotics in primary open-angle glaucoma with coexisting cataract, significantly lowers IOP in the short- and medium term in low-risk cases for glaucoma surgery failure, allowing for rapid visual improvement with a low complication rate.

  10. Microendoscopy-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar degenerative disease: short-term and medium-term outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Bin; Rong, Li-Min; Chen, Rui-Qiang; Dong, Jian-Wen; Xie, Pei-Gen; Zhang, Liang-Ming; Feng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate short-term and medium-term outcomes of microendoscopy-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) and open TLIF for lumbar degenerative disease. Methods: In this prospective, randomized control study, 50 cases received microendoscopy-assisted MIS-TLIF (MIS group), while another well-matched 50 cases accepted open TLIF (open group). Parameters between both groups, including surgical duration, intraoperative blood loss and radiologic exposure, postoperative analgesic usage and ambulatory time, visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg, functional scores, self-evaluation of surgical outcome (modified MacNab criteria), interbody fusion rate, adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) rate, as well as complication incidence were compared at 1 month and 24 months postoperatively. Results: Intraoperative blood loss and postoperative analgesic usage were significantly reduced in MIS group (P<0.05). Patients undergoing microendoscopy-assisted MIS-TLIF were able to ambulate earlier postoperatively than those receiving open TLIF (P<0.05). However, it showed prolonged surgical duration and enhanced radiologic exposure in MIS group (P<0.05). At 1 month postoperatively, MIS group was associated with more improvement of VAS and functional scores compared with open group (P<0.05). While at 24 months postoperatively, both groups revealed similar VAS and functional scores (P>0.05). Excellent and perfect scale rating by modified MacNab criteria, interbody fusion rate, ASD rate and complication incidence between both groups were nearly the same (P>0.05). Conclusions: Microendoscopy-assisted MIS-TLIF owns advantages of less iatrogenic injury, decreased blood loss, reduced analgesic usage and earlier rehabilitation, while it has drawbacks of more surgical duration and radiologic exposure. It is superior than open TLIF in terms of short-term clinical outcomes and has similar medium-term clinical outcomes. PMID:26885072

  11. The effect of a medium-term activity- and diet-induced energy deficit on subjective appetite sensations in obese children.

    PubMed

    King, N A; Hester, J; Gately, P J

    2007-02-01

    To assess the subjective appetite responses to an imposed activity- and diet-induced energy deficit during a residential intervention programme for obese children. A 6-week intervention of fixed, reduced dietary intake and 6 h/day of skill-based physical activity while resident in a weight loss camp. Thirty-eight obese (mean body mass index (BMI)=34.9 kg m(-2)) boys and girls (mean age 13.9+/-1.57). An electronic appetite rating system (EARS) was used to periodically measure subjective appetite sensations at the start (WK1) and at the end (WK6) of the camp. Subjective ratings of hunger and fullness were compared at the start and end of 6 weeks of an activity- and diet-induced-based weight loss intervention. At the end of the 6 weeks, the children had lost 8.4 kg in body mass. The diurnal profiles of subjective appetite sensations demonstrated clear oscillations in hunger and fullness. There was a significant increase in hunger (P<0.0001) and decrease in fullness (P<0.005) at the end (WK6) of the medium-term energy deficit. In WK6, morning ratings of hunger were higher than in WK1 (P<0.005) and the fixed energy evening meal induced a lower suppression of hunger (P<0.02). A programme of fixed, reduced-dietary intake combined with an activity and behavioural programme was successful at inducing a significant reduction in body mass in obese children. Subjective sensations of appetite were sensitive to a medium-term negative energy balance and weight loss. These data are essential as we continue to evolve methods of treatment for overweight and obese children.

  12. The Arthroscopic All-Inside Tibial-Inlay Reconstruction of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament: Medium-Term Functional Results and Complication Rate.

    PubMed

    Osti, Michael; Hierzer, Doris; Seibert, Franz-Josef; Benedetto, Karl Peter

    2017-03-01

    The present study evaluates the medium-term functional and radiological outcome as well as complications following an arthroscopic tibial inlay reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). A total of 39 patients (mean age: 32.6 ± 12.4 years) with acute and chronic PCL instabilities received a single-bundle all-inside arthroscopic tibial inlay reconstruction with quadriceps tendon autograft and were available for clinical follow-up on average after 3.8 ± 1.8 years. Assessment was conducted utilizing visual analogue scale (VAS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Tegner, Lysholm, and knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome (KOOS) scores. VAS, Tegner, Lysholm, and subjective IKDC-scores averaged to 2.75 ± 1.95, 4 (1-9), 77.19 ± 17.54, and 75.18 ± 19.29 points, respectively. Mean KOOS results were 80.66 ± 1.98 for pain, 74.72 ± 17.72 for symptoms, 88.44 ± 13.95 for activities of daily life, 65.35 ± 27.96 for sports and recreation, and 60.01 ± 25.36 for quality of life. Overall IKDC-score rating was A2, B28, C5, and D4. The overall complication rate of 5.4% was caused by one superficial infection, one patellar fracture, and one lesion to the popliteal artery. Arthroscopic tibial inlay reconstruction is a valuable procedure regarding medium-term subjective and objective outcome measures. Return to sports, subjective satisfaction, and objective stability are predictable. The complication rate is acceptable but particular precaution is recommended to protect the popliteal artery and adjacent structures at risk. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change.

    PubMed

    Alatalo, Juha M; Little, Chelsea J; Jägerbrand, Annika K; Molau, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-term responses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years. The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity-diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant-plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

  14. Keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, D.

    1997-12-31

    March 10th is an anniversary date for Dick Cheney. Eight years ago today President Bush asked him to be his Secretary of Defense. He was his second choice. John Tower was his first. On March 17, 1989, Cheney was confirmed and sworn into the office of Secretary of Defense. He quickly began closing down his office on Capital Hill and he reported to work on March 18. Much changed for him that day, but not everything. He still had constituents. But instead of the residents of Wyoming, he represented the entire Armed forces of the United States of America. For this convention, he was asked to discuss the worldwide reserves and associated development risks, the risks and rewards in the US industry and 21st Century vision for energy within the US. He discusses the Halliburton view on the natural gas energy future, the US role, implications for a new business model, and political risk.

  15. President's Address

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John

    1928-01-01

    The paper recalls how matters veterinary were regarded forty-six years ago, what has been achieved since, and future progress is reflected. The paper is divided into parts relating respectively to: (a) medicine; (b) surgery (c) teaching and research; (d) administration. Formerly, glanders and farcy, and rabies, though acknowledged as contagious and specific, were also believed to be of spontaneous origin. Experiences with regard to these two diseases, and the mallein test for glanders, are related. The discovery of the Bacillus anthracis led to the development of veterinary research, but for some time confusion existed. Tuberculosis was believed to be endogenous and the result of the absorption of caseous products of a previous inflammation. Treatment of “milk fever” in cows by udder inflation and biochemistry in relation to that disease are considered. The advance in veterinary surgery stands out most prominently; in canine practice, operations are now attempted which were never thought possible in the early days. Allusion is made to the recent formidable operations for the cure of “windsucking” in horses, and for traumatic pericarditis in bovines. The powers of observance of the old practitioners in diagnosing lameness, and some of the old methods of treatment for lameness, are supported. The great progress in veterinary research is referred to, also its advantages from an imperial point of view. The causative agents of those diseases which are at present ultravisible, particularly foot-and-mouth disease, will probably be found, and better methods of prevention result. In training, thorough instruction in animal physiology, animal nutrition and biochemistry is advocated, also affiliation of veterinary colleges to universities, the individuality of such colleges, and the one-portal system of qualification being maintained. PMID:19986709

  16. Single-Fraction High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Hypofractionated External Beam Radiotherapy for Men With Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: Analysis of Short- and Medium-Term Toxicity and Quality of Life

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, Gerard C.; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Sankreacha, Raxa

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the short- and medium-term effects of a single high-dose-rate brachytherapy fraction of 15Gy and hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had localized prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 7 and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of <20 ng/ml or a Gleason score of 6 with a PSA concentration of 10 to 20 ng/ml. Patients received high-dose-rate brachytherapy as a single 15-Gy dose, followed by external beam radiation therapy at 37.5Gy in 15 fractions, and were followed prospectively for toxicity (using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0), urinary symptoms (using the International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]), erectile function (with the International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]), and health-related quality of life (with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite [EPIC]). Clinical examinations and PSA measurements were performed at every visit, and prostate biopsies were repeated at 2 years. The trial accrued 125 patients, with a median follow-up of 1.14 years. Results: Acute grade 2 and 3 genitourinary toxicity occurred in 62% and 1.6% of patients, respectively, and acute grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in 6.5% of patients. No grade 3 late toxicity has occurred: 47% of patients had grade 2 genitourinary and 10% of patients had grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicity. Median IPSSs rose from 5 at baseline to 12 at 1 month and returned to 7 at 3 months. Of the total number of patients who were initially potent (IIEF, >21), 8% of patients developed mild to moderate dysfunction, and 27% of patients developed severe erectile dysfunction. Baseline EPIC bowel, urinary, and sexual bother scores decreased by 9, 7, and 19 points, respectively, at 1 year. No patient has experienced biochemical failure, and 16 of the first 17 biopsy results showed no malignancy. Conclusions: Treatment is well tolerated in the short and medium term, with

  17. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  18. An International Model for Developing Capacity for Addressing the Needs of "At Risk" Youth: A French-English affaire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Pam

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a bi-national project planned with Interreg (European) funding involving communities in Kent and Nord Pas-de-Calais. The focus is on "at risk" youth and training and supporting personnel, and action to address the needs of this client group. The differences in the two systems mean that the forms of the project are…

  19. Addressing Asthma in Texas: Development of a School-Based Asthma Surveillance Program for Texas Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronella, Sharon A.; Bricker, Susan K.; Perrotta, Dennis; Brown, Clive; Brooks, Edward G.

    2006-01-01

    To address asthma in the state, in October 2000, the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) and the American Lung Association of Texas held a joint meeting of asthma professionals from across the state, with a primary purpose of identifying major issues and potential strategies and actions to be taken. These discussions became the basis…

  20. Red blood cell distribution width independently predicts medium-term mortality and major adverse cardiac events after an acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Turcato, Gianni; Serafini, Valentina; Dilda, Alice; Bovo, Chiara; Caruso, Beatrice; Ricci, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Background The value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW), a simple and inexpensive measure of anisocytosis, has been associated with the outcome of many human chronic disorders. Therefore, this retrospective study was aimed to investigate whether RDW may be associated with medium-term mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods A total number of 979 patients diagnosed with ACS were enrolled from June 2014 to November 2014, and followed-up until June 2015. Results The RDW value in patients with 3-month MACE and in those who died was significantly higher than that of patients without 3-month MACE (13.3% vs. 14.0%; P<0.001) and those who were still alive at the end of follow-up (13.4% vs. 14.4%; P<0.001). In univariate analysis, RDW was found to be associated with 3-month MACE [odds ratio (OR), 1.70; 95% CI, 1.44–2.00, P<0.001]. In multivariate analysis, RDW remained independently associated with 3-month MACE (adjusted OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19–1.55; P<0.001) and death (adjusted OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05–1.71; P=0.020). The accuracy of RDW for predicting 3-month MACE was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.66–0.72; P<0.001). The most efficient discriminatory RDW value was 14.8%, which was associated with 3.8 (95% CI, 2.6–5.7; P<0.001) higher risk of 3-month MACE. Patients with RDW >14.8% exhibited a significantly short survival than those with RDW ≤14.8% (331 vs. 465 days; P<0.001). Conclusions The results of this study confirm that RDW may be a valuable, easy and inexpensive parameter for stratifying the medium-term risk in patients with ACS. PMID:27500155

  1. [Short- and medium-term effectivenesses of stemless hip arthroplasty for treating hip joint disease in young and middle-aged patients].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingzhen; Liu, Wuyang; Gao, Hui; Shi, Mingxiang; Lian, Yucai

    2014-09-01

    To summarize the short- and medium-term effectivenesses of stemless hip arthroplasty for treating hip joint disease in young and middle-aged patients. Between June 2005 and December 2010, 25 cases (27 hips) of hip joint disease were treated with stemless hip arthroplasty. There were 17 males (19 hips) and 8 females (8 hips) with an average age of 45.6 years (range, 30-57 years), including 13 left hips, 10 right hips, and 2 bilateral hips. The causes included avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) secondary to femoral neck fracture in 5 cases (5 hips), ANFH in 15 cases (16 hips), osteoarthritis of the hip joint caused by ankylosing spondylitis in 2 cases (3 hips), osteoarthritis of the hip joint caused by dysplasia of acetabular in 2 cases (2 hips), and rheumatoid arthritis in 1 case (1 hip). The disease duration was 1-17 years (mean, 6.1 years). Before operation, the Harris score was 47.6 ± 14.2. The incision healed by first intention in all patients, and no complications occurred, such as infection, periprosthetic fracture, and deep vein thrombosis of lower extremity. Twenty-five patients (27 hips) were followed up 36-96 months (mean, 51 months). One case (1 hip) had sciatic nerve injury after operation, which was relieved by symptomatic treatment. One case (1 hip) had prosthesis loosening, which was relieved after revision. The survival rate of prosthesis was 96.3% (26/27). At last follow-up, the Harris score was 92.1 ± 3.6, which was significantly better than preoperative score (t = 18.241, P = 0.000). The excellent and good rate was 88.9% (excellent in 19 hips, good in 5 hips, fair in 2 hips, and poor in 1 hip). The X-ray films showed good location of prosthesis, and no evidence of dislocation, bone resorption, osteolysis, and heterotopic ossification. Because of reserving femoral neck, biomechanics conduction and distribute of the proximal femur achieve natural biomechanics state of the human body. The short- and medium-term effectivenesses of

  2. Historical Perspectives on the Development of Equal Opportunity in Higher Education. Six Addresses Delivered at the University of Iowa Training Institute for EOP Administrators, 1973-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip E., Ed.

    A historical perspective on several issues related to the development of equal opportunity in higher education is presented in these speeches. Six authors address the following issues: (1) the black college in historical perspective (Stephen Wright); (2) the development of equal opportunity in relation to historical patterns in higher education…

  3. Community health clinical education in Canada: part 2--developing competencies to address social justice, equity, and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Benita E; Gregory, David

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several Canadian professional nursing associations have highlighted the expectations that community health nurses (CHNs) should address the social determinants of health and promote social justice and equity. These developments have important implications for (pre-licensure) CHN clinical education. This article reports the findings of a qualitative descriptive study that explored how baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada address the development of competencies related to social justice, equity, and the social determinants of health in their community health clinical courses. Focus group interviews were held with community health clinical course leaders in selected Canadian baccalaureate nursing programs. The findings foster understanding of key enablers and challenges when providing students with clinical opportunities to develop the CHN role related to social injustice, inequity, and the social determinants of health. The findings may also have implications for nursing programs internationally that are addressing these concepts in their community health clinical courses.

  4. Positive medium-term influence of multimodal pain management on socioeconomic factors and health care utilization in patients with lumbar radiculopathy: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Benditz, Achim; Loher, Martin; Boluki, Daniel; Grifka, Joachim; Völlner, Florian; Renkawitz, Tobias; Maderbacher, Günther; Götz, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Background Multimodal pain management (MPM) represents a central approach to avoiding surgery in patients with lumbar radiculopathy. Independent of the type of health system, cost effectiveness and socioeconomic factors are becoming increasingly important. This study investigated the medium-term influence of conservative MPM on health care utilization and socioeconomic factors. Methods This study compared subjective, objective, and socioeconomic factors of 60 patients after inpatient MPM because of lumbar radiculopathy, before and 1 year ± 2 weeks after treatment. Results Over the course of the 1-year follow-up, one-third of the patients had not required any conservative treatment in comparison to 100% of patients before MPM therapy. The number of patients requiring analgesics could be significantly reduced from 26 to 12, and the number of patients who did not require any analgesics had increased from 14 to 32. After 1 year, the number of patients who had to regularly contact a physician because of low back pain (once per month for 6 months) had been reduced from 58 to 27. Conclusion MPM is an effective approach to treating lumbar radiculopathy and reducing its negative influence on socioeconomic factors. Therapeutic benefits also include a decrease in health care utilization. Therefore, health care providers should place the mid-term success for patients and socioeconomic factors before the short-term costs of therapy. PMID:28243143

  5. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Graham; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; King, Neil; Blundell, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs) for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss. PMID:20886014

  6. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  7. A comparison of the medium-term impact and recovery of the Pakistan floods and the Haiti earthquake: objective and subjective measures.

    PubMed

    Weiss, William M; Kirsch, Thomas D; Doocy, Shannon; Perrin, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The 2010 Haiti earthquake and Pakistan floods were similar in their massive human impact. Although the specific events were very different, the humanitarian response to disasters is supposed to achieve the same ends. This paper contrasts the disaster effects and aims to contrast the medium-term response. In January 2011, similarly structured population-based surveys were carried out in the most affected areas using stratified cluster designs (80×20 in Pakistan and 60×20 in Haiti) with probability proportional to size sampling. Displacement persisted in Haiti and Pakistan at 53% and 39% of households, respectively. In Pakistan, 95% of households reported damage to their homes and loss of income or livelihoods, and in Haiti, the rates were 93% and 85%, respectively. Frequency of displacement, and income or livelihood loss, were significantly higher in Pakistan, whereas disaster-related deaths or injuries were significantly more prevalent in Haiti. Given the rise in disaster frequency and costs, and the volatility of humanitarian funding streams as a result of the recent global financial crisis, it is increasingly important to measure the impact of humanitarian response against the goal of a return to normalcy.

  8. Induction of cAMP response element-binding protein-dependent medium-term memory by appetitive gustatory reinforcement in Drosophila larvae.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2005-08-31

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been successfully used as a model animal for the study of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. Although most of the Drosophila learning studies have used the adult fly, the relative complexity of its neural network hinders cellular and molecular studies at high resolution. In contrast, the Drosophila larva has a simple brain with uniquely identifiable neural networks, providing an opportunity of an attractive alternative system for elucidation of underlying mechanisms involved in learning and memory. In this paper, we describe a novel paradigm of larval associative learning with a single odor and a positive gustatory reinforcer, sucrose. Mutant analyses have suggested importance of cAMP signaling and potassium channel activities in larval learning as has been demonstrated with the adult fly. Intriguingly, larval memory produced by the appetitive conditioning lasts medium term and depends on both amnesiac and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). A significant part of memory was disrupted at very early phase by CREB blockade without affecting immediate learning performance. Moreover, we also show that synaptic output of larval mushroom body neurons is required for retrieval but not for acquisition and retention of the larval memory, including the CREB-dependent component.

