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Sample records for addresses methodological issues

  1. Work group III: Methodologic issues in research on the food and physical activity environments: addressing data complexity.

    PubMed

    Oakes, J Michael; Mâsse, Louise C; Messer, Lynne C

    2009-04-01

    Progress in transdisciplinary research addressing the health effects of the food and physical activity environments appears hampered by several methodologic obstacles, including: (1) the absence of clear, testable conceptual models; (2) slow adoption of practicable, rigorous research designs; (3) improper use of analytic techniques; and (4) concerns about ubiquitous measurement error. The consequence of such obstacles is that data collected as part of the typical study are more complex than need be. We offer diagnoses and recommendations from an NIH-sponsored meeting that addressed core issues in food- and physical activity-environment research. Recommendations include improved conceptual models and more elaborate theories, experimental thinking and increased attention to causal effect estimation, adoption of cross-validation techniques, use of existing measurement-error models, and increased support for methodologic research.

  2. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  3. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Marian

    2016-01-01

    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  4. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  5. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  6. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  7. The Sociological Study of Suicide: Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Reviews methodological issues in the sociological study of suicide, distinguishing between micro and macro approaches. Focusing on critical assessment of macro-level methodology, identifies three recurrent problems: (1) measurement issues on four key variables; (2) problems studying effect of mass media suicide stories; and (3) reasons to adopt…

  8. Team Packs: Addressing Human Sexuality Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. for Child Health Policy.

    This kit provides materials that teach about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy using group instructional methodology to actively engage students in the learning process. Using cooperative learning materials and videotape recordings, the program stresses…

  9. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  10. Methodological Issues in Evaluating Mental Health Services: Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickman, Leonard, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This special issue focuses on several methodological issues in the evaluation of the largest mental health and substance abuse project for children and adolescents conducted at a single site, the U.S. Army's Fort Bragg Child and Adolescent Mental Health Demonstration program. The introduction and seven articles describe this program and the…

  11. Ethical and methodological issues in research with Sami experiencing disability

    PubMed Central

    Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Background A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature. Objectives The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research within this field. The article describes and discusses ethical and methodological issues that arose when conducting our study and identifies some strategies for addressing issues like these. Methods The ethical and methodological issues addressed in the article are based on a qualitative study among indigenous Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. The data in this study were collected through 31 semi-structured in-depth interviews with altogether 24 Sami people experiencing disability and 13 next of kin of Sami people experiencing disability (8 mothers, 2 fathers, 2 sister and 1 guardian). Findings and discussion The researchers identified 4 main areas of ethical and methodological issues. We present these issues chronologically as they emerged in the research process: 1) concept of knowledge when designing the study, 2) gaining access, 3) data collection and 4) analysis and accountability. Conclusion The knowledge generated from this study has the potential to benefit future health research, specifically of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability, as well as health research concerning indigenous people in general, providing scientific-based insight into important ethical and methodological issues in research with indigenous people experiencing disability. PMID:27396747

  12. Methodologic issues in research on religion and health.

    PubMed

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Ellison, Christopher G; Strock, Adrienne L

    2004-12-01

    This study examines several methodologic issues in research on religion and health, including the measurement of the concept of religion, research designs, sampling, and statistical controls for assessing the "net" effects of religion on health outcomes. It briefly discusses differences in analytical perspectives that have contributed to the debate about the effects of religion on health. The authors review some of the methodologic problems of past research in this area of study and address what needs to be done to enhance the quality of the research. The authors conclude that the research methodology used in studies of religion and health has improved over time and that it continues to do so.

  13. Training effectiveness assessment: Methodological problems and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Kenneth D.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. military uses a large number of simulators to train and sustain the flying skills of helicopter pilots. Despite the enormous resources required to purchase, maintain, and use those simulators, little effort has been expended in assessing their training effectiveness. One reason for this is the lack of an evaluation methodology that yields comprehensive and valid data at a practical cost. Some of these methodological problems and issues that arise in assessing simulator training effectiveness, as well as problems with the classical transfer-of-learning paradigm were discussed.