  9. [Viability of 7 kinds of medicinal plant seeds stored in medium-term gene bank of the National Medicinal Plant Gene Bank].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Yang, Cheng-Min; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-05-01

    In order to evaluate seed viability of Platycodon grandiflorum, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Andrographis paniculat, Codonopsis pilosula, Scutellaria baicalensis, Leonurus japonicus, Rabdosia rubescens, stored in the medium-term gene bank of the National Medicinal Plant Gene Bank for 4 years, we tested seed germination rate of 7 species of medicinal plant and analyzed the change of significance of levels of the germination rate in pre and post store. Seed germination rates of 7 species of medicinal plants were all decreased after 4 years, and the decrease of S. tenuifolia and S. baicalensis germination rates were much smaller than other species. The higher initial germination rate of P. grandiflorum, C. pilosula, R. rubescens seed has the smaller decline of germination rate, but the data of A. paniculata showed the opposite trend. The rate decline of the germination of S. tenuifolia and S. baicalensis was roughly the same in different germination rate interval. The results showed that low temperature storage could effectively prolong the seed longevity, and maintain the seed vigor. Moreover, it is necessary to study on the storage characteristics of the main medicinal plant seeds, and establish the monitoring plan and regeneration standard. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Medium-term follow-up of clinically insignificant residual fragments after minimal invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy: prognostic features and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; He, Long; Li, Jianzhong; Duan, Zhongyang; Gao, Zijian; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Minimal invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) has been commonly used in removing urinary stones. However, the detrimental effects of clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRF) after MPCNL have not been entirely clarified. This study is aimed at investigating the clinical outcomes of CIRF after MPCNL. From July 2004 to June 2010, 1862 cases of urolithiasis underwent MPCNL. 185 cases of CIRF were subsequently diagnosed using CT scanning and followed up. During follow-ups, medical history, physical examination, routine blood and urine tests, subjective symptoms were recorded. A multiple-variable Cox regression was performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of different factors for CIRF after MPCNL. Of 185 cases of CIRF followed up for 31.4 months on average, 58 cases (31.4%) suffered symptomatic episodes, including 30 cases of hematuresis, 21 cases of low urinary tract symptoms and 7 cases of hematuresis complicated with renal colic. The results of Cox regression showed that past history of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), CIRF size, hypercalcuria and CIRF located in ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) are independent risk factors for medium-term symptomatic episodes of CIRF after MPCNL. We suggest that regular follow-ups should be considered for patients with CIRFs after MPCNL for timely treatments, especially for those who are hypercalcuria-complicated, have history of ESWL, or suffer relatively large CIRFs located in the UPJ. PMID:26885122

  11. Low fat loss response after medium-term supervised exercise in obese is associated with exercise-induced increase in food reward.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Graham; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; King, Neil; Blundell, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs) for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  12. Anemia in low-income countries is unlikely to be addressed by economic development without additional programs.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Harold; Linnemayr, Sebastian

    2009-09-01

    Although governments may decline to invest in iron fortification or supplementation influenced by the view that income growth will address the problem, the data do not support this view. Looking at the rates of anemia among children and adult women across 40 Demographic and Health Surveys from 32 countries, this study found that although anemia rates do decrease as income increases, the decrease is modest. Indeed, overall anemia rates decline roughly a quarter as fast as income increases and at only half the speed at which rates of underweight decline.

  13. Veterinary public health capacity-building in India: a grim reflection of the developing world's underpreparedness to address zoonotic risks.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Manish; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kumar, Ashok; Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Sharma, Kavya; Bhatt, Purvi Mehta; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) is ideally suited to promote convergence between human, animal and environmental sectors. Recent zoonotic and emerging infectious disease events have given rise to increasing calls for efforts to build global VPH capacities. However, even with their greater vulnerability to such events, including their economic and livelihood impacts, the response from low-and middle-income countries such as India has been suboptimal, thereby elevating global health risks. Addressing risks effectively at the human-animal interface in these countries will require a clear vision, consistent policies, strategic approach and sustained political commitment to reform and refine the current VPH capacity-building efforts. Only then can the discipline serve its goal of disease prevention, poverty alleviation and support for sustainable livelihoods through improvements in human and animal health.

  14. The 1.5 GHz electromagnetic near-field used for cellular phones does not promote rat liver carcinogenesis in a medium-term liver bioassay.

    PubMed

    Imaida, K; Taki, M; Watanabe, S; Kamimura, Y; Ito, T; Yamaguchi, T; Ito, N; Shirai, T

    1998-10-01

    We have recently established that local exposure to a 929.2 MHz electromagnetic near-field, used for cellular phones, does not promote rat liver carcinogenesis in a medium-term bioassay system. In the present study, a 1.439 GHz electromagnetic near-field (EMF), another microwave band employed for cellular phones in Japan, was similarly investigated. Time division multiple access (TDMA) signals for the Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) Japanese cellular telephone standard system were directed to rats through a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna. Numerical dosimetry showed that the peak SARs within the liver were 1.91-0.937 W/kg, while the whole-body average specific absorption rates (SARs) were 0.680-0.453 W/kg, when the time-averaged antenna radiation power was 0.33 W. Exposure was for 90 min a day, 5 days a week, over 6 weeks, to male F344 rats given a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg, i.p.) 2 weeks previously. At week 3, all rats were subjected to a two-thirds partial hepatectomy. At week 8, the experiment was terminated and the animals were killed. Carcinogenic potential was scored by comparing the numbers and areas of the induced glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci in the livers of exposed (48) and sham-exposed rats (48). Despite increased serum levels of corticosterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and melatonin, the numbers and the areas of GST-P-positive foci were not significantly altered by the exposure. These findings clearly indicated that local body exposure to a 1.439 GHz EMF, as in the case of a 929.2 MHz field, has no promoting effect on rat liver carcinogenesis in the present model.

  15. Successful return to sports in athletes following non-operative management of acute isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries: medium-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Agolley, D; Gabr, A; Benjamin-Laing, H; Haddad, F S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of the non-operative treatment of high-grade posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries, particularly Hughston grade III injuries, which have not previously been described. This was a prospective study involving 46 consecutive patients who were athletes with MRI-confirmed isolated PCL injuries presenting within four weeks of injury. All had Hughston grade II (25 athletes) or III (21 athletes) injuries. Our non-operative treatment regimen involved initial bracing, followed by an individualised rehabilitation programme determined by the symptoms and physical signs. The patients were reviewed until they had returned to sports-specific training, and were reviewed again at a mean of 5.2 years (3 to 9). The mean time to return to sports-specific training was 10.6 weeks and the mean time to return to full competitive sport was 16.4 weeks (10 to 40). A total of 42 patients (91.3%) were playing at the same or higher level of sport two years after the injury, with a mean Tegner activity score of 9 (5 to 10). At five years, 32 patients (69.5%) were playing at the same or higher level of sport, and 38 patients (82.6%) were playing at a competitive level, with a mean Tegner activity score of 9 (5 to 10). Medium-term review of a series of athletes suggests that commencing the non-operative management of isolated, Hughston grade II and III PCL injuries within four weeks of injury gives excellent functional outcomes with a high proportion returning to the same or higher level of sport. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:774-8. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  16. Medium-term outcomes and complications after total replacement of the temporomandibular joint. Prospective outcome analysis after 3 and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Gruber, E A; McCullough, J; Sidebottom, A J

    2015-05-01

    In this prospective analysis, we assess the medium-term benefits, efficacy, and safety of the TMJ Concepts joint replacement system in the United Kingdom. Outcome measures of pain, maximum mouth opening, and diet were recorded preoperatively and at intervals up to 3 and 5 years. All patients who had replacement temporomandibular joints (TMJ) within a 6-year period were included. A total of 58 patients (84 joints) were followed up for 3 years (mean age 47, range 19-72) and 26 (42 joints) for 5 years (mean age 46, range 27-70). The female to male ratio was 52:6 at 3 years and 23:3 at 5 years. The most common diagnosis was degenerative disease, and the mean number of previous TMJ procedures was 2.4 (range 0-14). There were significant improvements in pain scores (7.4 reduced to 0.6 at 3 years and 0.8 at 5 years), maximum mouth opening (21.0-35.5mm at 3 years and 23.8-33.7mm at 5 years), and dietary scores (4.1-9.7 at 3 years and 3.7-9.6 at 5 years). Revision operations were required in 2 patients (not included in the outcome data) for biofilm infection of the prosthesis secondary to local infection in the head and neck. One patient had weakness of the temporal branch of the facial nerve that needed correction. TMJ replacement is an effective form of management for an irreparably damaged joint, particularly in cases of ankylosis. It lessens pain and improves function with minimal long-term morbidity.

  17. Physiological responses and scope for growth upon medium-term exposure to the combined effects of ocean acidification and temperature in a subtidal scavenger Nassarius conoidalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoyu; Shin, Paul K S; Cheung, S G

    2015-05-01

    Physiological responses (ingestion rate, absorption rate and efficiency, respiration, rate, excretion rate) and scope for growth of a subtidal scavenging gastropod Nassarius conoidalis under the combined effects of ocean acidification (pCO2 levels: 380, 950, 1250 μatm) and temperature (15, 30 °C) were investigated for 31 days. There was a significant reduction in all the physiological rates and scope for growth following short-term exposure (1-3 days) to elevated pCO2 except absorption efficiency at 15 °C and 30 °C, and respiration rate and excretion rate at 15 °C. The percentage change in the physiological rates ranged from 0% to 90% at 15 °C and from 0% to 73% at 30 °C when pCO2 was increased from 380 μatm to 1250 μatm. The effect of pCO2 on the physiological rates was enhanced at high temperature for ingestion, absorption, respiration and excretion. When the exposure period was extended to 31 days, the effect of pCO2 was significant on the ingestion rate only. All the physiological rates remained unchanged when temperature increased from 24 °C to 30 °C but the rates at 15 °C were significantly lower, irrespective of the duration of exposure. Our data suggested that a medium-term exposure to ocean acidification has no effect on the energetics of N. conoidalis. Nevertheless, the situation may be complicated by a longer term of exposure and/or a reduction in salinity in a warming world.

  18. High volume image-guided injections and structured rehabilitation improve greater trochanter pain syndrome in the short and medium term: a combined retrospective and prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Sarah; Chan, Otto; Price, Jessica; Pritchard, Melanie; Crisp, Tom; Perry, John D.; Morrissey, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background the aim of this study was to measure the effects of high volume image-guided injections and structured rehabilitation (HVIGI&SR) for greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS). Methods 31 consecutive subjects were recruited (23 retrospectively; 8 prospectively) over 5 months. GTPS was diagnosed based on history and examination findings, alongside radiological examination. The HVI-GI used a 22-gauge spinal needle to administer 10ml of 0.5% Marcaine and 50 mg hydrocortisone just deep to the periosteum underlying the gluteal tendon insertion under ultrasound guidance, followed by structured rehabilitation. A visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain was used as the main outcome measure. Results the mean VAS improved from 81.7 mm (±17.6) to 42.3 mm (±28.3), (p<0.05) in the prospective subjects at a mean of 6 weeks, considered clinically significant. In the retrospective subjects the mean VAS had improved from 74.6 (±10.9) mm to 38.2(±31.2) mm at two weeks (p<0.01) and 31.3 (±27.6) mm at the final time point, a mean of 60 weeks (p<0.01). The Hip and Groin Outcome Score in the prospective group showed a non-significant increase from 173.2 to 296.1 (p=0.12). Conclusion HVIGI&SR should be considered when short- and medium-term pain-relieving treatment for GTPS is required. Controlled studies are warranted to fully establish effectiveness, and assess long term effects. Level of evidence case series. PMID:26261785

  19. Assessment of the Risk of Medium-Term Internal Contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster, the first level-7 major nuclear disaster since Chernobyl, raised concerns about the future health consequences of exposure to and intake of radionuclides. Factors determining the risk and level of internal radiation contamination after a nuclear accident, which are a key to understanding and improving current nuclear disaster management, are not well studied. Objective: We investigated both the prevalence and level of internal contamination in residents of Minamisoma, and identified factors determining the risk and levels of contamination. Methods: We implemented a program assessing internal radiation contamination using a whole body counter (WBC) measurement and a questionnaire survey in Minamisoma, between October 2011 and March 2012. Results: Approximately 20% of the city’s population (8,829 individuals) participated in the WBC measurement for internal contamination, of which 94% responded to the questionnaire. The proportion of participants with detectable internal contamination was 40% in adults and 9% in children. The level of internal contamination ranged from 2.3 to 196.5 Bq/kg (median, 11.3 Bq/kg). Tobit regression analysis identified two main risk factors: more time spent outdoors, and intake of potentially contaminated foods and water. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, with sensible and reasonable precautions, people may be able to live continuously in radiation-affected areas with limited contamination risk. To enable this, nuclear disaster response should strictly enforce food and water controls and disseminate evidence-based and up-to-date information about avoidable contamination risks. Citation: Sugimoto A, Gilmour S, Tsubokura M, Nomura S, Kami M, Oikawa T, Kanazawa Y, Shibuya K. 2014. Assessment of the risk of medium-term internal contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:587–593;

  20. Short- and medium-term plasticity associated with augmenting responses in cortical slabs and spindles in intact cortex of cats in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Timofeev, Igor; Grenier, François; Bazhenov, Maxim; Houweling, Arthur R; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Steriade, Mircea

    2002-01-01

    well as spontaneously occurring spindles, may induce short- and medium-term plasticity of neuronal responses. PMID:12122155

  1. A physiologically based pharmacodynamic analysis of hepatic foci within a medium-term liver bioassay using pentachlorobenzene as a promoter and diethylnitrosamine as an initiator.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R S; Conolly, R B; Gustafson, D L; Long, M E; Benjamin, S A; Yang, R S

    2000-07-15

    A stochastic clonal growth model for describing quantitative changes in size and number of putative preneoplastic lesions was modified to analyze the time-course information of cell proliferation and glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P) foci within a medium-term bioassay. The study used F344 rats and a single initiating event using diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg ip) at Week 0. After a 2-week recovery period, chemical treatment began by gavage administration of pentachlorobenzene (PeCB; 100 micromol/kg/day, 7 days/week) in a corn oil vehicle and continued for 6 weeks. One week after beginning gavage dosing, a two-thirds partial hepatectomy was performed and the animals were serially euthanized at 48, 120, 168, 624, and 840 h postsurgery, which corresponds to 216, 288, 336, 792, and 1008 h following the beginning of PeCB treatment, respectively. For analysis, two types of models were evaluated for describing the time-course changes in GST-P foci. First, a sequential model describing the transformation of normal cells into a homogenous initiated cell population (i.e., one-cell model). Second, a two-cell model that describes a heterogeneous foci population by splitting the initiated cell population into two distinct types. In our study, the one-cell model was unable to adequately represent the time-course data for changes in both size and number of foci. In contrast, the two-cell model, which was parameterized to describe a negative selection mechanism, produced adequate simulations of both the size and number of foci. This model-based analysis suggested that the differences between PeCB-treated and untreated animals were primarily in parameters involving the rates of cell death.

  2. The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children’s health, mental health and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Mary McKernan; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R.B.; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Ann Mellins, Claude

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (CHAMP – Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively-designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health and mental health needs of poverty-impacted, African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or who are perinatally-infected and at high risk for re-infection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multi-level contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include: the Triadic Theory of Influence (TTI) (Bell, Flay, & Paikoff, 2002), Social Action Theory (SAT) (Ewart, 1991) and Ecological Developmental Perspectives (Paikoff, Traube, & McKay, 2006). CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers. PMID:24787707

  3. The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health, and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care.

    PubMed

    McKernan McKay, Mary; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R B; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007 ) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health, and mental health needs of poverty-impacted African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or perinatally infected and at high risk for reinfection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multilevel contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include the triadic theory of influence, social action theory, and ecological developmental perspectives. CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence, and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers.

  4. Looking beyond first-world problems: an emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality.

  5. Addressing Economic Development Goals through Innovative Teaching of University Statistics: A Case Study of Statistical Modelling in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezepue, Patrick Oseloka; Ojo, Adegbola

    2012-01-01

    A challenging problem in some developing countries such as Nigeria is inadequate training of students in effective problem solving using the core concepts of their disciplines. Related to this is a disconnection between their learning and socio-economic development agenda of a country. These problems are more vivid in statistical education which…

  6. Addressing Economic Development Goals through Innovative Teaching of University Statistics: A Case Study of Statistical Modelling in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezepue, Patrick Oseloka; Ojo, Adegbola

    2012-01-01

    A challenging problem in some developing countries such as Nigeria is inadequate training of students in effective problem solving using the core concepts of their disciplines. Related to this is a disconnection between their learning and socio-economic development agenda of a country. These problems are more vivid in statistical education which…

  7. How Effective Is Peer Education in Addressing Young People's Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Neil; Knibbs, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This review article questions the assumptions at the core of peer education interventions adopted in young people's sexual and reproductive health programmes in developing countries. Peer education is a more complex and problematic approach than its popularity with development agencies and practitioners implies. Its rise to prominence is more…

  8. How Effective Is Peer Education in Addressing Young People's Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Neil; Knibbs, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This review article questions the assumptions at the core of peer education interventions adopted in young people's sexual and reproductive health programmes in developing countries. Peer education is a more complex and problematic approach than its popularity with development agencies and practitioners implies. Its rise to prominence is more…

  9. Addressing the Complexity of Mobile App Design in Hospital Setting with a Tailored Software Development Life Cycle Model.

    PubMed

    Ehrler, Frederic; Lovis, Christian; Blondon, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on workflow processes in hospital settings have shown that, since the introduction of EHRs, care-providers spend an increasing amount of their time on documentation rather than on bedside patient care. In order to improve the bedside work process and facilitate bedside documentation, we are developing an evidence-based mobile app for healthcare providers. In this paper, we present a tailored software development life cycle model that we created and validated during the design and development of this smartphone application.

  10. Addressing the mandate for hand-off education: a focused review and recommendations for anesthesia resident curriculum development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lane-Fall, Meghan B; Brooks, Amber K; Wilkins, Sara A; Davis, Joshua J; Riesenberg, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires that residency programs teach residents about handoffs and ensure their competence in this communication skill. Development of hand-off curricula for anesthesia residency programs is hindered by the paucity of evidence regarding how to conduct, teach, and evaluate handoffs in the various settings where anesthesia practitioners work. This narrative review draws from literature in anesthesia and other disciplines to provide recommendations for anesthesia resident hand-off curriculum development and evaluation.

  11. Addressing economic development goals through innovative teaching of university statistics: a case study of statistical modelling in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oseloka Ezepue, Patrick; Ojo, Adegbola

    2012-12-01

    A challenging problem in some developing countries such as Nigeria is inadequate training of students in effective problem solving using the core concepts of their disciplines. Related to this is a disconnection between their learning and socio-economic development agenda of a country. These problems are more vivid in statistical education which is dominated by textbook examples and unbalanced assessment 'for' and 'of' learning within traditional curricula. The problems impede the achievement of socio-economic development objectives such as those stated in the Nigerian Vision 2020 blueprint and United Nations Millennium Development Goals. They also impoverish the ability of (statistics) graduates to creatively use their knowledge in relevant business and industry sectors, thereby exacerbating mass graduate unemployment in Nigeria and similar developing countries. This article uses a case study in statistical modelling to discuss the nature of innovations in statistics education vital to producing new kinds of graduates who can link their learning to national economic development goals, create wealth and alleviate poverty through (self) employment. Wider implications of the innovations for repositioning mathematical sciences education globally are explored in this article.

  12. Addressing Disaster Risk Management and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Development in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Elasha, B. M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX) demonstrates that an extreme event which used to occur infrequently and perceived today as abnormal will be tomorrow's 'normal' weather. For example the drought events in the African Sahel which once came every decade could now come every couple of years bringing a new challenge and leading to severe disturbances and rapid environmental changes. The report identified and analyzed the problems associated with extreme climatic events, and examined how human responses to these events and the consequent disasters could contribute to adaptation objectives, and how adaptation to climate change could become better integrated with Disasters Risk Management (DRM) practices. Moreover, a number of studies explored the linkages and interactions between disasters and development and clearly demonstrates how the exposure to extremes and vulnerability to climate change can hinder development efforts, emphasizing the need for much smarter development and economic policies that consider managing disaster risk and implement adaptation measures as main components of sustainable development. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of findings from IPCC reports and other studies and will draw on existing experiences and lessons learned to explore the linkages between disaster risk management, adaptation and economic development in Africa. It will also shed light on some of the regional and global interventions which aim at mitigating the impacts of extremes and disasters in African countries characterized by high exposure & vulnerability and low adaptive capacity. It concludes by highlighting the need for broader cooperation and partnership between development partners and agencies working on disaster risk management & climate change adaptation including the private sector, bilateral and multilateral agencies in order to ensure sustainable development.

  13. Addressing Potential Cumulative Impacts of Development on Threatened Species: The Case of the Endangered Black-Throated Finch

    PubMed Central

    Vanderduys, Eric Peter; Reside, April E.; Grice, Anthony; Rechetelo, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Where threatened biodiversity is adversely affected by development, policies often state that "no net loss" should be the goal and biodiversity offsetting is one mechanism available to achieve this. However, developments are often approved on an ad hoc basis and cumulative impacts are not sufficiently examined. We demonstrate the potential for serious threat to an endangered subspecies when multiple developments are planned. We modelled the distribution of the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta) using bioclimatic data and Queensland's Regional Ecosystem classification. We overlaid granted, extant extractive and exploratory mining tenures within the known and modelled ranges of black-throated finches to examine the level of incipient threat to this subspecies in central Queensland, Australia. Our models indicate that more than half of the remaining P. cincta cincta habitat is currently under extractive or exploratory tenure. Therefore, insufficient habitat exists to offset all potential development so "no net loss" is not possible. This has implications for future conservation of this and similarly distributed species and for resource development planning, especially the use of legislated offsets for biodiversity protection. PMID:26934622

  14. Addressing Potential Cumulative Impacts of Development on Threatened Species: The Case of the Endangered Black-Throated Finch.

    PubMed

    Vanderduys, Eric Peter; Reside, April E; Grice, Anthony; Rechetelo, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Where threatened biodiversity is adversely affected by development, policies often state that "no net loss" should be the goal and biodiversity offsetting is one mechanism available to achieve this. However, developments are often approved on an ad hoc basis and cumulative impacts are not sufficiently examined. We demonstrate the potential for serious threat to an endangered subspecies when multiple developments are planned. We modelled the distribution of the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta) using bioclimatic data and Queensland's Regional Ecosystem classification. We overlaid granted, extant extractive and exploratory mining tenures within the known and modelled ranges of black-throated finches to examine the level of incipient threat to this subspecies in central Queensland, Australia. Our models indicate that more than half of the remaining P. cincta cincta habitat is currently under extractive or exploratory tenure. Therefore, insufficient habitat exists to offset all potential development so "no net loss" is not possible. This has implications for future conservation of this and similarly distributed species and for resource development planning, especially the use of legislated offsets for biodiversity protection.

  15. A method for addressing research gaps in HTA, developed whilst evaluating robotic-assisted surgery: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background When evaluating health technologies with insufficient scientific evidence, only innovative potentials can be assessed. A Regional policy initiative linking the governance of health innovations to the development of clinical research has been launched by the Region of Emilia Romagna Healthcare Authority. This program, aimed at enhancing the research capacity of health organizations, encourages the development of adoption plans that combine use in clinical practice along with experimental use producing better knowledge. Following the launch of this program we developed and propose a method that, by evaluating and ranking scientific uncertainty, identifies the moment (during the stages of the technology's development) where it would be sensible to invest in research resources and capacity to further its evaluation. The method was developed and tested during a research project evaluating robotic surgery. Methods A multidisciplinary panel carried out a 5-step evaluation process: 1) definition of the technology's evidence profile and of all relevant clinical outcomes; 2) systematic review of scientific literature and outline of the uncertainty profile differentiating research results into steady, plausible, uncertain and unknown results; 3) definition of the acceptable level of uncertainty for investing research resources; 4) analysis of local context; 5) identification of clinical indications with promising clinical return. Results Outputs for each step of the evaluation process are: 1) evidence profile of the technology and systematic review; 2) uncertainty profile for each clinical indication; 3) exclusion of clinical indications not fulfilling the criteria of maximum acceptable risk; 4) mapping of local context; 5) recommendations for research. Outputs of the evaluation process for robotic surgery are described in the paper. Conclusions This method attempts to rank levels of uncertainty in order to distinguish promising from hazardous clinical use and to

  16. Addressing health disparities through patient education: the development of culturally-tailored health education materials at Puentes de Salud.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Isobel; O'Brien, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    The availability of culturally appropriate written health information is essential for promoting health in diverse populations. Lack of English fluency has been shown to negatively impact health outcomes for Latinos in the United States. The authors conducted a needs assessment at a clinic serving Latino immigrants, focusing on patients' health and previous experiences with written health information. Based on these results and a literature review, we developed 10 Spanish language brochures to better serve the target population. This article outlines the process of developing and implementing this intervention, which can serve as a model for similar projects targeting diverse populations.

  17. Development of the IM147: an alternative inspection/maintenance mass-emission transient test to address vehicle preconditioning concerns.

    PubMed

    Joy, Richard W; Heirigs, Philip L; Torgerson, Garrett D; St Denis, Michael; Austin, Thomas C; Gordon, Jay; Tefft, Bob; Lindner, Jim

    2004-03-01

    A series of studies was performed to develop an alternative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's gold standard IM240 mass-based emission test. The new IM147 test was based on the second phase of the IM240 that consists of 147 sec of transient vehicle operation. Paired IM240/IM147 tests were conducted on vehicles ranging from 1981 to 1996 to determine IM147 cutpoints and excess emissions were identified. Additionally, an optimized test procedure was developed that combined possible triplicate IM147s with improved drive trace quality control, fast-pass, and retest methods. The optimized procedure was found to provide improved vehicle preconditioning with a relatively minor decrease in excess emissions identification. Resulting identification rates ranged from 96 to 100% for hydrocarbons (HC), 93-100% for CO, and 93-100% for NOx, depending on cutpoint selection, while false failures caused by lack of vehicle preconditioning were reduced to essentially zero. Significant vehicle throughput improvements were achieved through the development of software algorithms involving modal fast-pass and retest procedures. Modal drive trace variation limits also were developed to improve test accuracy. The combination of the algorithms reduced average IM147 test times by nearly 60%.

  18. Addressing the Challenges of a New Digital Technologies Curriculum: MOOCs as a Scalable Solution for Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivian, Rebecca; Falkner, Katrina; Falkner, Nickolas

    2014-01-01

    England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources" at a national scale." Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any…

  19. Development of influenza vaccine production capacity by the Government Pharmaceutical Organization of Thailand: addressing the threat of an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Surichan, Somchaiya; Wirachwong, Ponthip; Supachaturas, Wutichai; Utid, Kanchala; Theerasurakarn, Sompone; Langsanam, Pimsuk; Lakornrach, Pattharachai; Nitisaporn, Ladda; Chansikkakorn, Chanpen; Vangkanonta, Wilak; Kaweepornpoj, Ruangchai; Poopipatpol, Kittisak; Thirapakpoomanunt, Sit; Srichainak, Somchai; Artavatkun, Witit; Chokevivat, Vichai; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2011-07-01

    In 2005, a year after highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Thailand, the Thai Government issued a National Strategy Plan for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness, a major objective of which was the domestic production of seasonal influenza vaccine. It was considered that sustained influenza vaccine production was the best guarantee of a pandemic vaccine in the event of a future pandemic. The Government decided to provide funds to establish an industrial-scale influenza vaccine production plant, and gave responsibility for this challenging project to the Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO). In 2007, with support from the World Health Organization (WHO), the GPO started to develop egg-based, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in a renovated pilot plant. In early 2009, during the second year of the project, the GPO turned its attention to develop a pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccine (PLAIV) against the influenza A (H1N1) virus. By December 2010, the H1N1 PLAIV had successfully completed Phase II clinical trials and was awaiting registration approval from the Thai Food and Drug Administration (TFDA). The GPO has also started to develop an H5N2 PLAIV, which is expected to enter clinical trials in January 2011. The next step in 2011 will be the development and clinical evaluation of seasonal LAIV. To meet the needs of the national seasonal influenza vaccination programme, the GPO aims to produce 2 million doses of trivalent IIV in 2012 and progressively increase production to the maximum annual capacity of 10 million doses. This article relates how influenza vaccine production capacity was developed and how major challenges are being met in an expeditious manner, with strong local and global commitment.

  20. A cross-sectional pilot study of the Scottish early development instrument: a tool for addressing inequality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early childhood is recognised as a key developmental phase with implications for social, academic, health and wellbeing outcomes in later childhood and indeed throughout the adult lifespan. Community level data on inequalities in early child development are therefore required to establish the impact of government early years’ policies and programmes on children’s strengths and vulnerabilities at local and national level. This would allow local leaders to target tailored interventions according to community needs to improve children’s readiness for the transition to school. The challenge is collecting valid data on sufficient samples of children entering school to derive robust inferences about each local birth cohort’s developmental status. This information needs to be presented in a way that allows community stakeholders to understand the results, expediting the improvement of preschool programming to improve future cohorts’ development in the early years. The aim of the study was to carry out a pilot to test the feasibility and ease of use in Scotland of the 104-item teacher-administered Early Development Instrument, an internationally validated measure of children’s global development at school entry developed in Canada. Methods Phase 1 was piloted in an education district with 14 Primary 1 teachers assessing a cohort of 154 children, following which the instrument was adapted for the Scottish context (Scottish Early Development Instrument: SEDI). Phase 2 was then carried out using the SEDI. Data were analysed from a larger sample of 1090 participants, comprising all Primary 1 children within this school district, evaluated by 68 teachers. Results The SEDI displayed adequate psychometric and discriminatory properties and is appropriate for use across Scotland without any further modifications. Children in the lowest socioeconomic status quintiles were 2–3 times more likely than children in the most affluent quintile to score low in at

  1. Assessment of the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative: Addressing Environmental and Siting Issues Associated with Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; States, Jennifer C.

    2010-11-09

    The National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) is a consensus-based stakeholder group comprised of representatives from the utility, wind industry, environmental, consumer, regulatory, power marketer, agricultural, tribal, economic development, and state and federal government sectors. The purpose of the NWCC is to support the development of an environmentally, economically, and politically sustainable commercial market for wind power (NWCC 2010). The NWCC has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since its inception in 1994. In order to evaluate the impact of the work of the NWCC and how this work aligns with DOE’s strategic priorities, DOE tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a series of informal interviews with a small sample of those involved with NWCC.

  2. Programmatic Environmental Assessment Addressing the Development, Use, and Maintenance of Military Training Areas at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-30

    Restoration ERDA Energy Research and Development Administration ERP Environmental Restoration Program ESA Endangered Species Act ESP Explosive Site Plan...the Proposed Action Agency Permit/Approval/Condition U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) • Endangered Species Act (ESA) Section 7 Consultation...policies regarding biological resources are included in Appendix A. Protected species are defined as those listed as threatened, endangered , or

  3. Fifth amendment taking and environmental protection under the police power: Historical development and a modest proposal to address the muddle

    SciTech Connect

    Root, T.E.; Dotterrer, I.L.

    1995-12-01

    Under its developing {open_quotes}just compensation{close_quotes} jurisprudence, the United States Supreme Court has applied the constitutional requirement (of just compensation for taking private property for public use) to overly intrusive regulations. The application of the just compensation clause to governmental environmental protection activity has pitted the basic principle of protection of private property from government confiscation against another basic principle-the police power (which allows the government to regulate the use of property to protect the health, safety, and welfare of the people). The authors outline the muddle resulting from the conflict of these two constitutional principles after tracing the development of each. This article first outlines the general trend of increasing regulation of the uses of private property under environmental laws pursuant to the police power, and then outlines the development of Fifth Amendment just compensation jurisprudence (from eminent domain, through inverse condemnation, to regulatory taking). The authors urge Congress to authorize a Commission to review exercise of the police power and environmental protection legislation in light of the Fifth Amendment just compensation provision and to recommend legislation that will reconcile the two principles.

  4. Immediate implant and rehabilitation based on All-on-4 concept in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis: A medium-term prospective study.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Di, Ping; Zhang, Yu; Lin, Ye

    2017-06-01

    Aggressive periodontitis renders a great challenge to the conventional implant due to the risks of infection and ongoing marginal bone loss (MBL). A study about full-arch immediate implant and restoration in patients with advanced generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) was not read, even though the All-on-4 concept has been proven to be predictable for edentulous patients. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and medium-term outcomes of immediate implant and rehabilitation based on the All-on-4 concept in patients with advanced GAP via clinical and radiographic analyses. Seventeen patients (mean age 39.4 years) with advanced GAP received immediate postextraction implant and rehabilitation based on the All-on-4 concept between January 2009 and January 2014. Eighty implants were inserted into 20 arches (7 maxillae and 13 mandibles). The average follow-up duration was 5 years (range 2-7). Complications, probing depth, and plaque, bleeding, and gingiva indices were evaluated. MBL was measured based on the panoramic radiographs taken immediately after surgery and annually thereafter. The cumulative survival rate (CSR) of the implants was 98.75% (79/80) after an average of 5 years. One tilted implant failed due to peri-implantitis. The average peri-implant MBL was 0.8 ± 0.4 and 1.2 ± 0.3 mm after 1 and 7 years, respectively. The CSR was 100% (20/20) for definite prostheses, while 85% (17/20) for provisional prostheses. The average probing depth, and plaque, bleeding, and gingiva indices at the last recall visit were 3.0 ± 0.5, 1.2 ± 0.4, 0.5 ± 0.5, and 0.4 ± 0.4 mm, respectively. Patient showed high satisfaction to the overall effects. Based on this study, the All-on-4 concept provided predictable outcomes in patients with GAP in 2- to 7-year follow-ups, and averted the severe bone defect area of aggressive periodontitis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A comparative study of short- and medium-term outcomes comparing emergent surgery and stenting as a bridge to surgery in patients with acute malignant colonic obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Dara O; Nolan, Blathnaid; Judge, Ciaran; Hyland, John M P; Mulcahy, Hugh E; O'Connell, P Ronan; Winter, Des C; Doherty, Glen A

    2013-04-01

    The use of self-expanding metal stents as a bridge to surgery in the setting of malignant colorectal obstruction has been advocated as an acceptable alternative to emergency surgery. However, concerns about the safety of stenting have been raised following recent randomized studies. The aim of the current study was to compare outcomes. This was an observational, comparative study. This study was conducted at a tertiary referral center and university teaching hospital. Patients with malignant colonic obstruction (n = 49) treated by either emergency surgery (n = 26) or with stent placement (n = 23) as a bridge to surgery were identified and followed. Short-term outcomes including stoma rates and postoperative morbidity and medium-term oncological outcomes were compared based on an "intention-to-treat" analysis. Patients in both groups were well matched on clinicopathological parameters. Technical and clinical successful stent deployment was achieved in 91% and 83%. This did not adversely impact cancer-specific and overall survival (log rank = nonsignificant). No difference was observed in stoma rates, primary anastomosis rates, perioperative mortality rates, or reoperation rates between the 2 groups. Significantly fewer patients underwent total colectomy in the stent group in comparison with the emergency surgery group (1/23 vs 6/26: p = 0.027). There was no difference in postoperative morbidity (59% vs 66%: p = 0.09). There was a significant reduction in readmission rates in the stent group (5/26 vs 0/23: p = 0.038). The small sample size of this study could lead to type II error. In addition, the study was nonrandomized and demonstrated a limited length of follow-up. Despite a high rate of technical and clinical success in selected patients with colonic obstruction, stenting has no impact on stoma rates. Despite concerns about the rate of stent-associated perforation, stenting does not adversely impact disease progression or survival. Future comparative trials are

  6. Project GRACE: A Staged Approach to Development of a Community-Academic Partnership to address HIV in Rural African American communities

    PubMed Central

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Adimora, Adaora A.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin; Blumenthal, Connie; Ellison, Arlinda; Akers, Aletha; Council, Barbara; Thigpen, Yolanda; Wynn, Mysha; Lloyd, Stacey W

    2011-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is a health crisis in rural African American communities in the Southeast US, however to date little attention has been paid to community-academic collaborations to address HIV in these communities. Interventions that use a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach to address individual, social and physical environmental factors have great potential for improving community health. Project GRACE (Growing, Reaching, Advocating for Change and Empowerment) uses a CBPR approach to develop culturally sensitive, feasible and sustainable interventions to prevent the spread of HIV in rural African American communities. We describe a staged approach to community-academic partnership: initial mobilization; establishment of organizational structure; capacity building for action; and planning for action. Strategies for engaging rural community members at each stage are discussed, challenges faced and lessons learned are also described. Careful attention to partnership development has resulted in a collaborative approach that has mutually benefited both the academic and community partners. PMID:20685913

  7. Project GRACE: a staged approach to development of a community-academic partnership to address HIV in rural African American communities.

    PubMed

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Adimora, Adaora A; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin; Blumenthal, Connie; Ellison, Arlinda; Akers, Aletha; Council, Barbara; Thigpen, Yolanda; Wynn, Mysha; Lloyd, Stacey W

    2011-03-01

    The HIV epidemic is a health crisis in rural African American communities in the Southeast United States; however, to date little attention has been paid to community-academic collaborations to address HIV in these communities. Interventions that use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to address individual, social, and physical environmental factors have great potential for improving community health. Project GRACE (Growing, Reaching, Advocating for Change and Empowerment) uses a CBPR approach to develop culturally sensitive, feasible, and sustainable interventions to prevent the spread of HIV in rural African American communities. This article describes a staged approach to community-academic partnership: initial mobilization, establishment of organizational structure, capacity building for action, and planning for action. Strategies for engaging rural community members at each stage are discussed; challenges faced and lessons learned are also described. Careful attention to partnership development has resulted in a collaborative approach that has mutually benefited both the academic and community partners.

  8. Does the development of new medicinal products in the European Union address global and regional health concerns?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since 1995, approval for many new medicinal products has been obtained through a centralized procedure in the European Union. In recent years, the use of summary measures of population health has become widespread. We investigated whether efforts to develop innovative medicines are focusing on the most relevant conditions from a global public health perspective. Methods We reviewed the information on new medicinal products approved by centralized procedure from 1995 to 2009, information that is available to the public in the European Commission Register of medicinal products and the European Public Assessment Reports from the European Medicines Agency. Morbidity and mortality data were included for each disease group, according to the Global Burden of Disease project. We evaluated the association between authorized medicinal products and burden of disease measures based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the European Union and worldwide. Results We considered 520 marketing authorizations for medicinal products and 338 active ingredients. New authorizations were seen to increase over the period analyzed. There was a positive, high correlation between DALYs and new medicinal product development (ρ = 0.619, p = 0.005) in the European Union, and a moderate correlation for middle-low-income countries (ρ = 0.497, p = 0.030) and worldwide (ρ = 0.490, p = 0.033). The most neglected conditions at the European level (based on their attributable health losses) were neuropsychiatric diseases, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, sense organ conditions, and digestive diseases, while globally, they were perinatal conditions, respiratory infections, sense organ conditions, respiratory diseases, and digestive diseases. Conclusions We find that the development of new medicinal products is higher for some diseases than others. Pharmaceutical industry leaders and policymakers are invited to consider the implications of this imbalance by establishing

  9. Development of a National Campaign Addressing South African Men's Fears About HIV Counseling and Testing and Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Neil; Myers, Laura; Makhubele, Mzamani Benjamin; Matekane, Tselisehang; Delate, Richard; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Goldblatt, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: South African men are less likely to get tested for HIV than women and are more likely to commence antiretroviral treatment (ART) at later stages of disease, default on treatment, and to die from AIDS compared with women. The purpose of this study was to conduct formative research into the ideational and behavioral factors that enable or create obstacles to mens' uptake of HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and ART. The study consulted men with a goal of developing a communication campaign aimed at improving the uptake of HIV testing and ART initiation among men. Methods: Eleven focus groups and 9 in-depth interviews were conducted with 97 male participants in 6 priority districts in 4 South African provinces in rural, peri-urban, and urban localities. Results: Fears of compromised masculine pride and reputation, potential community rejection, and fear of loss of emotional control (“the stress of knowing”) dominated men's rationales for avoiding HIV testing and treatment initiation. Conclusions: A communication campaign was developed based on the findings. Creative treatments aimed at redefining a ‘strong’ man as someone who faces his fears and knows his HIV status. The resultant campaign concept was: “positive or negative—you are still the same person.” PMID:27930614

  10. Hydroxyurea-mediated neuroblast ablation establishes birthdates of secondary lineages and addresses neuronal interactions in the developing Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Lovick, Jennifer K.; Hartenstein, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila brain is comprised of neurons formed by approximately 100 lineages, each of which is derived from a stereotyped, asymmetrically dividing neuroblast. Lineages serve as structural and developmental units of Drosophila brain anatomy and reconstruction of lineage projection patterns represents a suitable map of Drosophila brain circuitry at the level of neuron populations (“macro-circuitry”). Two phases of neuroblast proliferation, the first in the embryo and the second during the larval phase (following a period of mitotic quiescence), produce primary and secondary lineages, respectively. Using temporally controlled pulses of hydroxyurea (HU) to ablate neuroblasts and their corresponding secondary lineages during the larval phase, we analyzed the effect on development of primary and secondary lineages in the late larval and adult brain. Our findings indicate that timing of neuroblast re-activation is highly stereotyped, allowing us to establish “birth dates” for all secondary lineages. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that, whereas the trajectory and projection pattern of primary and secondary lineages is established in a largely independent manner, the final branching pattern of secondary neurons is dependent upon the presence of appropriate neuronal targets. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the degree of neuronal plasticity during Drosophila brain development. PMID:25773365

  11. Hydroxyurea-mediated neuroblast ablation establishes birth dates of secondary lineages and addresses neuronal interactions in the developing Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Lovick, Jennifer K; Hartenstein, Volker

    2015-06-01

    The Drosophila brain is comprised of neurons formed by approximately 100 lineages, each of which is derived from a stereotyped, asymmetrically dividing neuroblast. Lineages serve as structural and developmental units of Drosophila brain anatomy and reconstruction of lineage projection patterns represents a suitable map of Drosophila brain circuitry at the level of neuron populations ("macro-circuitry"). Two phases of neuroblast proliferation, the first in the embryo and the second during the larval phase (following a period of mitotic quiescence), produce primary and secondary lineages, respectively. Using temporally controlled pulses of hydroxyurea (HU) to ablate neuroblasts and their corresponding secondary lineages during the larval phase, we analyzed the effect on development of primary and secondary lineages in the late larval and adult brain. Our findings indicate that timing of neuroblast re-activation is highly stereotyped, allowing us to establish "birth dates" for all secondary lineages. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that, whereas the trajectory and projection pattern of primary and secondary lineages is established in a largely independent manner, the final branching pattern of secondary neurons is dependent upon the presence of appropriate neuronal targets. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the degree of neuronal plasticity during Drosophila brain development.