  14. THE ROLE OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN ADDRESSING HAZARDOUS WASTE ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment plays many important roles in addressing hazardous waste issues. In addition to providing a scientific framework and common health metric to evaluate risks. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or "Superfund") risk assessm...

  15. Muscle dysmorphia: methodological issues, implications for research.

    PubMed

    Suffolk, Mark T; Dovey, Terence M; Goodwin, Huw; Meyer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is a male-dominated, body image-related psychological condition. Despite continued investigation, contention surrounds the nosological status of this disorder. The aim of this article was to review the literature on muscle dysmorphia to provide a qualitative account of methodological issues that may inhibit our understanding. Key areas relating to non-standardized participant groups, measuring instruments, and terminology were identified as potentially inhibiting symptom coherence and diagnostic reliability. New measuring instruments validated with clinical samples and carefully described participant groups, standardized terminology, and a greater emphasis on prospective longitudinal research with specific sub groups of the weight training community would be of interest to the field. PMID:24044599

  16. Autism genetics: Methodological issues and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Roberto; Lintas, Carla; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-10-01

    Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder of developmental origin, where multiple genetic and environmental factors likely interact resulting in a clinical continuum between "affected" and "unaffected" individuals in the general population. During the last two decades, relevant progress has been made in identifying chromosomal regions and genes in linkage or association with autism, but no single gene has emerged as a major cause of disease in a large number of patients. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific methodological issues and experimental strategies in autism genetic research, based on fourteen years of experience in patient recruitment and association studies of autism spectrum disorder in Italy.

  17. Addressing Physical and Emotional Issues in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jonathon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how physical and mental disabilities are addressed in children's literature. Many authors are able to integrate the issues into their work in a way that enhances the story and benefits the reader. As young readers learn about the issues and struggles faced by children with mental and physical disabilities,…

  18. Evidence on public policy: methodological issues, political issues and examples.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Orazio P

    2014-03-01

    In this paper I discuss how evidence on public policy is generated and in particular the issue of evaluation of public policies. In economics, the issue of attribution and the identification of causal links has recently received considerable attention. Important methodological issues have been tackled and new techniques have been proposed and used. Randomized Control Trials have become some sort of gold standard. However, they are not exempt from problems and have important limitations: in some case they cannot be constructed and, more generally, problems of external validity and transferability of results can be important. The paper then moves on to discuss the political economy of policy evaluations for policy evaluations to have an impact for the conduct of actual policy, it is important that the demand for evaluation comes directly from the policy making process and is generated endogenously within it. In this sense it is important that the institutional design of policy making is such that policy making institutions are incentivized to use rigorous evaluation in the process of designing policies and allocating resources to alternative options. Economists are currently involved in the design and evaluation of many policies, including policies about health, nutrition and education. The role they can play in these fields is not completely obvious. The paper argues that their main contribution is in the modelling of how individual reacts to incentives (including those provided by public policies). PMID:24553852

  19. Evidence on public policy: methodological issues, political issues and examples.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Orazio P

    2014-03-01

    In this paper I discuss how evidence on public policy is generated and in particular the issue of evaluation of public policies. In economics, the issue of attribution and the identification of causal links has recently received considerable attention. Important methodological issues have been tackled and new techniques have been proposed and used. Randomized Control Trials have become some sort of gold standard. However, they are not exempt from problems and have important limitations: in some case they cannot be constructed and, more generally, problems of external validity and transferability of results can be important. The paper then moves on to discuss the political economy of policy evaluations for policy evaluations to have an impact for the conduct of actual policy, it is important that the demand for evaluation comes directly from the policy making process and is generated endogenously within it. In this sense it is important that the institutional design of policy making is such that policy making institutions are incentivized to use rigorous evaluation in the process of designing policies and allocating resources to alternative options. Economists are currently involved in the design and evaluation of many policies, including policies about health, nutrition and education. The role they can play in these fields is not completely obvious. The paper argues that their main contribution is in the modelling of how individual reacts to incentives (including those provided by public policies).