  12. Resource needs for addressing noncommunicable disease in low- and middle-income countries: current and future developments.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Karin; Chisholm, Dan

    2012-03-01

    Low and middle income countries are faced with a range of challenges related to providing efficient and affordable health care. With non-communicable diseases (NCD) on the rise, there is a growing need to be able to estimate resource requirements, costs and expected impact associated with various investment strategies related to prevention and control of NCD. In this article, recently developed costing and health impact models for non-communicable disease are reviewed, with a view to drawing out their main findings as well as methodological limitations. A key shortcoming is that earlier modelling efforts have taken a vertical approach to costing, when in reality a more integrated, horizontal approach is needed in order to effectively plan for scaled-up investment and system development. We subsequently describe how the integration of an NCD module into the joint United Nations OneHealth tool will enable low- and middle-income countries to bring NCD into an integrated process for national strategic health planning. Copyright © 2012 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bipolar plasma enucleation of the prostate vs open prostatectomy in large benign prostatic hyperplasia cases - a medium term, prospective, randomized comparison.

    PubMed

    Geavlete, Bogdan; Stanescu, Florin; Iacoboaie, Catalin; Geavlete, Petrisor

    2013-05-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: According to the EAU Guidelines 2012, large size benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) cases (>80 mL) continue to have open prostatectomy as the first line treatment alternative, despite the substantial peri-operative morbidity and extended catheterization and convalescence periods related to this undoubtedly invasive approach. During the past two decades, holmium laser enucleation of the prostate was constantly described as a successful choice for this category of patients. According to rather numerous studies, the technique displayed superior results in terms of surgical safety and postoperative recovery compared with the open procedure. On the other hand, the concept of electrosurgical enucleation of the prostate, using either a monopolar or bipolar cutting current, materialized into several technical applications that eventually failed to gain general acknowledgement as reliable alternatives to the BPH transurethral approach. While keeping in mind the already proved advantage of enucleating substantial quantities of BPH tissue, bipolar plasma enucleation of the prostate was introduced as a novel endoscopic approach in cases of large prostates. The present trial represents the first prospective, medium-term, randomized comparison to be published of this innovative technique with standard open prostatectomy. Basically, the premises for a viable alternative relied on the practical advantages provided by the 'button' electrode, mainly the large surface creating the conditions for a fast enucleation process, continuous vaporization and concomitant haemostasis. Eventually, it was concluded that the plasma enucleation procedure distinguished itself as a successful treatment option in large BPH patients, characterized by good surgical efficiency, significantly reduced complications, faster postoperative recovery, similar prostatic tissue ablation capabilities and satisfactory follow-up results compared with the

  14. Politics and technology in health information systems development: a discourse analysis of conflicts addressed in a systems design group.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2008-02-01

    Different types of disagreements must be managed during the development of health information systems. This study examines the antagonisms discussed during the design of an information system for 175,000 users in a public health context. Discourse analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis. Three hundred and twenty-six conflict events were identified from four design meetings and divided into 16 categories. There were no differences regarding the types of conflicts that the different participants brought into the design discussions. Instead, conflict occurrence was primarily affected by the agendas that set the stage for examinations and debates. The results indicate that the selection of design method and the structure used for the meetings are important factors for the manner in which conflicts are brought into consideration during health information system design. Further studies comparing participatory and non-participatory information system design practices in health service settings are warranted.

  15. Development of hydroxyapatite/calcium silicate composites addressed to the design of load-bearing bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sprio, Simone; Tampieri, Anna; Celotti, Giancarlo; Landi, Elena

    2009-04-01

    This work deals with the preparation of bioactive ceramic composites to be employed for the development of load-bearing bone substitutes, made of hydroxyapatite (Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2), HA) and bioactive dicalcium silicate (Ca(2)SiO(4), C(2)S) as a reinforcing phase. The composite materials were prepared by Fast Hot-Pressing (FHP), which allowed the rapid sintering of monolithic ceramics at temperatures up to 1500 degrees C, well above the commonly adopted temperatures for the consolidation of hydroxyapatite (1200-1300 degrees C). The purpose was to achieve the grain coalescence of both HA and the strengthening phase, so that to obtain a homogeneous ceramic material characterized by controlled phase composition and improved mechanical strength; the dwell time was reduced as much as possible to prevent HA decomposition and excessive grain growth. The most remarkable result, in terms of phase composition, was the absence of any secondary phases in the final ceramics other than HA and C(2)S, even after sintering at 1500 degrees C. The flexure strength of the composite materials was found to be much higher than that of HA alone. Further mechanical characterization was also carried out on HA and composites, sintered in different conditions, to evaluate the elastic properties and fracture toughness, and properties close to those of mineral bone were found. These preliminary results confirmed that composites of HA and Ca(2)SiO(4) are promising for the development of bioactive load-bearing ceramic bone substitutes with controlled phase composition.

  16. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  17. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  18. Addressing secondary school students' everyday ideas about freshwater springs in order to develop an instructional tool to promote conceptual reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinfried, S.; Tempelmann, S.; Aeschbacher, U.

    2012-05-01

    "Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Everyday ideas or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect one people's understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that preconceived notions about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary school level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the nature of everyday ideas about freshwater springs among 81 13-yr-old Swiss students, and (2) to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' everyday ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The results indicate that half of the students have some basic hydrological knowledge. However, several preconceived notions that can significantly impede the understanding of hydrological concepts have been found. A common preconception concerns the idea that solid rocks cannot be permeable and that large underground cavities constitute a necessary precondition for the formation of springs. While these ideas may well be true for karst springs they inhibit the understanding of the concept of other spring types due to their plausibility and intelligibility. We therefore chose the concept of the hillslope spring to construct an instructional tool that takes into account the findings of the psychology of learning aimed at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of springs.

  19. Research as a guide for curriculum development: An example from introductory spectroscopy. II. Addressing student difficulties with atomic emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanjek, L.; Shaffer, P. S.; McDermott, L. C.; Planinic, M.; Veza, D.

    2015-02-01

    This is the second of two closely related articles (Paper I and Paper II) that together illustrate how research in physics education has helped guide the design of instruction that has proved effective in improving student understanding of atomic spectroscopy. Most of the more than 1000 students who participated in this four-year investigation were science majors enrolled in the introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, WA, USA. The others included graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants at UW and physics majors in introductory and advanced physics courses at the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. About half of the latter group were preservice high school physics teachers. Paper I describes how several conceptual and reasoning difficulties were identified among university students as they tried to relate a discrete line spectrum to the energy levels of atoms in a light source. This second article (Paper II) illustrates how findings from this research informed the development of a tutorial that led to improvement in student understanding of atomic emission spectra.

  20. Developing in situ non-destructive estimates of crop biomass to address issues of scale in remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, Michael T.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based estimates of aboveground wet (fresh) biomass (AWB) are an important input for crop growth models. In this study, we developed empirical equations of AWB for rice, maize, cotton, and alfalfa, by combining several in situ non-spectral and spectral predictors. The non-spectral predictors included: crop height (H), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR), leaf area index (LAI), and fraction of vegetation cover (FVC). The spectral predictors included 196 hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) from 350 to 2500 nm. The models for rice, maize, cotton, and alfalfa included H and HNBs in the near infrared (NIR); H, FAPAR, and HNBs in the NIR; H and HNBs in the visible and NIR; and FVC and HNBs in the visible; respectively. In each case, the non-spectral predictors were the most important, while the HNBs explained additional and statistically significant predictors, but with lower variance. The final models selected for validation yielded an R2 of 0.84, 0.59, 0.91, and 0.86 for rice, maize, cotton, and alfalfa, which when compared to models using HNBs alone from a previous study using the same spectral data, explained an additional 12%, 29%, 14%, and 6% in AWB variance. These integrated models will be used in an up-coming study to extrapolate AWB over 60 × 60 m transects to evaluate spaceborne multispectral broad bands and hyperspectral narrowbands.

  1. Development and evaluation of information resources for patients, families, and healthcare providers addressing behavioral and cognitive sequelae among adults with a primary brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kylie M; Simpson, Grahame K; Koh, Eng-Siew; Whiting, Diane L; Gillett, Lauren; Simpson, Teresa; Firth, Rochelle

    2015-06-01

    Behavioral and cognitive changes in patients with primary brain tumor (PBT) are common and may be distressing to patients and their family members. Healthcare professionals report a strong need for information, practical strategies, and training to assist consumers and better address management issues. A literature review by the current project found that 53% of the information resources currently available to consumers and health professionals contained minimal or no information about cognitive/behavioral changes after PBT, and 71% of the resources contained minimal or no information on associated strategies to manage these changes. This project aimed to develop an information resource for patients, carers, and health professionals addressing the behavioral and cognitive sequelae of PBT, including strategies to minimize the disabling impact of such behaviors. In consultation with staff and patient groups, 16 key information topics were identified covering cognitive and communication changes and challenging behaviors including executive impairment, behavioral disturbance, and social/emotional dysfunction. Sixteen fact sheets and 11 additional resource sheets were developed and evaluated according to established consumer communication guidelines. Preliminary data show that these resources have been positively received and well utilized. These sheets are the first of their kind addressing challenging behaviors in the neuro-oncology patient group and are a practical and useful information resource for health professionals working with these patients and their families. The new resource assists in reinforcing interventions provided to individual patients and their relatives who are experiencing difficulties in managing challenging behaviors after PBT.

  2. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  3. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Short- and Medium-Term Efficacy of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Nutrition Education Intervention for Adults Including Cognitive and Environmental Feedback: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein; Candel, Math JJM; Oenema, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Background Web-based, computer-tailored nutrition education interventions can be effective in modifying self-reported dietary behaviors. Traditional computer-tailored programs primarily targeted individual cognitions (knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy). Tailoring on additional variables such as self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors (the home food environment arrangement and perception of availability and prices of healthy food products in supermarkets) may improve efficacy and effect sizes (ES) of Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education interventions. Objective This study evaluated the short- and medium-term efficacy and educational differences in efficacy of a cognitive and environmental feedback version of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention on self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake compared to generic nutrition information in the total sample and among participants who did not comply with dietary guidelines (the risk groups). Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a basic (tailored intervention targeting individual cognition and self-regulation processes; n=456), plus (basic intervention additionally targeting environmental-level factors; n=459), and control (generic nutrition information; n=434) group. Participants were recruited from the general population and randomly assigned to a study group. Self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake were assessed at baseline and at 1- (T1) and 4-months (T2) postintervention using online questionnaires. Linear mixed model analyses examined group differences in change over time. Educational differences were examined with group×time×education interaction terms. Results In the total sample, the basic (T1: ES=–0.30; T2: ES=–0.18) and plus intervention groups (T1: ES=–0.29; T2: ES=–0.27) had larger decreases in high-energy snack intake than the control group. The

  5. Improving Evaluation to Address the Unintended Consequences of Health Information Technology:. a Position Paper from the Working Group on Technology Assessment & Quality Development.

    PubMed

    Magrabi, F; Ammenwerth, E; Hyppönen, H; de Keizer, N; Nykänen, P; Rigby, M; Scott, P; Talmon, J; Georgiou, A

    2016-11-10

    With growing use of IT by healthcare professionals and patients, the opportunity for any unintended effects of technology to disrupt care health processes and outcomes is intensified. The objectives of this position paper by the IMIA Working Group (WG) on Technology Assessment and Quality Development are to highlight how our ongoing initiatives to enhance evaluation are also addressing the unintended consequences of health IT. Review of WG initiatives Results: We argue that an evidence-based approach underpinned by rigorous evaluation is fundamental to the safe and effective use of IT, and for detecting and addressing its unintended consequences in a timely manner. We provide an overview of our ongoing initiatives to strengthen study design, execution and reporting by using evaluation frameworks and guidelines which can enable better characterization and monitoring of unintended consequences, including the Good Evaluation Practice Guideline in Health Informatics (GEP-HI) and the Statement on Reporting of Evaluation Studies in Health Informatics (STARE-HI). Indicators to benchmark the adoption and impact of IT can similarly be used to monitor unintended effects on healthcare structures, processes and outcome. We have also developed EvalDB, a web-based database of evaluation studies to promulgate evidence about unintended effects and are developing the content for courses to improve training in health IT evaluation. Evaluation is an essential ingredient for the effective use of IT to improve healthcare quality and patient safety. WG resources and skills development initiatives can facilitate a proactive and evidence-based approach to detecting and addressing the unintended effects of health IT.

  6. Addressing Disparities in Low Back Pain Care by Developing Culturally Appropriate Information for Aboriginal Australians: "My Back on Track, My Future".

    PubMed

    Lin, Ivan B; Ryder, Kim; Coffin, Juli; Green, Charmaine; Dalgety, Eric; Scott, Brian; Straker, Leon M; Smith, Anne J; O'Sullivan, Peter B

    2017-01-13

    OBJECTIVES : Addressing disparities in low back pain care (LBP) is an important yet largely unaddressed issue. One avenue to addressing disparities, recommended by clinical guidelines, is to ensure that LBP information is culturally appropriate. Our objectives were, first, to develop LBP information that was culturally appropriate for Aboriginal Australians living in a rural area and, second, to compare this to traditional information. METHODS : The overall information development process was guided by a "cultural security" framework and included partnerships between Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal investigators, a synthesis of research evidence, and participation of a project steering group consisting of local Aboriginal people. LBP information (entitled My Back on Track, My Future [MBOT]) was developed as five short audio-visual scenarios, filmed using Aboriginal community actors. A qualitative randomized crossover design compared MBOT with an evidence-based standard (the Back Book [BB]). Twenty Aboriginal adults participated. Qualitatively we ascertained which information participants' preferred and why, perceptions about each resource, and LBP management. RESULTS : Thirteen participants preferred MBOT, four the BB, two both, and one neither. Participants valued seeing "Aboriginal faces," language that was understandable, the visual format, and seeing Aboriginal people undertaking positive changes in MBOT. In contrast, many participants found the language and format of the BB a barrier. Participants who preferred the BB were more comfortable with written information and appreciated the detailed content. CONCLUSIONS : The MBOT information was more preferred and addressed important barriers to care, providing support for use in practice. Similar processes are needed to develop pain information for other cultural groups, particularly those underserved by existing approaches to care.

  7. The potential of health literacy to address the health related UN sustainable development goal 3 (SDG3) in Nepal: a rapid review.

    PubMed

    Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Pokharel, Paras K; Good, Suvajee; Limbu, Sajani; Bhattachan, Meika; Osborne, Richard H

    2017-03-27

    Health literacy has been linked to health outcomes across population groups around the world. Nepal, a low income country, experiences the double burden of highly prevalent communicable as well as non-communicable diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) has positioned health literacy as a key mechanism to meet the health-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG3). However, there is little known about the status of health literacy in developing countries such as Nepal. This paper aims to review the potential of health literacy to address SDG3 in Nepal. A rapid review was conducted using the knowledge to action evidence summary approach. Articles included in the review were those reporting on barriers to health care engagements in Nepal published in English language between January 2000 and December 2015. Barriers for healthcare engagement included knowledge and education as strong factors, followed by culture, gender roles, quality of service and cost of services. These barriers influence the Nepalese community to access and engage with services, and make and enact healthcare decisions, not only at the individual level but at the family level. These factors are directly linked to health literacy. Health literacy is a pivotal determinant of understanding, accessing and using health information and health services, it is important that the health literacy needs of the people be addressed. Locally identified and developed health literacy interventions may provide opportunities for systematic improvements in health to address impediments to healthcare in Nepal. Further research on health literacy and implementation of health literacy interventions may help reduce inequalities and increase the responsiveness of health systems which could potentially facilitate Nepal to meet the sustainable development goals. While there is currently little in place for health literacy to impact on the SDG3, this paper generates insights into health literacy's potential role.

  8. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  9. Addressing education of speech-language pathologists in the World Report on Disability: development of a speech-language pathology program in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Kartini; Ibrahim, Hasherah; Othman, Basyariatul Fathi; Vong, Etain

    2013-02-01

    The current paper is a response to the Wiley, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall lead article regarding the application of the World Report on Disability (WRD) to people with communication disorders. The current paper directly addresses recommendation 5 (improvement of human resource capacity) and indirectly addresses recommendations 7, 8, and 9 (related to improving local knowledge and data on communicative disabilities) indirectly. The paper describes Malaysia's initiatives in the early 1990s, in developing its local professional capacity to provide services for people with communication disorders (PWCD). It charts the history of development of a local undergraduate entry-level degree program for speech-language pathology (SLP) from the point of conceptualization to full execution. The article provides glimpses to the processes and challenges faced by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia as the pioneer university in the South East Asia region to undertake the training and education of the SLP profession and highlights relevant issues faced by newly introduced professions in a country where resources and practice traditions were previously unavailable. It underscores the important role played by government institutions and an international professional network in driving forward-looking policies to implement and sustain the program.

  10. Understanding veterinary students' use of and attitudes toward the social networking site, Facebook, to assist in developing curricula to address online professionalism.

    PubMed

    Coe, Jason B; Weijs, Cynthia A; Muise, Amy; Christofides, Emily; Desmarais, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Social media is an increasingly common form of communication, with Facebook being the preferred social-networking site among post-secondary students. Numerous studies suggest post-secondary students practice high self-disclosure on Facebook. Research evaluating veterinary students' use of social media found a notable proportion of student-posted content deemed inappropriate. Lack of discretion in posting content can have significant repercussions for aspiring veterinary professionals, their college of study, and the veterinary profession they represent. Veterinarians-in-training at three veterinary colleges across Canada were surveyed to explore their use of and attitude toward the social networking site, Facebook. Students were invited to complete an online survey with questions relating to their knowledge of privacy in relation to using Facebook, their views on the acceptability of posting certain types of information, and their level of professional accountability online. Linear regression modeling was used to further examine factors related to veterinary students' disclosure of personal information on Facebook. Need for popularity (p<.01) and awareness of consequences (p<.001) were found to be positively and negatively associated, respectively, with students' personal disclosure of information on Facebook. Understanding veterinary students' use of and attitudes toward social media, such as Facebook, reveals a need, and provides a basis, for developing educational programs to address online professionalism. Educators and administrators at veterinary schools may use this information to assist in developing veterinary curricula that addresses the escalating issue of online professionalism.

  11. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-08-27

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics.

  12. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  13. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. University contributions to the HPV vaccine and implications for access to vaccines in developing countries: addressing materials and know-how in university technology transfer policy.