  20. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  1. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  2. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients. PMID:26225503

  3. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients.

  4. Methodological Issues in Current Antipsychotic Drug Trials

    PubMed Central

    Leucht, Stefan; Heres, Stephan; Hamann, Johannes; Kane, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Every year numerous reports on antipsychotic drug trials are being published in neuropsychiatric journals, adding new information to our knowledge in the field. The information however is often hard for the reader to interpret, sometimes contradictory to comparable available studies and leaves more questions open than it actually answers. Although the overall quality of the studies is rather good, there are manifold options for further improvement in the conception, conduct, and reporting of antipsychotic drug trials. In this survey, we address methodological challenges such as the limited generalizability of outcomes due to patient selection and sample size; the vague or even lacking definition of key outcome parameters such as response, remission or relapse, insufficient blinding techniques, the pitfalls of surrogate outcomes and their assessment tools; the varying complex statistical approaches; and the challenge of balancing various ways of reporting outcomes. The authors present practical examples to highlight the current problems and propose a concrete series of suggestions on how to further optimize antipsychotic drug trials in the future. PMID:18234700

  5. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Language Teaching Methodology. ERIC Issue Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Theodore S.

    This paper gives an overview of 10 directions language teachers might take in the future. After providing background on the history of language teaching, language teaching methodology is defined and a distinction is made between methodologies and approaches. Next, the 10 scenarios are briefly described. They include the following: teacher/learner…

  7. Extending the ARS Experimental Watersheds to Address Regional Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, D.; Goodrich, D. C.; Winstral, A.; Bosch, D. D.; Pool, D.

    2001-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service's (ARS) Watershed Research Program maintains and operates a diverse, geog raphically distributed, nested, multi-scale, national ex perimental watershed network. This network, much of which has been operational for more than 40 years (several more than 60 years), constitutes one the best networks of its kind in the world. The watershed network and its instrumentation was primarily established to assess the hydrologic impacts of watershed conservation and management practices. It has evolved, through development of long-term hydrologic data, as a network of high quality outdoor laboratories for addressing emerging science issues facing hydrologists and resource managers. While the value of the experimental watershed for investigating precipitation, climatic, and hydrologic processes is unquestioned, extending the results from these investigations to other sites and larger areas is more difficult. ARS experimental watersheds are a few hundred km2 or smaller making it challenging to address regional scale issues. To address this the ARS watershed program is, with a suite of partners from universities and other federal agencies, enlarging its research focus to extend beyond the boundaries of the experimental watershed. In this poster we present several examples of this effort, with suggestions on how, using the experimental watershed and its core, a larger scale hydrologic observatory could be developed and maintained.

  8. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  9. Introduction: the need to address older women's mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Victor J

    2007-01-01

    Women are the primary consumers of mental health services. Ironically, research addressing their unique needs lags behind that of men's issues. The aging process introduces an important variable that accentuates the relative lack of information and specific treatment guidelines for older women who are confronted by mental health problems. This volume offers a comprehensive overview for the health professional who is seeking a greater depth of understanding with respect to the study of mental health problems in general, and how these issues pertain specifically to women and the aging process. A second goal of this project is to provide the practicing therapist and counselor with a research update and a broad clinical perspective offered by seasoned clinicians. Using current psychiatric diagnosis as a framework, the contributions address the range of mental health problems, including dementia and cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, traumatic and dissociative conditions, sexual and eating disorders, and personality disorders. It is hoped that this book will inform, inspire and encourage students and health professionals in their work with middle aged and older women who are facing mental health challenges. PMID:17588876

  10. Methodological Issues in the Study of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, A. Eugene

    The failure of development to improve the quality of life in most third world countries and in the less advantaged sectors of advanced capitalistic countries can be partially attributed, it is felt, to methodological errors made by those studying development. Some recent sociological approaches to the study of development are reviewed in this…

  11. Taming Multivariate Data: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redlinger, Lawrence J.; Wiorkowski, John J.; Moses, Anna I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the conceptual, methodological, and statistical challenges in selecting appropriate peer institutions for comparative purposes. The authors' approach embraces a Western scientific tradition that physical things and phenomena can be "reduced into a set of key variables--identifiable parts--that make key…

  12. Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Research on School Administrator Career Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.; Solano, Paul L.; McDuffie, Mary Joan

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has focused on issues of retention and turnover among K-12 school administrators, yet it fails to address some important complexities in administrator career paths. This article examines three conceptual and methodological issues in the current literature involving administrative turnover: the complexity of role and place in…

  13. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  14. Methodological Issues in Measuring Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Keppel, Kenneth; Pamuk, Elsie; Lynch, John; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Kim, Insun; Mays, Vickie; Pearcy, Jeffrey; Schoenbach, Victor; Weissman, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This report discusses six issues that affect the measurement of disparities in health between groups in a population: Selecting a reference point from which to measure disparityMeasuring disparity in absolute or in relative termsMeasuring in terms of favorable or adverse eventsMeasuring in pair-wise or in summary fashionChoosing whether to weight groups according to group sizeDeciding whether to consider any inherent ordering of the groups. These issues represent choices that are made when disparities are measured. Methods Examples are used to highlight how these choices affect specific measures of disparity. Results These choices can affect the size and direction of disparities measured at a point in time and conclusions about the size and direction of changes in disparity over time. Eleven guidelines for measuring disparities are presented. Conclusions Choices concerning the measurement of disparity should be made deliberately, recognizing that each choice will affect the results. When results are presented, the choices on which the measurements are based should be described clearly and justified appropriately. PMID:16032956

  15. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  16. School-Based Methylphenidate Placebo Protocols: Methodological and Practical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Irwin A.; Wojtowicz, Alexandra; Lee, Kee Duk; Haffner, Mary Elizabeth; Fiorello, Catherine A.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on methodological issues involved in choosing instruments to monitor behavior, once a comprehensive evaluation has suggested trials on Ritalin. Case examples illustrate problems of teacher compliance in filling out measures, supplying adequate placebos, and obtaining physical cooperation. Emerging school-based methodologies are discussed…

  17. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  18. Learning Potential Assessment: Theoretical, Methodological and Practical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamers, J. H. M., Ed.; Sijtsma, K., Ed.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M., Ed.

    The first part of this volume is concerned with theoretical and conceptual issues concerning learning potential assessment. The second part deals with methodological and measurement issues in learning potential assessment, and the third part is devoted to research projects and practical applications of learning potential tests. The following…

  19. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  20. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  1. Methodological Issues in Researching Online Representations: Production, Classification and Personal Web Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Jane; Abbott, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that if education practitioners, policy-makers and researchers are to gain insights from new forms of online self-representations, there is a need to take stock of research involving homepages in order to identify important methodological issues and lessons that need to be addressed in future research. Home page authorship…

  2. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  3. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  4. Teaching Writing in a Digital Age: Addressing Issues of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrill, Brittany B.

    2010-01-01

    The way people write and communicate has changed both inside and outside the university, and because of this writing instructors are professionally responsible for addressing these changes in the classroom. Technologies have affected writing for thousands of years. From the invention of the printing press to the Internet, challenges to writing…

  5. Teacher Education's Responsibility to Address Diversity Issues: Enhancing Institutional Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Susan L.; Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    1998-01-01

    Preservice teachers must be prepared to address substantial student diversity and to educate all students to higher levels of understanding and competence. Many teacher educators are not competent to prepare new teachers in this area. Several approaches to handling institutional aspects of teacher education for diversity are discussed, noting…

  6. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Kramer, J.