    PubMed

    Crager, Sara E; Guillen, Ethan; Price, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with most of the disease burden concentrated in developing countries. Over 90 percent of cervical cancer deaths, almost all of which are caused by HPV, occur in low- and middle-income countries where access to goods and services for prevention and treatment pose major barriers to intervention. In resource-poor settings lacking the capacity for routine screening for cervical cancer, the HPV vaccines developed by Merck and GlaxoSmithKline are desperately needed to help prevent these unnecessary deaths. The initial development of currently available HPV vaccines took place at a number of universities and other publicly funded institutions, yet there is little low-cost access to the vaccine in developing countries where access would be most critical. This is the rule rather than the exception with most university-discovered medicines. Universities and other publicly-funded institutions can adopt a number of licensing methods to ensure that vaccines discovered on their campuses are available at low-cost in developing countries. Universities Allied for Essential Medicines has proposed that universities adopt Global Access Licensing policies to implement these changes by enabling generic or low-cost production of the end product in developing countries. Generic competition is a critical market force that has, for instance, driven down the price of HIV/AIDS treatments from more than $10,000 to less than $99 per patient per year today. While the central barrier to creation of small molecule generics is patent-protection, there are multiple additional barriers that need to be addressed in order to ensure the efficient production of cost-effective generic vaccines and other biologics. While certain biologics may require generic producers to perform additional clinical trials, vaccines are in a somewhat unique situation with respect to both safety and efficacy. With access to appropriate patents

  15. Vegetable-borne lutein, lycopene, and beta-carotene compete for incorporation into chylomicrons, with no adverse effect on the medium-term (3-wk) plasma status of carotenoids in humans.

    PubMed

    Tyssandier, Viviane; Cardinault, Nicolas; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Grolier, Pascal; Bouteloup, Corinne; Azais-Braesco, Véronique; Borel, Patrick

    2002-03-01

    The results of epidemiologic studies have consistently shown associations between dietary intake or plasma carotenoid status and incidence of cancers and cardiovascular and eye diseases. The aim was to assess whether vegetable-borne carotenoids (lycopene, lutein, and beta-carotene) compete for intestinal absorption and whether this affects the plasma status of carotenoids in the medium term (ie, after 3 wk). During 3-wk periods separated by 3-wk washout periods, 20 women were supplemented with either 96 g tomato purée/d (14.98 mg lycopene + 1.50 mg beta-carotene), 92 g cooked chopped spinach/d (11.93 mg lutein + 7.96 mg beta-carotene), 96 g tomato purée/d + 92 g chopped spinach/d, 96 g tomato purée/d + 2 lutein pills (12 mg lutein), or 92 g chopped spinach/d + 1 lycopene pill (15 mg lycopene). Plasma carotenoids were measured before and after each supplementation period. The subjects also participated in postprandial experiments in which they ingested meals containing double amounts of the supplements described above. Carotenoids were measured in chylomicrons to assess the interaction of carotenoids on absorption. Adding a second carotenoid to a meal that provided a first carotenoid diminished the chylomicron response to the first carotenoid. However, cosupplementation with a second carotenoid of a diet supplemented with a first carotenoid did not diminish the medium-term plasma response to the first carotenoid. Consumption of carotenoids from different vegetable sources does not diminish plasma carotenoid concentrations in the medium term, despite the finding in postprandial testing of competitive inhibitory interactions among different carotenoids.

  16. [Development of molecular targeting drugs for the treatment of cancer-therapeutic potential and issues to be addressed in global development].

    PubMed

    Akaza, H; Aiba, K; Isonishi, S; Ogawa, O; Shibuya, M; Sone, S; Tsuruo, T; Noguchi, S; Hinotsu, S; Kono, S; Mikami, O; Blackledge, G; Vose, B; Stribling, D

    2000-10-01

    A survey of cancer treatment in a sample of hospitals > 100 beds conducted in 1998 compared with experience in the US showed that good progress has been achieved in Japan in the screening and early treatment of gastric cancer, and that the prognosis for breast cancer is better than in the West. Although in the past, the cytotoxic therapies available to physicians in Japan vs the West have been different, recent acceleration of regulatory review will result in a convergence of treatment paradigms and some improvement in acute response in many tumour types. However, world wide there is a need for new improved therapies in all cancers evaluated. Particular needs are in the management of NSCLC, advanced disease and cancers which form micrometastases. The eventual hope is that cancer can be turned from a lethal disease into a chronic disease where patients maintain a good QOL. Apart from anti hormonal therapies, the usual approach has been to kill the cancerous cells. However, the new approaches to intervening in the growth and migration of cancerous cells or the host tissue response by molecular targeting offer the promise of achieving a step change in therapy. Although EGF tyrosine Kinase inhibitors such as ZD 1839 have been shown to cause a conventional tumour response in NSCLC, many of these new approaches are unlikely to show a short term response even if they have the capacity to affect tumour development and increase disease free survival. Some compounds will require combination therapy with a conventional cytotoxic or radiotherapy to show their full benefit. For conventional cytotoxics, the usual approach to development has been to select the maximum tolerated dose and then evaluate the efficacy in advanced disease. However, for the new approaches which will not have such severe dose limiting toxicities, it will be necessary to select a surrogate marker of the intended biological effect to select the optimal biological dose (OBD) and dose regimen in phase I

  17. Prepositioned Stocks: DOD has Addressed Required Reporting Elements but Needs to Develop a Department-Wide Policy and Joint Service Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    prepositioned stocks. For this report, we assessed the extent to which (1) DOD’s fiscal year 2014 report addressed the 12 statutorily required elements ...prepositioned stock programs. To evaluate the extent to which DOD’s annual report addresses the 12 specific reporting elements set out in section 2229a of...requirements and assessed the extent to which DOD had addressed each required element . One GAO analyst coded the information and a different

  18. Development of a practical toolkit using participatory action research to address health inequalities through NGOs in the UK: Challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Chirewa, Blessing

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a practical toolkit to support non-government organizations (NGOs) in tackling health inequalities in the UK and to highlight the challenges and lessons learned. A mixed qualitative methodology within an action research framework was conducted. Semi-structured questionnaires, focus group interviews and discussions with an expert reference group aimed to identify the important themes and produce the toolkit content. A practical guide of information materials for NGOs working on addressing health inequalities was subsequently developed and successfully piloted. The experience of using participatory action research revealed a number of lessons and challenges. The key challenges were lack of training and experience in conducting action research, costs and insufficient resources, slow and time-consuming process, lack of commitment from marginalized groups, and differences in emphasis of goals and vision among participants. The main lessons learned were importance of effective leadership and project management skills, importance of integrating researchers and the researched as equal partners, creation and nurturing of trust, importance of evaluating and piloting processes, importance of engaging with marginalized groups, and use of evidence base in decision making. The lessons and challenges enumerating herein are of value to researchers aiming to implement participatory action research in developing checklists, tools, practical guidance and frameworks, and they offer important areas to consider before starting such projects. In addition, this offers an insight into how the dynamics of participatory action research methodology evolved in the development of the toolkit. Future research and initiatives in this area should focus on ways to improve the toolkit and make it more relevant to a wider community, and methods for evaluating the impact of the toolkit on practice.

  19. De-Marginalizing Science in the Early Elementary Classroom: Fostering Reform-Based Teacher Change through Professional Development, Accountability, and Addressing Teachers' Dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Alissa

    To develop a scientifically literate populace, students must acquire the motivation and foundational skills for success in science beginning at an early age. Unfortunately, science instruction is often marginalized in elementary schools for reasons including teachers' lack of confidence in teaching science and an overemphasis on literacy and mathematics. This study employed a case study design to examine the impact of teachers' dilemmas, career stage, coaching, and other forms of support on elementary teachers' abilities to teach science more often and in more reform-based ways. The conceptual lenses used to guide this dissertation include the theory related to teacher change, dilemmas, reform-oriented science teaching, and the professional learning continuum. Findings suggest that teachers' dilemmas must be addressed in order for them to move toward more reform-based science teaching practices. It was found that how teachers reconcile their dilemmas is due in part to their career stage, level of readiness, and access to a more knowledgeable other who can assist them in learning and enacting reform-based instruction. Moreover, the likelihood and extent of teacher change appears to be related to teachers recognizing a need to change their practice, developing the capacity to change, feeling accountable to change, and possessing the motivation to change. Implications for teacher educators, professional development providers, and curriculum developers are presented. It is argued that teachers require support the length of their career and, to be effective, this support must be personalized to their diverse and changing needs and responsive to the context in which they teach.

  20. Further development of a robust workup process for solution-phase high-throughput library synthesis to address environmental and sample tracking issues.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Noritaka; Hird, Nick; Cork, David G

    2006-01-01

    During further improvement of a high-throughput, solution-phase synthesis system, new workup tools and apparatus for parallel liquid-liquid extraction and evaporation have been developed. A combination of in-house design and collaboration with external manufacturers has been used to address (1) environmental issues concerning solvent emissions and (2) sample tracking errors arising from manual intervention. A parallel liquid-liquid extraction unit, containing miniature high-speed magnetic stirrers for efficient mixing of organic and aqueous phases, has been developed for use on a multichannel liquid handler. Separation of the phases is achieved by dispensing them into a newly patented filter tube containing a vertical hydrophobic porous membrane, which allows only the organic phase to pass into collection vials positioned below. The vertical positioning of the membrane overcomes the hitherto dependence on the use of heavier-than-water, bottom-phase, organic solvents such as dichloromethane, which are restricted due to environmental concerns. Both small (6-mL) and large (60-mL) filter tubes were developed for parallel phase separation in library and template synthesis, respectively. In addition, an apparatus for parallel solvent evaporation was developed to (1) remove solvent from the above samples with highly efficient recovery and (2) avoid the movement of individual samples between their collection on a liquid handler and registration to prevent sample identification errors. The apparatus uses a diaphragm pump to achieve a dynamic circulating closed system with a heating block for the rack of 96 sample vials and an efficient condenser to trap the solvents. Solvent recovery is typically >98%, and convenient operation and monitoring has made the apparatus the first choice for removal of volatile solvents.

  1. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  2. Addressing the “Other” Health Literacy Competencies—Knowledge, Dispositions, and Oral/Aural Communication: Development of TALKDOC, an Intervention Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    HELITZER, DEBORAH; HOLLIS, CHRISTINE; SANDERS, MARGARET; ROYBAL, SUZANNE

    2013-01-01

    Most health literacy assessments evaluate literacy skills including reading, writing; numeracy and interpretation of tables, graphs, diagrams and charts. Some assess understanding of health systems, and the ability to adequately apply one’s skills to specific health-related tasks or demands in health situations. However, to achieve functional health literacy, the ability to “obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions,” other health literacy dimensions should be assessed: a person’s knowledge and attitudes about a health issue affects his or her ability to and interest in participating in his or her own care. In patient care settings, the abilities to listen, ask questions and check one’s understanding are crucial to making appropriate decisions and carrying out instructions. Although literacy is a skill associated with educational attainment and therefore difficult to change in a short time, health education interventions can address health literacy domains such as knowledge, attitudes and oral communication skills. For this reason, an instrument that can assess these constructs is a valuable part of a health educator’s toolbox. The authors describe the development and process and outcomes of testing a novel instrument targeted to assess HPV and cervical cancer health literacy competencies, TALKDOC, including its validation with the Health Activities Literacy Scale. PMID:23030568

  3. Addressing the "other" health literacy competencies--knowledge, dispositions, and oral/aural communication: development of TALKDOC, an intervention assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Helitzer, Deborah; Hollis, Christine; Sanders, Margaret; Roybal, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Most health literacy assessments evaluate literacy skills including reading, writing; numeracy and interpretation of tables, graphs, diagrams and charts. Some assess understanding of health systems, and the ability to adequately apply one's skills to specific health-related tasks or demands in health situations. However, to achieve functional health literacy, the ability to "obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions," other health literacy dimensions should be assessed: a person's knowledge and attitudes about a health issue affects his or her ability to and interest in participating in his or her own care. In patient care settings, the abilities to listen, ask questions and check one's understanding are crucial to making appropriate decisions and carrying out instructions. Although literacy is a skill associated with educational attainment and therefore difficult to change in a short time, health education interventions can address health literacy domains such as knowledge, attitudes and oral communication skills. For this reason, an instrument that can assess these constructs is a valuable part of a health educator's toolbox. The authors describe the development and process and outcomes of testing a novel instrument targeted to assess HPV and cervical cancer health literacy competencies, TALKDOC, including its validation with the Health Activities Literacy Scale.

  4. Development and Initial Evaluation of a Telephone-Delivered, Behavioral Activation and Problem-solving Treatment Program to Address Functional Goals of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Kathleen D.; Hull, Jay G.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L.; Ahles, Tim A.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Hegel, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment. PMID:25668509

  5. Development and initial evaluation of a telephone-delivered, behavioral activation, and problem-solving treatment program to address functional goals of breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Kaufman, Peter A; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L; Ahles, Tim A; Kornblith, Alice B; Hegel, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment.

  6. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD). (A reach is the portion of a stream between two points of confluence. A confluence is the location where two or more streams flow together.)

  7. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  8. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C; Guell, Cornelia

    2016-06-15

    Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and 'cascading.' Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of individuals needing to take

  9. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T. Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C.; Guell, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. Methods: A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and ‘cascading.’ Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. Results: A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of

  10. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  11. Medium-term results of single-stage posteromedial release and triple arthrodesis in treatment of neglected clubfoot deformity in adults.

    PubMed

    Akıncı, Orhan; Akalın, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the implementation, in a single session, of both massive posteromedial release and triple arthrodesis for rigid neglected clubfoot deformities in adult patients, and its effects on clinical and radiological results. The procedures were performed in one session on 15 feet of 11 patients [7 male, 4 female; mean age 26 (range: 15 to 50)]. Staples were used for fixation in all patients. For clinical assessment, the AOFAS (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society) ankle- hindfoot scale was used. Anteroposterior/lateral side talocalcaneal and talus-1st metatarsal angles were used as radiographic parameters. The mean follow-up was 7.5 years (range: 6 to 11). The mean AOFAS score rose from a preoperative 39 (range: 15 to 52) to 88 (range: 76 to 94) in the final follow up (p<0.0001). Among the 15 feet, 9 were evaluated as excellent, 5 as good, and 1 as fair. Significant clinical improvement was obtained between preoperative and postoperative surgical periods (p<0.05). Significant improvements were observed in radiographic parameters (p<0.0001). At final follow-up, radiographic values were within normal physiological limits. Average union time was 12.4 (range: 7 to 36) weeks. While pseudoarthrosis was not observed in any patients, delayed union developed in 2 cases, and talus avascular necrosis in 1. In the preoperative period, 5 patients had various degrees of degenerative changes. Nine patients developed degenerative changes in different joints and of different degrees. The authors believe that massive soft tissue release and triple arthrodesis performed in a single session yields satisfactory results cosmetically and functionally in neglected clubfoot cases with severe deformities.

  12. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  13. [Variability in the management and prognosis at short- and medium-term of myocardial infarct in Spain: the PRIAMHO study. Registration Project of Hospital Acute Myocardial Infarct].

    PubMed

    Cabadés, A; López-Bescós, L; Arós, F; Loma-Osorio, A; Bosch, X; Pabón, P; Marrugat, J

    1999-10-01

    The paucity of data on myocardial infarction management and results in Spain lead to the design of the PRIAMHO study (Proyecto de Registro de Infarto Agudo de Miocardio Hospitalario [Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Registration Project]) which developed standard methods to collect information on the management of patients with such a condition and their characteristics. The variability results among hospitals in myocardial infarction management and in one-year mortality are presented. A cohort study with a one-year follow-up was designed to register all patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction discharged from 24 Spanish hospitals that completed all the requisites to participate. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, their management during the coronary care unit stage, and the outcome and complications were prospectively registered. Standard definitions for diagnosis were used. Confidentiality regarding patient identity and participating centers was guaranteed. 5,242 (77.6%) of the 6,756 patients with myocardial infarction admitted in the 24 participating hospitals were registered in the coronary care units. Half of the centers had an on-site hemodynamic laboratory and in seven coronary surgery. The delay between symptom-onset and emergency room admission was 2 hours. Acute pulmonary edema or cardiogenic shock was developed by 16.6% of patients and 41.8% received thrombolysis. Mean time delay between symptom-onset and thrombolysis was 3 hours. A large variability in the use of beta-blockers, thrombolysis, echocardiography, coronary catheterization angiography and invasive revascularization was observed among hospitals. Mortality in the coronary care unit was 10.9% and increased to 14.0% at 28 days and to 18.5% at one year with considerable variation among hospitals. Four hospitals showed higher mortality among their patients, independently from the proportion of diabetes, hypertension, women, anterior location of myocardial

  14. Prediction of Short- and Medium-term Efficacy of Biosimilar Infliximab Therapy. Do Trough Levels and Antidrug Antibody Levels or Clinical And Biochemical Markers Play the More Important Role?

    PubMed

    Gonczi, Lorant; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Golovics, Petra Anna; Rutka, Mariann; Gecse, Krisztina Barbara; Bor, Renata; Farkas, Klaudia; Szamosi, Tamás; Bene, László; Gasztonyi, Beáta; Kristóf, Tünde; Lakatos, László; Miheller, Pál; Palatka, Károly; Papp, Mária; Patai, Árpád; Salamon, Ágnes; Tóth, Gábor Tamás; Vincze, Áron; Biro, Edina; Lovasz, Barbara Dorottya; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Szepes, Zoltan; Molnár, Tamás; Lakatos, Péter L

    2017-06-01

    Biosimilar infliximab CT-P13 received European Medicines Agency [EMA] approval in June 2013 for all indications of the originator product. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the predictors of short- and medium-term clinical outcome in patients treated with the biosimilar infliximab at the participating inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] centres in Hungary. Demographic data were collected and a harmonised monitoring strategy was applied. Clinical and biochemical activities were evaluated at Weeks 14, 30, and 54. Trough level [TL] and anti-drug antibody [ADA] concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] [LT-005, Theradiag, France] at baseline at 14, 30 and 54 weeks and in two centres at Weeks 2 and 6. A total of 291 consecutive IBD patients (184 Crohn's disease [CD] and 107 ulcerative colitis [UC]) were included. In UC, TLs at Week 2 predicted both clinical response and remission at Weeks 14 and 30 (clinical response/remission at Week 14: area under the curve [AUC] = 0.81, p < 0.001, cut-off: 11.5 μg/ml/AUC = 0.79, p < 0.001, cut-off: 15.3μg/ml; clinical response/remission at Week 30: AUC = 0.79, p = 0.002, cut-off: 11.5 μg/ml/AUC = 0.74, p = 0.006, cut-off: 14.5 μg/ml), whereas ADA positivity at Week 14 was inversely associated with clinical response at Week 30 [58.3% vs 84.8% ,p = 0.04]. Previous anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF] exposure was inversely associated with short-term clinical remission [Week 2: 18.8% vs 47.8%, p = 0.03, at Week 6: 38.9% vs 69.7%, p = 0.013, at Week 14: 37.5% vs 2.5%, p = 0.06]. In CD, TLs at Week 2 predicted short-term [Week 14 response/remission, AUCTLweek2 = 0.715-0.721, p = 0.05/0.005] but not medium-term clinical efficacy. In addition, early ADA status by Week 14 [p = 0.04-0.05 for Weeks 14 and 30], early clinical response [p < 0.001 for Weeks 30/54] and normal C-reactive protein [CRP] at Week 14 [p = 0.005-0.0001] and previous anti-TNF exposure [p = 0.03-0.0001 for Weeks 14, 30, and 54] were

  15. Association between School District Policies That Address Chronic Health Conditions of Students and Professional Development for School Nurses on Such Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S. Everett; Brener, Nancy D.; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2015-01-01

    Supportive school policies and well-prepared school nurses can best address the needs of students with chronic health conditions. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine whether districts with policies requiring that schools provide health services to students with chronic…

  16. Association between School District Policies That Address Chronic Health Conditions of Students and Professional Development for School Nurses on Such Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S. Everett; Brener, Nancy D.; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2015-01-01

    Supportive school policies and well-prepared school nurses can best address the needs of students with chronic health conditions. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine whether districts with policies requiring that schools provide health services to students with chronic…

  17. Method to support Total Maximum Daily Load development using hydrologic alteration as a surrogate to address aquatic life impairment in New Jersey streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Colarullo, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    More than 300 ambient monitoring sites in New Jersey have been identified by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) in its integrated water-quality monitoring and assessment report (that is, the 305(b) Report on general water quality and 303(d) List of waters that do not support their designated uses) as being impaired with respect to aquatic life; however, no unambiguous stressors (for example, nutrients or bacteria) have been identified. Because of the indeterminate nature of the broad range of possible impairments, surrogate measures that more holistically encapsulate the full suite of potential environmental stressors need to be developed. Streamflow alteration resulting from anthropogenic changes in the landscape is one such surrogate. For example, increases in impervious surface cover (ISC) commonly cause increases in surface runoff, which can result in “flashy” hydrology and other changes in the stream corridor that are associated with streamflow alteration. The NJDEP has indicated that methodologies to support a hydrologically based Total Maximum Daily Load (hydro-TMDL) need to be developed in order to identify hydrologic targets that represent a minimal percent deviation from a baseline condition (“minimally altered”) as a surrogate measure to meet criteria in support of designated uses. The primary objective of this study was to develop an applicable hydro-TMDL approach to address aquatic-life impairments associated with hydrologic alteration for New Jersey streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NJDEP, identified 51 non- to moderately impaired gaged streamflow sites in the Raritan River Basin for evaluation. Quantile regression (QR) analysis was used to compare flow and precipitation records and identify baseline hydrographs at 37 of these sites. At sites without an appropriately long period of record (POR) or where a baseline hydrograph could not be identified with QR, a rainfall-runoff model was used

  18. Medium-Term Programme, 1986-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This long range plan for the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) defines the course this international organization will pursue between 1986 and 1991, both for its membership and in relation to organizations and institutions outside of IFLA. The first chapter briefly describes a number of features and issues important to the…

  19. Medium-Term Programme, 1986-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This long range plan for the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) defines the course this international organization will pursue between 1986 and 1991, both for its membership and in relation to organizations and institutions outside of IFLA. The first chapter briefly describes a number of features and issues important to the…

  20. Developing of a VS30 map for addressing site effects for Portugal: evaluation of the effectiveness of using VS30-proxies for stable continental regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilanova, Susana; Narciso, Joao; Carvalho, Joao; Pinto, Carlos; Lopes, Isabel; Nemser, Eliza; Borges, Jose; Oliveira, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    The need to perform first-order estimates for site amplification in a regional sense has been strongly emphasized in recent years. The use site-amplification maps is of major importance for addressing both land-use planning (seismic-hazard maps) and emergency planning (instrumental intensity maps). Project SCENE, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), aimed at gathering and acquiring shear-wave velocity profiles in diverse lithological and geological formations in Portugal, in order to develop a regional site conditions map to be used for including first-order site-effects into seismic hazard assessment maps. Within the scope of project SCENE thirty sites where strong motion stations are installed were characterized using shear-wave seismic refraction. The project SCENE shear-wave database also includes a significant amount of shear-wave refraction data available from FCT project NEFITAG and from previously performed CAPSA and ERSTA campaigns. Few sites characterised by using other methods (multichannel analysis of surface waves and invasive profiles) were also included in the database. The shear-wave database currently includes 85 shear-wave depth sections or profiles from a variety of lithological/geological formations. In addition to the shear-wave profile database we compiled geotechnical and geological profiles in the vicinity of the sites analysed. We performed a careful evaluation of the geological conditions for each site in the database using the largest scale available (usually 1:50 000). A smaller scale map (1:500000) was also used in order to evaluate the bias introduced by the scale-dependent map accuracy. We grouped the sites into six generalized geological units: S1 - igneous and metamorphic rocks; S2 - old sedimentary rocks (Limestones, marly limestones, dolomites, conglomerates and sandstones); S3 - Sand, sandstones, clays and conglomerates of Miocene age; S4 - Sandstones, gravels, sands and clays of Pliocene age; S5

  1. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  2. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  3. Addressivity in Cogenerative Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one…

  4. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  5. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  6. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  7. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  8. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  9. Concordance between Results of Medium-term Liver Carcinogenesis Bioassays and Long-term Findings for Carcinogenic 2-Nitropropane and Non-carcinogenic 1-Nitropropane in F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yuko; Tamano, Seiko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Sano, Masashi; Imai, Norio; Nakashima, Hironao; Furukawa, Fumio; Hagiwara, Akihiro; Otsuka, Masanori; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concordance of results for a pair of structural isomers, 2-nitropropane (2-NP) and 1-nitropropane (1-NP), using the rat medium-term liver carcinogenesis bioassay (Ito test) and previously published long-term carcinogenicity tests. Male F344 rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of DEN (200 mg/kg b.w.) to initiate hepatocarcinogenesis. After 2 weeks, they received per os 0, 0.8, 4 or 20 mg/kg/day of 2-NP or 1-NP six times a week and were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy at week 3. Non-initiated groups receiving 0 or 20 mg/kg/day were also included. The animals were sacrificed for quantitative analysis of GST-P-positive foci at week 8. With the highest dose of 2-NP, significantly increased numbers and areas of GST-P-positive foci were demonstrated as compared with the respective control but were not noted with 1-NP. In the non-DEN-initiated groups, many small GST-P-positive foci of less than 0.2 mm in diameter were also induced in the rats treated with 2-NP at 20 mg/kg/day but were lacking with 1-NP. These results strongly support that 2-NP is a complete hepatocarcinogen with a potent initiation activity, whereas 1-NP is not. PMID:22319232

  10. Does medium-term emersion cause a mass extinction of tidal flat macrobenthos? The case of the Tricolor oil pollution prevention in the Zwin nature reserve (Belgium and The Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Colen, C.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2006-06-01

    As a result of the Tricolor oil pollution in the Southern Bight of the North Sea (winter 2003) the Zwin nature reserve, consisting of tidal flats and salt marshes, was blocked from the North Sea by use of a sand barrier. Hence, macrobenthic tidal flat organisms, by nature strongly dependent on the cyclic incoming seawater, were emersed during a period of 27 days. Because the effect of medium-term emersion on the ecologically important benthic life could not be assessed beforehand, the damming was taken as an opportunity to examine these effects. This study demonstrated that: (1) no species vanished due to emersion, (2) although the emersion might have caused some mortality, a mass mortality within the macrobenthos did not occur, and (3) the supra-littoral amphipods Talitrus saltator and Orchestia gammarellus performed a strong, though ephemeral immigration into the intertidal zone during the period of emersion. In view of both its minor impacts on the macrobenthos and its effectiveness in preventing oil pollution in the Zwin nature reserve, damming as a measure against oil pollution may be considered effective protection, especially during winter.

  11. Attempt to establish a classification of patients suffering from coma and admitted to a hospital structure for short or medium term treatment: medical aspects and costs of hospital care.

    PubMed

    Sailly, J C; Danze, F; Lenne, X; Parée, F; Sturbois, G; Decroly, F; Marissal, J P; Lebrun, T

    1997-12-01

    We dispose of a database, constituted between 1987 and 1993, containing medical and cost information concerning 515 patients suffering from coma and admitted, after a period of resuscitation, to a French hospital establishment--Etablissement Hélio-Marin of Berck-sur-Mer (EHMB)--for short and medium term treatment, between 1974 and 1986. From this base, which contains demographic and clinical data (age, sex, condition upon admission, duration of consciousness disorders, Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) upon discharge) we devised a hierarchical classification analysis following a factorial analysis of multiple correspondences, on 2 sets: a sample of 515 patients (all causes of coma being merged) and a sample of 266 patients suffering from brain injuries. Four groups were determined for each typology. These groups were first described on the basis of the variables used for their construction, and later by considering other available variables: origin of coma, duration of stay at EHMB, future evolution of patients and cost of treatment (cost of specific care, average daily cost, total cost of hospitalization). Thus, typical clinical situations were identified in each classification, depending on age of patient, origin of coma and condition upon admission. These situations led to extremely different treatment costs (ratio from 1 to 5 in the general typology and 1 to 2.85 in the classification of brain injuries.

  12. Concordance between Results of Medium-term Liver Carcinogenesis Bioassays and Long-term Findings for Carcinogenic 2-Nitropropane and Non-carcinogenic1-Nitropropane in F344 Rats.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuko; Tamano, Seiko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Sano, Masashi; Imai, Norio; Nakashima, Hironao; Furukawa, Fumio; Hagiwara, Akihiro; Otsuka, Masanori; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concordance of results for a pair of structural isomers, 2-nitropropane (2-NP) and 1-nitropropane (1-NP), using the rat medium-term liver carcinogenesis bioassay (Ito test) and previously published long-term carcinogenicity tests. Male F344 rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of DEN (200 mg/kg b.w.) to initiate hepatocarcinogenesis. After 2 weeks, they received per os 0, 0.8, 4 or 20 mg/kg/day of 2-NP or 1-NP six times a week and were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy at week 3. Non-initiated groups receiving 0 or 20 mg/kg/day were also included. The animals were sacrificed for quantitative analysis of GST-P-positive foci at week 8. With the highest dose of 2-NP, significantly increased numbers and areas of GST-P-positive foci were demonstrated as compared with the respective control but were not noted with 1-NP. In the non-DEN-initiated groups, many small GST-P-positive foci of less than 0.2 mm in diameter were also induced in the rats treated with 2-NP at 20 mg/kg/day but were lacking with 1-NP. These results strongly support that 2-NP is a complete hepatocarcinogen with a potent initiation activity, whereas 1-NP is not.

  13. Developing cognitive behaviour therapy training in India: Using the Kolb learning cycle to address challenges in applying transcultural models of mental health and mental health training.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andrew; Virudhagirinathan, B S; Santosham, Sangita; Begum, Faiz Jahan

    2014-10-01

    Although mental health workers in India across all major professional groups have identified an unmet need for training in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), the uncritical export of models of mental health, therapy provision and training to low- and middle-income countries is a problematic process. This paper describes the context for the first stand-alone CBT training programme in India, based in Chennai. This paper includes an evaluation of the first phase of the training and information from trainees regarding the quality and applicability of the training to their working context. The paper provides an overview of some of the critiques that are pertinent to this process and considers the way that the Kolb learning cycle can be used as a framework within training to go some way to addressing these difficulties.

  14. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  15. DEVELOPING HUMAN POTENTIAL THROUGH INDUSTRIAL ARTS, ADDRESSES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL ARTS ASSOCIATION (27TH, TULSA, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    SPEECHES PRESENTED AT THE CONFERENCE ARE INCLUDED--(1) "TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL CHANGE" BY J.H. HOLLOMON, (2) "DEVELOPING HUMAN POTENTIAL IN SPACE" BY J.F. SHEA, (3) "CURRICULUM--INNOVATIONS AND ISSUES, 1965" BY K. WILES, (4) "OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION" BY W.C. MEIERHENRY, AND (5) "AND AFTER THE…

  16. Addressing the Issue of Gender Equity in the Presidency of the University System in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guramatunhu-Mudiwa, Precious

    2010-01-01

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is a regional economic grouping of 15 countries whose common vision is to promote economic, social and political development and growth. Arguably, sustainable growth can be realized if there is equal access to all positions of power and influence in the area, but an investigation of 117…

  17. Addressing Socio-Emotional Development and Infant Mental Health in Early Childhood Systems: Executive Summary. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Paula; Nagle, Geoffrey; Stafford, Brian; Rice, Thomas; Farrer, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    During the past three decades, there has been an increase in knowledge about early childhood development. Early experiences can function as either risk factors or protective factors for a child's future health and development. This has led to concern about how current health systems contribute to the quality of the earliest experiences of life.…

  18. Addressing Social-Emotional Development and Infant Mental Health in Early Childhood Systems. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Paula D.; Stafford, Brian S.; Nagle, Geoffrey A.; Rice, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The science of early development and our understanding of the impact of early experience on later social, emotional, and cognitive development has grown dramatically in the past three decades. Because the data are compelling and far-reaching, there has been increasing interest and concern about the quality of the infant's earliest experiences, and…

  19. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  20. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  1. Addressing the shortage of health professionals in South Africa through the development of a new cadre of health worker: the creation of Clinical Associates.

    PubMed

    Couper, Ian D; Hugo, Jannie F M

    2014-01-01

    South Africa made a decision in 2002 to develop so-called mid-level medical workers, now known as clinical associates. This article describes the background to this decision, and the national process of developing the profession and its scope of practice, which was aligned with the needs of the health service, particularly those of rural district hospitals. A common national curriculum was then developed, with implementation in three faculties. The first graduates have entered the profession, starting in 2011, and are in the process of establishing themselves across the country. They are already making an important contribution to rural health care, and are seeking ways in which the profession can be enhanced to ensure sustainability. The profession needs to adapt itself to the changing realities of the South African context.

  2. Using qualitative methods within a mixed-methods approach to developing and evaluating interventions to address harmful alcohol use among young people.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Richard O; Graber, Rebecca; Hart, Angie; Abraham, Charles; Scanlon, Tom; Watten, Phil; Memon, Anjum

    2015-04-01

    This article illustrates how qualitative methods can be used in the development and evaluation of behavior change interventions. Although many campaigns advise young people to drink responsibly, few clarify how to convert this general advice into specific behavioral strategies. Resilience-based approaches argue that treating young non-drinkers and moderate drinkers as "experts" in responsible alcohol use may facilitate co-creation of acceptable interventions that focus on how to change behavior. Four distinct phases of intervention development were linked to past research and future developments. First, analysis of correlates of alcohol use using data from a survey of 1,412 people aged 16-21 indicated that alcohol harm-reduction interventions should help young people to develop skills and strategies to resist alcohol. Second, interpretative phenomenological analysis of 25 interviews with people purposively selected from among the survey sample identified general strategies and specific tactics used by young people to manage opportunities to drink. Third, insights from the first 2 phases and past qualitative research guided development of video resources to be use in school-based alcohol education to illustrate strategies and tactics for moderate or non-use of alcohol. Fourth, 18 focus groups with students and teachers were used to evaluate the video: structured thematic analysis indicated that after revision the video would be a valuable addition to school-based alcohol education. Findings from the 4 phases highlight the value of using different qualitative and quantitative methods as part of a program of work designed to inform the development, refinement, and evaluation of health psychology interventions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Motivational Effects of Crosslinguistic Awareness: Developing Third Language Pedagogies to Address the Negative Impact of the L2 on the L3 Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    Learning a third language (TL) brings with it particular pedagogical demands. In the pedagogy of TL learning now emerging, the development of students' metalinguistic and crosslinguistic awareness is of central importance. In particular, emphasis is placed on the benefits of cross-referencing with supporter languages. While comparisons with…

  4. Creation and Implementation of a Faculty Learning Community as a Model for Professional Development: Addressing the Needs of the General Education Faculty at a Private Junior College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty-Pearson, Julie

    2012-01-01

    At San Joaquin Valley College, a culture of cultivating student learning through assessment was created in response to the Western Association of Schools and Colleges-Accrediting Commission of Community and Junior Colleges requirements for Fall 2012. In General Education, promoting and developing this culture has been more difficult with faculty…

  5. The Development of Soviet Society: Perspectives from Educational Experience. Keynote Addresses from the Horace Mann Lecture Series and the Paul Masoner International Lecture Series, 1972-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William H. E.

    Historical, philosophical, and social perspectives concerning the development of Soviet society are presented. The concepts of orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationalism that were integral to Russian life for nearly one thousand years of history are discussed, and principles of socialism and communism that were inaugurated in November 1917 in…

  6. Youth Civic Engagement in the United States: Understanding and Addressing the Impact of Social Impediments on Positive Youth and Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsano, Aida B.

    2005-01-01

    The topic of civic engagement has come to the forefront of many recent discussions about the positive and healthy development of youth. Researchers and practitioners writing about youth civic engagement agree that civic engagement has short- and long-term benefits for youth and for society. These benefits have been discussed in terms of youth…

  7. Creation and Implementation of a Faculty Learning Community as a Model for Professional Development: Addressing the Needs of the General Education Faculty at a Private Junior College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty-Pearson, Julie

    2012-01-01

    At San Joaquin Valley College, a culture of cultivating student learning through assessment was created in response to the Western Association of Schools and Colleges-Accrediting Commission of Community and Junior Colleges requirements for Fall 2012. In General Education, promoting and developing this culture has been more difficult with faculty…

  8. The Motivational Effects of Crosslinguistic Awareness: Developing Third Language Pedagogies to Address the Negative Impact of the L2 on the L3 Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    Learning a third language (TL) brings with it particular pedagogical demands. In the pedagogy of TL learning now emerging, the development of students' metalinguistic and crosslinguistic awareness is of central importance. In particular, emphasis is placed on the benefits of cross-referencing with supporter languages. While comparisons with…

  9. Challenges and opportunities for policy decisions to address health equity in developing health systems: case study of the policy processes in the Indian state of Orissa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Achieving health equity is a pertinent need of the developing health systems. Though policy process is crucial for planning and attaining health equity, the existing evidences on policy processes are scanty in this regard. This article explores the magnitude, determinants, challenges and prospects of 'health equity approach' in various health policy processes in the Indian State of Orissa - a setting comparable with many other developing health systems. Methods A case-study involving 'Walt-Gilson Policy Triangle' employed key-informant interviews and documentary reviews. Key informants (n = 34) were selected from the departments of Health and Family Welfare, Rural Development, and Women and Child Welfare, and civil societies. The documentary reviews involved various published and unpublished reports, policy pronouncements and articles on health equity in Orissa and similar settings. Results The 'health policy agenda' of Orissa was centered on 'health equity' envisaging affordable and equitable healthcare to all, integrated with public health interventions. However, the subsequent stages of policy process such as 'development, implementation and evaluation' experienced leakage in the equity approach. The impediment for a comprehensive approach towards health equity was the nexus among the national and state health priorities; role, agenda and capacity of actors involved; and existing constraints of the healthcare delivery system. Conclusion The health equity approach of policy processes was incomprehensive, often inadequately coordinated, and largely ignored the right blend of socio-medical determinants. A multi-sectoral, unified and integrated approach is required with technical, financial and managerial resources from different actors for a comprehensive 'health equity approach'. If carefully geared, the ongoing health sector reforms centered on sector-wide approaches, decentralization, communitization and involvement of non-state actors can

  10. Developing a university-workforce partnership to address rural and frontier MCH training needs: the Rocky Mountain Public Health Education Consortium (RMPHEC).

    PubMed

    Taren, Douglas L; Varela, Frances; Dotson, Jo Ann W; Eden, Joan; Egger, Marlene; Harper, John; Johnson, Rhonda; Kennedy, Kathy; Kent, Helene; Muramoto, Myra; Peacock, Jane C; Roberts, Richard; Sjolander, Sheila; Streeter, Nan; Velarde, Lily; Hill, Anne

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the article is to provide the socio-cultural, political, economic, and geographic conditions that justified a regional effort for training maternal and child health (MCH) professionals in the Rocky Mountain region, describe a historical account of factors that led to the development of the Rocky Mountain Public Health Education Consortium (RMPHEC), and present RMPHEC as a replicable model developed to enhance practice/academic partnerships among state, tribal, and public health agencies and universities to enhance public health capacity and MCH outcomes. This article provides a description of the development of the RMPHEC, the impetus that drove the Consortium's development, the process used to create it, and its management and programs. Beginning in 1997, local, regional, and federal efforts encouraged stronger MCH training and continuing education in the Rocky Mountain Region. By 1998, the RMPHEC was established to respond to the growing needs of MCH professionals in the region by enhancing workforce development through various programs, including the MCH Certificate Program, MCH Institutes, and distance learning products as well as establishing a place for professionals and MCH agencies to discuss new ideas and opportunities for the region. Finally over the last decade local, state, regional, and federal efforts have encouraged a synergy of MCH resources, opportunities, and training within the region because of the health disparities among MCH populations in the region. The RMPHEC was founded to provide training and continuing education to MCH professionals in the region and as a venue to bring regional MCH organizations together to discuss current opportunities and challenges. RMPHEC is a consortium model that can be replicated in other underserved regions, looking to strengthen MCH training and continuing education.

  11. Speaking Itself: Susan Sontag's Town Hall Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Susan Sontag's February 1982 Town Hall Address as a case study of strategies and constraints associated with contextual reconstruction (whereby rhetors address perceived conflicts between text and context). Traces the development of these concepts in Sontag's writings. Discusses the counter-intentional understanding of Sontag's speech by…

  12. Developing and piloting a multifactorial intervention to address participation and quality of life in nursing home residents with joint contractures (JointConImprove): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martin; Bartoszek, Gabriele; Beutner, Katrin; Klingshirn, Hanna; Saal, Susanne; Stephan, Anna-Janina; Strobl, Ralf; Grill, Eva; Meyer, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Joint contractures are common problems in frail older people in nursing homes. Irrespective of the exact extent of older individuals in geriatric care settings living with joint contractures, they appear to be a relevant problem. Also, the new emphasis on the syndrome of joint contractures, e. g. by the German statutory long term care insurance, led to an increase in assessment and documentation efforts and preventive interventions in clinical care. However, more attention should be paid to the actual situation of older individuals in nursing homes with prevalent joint contractures, particularly their experience of related activity limitations and participation restrictions. Thus, the aim of this study is 1) to develop a tailored intervention to improve functioning, and especially participation and quality of life in older residents with joint contractures in nursing homes and 2) to test the feasibility of the intervention accompanied by a rigorous process evaluation. Methods: The complex intervention, which will be developed in this project follows the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework and integrates the perspectives of all potentially relevant user groups, from the affected individuals to clinicians and researchers. The development process will comprise a systematic literature review, reanalysis of existing data and the integration of the knowledge of the affected individuals and experts. The developed intervention including a comprehensive process evaluation will be pilot tested with residents with joint contractures in three nursing homes. Discussion: The projected study will provide a tailored intervention to improve functioning, participation and quality of life in older residents with joint contractures in nursing homes. With this focus, the intervention will support patient relevant outcomes. The pilot study including process evaluation will offer a first opportunity to indicate the size of the intervention’s effect and prepare

  13. Addressing Literacy through Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steve; Tallal, Paula A.

    2006-01-01

    Brain is the source of all human thoughts, feelings and emotions. Now the mysteries of the human brain are rapidly being elucidated by neuroscience research. For more than 150 years, neuroscience has held that most of the brain's functionality develops during critical periods in early childhood and that once past these critical periods, the window…

  14. Addressing Literacy through Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steve; Tallal, Paula A.

    2006-01-01

    Brain is the source of all human thoughts, feelings and emotions. Now the mysteries of the human brain are rapidly being elucidated by neuroscience research. For more than 150 years, neuroscience has held that most of the brain's functionality develops during critical periods in early childhood and that once past these critical periods, the window…

  15. Directions: Addresses on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleek, John E.; And Others

    These three commemorative speeches deal with the role of liberal education at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) and at community colleges in general. John E. Cleek, JCCC president, outlines the growth in enrollment and facilities that characterized the first decade (1969-1979) of JCCC's development and discusses the possibility that, with…

  16. Addressing the use of PDIF-CN2 molecules in the development of n-type organic field-effect transistors for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Barra, M; Viggiano, D; Ambrosino, P; Bloisi, F; Di Girolamo, F V; Soldovieri, M V; Taglialatela, M; Cassinese, A

    2013-09-01

    There is no doubt that future discoveries in the field of biochemistry will depend on the implementation of novel biosensing techniques, able to record biophysiological events with minimal biological interference. In this respect, organic electronics may represent an important new tool for the analysis of structures ranging from single molecules up to cellular events. Specifically, organic field-effect transistors (OFET) are potentially powerful devices for the real-time detection/transduction of bio-signals. Despite this interest, up to date, the experimental data useful to support the development of OFET-based biosensors are still few and, in particular, n-type (electron-transporting) devices, being fundamental to develop highly-performing circuits, have been scarcely investigated. Here, films of N,N'-1H,1H-perfluorobutyldicyanoperylene-carboxydi-imide (PDIF-CN2) molecules, a recently-introduced and very promising n-type semiconductor, have been evaporated on glass and silicon dioxide substrates to test the biocompatibility of this compound and its capability to stay electrically-active even in liquid environments. We found that PDIF-CN2 transistors can work steadily in water for several hours. Biocompatibility tests, based on in-vitro cell cultivation, remark the need to functionalize the PDIF-CN2 hydrophobic surface by extra-coating layers (i.e. poly-l-lysine) to favor the growth of confluent cellular populations. Our experimental data demonstrate that PDIF-CN2 compound is an interesting organic semiconductor to develop electronic devices to be used in the biological field. This work contributes to define a possible strategy for the fabrication of low-cost and flexible biosensors, based on complex organic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry including both p- (hole-transporting) and n-type transistors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organic Bioelectronics-Novel Applications in Biomedicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  17. Long-Term Development of a “Whole Community” Best Practice Model to Address Health Disparities in the Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Community of Lowell, Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Toof, Robin; Silka, Linda; Liang, Sidney; Sou, Linda; Najarian, Lisa; Peou, Sonith; Och, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Cambodians in Lowell, Massachusetts, experience significant health disparities. Understanding the trauma they have experienced in Cambodia and as refugees has been the starting point for Lowell Community Health Center's whole community approach to developing community-based interventions. This approach places physical-psychosocial-spiritual needs at the center of focus and is attentive to individual and institutional barriers to care. Interventions are multilevel. The effect of the overall program comes from the results of each smaller program, the collaborations and coordination with the Cambodian community and community-based organizations, and the range and levels of services available through the health center. PMID:20864723

  18. How to address the ethics of reproductive travel to developing countries: a comparison of national self-sufficiency and regulated market approaches.

    PubMed

    Crozier, G K D; Martin, Dominique

    2012-04-01

    One of the areas of concern raised by cross-border reproductive travel regards the treatment of women who are solicited to provide their ova or surrogacy services to foreign consumers. This is particularly troublesome in the context of developing countries where endemic poverty and low standards for both medical care and informed consent may place these women at risk of exploitation and harm. We explore two contrasting proposals for policy development regarding the industry, both of which seek to promote ethical outcomes and social justice: While one proposal advocates efforts to minimize cross-border demand for female reproductive resources through the pursuit of national self-sufficiency, the other defends cross-border trade as a means for meeting the needs of vulnerable groups. Despite the conflicting objectives of the proposed strategies, the paper identifies common values and points of agreement between the two, including the importance of regulations to safeguard those providing ova or surrogacy services. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Can the sustainable development goals reduce the burden of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases without truly addressing major food system reforms?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-06-16

    While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; 2000-2015) focused primarily on poverty reduction, hunger and infectious diseases, the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets pay more attention to nutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). One of the 169 proposed targets of the SDGs is to reduce premature deaths from NCDs by one third; another is to end malnutrition in all its forms. Nutrition-related NCDs (NR-NCDs) stand at the intersection between malnutrition and NCDs. Driven in large part by remarkable transformations of food systems, they are rapidly increasing in most low and middle income countries (LMICs). The transformation to modern food systems began in the period following World War II with policies designed to meet a very different set of nutritional and food needs, and continued with globalization in the 1990s onwards. Another type of food systems transformation will be needed to shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet--as will meeting many of the other SDGs. The process will be complex but is necessary. Communities concerned with NCDs and with malnutrition need to work more closely together to demand food systems change.

  20. Intermediate-level computer-vision-processing algorithm development for the content-addressable-array parallel processor. Quarterly status report No. 3 for period ending 29 November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-15

    During this quarter a set of seven benchmark problems were developed and analyzed for the IUA. These included Hough Transform, Convex Hull, Voronoi Diagram, Minimal Spanning Tree, Visibility of Vertices in a projected 3-dimensional model, subgraph isomorphism, and the minimum-cost path between points in a weighted graph. These problems are commonly considered intermediate-level processing in many visions research groups parallel implementations of UMass intermediate level processing algorithms, such as Boldt's line merging and Anandan's motion analysis continued to develop. A commercial processor, the TMS320C25, was chosen as the Intermediate Communications and Associative Processor (ICAP) processing element. The TMS320C25 has the advantages that it is a five-million instruction per second signal-processing unit with a fast multiplier and software support for fast floating-point operations. It also has a built in 5 Mb/S serial port that will interface well with the intermediate-level communications network. Also being explored is a set of group-theoretic network topologies with respect to the communication needs of intermediate-level processing. This has required the analysis of the classes of communication needed in each of the algorithms implemented.

  1. Ensuring good governance to address emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats: supporting the veterinary services of developing countries to meet OIE international standards on quality.

    PubMed

    Vallat, B; Mallet, E

    2006-04-01

    As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good.

  2. Effects of a parenting intervention to address maternal psychological wellbeing and child development and growth in rural Uganda: a community-based, cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Singla, Daisy R; Kumbakumba, Elias; Aboud, Frances E

    2015-08-01

    Parenting interventions have been implemented to improve the compromised developmental potential among 39% of children younger than 5 years living in low-income and middle-income countries. Maternal wellbeing is important for child development, especially in children younger than 3 years who are vulnerable and dependent on their mothers for nutrition and stimulation. We assessed an integrated, community-based parenting intervention that targeted both child development and maternal wellbeing in rural Uganda. In this community-based, cluster randomised trial, we assessed the effectiveness of a manualised, parenting intervention in Lira, Uganda. We selected and randomly assigned 12 parishes (1:1) to either parenting intervention or control (inclusion on a waitlist with a brief message on nutrition) groups using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Within each parish, we selected two to three eligible communities that had a parish office or a primary school in which a preschool could be established, more than 75 households with children younger than 6 years, and at least 15 socially disadvantaged families (ie, maternal education of primary school level or lower) with at least one child younger than 36 months. Participants within communities were mother-child dyads, where the child was 12-36 months of age at enrollment, and the mother had low maternal education. In the parenting intervention group, participants attended 12 fortnightly peer-led group sessions focusing on child care and maternal wellbeing. The primary outcomes were cognitive and receptive language development, as measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edn. Secondary outcomes included self-reported maternal depressive symptoms, using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and child growth. Theoretically-relevant parenting practices, including the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment inventory, and mother-care variables, such as perceived spousal

  3. Development of a Web-Based Intervention for Addressing Distress in Caregivers of Patients Receiving Stem Cell Transplants: Formative Evaluation With Qualitative Interviews and Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Tanisha; Simoneau, Teresa; Kilbourn, Kristin; Carr, Alaina; Kutner, Jean; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Background Caregivers of cancer patients experience significant burden and distress including depression and anxiety. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of an eight session, in-person, one-on-one stress management intervention to reduce distress in caregivers of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCT). Objective The objective of this study was to adapt and enhance the in-person caregiver stress management intervention to a mobilized website (eg, tablet, smartphone, or computer-based) for self-delivery in order to enhance dissemination to caregiver populations most in need. Methods We used an established approach for development of a mhealth intervention, completing the first two research and evaluation steps: Step One: Formative Research (eg, expert and stakeholder review from patients, caregivers, and palliative care experts) and Step Two: Pretesting (eg, Focus Groups and Individual Interviews with caregivers of patients with autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT). Step one included feedback elicited for a mock-up version of Pep-Pal session one from caregiver, patients and clinician stakeholders from a multidisciplinary palliative care team (N=9 caregivers and patient stakeholders and N=20 palliative care experts). Step two included two focus groups (N=6 caregivers) and individual interviews (N=9 caregivers) regarding Pep-Pal’s look and feel, content, acceptability, and potential usability/feasibility. Focus groups and individual interviews were audio-recorded. In addition, individual interviews were transcribed, and applied thematic analysis was conducted in order to gain an in-depth understanding to inform the development and refinement of the mobilized caregiver stress management intervention, Pep-Pal (PsychoEducation and skills for Patient caregivers). Results Overall, results were favorable. Pep-Pal was deemed acceptable for caregivers of patients receiving an auto-HSCT. The refined Pep-Pal program consisted of 9 sessions

  4. Addressing the Millennium Development Goals from a surgical perspective: essential surgery and anesthesia in 8 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Adam L; Cherian, Meena N; Noel, Luc; Spiegel, David A; Groth, Steffen; Etienne, Carissa

    2010-02-01

    Surgical and anesthetic care is increasingly recognized as a neglected but cost-effective component of primary health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Strengthening delivery can help achieve Millennium Development Goals 4, 5, and 6. Large gaps in access to essential surgical care in LMICs result in considerable morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to provide a baseline overview of essential surgical and anesthetic capacity at district-level health facilities in multiple LMICs. Survey. District-level health facilities in multiple LMICs A standardized World Health Organization tool was used at selected district-level hospitals to assess infrastructure, supplies, and procedures relating to essential surgical and anesthetic capacity. The analysis included facilities from countries that assessed more than 5 health facilities. All data were aggregated and blinded to avoid intercountry comparisons. Data from 132 facilities were analyzed from 8 countries: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (n = 32), Mongolia (n = 31), United Republic of Tanzania (n = 25), Islamic State of Afghanistan (n = 13), Republic of Sierra Leone (n = 11), Republic of Liberia (n = 9), Republic of The Gambia (n = 6), and Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (n = 5). Universally, facilities demonstrated shortfalls in basic infrastructure (water, electricity, oxygen) and functioning anesthesia machines. Although 73% of facilities reported performing incision and drainage of abscesses, only 48% were capable of undertaking an appendectomy. In line with Millennium Development Goals 4, 5, and 6, only 32% of facilities performed congenital hernia repairs, 44% of facilities performed cesarean sections, and few facilities always had goggles and aprons to protect surgical health care workers from human immunodeficiency virus. Enormous shortfalls in infrastructure, supplies, and procedures undertaken are common at district-level health facilities in LMICs.

  5. Community-Owned wind power development: The challenge of applying the European model in the United States, and how states are addressing that challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark

    2004-03-28

    Local farmers, towns, schools, and individual investors are, however, beginning to invest in wind power. With the help of state policy and clean energy fund support, new federal incentives, and creative local wind developers who have devised ownership structures that maximize the value of both state and federal support, community wind power is beginning to take a foothold in parts of the US, in particular the upper Midwest. The purpose of this report is to describe that foothold, as well as the state support that helped to create it. There are a number of reasons why states are becoming increasingly interested in community wind power. In rural Midwestern states such as Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois, community wind is seen as a way to help supplement and stabilize farmer income, and thereby contribute to the preservation of farming communities and the rural landscapes and values they create. In the Northeast, densely populated states such as Massachusetts are turning to community-scale wind development to increase not only the amount of wind power on the grid, but also the public's knowledge, perception, and acceptance of wind power. In still other areas--such as the Pacific Northwest, which is already home to several large wind farms--states are simply responding to strong interest from local constituents who see community wind power as a way to take responsibility for, and mitigate the environmental impact of, electricity generation. But what exactly is ''community wind power''? Definitions vary widely, ranging from behind-the-meter installations to the Danish wind ''cooperatives'' to wind projects owned by municipal utilities. Possible defining criteria include: project size (small vs. large projects); purpose (to offset end-use power consumption vs. to sell power to the grid); ownership (single local vs. multiple local vs. municipal utility vs. commercial owners); and interconnection (behind the meter vs. to the distribution grid vs. to the

  6. Some notes on critical appraisal of prevalence studies: Comment on: "The development of a critical appraisal tool for use in systematic reviews addressing questions of prevalence".

    PubMed

    Harder, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Decisions in healthcare should be based on information obtained according to the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM). An increasing number of systematic reviews are published which summarize the results of prevalence studies. Interpretation of the results of these reviews should be accompanied by an appraisal of the methodological quality of the included data and studies. The critical appraisal tool for prevalence studies developed and tested by Munn et al. comprises 10 items and aims at targeting all kinds of prevalence studies. This comment discusses the pros and cons of different designs of quality appraisal tools and highlights their importance for systematic reviews of prevalence studies. Beyond piloting, which has been performed in the study by Munn et al., it is suggested here that the validity of the tool should be tested, including reproducibility and inter-rater reliability. It is concluded that studies as the one by Munn et al. will help to establish a critical understanding of methodological quality and will support the use of systematic reviews of non-intervention studies for health policy making.

  7. Addressing the nursing shortage.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Karen S; Halcomb, Kathy; Grubbs, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Support is essential for students and new nurses to develop confidence in their practice (Oermann & Moffitt-Wolf, 1997). Caring, empowerment and team building are essential in helping affirm the choice of nursing as a profession. Students and new nurses will stay in nursing if they are supported (Meissner, 1986). The nursing community needs to nurture, encourage and inspire its members to learn and to grow; nurses need to treat each other with respect and patience. As Moccia (1990) so aptly stated. "The goal of nursing is to enable others so they might enable still others; to nurse, to teach and to learn with each other in caring ways." "What is modeled for nurses today will shape future practice" (Christensen, 1999).

  8. First principle-based AKMC modelling of the formation and medium-term evolution of point defect and solute-rich clusters in a neutron irradiated complex Fe-CuMnNiSiP alloy representative of reactor pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngayam-Happy, R.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.

    2013-09-01

    The formation and medium-term evolution of point defect and solute-rich clusters under neutron irradiation have been modelled in a complex Fe-CuMnNiSiP alloy representative of RPV steels, by means of first principle-based atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The results obtained reproduce most features observed in available experimental studies, highlighting the very good agreement between both series. According to simulation, solute-rich clusters form and develop via an induced segregation mechanism on either the vacancy or interstitial clusters, and these point defect clusters are efficiently generated only in cascade debris and not Frenkel pair flux. The results have revealed the existence of two distinct populations of clusters with different characteristic features. Solute-rich clusters in the first group are bound essentially to interstitial clusters and they are enriched in Mn mostly, but also Ni to a lesser extent. Over the low dose regime, their density increases in the alloy as a result of the accumulation of highly stable interstitial clusters. In the second group, the solute-rich clusters are merged with vacancy clusters, and they contain mostly Cu and Si, but also substantial amount of Mn and Ni. The formation of a sub-population of pure solute clusters has been observed, which results from annihilation of the low stable vacancy clusters on sinks. The results indicate finally that the Mn content in clusters is up to 50%, Cu, Si, and Ni sharing the other half in more or less equivalent amounts. This composition has not demonstrated any noticeable modification with increasing dose over irradiation.

  9. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  10. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  11. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  12. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this

  13. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  14. Keynote Address: Developing and Measuring Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otter, Sue

    1992-01-01

    In distinguishing it from occupational competence, this article defines competence in higher education as a cluster of qualities, characteristics, and abilities that may or may not have clear vocational applications. Suggests that a competence model based on industry's clearly defined roles and performances would be inappropriate for higher…

  15. Developments in addressing the organ donor shortage.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Michelle; Parker, Andrea; Willis, Sean

    Non-heartbeating donation is not a new concept but it is one that has been out of vogue for many years. However, increasing shortage of organs for transplantation has led to its increased use as a viable source of organs. This article outlines the rationale for its re-emergence and the challenges it poses for health care professionals.

  16. Faculty Development to Address the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillian-Daniel, Donald L.; Kraemer, Sara B.

    2015-01-01

    Disparities in academic achievement between students who are under-represented minorities, the first in their families to go to college, and/or low income and their more privileged peers affects students from kindergarten through college. Inequities throughout their education, as well as other causes affect the ability of high school graduates to…

  17. Addressing physicians' impaired communication skills.

    PubMed

    Egener, Barry

    2008-11-01

    Deficient physician communication skills can lead to complaints by patients and colleagues. While there are many communication training courses for physicians, there are few descriptions of programs that address their deficiencies. This report describes the use of a coaching model developed by the author to remediate inadequate communication skills. The coaching model consists of a discrete set of communication skills that are gradually integrated into professional activities while debriefing that process in a supportive relationship. Outcomes are provided for the first 13 physicians coached after the approach was standardized. On a Likert scale (range, 1-7), with 7 expressing "high satisfaction," all participants rated the consultation in the 5-7 range (mean, 6.3), and all supervisors rated the consultation in the 6-7 range (mean, 6.7). A coaching model is effective in improving communication skills deemed inadequate by physicians' patients and colleagues. Future work should evaluate the impact of integrating coaching into health care organizations and on developing new tools to augment coaching.

  18. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  19. A Pedagogy to Address Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Elaine E.

    1993-01-01

    Presents strategies and methods by which writing teachers can openly address the potential problem of plagiarism. Details specific methods used by one teacher to train students how to quote and cite materials without plagiarizing. (HB)

  20. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  1. State of the District Address, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltai, Leslie

    This address by the Chancellor of the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) discusses recent and long-term changes in the district's programs, educational quality, and financial standing, and suggests means for future improvements. First, the paper highlights the district's achievements in improving transfer education and developing new…

  2. Addressing Psychosocial Factors with Library Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Bridget; Alabi, Jaena; Whaley, Pambanisha; Jenda, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    The majority of articles on mentoring in the library and information science field address career development by emphasizing the orientation process for new librarians and building the requisite skills for a specific job. Few articles deal with the psychological and social challenges that many early-career and minority librarians face, which can…

  3. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  4. Addressing the Global Burden of Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The US National Cancer Institute’s Center for Global Health (CGH) has been a key partner in a multi-institutional expert team that has developed a set of publications to address foundational concerns in breast cancer care across the cancer care continuum and within limited resource settings.

  5. Addressing Psychosocial Factors with Library Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Bridget; Alabi, Jaena; Whaley, Pambanisha; Jenda, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    The majority of articles on mentoring in the library and information science field address career development by emphasizing the orientation process for new librarians and building the requisite skills for a specific job. Few articles deal with the psychological and social challenges that many early-career and minority librarians face, which can…

  6. Developing a targeted, theory-informed implementation intervention using two theoretical frameworks to address health professional and organisational factors: a case study to improve the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Tavender, Emma J; Bosch, Marije; Gruen, Russell L; Green, Sally E; Michie, Susan; Brennan, Sue E; Francis, Jill J; Ponsford, Jennie L; Knott, Jonathan C; Meares, Sue; Smyth, Tracy; O'Connor, Denise A

    2015-05-25

    Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department (ED), variations in practice exist. Interventions designed to implement recommended behaviours can reduce this variation. Using theory to inform intervention development is advocated; however, there is no consensus on how to select or apply theory. Integrative theoretical frameworks, based on syntheses of theories and theoretical constructs relevant to implementation, have the potential to assist in the intervention development process. This paper describes the process of applying two theoretical frameworks to investigate the factors influencing recommended behaviours and the choice of behaviour change techniques and modes of delivery for an implementation intervention. A stepped approach was followed: (i) identification of locally applicable and actionable evidence-based recommendations as targets for change, (ii) selection and use of two theoretical frameworks for identifying barriers to and enablers of change (Theoretical Domains Framework and Model of Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organisations) and (iii) identification and operationalisation of intervention components (behaviour change techniques and modes of delivery) to address the barriers and enhance the enablers, informed by theory, evidence and feasibility/acceptability considerations. We illustrate this process in relation to one recommendation, prospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) by ED staff using a validated tool. Four recommendations for managing mild traumatic brain injury were targeted with the intervention. The intervention targeting the PTA recommendation consisted of 14 behaviour change techniques and addressed 6 theoretical domains and 5 organisational domains. The mode of delivery was informed by six Cochrane reviews. It was delivered via five intervention components : (i) local stakeholder meetings, (ii) identification of local opinion

  7. Ergonomics guidelines for designing electronic mail addresses.

    PubMed

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G

    2001-03-15

    The aim was to design a human-centred electronic mail (e-mail) address system based on networking technology and cognitive ergonomics. Based on the background literature and the results of users' survey, a conceptual model is developed for designing e-mail addresses. This model consists of e-mail address components of formats, domain length, meaningfulness, orientation and information type pertaining to recall, information association and categorization. Five hypotheses were proposed to test the conceptual model, and four experiments were conducted with 85 participants to test the hypotheses. The dependent variables were performance time, error rate and degree of satisfaction, and the independent variables were components of the e-mail addresses. The main results indicate that for a recall task, significantly lower total performance time (26.2%) and error rate (75%) were found for the hybrid formats (digits and letters) than for the letter format, and up to four characters was the best single domain length. For an information association task, embedding both geographical and organizational information significantly decreased the response time (10.9%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. For a categorization task, embedding both geographical information and organizational information significantly decreased response time (40.7%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. This research demonstrates the importance of human-centred design and provides guidelines in effectively designing e-mail addresses.

  8. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  9. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  10. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  11. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  12. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  13. Addressing Student Diversity and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Januszyk, Rita; Miller, Emily C.; Lee, Okhee

    2016-01-01

    While student demographics continue to change nationwide, science achievement gaps persist, as measured by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NCES 2012). As traditional racial and ethnic minority students have become the numeric majority (NCES 2013), teaching science for all increasingly means addressing diverse student populations.…

  14. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  15. Development and pilot testing of Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS--a version of Baby-Led Weaning modified to address concerns about iron deficiency, growth faltering and choking.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Sonya L; Taylor, Rachael W; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2015-08-26

    In Baby-Led Weaning (BLW), infants are offered 'finger' foods from the start of the complementary feeding period instead of being spoon-fed. Healthcare professionals have expressed concerns about adequacy of iron and energy intake, and about choking, for infants following Baby-Led Weaning. We developed a modified version of BLW, Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS), to address these concerns. In a 12-week pilot study, families who had chosen to use a BLW approach were assigned to BLISS (n = 14) or BLW (n = 9). BLISS participants received 2 intervention visits, resources and on-call support. BLW participants received no intervention. Participants were interviewed weekly for 12 weeks and completed a three-day weighed record or three 24-h iron questionnaires. Compared to the BLW group, the BLISS group were more likely to introduce iron containing foods during the first week of complementary feeding, and to offer more serves per day of iron containing foods at 6 months (2.4 vs 0.8 serves/day; P = 0.001); and less likely to offer high-choking-risk foods (3.24 vs 0.17 serves/day; P = 0.027). This pilot study suggests BLISS may result in higher iron intakes and lower choking risk than unmodified BLW. However, the results need to be confirmed in a large randomised controlled trial.

  16. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  17. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  18. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  20. See Me Smoke-Free: Protocol for a Research Study to Develop and Test the Feasibility of an mHealth App for Women to Address Smoking, Diet, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Thienne; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper presents the protocol for an ongoing research study to develop and test the feasibility of a multi-behavioral mHealth app. Approximately 27 million women smoke in the US, and more than 180,000 women die of illnesses linked to smoking annually. Women report greater difficulties quitting smoking. Concerns about weight gain, negative body image, and low self-efficacy may be key factors affecting smoking cessation among women. Recent studies suggest that a multi-behavioral approach, including diet and physical activity, may be more effective at helping women quit. Guided imagery has been successfully used to address body image concerns and self-efficacy in our 3 target behaviors—exercise, diet and smoking cessation. However, it has not been used simultaneously for smoking, diet, and exercise behavior in a single intervention. While imagery is an effective therapeutic tool for behavior change, the mode of delivery has generally been in person, which limits reach. mHealth apps delivered via smart phones offer a unique channel through which to distribute imagery-based interventions. Objective The objective of our study is to evaluate the feasibility of an mHealth app for women designed to simultaneously address smoking, diet, and physical activity behaviors. The objectives are supported by three specific aims: (1) develop guided imagery content, user interface, and resources to reduce weight concern, and increase body image and self-efficacy for behavior change among women smokers, (2) program a prototype of the app that contains all the necessary elements of text, graphics, multimedia and interactive features, and (3) evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the app with women smokers. Methods We created the program content and designed the prototype application for use on the Android platform in collaboration with 9 participants in multiple focus groups and in-depth interviews. We programmed and tested the application

  1. See Me Smoke-Free: Protocol for a Research Study to Develop and Test the Feasibility of an mHealth App for Women to Address Smoking, Diet, and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Giacobbi, Peter; Hingle, Melanie; Johnson, Thienne; Cunningham, James K; Armin, Julie; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-21

    This paper presents the protocol for an ongoing research study to develop and test the feasibility of a multi-behavioral mHealth app. Approximately 27 million women smoke in the US, and more than 180,000 women die of illnesses linked to smoking annually. Women report greater difficulties quitting smoking. Concerns about weight gain, negative body image, and low self-efficacy may be key factors affecting smoking cessation among women. Recent studies suggest that a multi-behavioral approach, including diet and physical activity, may be more effective at helping women quit. Guided imagery has been successfully used to address body image concerns and self-efficacy in our 3 target behaviors-exercise, diet and smoking cessation. However, it has not been used simultaneously for smoking, diet, and exercise behavior in a single intervention. While imagery is an effective therapeutic tool for behavior change, the mode of delivery has generally been in person, which limits reach. mHealth apps delivered via smart phones offer a unique channel through which to distribute imagery-based interventions. The objective of our study is to evaluate the feasibility of an mHealth app for women designed to simultaneously address smoking, diet, and physical activity behaviors. The objectives are supported by three specific aims: (1) develop guided imagery content, user interface, and resources to reduce weight concern, and increase body image and self-efficacy for behavior change among women smokers, (2) program a prototype of the app that contains all the necessary elements of text, graphics, multimedia and interactive features, and (3) evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the app with women smokers. We created the program content and designed the prototype application for use on the Android platform in collaboration with 9 participants in multiple focus groups and in-depth interviews. We programmed and tested the application's usability with 6 participants

  2. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.

  3. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  4. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  5. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  7. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  8. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  9. Addressing data access challenges in seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabant, C. M.; Ahern, T.; Weertman, B.; Benson, R. B.; Van Fossen, M.; Weekly, R. T.; Casey, R. E.; Suleiman, Y. Y.; Stults, M.

    2016-12-01

    The development of web services at the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) over the last 6 years represents the most significant enhancement of data access ever introduced at the DMC. These web services have allowed the us to focus our internal operations around a single, consistent data access layer while facilitating development of a new generation of tools and methods for researchers to conduct their work. This effort led the DMC to propose standardized web service interfaces within the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN), enabling other seismological data centers to offer data using compatible interfaces. With this new foundation, we now turn our attention to more advanced data access challenges. In particular, we will present the status of two developments intending to address 1) access to data of consistent quality for science and 2) discovery and access of data from multiple data centers. To address the challenge of requesting high or consistent quality data we will introduce our Research-Ready Data Sets (RRDS) initiative. The purpose of the RRDS project is to reduce the time a researcher spends culling and otherwise identifying data appropriate for given study. RRDS will provide users with additional criteria related to data quality that can be specified when requesting data. Leveraging the data quality measurements provided by our MUSTANG system, these criteria will include ambient noise, completeness, dead channel identification and more. To address the challenge of seismological data discovery and access, we have built and continue to improve the IRIS Federator. The Federator takes advantage of the FDSN-standard web services at various data centers to help a user locate specific channels, wherever they may be offered globally. The search interface provides results that are pre-formatted requests, ready for submission to each data center that serves that data. These two developments are aimed squarely at reducing the time

  10. Development and Dissemination of a Multimedia Instructional Package for Use in Preservice and Inservice Training To Address Selection of Appropriate Literacy Media for Students with Visual Impairments. Project LMA Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Alan J.

    This report discusses the outcomes of a project that addressed the need for comprehensive and sequential instructional materials to teach preservice and inservice teachers strategies for selecting appropriate literacy media for students with visual impairments. In this three-year project, called Project LMA (Learning Media Assessment),…

  11. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  12. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  13. Building technology services that address student needs.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform.

  14. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  15. Addressing software security risk mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) has funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a Center Initiative, 'Reducing Software Security Risk through an Integrated Approach' (RSSR), to address this need. The Initiative is a formal approach to addressing software security in the life cycle through the instantiation of a Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) for the development and maintenance life cycles.

  16. Addressing software security risk mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) has funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a Center Initiative, 'Reducing Software Security Risk through an Integrated Approach' (RSSR), to address this need. The Initiative is a formal approach to addressing software security in the life cycle through the instantiation of a Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) for the development and maintenance life cycles.

  17. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  18. DAAS: Defense Automatic Addressing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Optional Development. flOSS can be provided in the following two ways: a. Potential Scbscribers Use of Existing ADP System. If the PW country has an...series. (1) Features of the Turnkea estem. This menu driven system provides for easy system operation aW initial training. Another feature of the turnkey

  19. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  20. Observation of a medium-term earthquake precursor in Irkutsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basov, A. D.; Chernykh, E. N.

    2010-01-01

    Complex geophysical investigations of the earth dam of the Irkutsk hydroelectric power plant (HEP) revealed strong negative anomalies of the natural electric field (NEF). These anomalies are associated with focal mechanisms of earthquakes, in which subhorizontal compressive stresses prevail. The sources of such earthquakes are located in the south of the Baikal rift zone. Their epicentral distances are comparable with the range of the action of precursors of earthquakes with M > 5. NEF anomalies correlate with an increase in the filtration at the earth’s dam base in the Angara fault zone along the Angara River bed. In the shape of their plots, manifestations of these NEF anomalies are similar to variations in the ratios of velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves before earthquakes in the Garm region.

  1. Medium term follow up of the Biodynamic neck sparing prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Molfetta, Luigi; Capozzi, Michele; Caldo, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Hip resurfacing (HR) and neck sparing prostheses (NSP) have been advocated for the treatment of arthritis in younger patients. Some complications following HR have been documented in the recent literature, but NSP are not yet supported by clinical follow-up studies of sufficient duration. We present an assessment of the neck sparing "Biodynamic" prosthesis. 153 patients were evaluated in a longitudinal cohort prospective study, with survival analysis, clinical score and radiographic assessment of stability and osteointegration at 41.8 months average follow up. Survival and clinical outcome were similar to most traditional prostheses in the literature. On radiographic analysis we recorded good neck preservation and osteointegration. Only two stem failures were recorded. Poor clinical outcome was related to misalignment of prostheses implanted during the 'learning curve'. The NSP system described may be a good alternative to HR for younger patients. The system is characterized by good survival and clinical and radiographic outcome combined with bone stock preservation.

  2. Addressing Chronic Disease Within Supportive Housing Programs

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Benjamin F.; Stanhope, Victoria; Brawer, Rickie; Weinstein, Lara Carson; Lawson, James; Stwords, Edward; Crossan, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Background Tenants of supportive housing have a high burden of chronic health conditions. Objectives To examine the feasibility of developing a tenant-involved health promotion initiative within a “housing first” agency using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework. Methods Qualitative analyses of nine research capacity-building group meetings and fifteen individual pre- and post-interviews with those who completed a chronic disease self-management program, resulting in the development of several themes. Results Tenants of supportive housing successfully partnered with health care providers to implement a chronic disease self-management program, noting that “health care becomes ‘relevant’ with housing.” Conclusions Supportive housing organizations are well-situated to implement health promotion initiatives. Such publicly subsidized housing that is accompanied by comprehensive supports must also include self-management training to help people overcome both internal and external barriers to addressing chronic health needs. PMID:23543023

  3. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  4. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  5. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Addressing students' misconceptions about eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Gelderman, Richard

    2017-05-01

    The upcoming Aug. 21, 2017, total solar eclipse, with its 70-mile wide path of totality stretching across much of North America, provides us with a unique opportunity to teach students about eclipses. One might naturally assume that students have little difficulty understanding the nature of eclipses. After all, the notion that eclipses occur when the new Moon blocks the Sun's light from reaching Earth or, alternatively, when Earth blocks the Sun's light from reaching the full Moon seems simple enough. However, discipline-based astronomy education research consistently shows that students struggle mightily with developing a conceptually coherent understanding of eclipses.

  7. Substance misuse prevention: addressing anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia refers to the inability of experiencing pleasure in positive life events. It has been conceptualized as a stable yet malleable characteristic and is associated with hypoactivity in the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic systems. Very recently, it has been posited as an etiologic factor associated with drug addiction onset, escalation, and relapse. Prevention programming could be developed to counteract the harmful impact of anhedonia, so as to minimize its impact on drug misuse. Remedial efforts are those that either (1) permit the individual to tolerate low levels of pleasure without resorting to drug misuse or other maladaptive behaviors that may unhealthily besot pleasure (for example, through normalization, structuring time, or meditation) or (2) counteract anhedonia by enhancing ones capability to experience pleasure (for example, behavioral activation, positive psychology, pharmacotherapy, or pursuit of positive addictions). School-based activities could be developed that can be completed by individuals, small workgroups, or the whole classroom. The concept of anhedonia is described in this chapter, and possible prevention strategies that might be utilized in schools as well as other contexts are discussed.

  8. WELCOME ADDRESS: Welcome Address for the 60th Yamada Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidetoshi

    2006-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen On behalf of Yamada Science Foundation, I would like to extend our hearty welcome to all of you who are participating in the 60th Yamada Conference and International Symposium on Research in High Magnetic Fields particularly to those who have come a long way to Japan from various places all over the world. Yamada Science Foundation was founded in 1977 at Osaka, Japan. It develops its activities by giving support to the outstanding research projects in the basic natural sciences, especially in the interdisciplinary domains that bridge between well established research fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology. The Foundation also provides travel funds for scientists to visit or to go out of Japan in order to carry out international collaborative projects. It also holds conferences and workshops. Among these activities, one of the most important is the organization of Yamada Conferences, which are usually held two or three times a year on various topics which seem to be pioneering current research activities in natural sciences. Upon organizing Yamada Conferences, The Board of Directors of The Foundation put emphasis on the three symbolic English letter `I's. The first I stands for International, the second I means Interdisciplinary, and the third, perhaps the most important I symbolizes Innovative. As for this conference, I think it is in some sense interdisciplinary, because it deals with on one hand, the smallest scale of matter, the elementary particles while, on the other hand deals with the largest scale of matter, the universe, which are linked together. I also think many innovative ideas are presented in this conference. In this context, I believe this Conference is well suited to the scope of our Foundation. Another important aspect of holding Yamada Conference is to provide the forum of `Friendship' among the participants. We encourage all of you, particularly young scientists, to get acquainted with each other not only through hot

  9. SkBQ - prooxidant addressed to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Vyssokikh, M Y; Chernyak, B V; Domnina, L V; Esipov, D S; Ivanova, O Y; Korshunova, G A; Symonyan, R A; Skulachev, M V; Zinevich, T V; Skulachev, V P

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the key links in the chain of development of pathologies associated with the violation of cellular energy metabolism. Development of mitochondria-addressed compounds highly specific for chemical processes is one of the most promising ways to develop approaches to the treatment of inherited and age-related diseases with mitochondrial etiology. Correlation of structure and chemical activity of the test compounds from a class of lipophilic cations revealed the key role of substituents in the aromatic ring of 1,4-benzoquinones in the manifestation of high antioxidant properties. In this work, it is shown that a synthesized benzoquinone derivative conjugated in position 6 with membrane-penetrating cation of decyltriphenylphosphonium and with substituents at position 2, 3, and 5 (SkBQ) has much lower antioxidant and significantly higher prooxidant activity in comparison with similar derivatives of plasto- and toluquinone SkQ1 and SkQT1 in experiments on isolated mitochondria. At the same time, SkBQ, like SkQ1 and SkQT1, can be reduced by the respiratory chain in the center i of complex III and decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. In cell cultures of human fibroblasts, it was revealed that SkBQ does not protect cells from apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide. Under the same conditions, SkQ1 and SkQT1 exhibit a powerful protective effect. Thus, SkBQ can be seen as a mitochondria-addressed prooxidant. The possibility of using SkBQ as an anticancer drug for the treatment of cancers such as prostate cancer whose cells are sensitive to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is discussed.

  10. Addressing the water budget with SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; AlBitar, A.; Tomer, S. K.; Merlin, O.; Pellarin, T.

    2012-12-01

    SMOS, a L Band radiometer using aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution, was successfully launched on November 2, 2009. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent enabling to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS as been now acquiring data for almost 2 years. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and of China. However, many different international teams are now addressing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. In parallel different teams are now starting addressing data use in various fields including hydrology. It requires coupling with other models and or disaggregation to address soil moisture distribution over watersheds. Significant new results were obtained for floods and drought events, together with new potential applications in terms of precipitation monitoring This paper thus gives an overview of the science goals of the SMOS mission, a description of its main elements, and a taste of the first results including

  11. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  12. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  13. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC...

  14. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  15. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  16. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  17. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is regulated...

  18. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is regulated...

  19. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is regulated...

  20. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is regulated...