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  7. Investigating the Promise of Learner Corpora: Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendar, Nick; Chapelle, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers working with learner corpora promise quantitative results that would be of greater practical value in areas such as CALL than those from small-scale and qualitative studies. However, learner corpus research has not yet had an impact on practices in teaching and assessment. Significant methodological issues need to be examined if…

  8. Personality Assessment of Global Talent: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The recruitment of managers who will operate in a culturally heterogeneous context (as expatriate managers, managers in a global company, or managers of a multicultural workforce) is increasingly important in an age of globalization. This article describes conceptual and methodological issues in the assessment of such managers, notably in the…

  9. Conceptualising and Evaluating Teacher Quality: Substantive and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarson, Lawrence; Rowe, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Whereas findings from recent research highlight the importance of teacher quality in improving students' academic performances and experiences of schooling, substantive and methodological issues surrounding the conceptualisation and evaluation of "teacher quality" are not well understood. Such deficiencies are particularly evident in claims for…

  10. Research with Children: Methodological Issues and Innovative Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fargas-Malet, Montserrat; McSherry, Dominic; Larkin, Emma; Robinson, Clive

    2010-01-01

    In the past few decades, a growing body of literature examining children's perspectives on their own lives has developed within a variety of disciplines, such as sociology, psychology, anthropology and geography. This article provides a brief up-to-date examination of methodological and ethical issues that researchers may need to consider when…

  11. Methodological Issues in Curriculum-Based Reading Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Three studies involving elementary students examined methodological issues in curriculum-based reading assessment. Results indicated that (1) whereas sample duration did not affect concurrent validity, increasing duration reduced performance instability and increased performance slopes and (2) domain size was related inversely to performance slope…

  12. Creating Art Environments That Address Social Justice Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Gail

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I examine strategies for teaching students to make socially conscious art using a variety of media that emphasizes installation work. I present issues of social justice in the contemporary art world and include concerns of censorship that artists sometimes confront. I offer examples of team taught coordinated studies programs…

  13. Beyond Culturalism: Addressing Issues of Indigenous Disadvantage through Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda; Gowlett, Christina; Mills, Martin; Monk, Sue; Renshaw, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws from a study that explored issues of student equity, marginality and diversity in two secondary schools in regional Queensland (Australia). The paper foregrounds interview data gathered from administration, teaching and ancillary staff at one of the schools, "Crimson" High School. The school has a high Indigenous student…

  14. The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan

    1998-01-01

    Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual…

  15. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  16. A mental model proposed to address sustainability and terrorism issues.

    PubMed

    Schwing, Richard

    2002-06-01

    I have assembled traditional ways to think about human needs and power along with empirical data to support a mental model of human values. The hierarchy of needs from the world of psychology and the hierarchy of power from the world of diplomacy provide a structure for the model. The empirical data collected from several nations over the last three decades support the structure. Furthermore, an examination of specific trends in this data for specific values indicates that it is not impossible to achieve a sustainable world driven by sustainable values. A world that will be defined by its successful movement toward the "triple bottom line," a term articulated by John Elkington, is a world in which economic prosperity, environmental protection, and social equity are aligned. To say that the model allows one to address terrorism is based on the assumption that the lack of social equity or the perception of that lack determines the likelihood of terrorism.

  17. Economic Evaluation in Stratified Medicine: Methodological Issues and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Fugel, Hans-Joerg; Nuijten, Mark; Postma, Maarten; Redekop, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stratified Medicine (SM) is becoming a practical reality with the targeting of medicines by using a biomarker or genetic-based diagnostic to identify the eligible patient sub-population. Like any healthcare intervention, SM interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. Methodological standards and guidelines exist for economic evaluations in clinical pharmacology and are an important component for health technology assessments (HTAs) in many countries. However, these guidelines have initially been developed for traditional pharmaceuticals and not for complex interventions with multiple components. This raises the issue as to whether these guidelines are adequate to SM interventions or whether new specific guidance and methodology is needed to avoid inconsistencies and contradictory findings when assessing economic value in SM. Objective: This article describes specific methodological challenges when conducting health economic (HE) evaluations for SM interventions and outlines potential modifications necessary to existing evaluation guidelines /principles that would promote consistent economic evaluations for SM. Results/Conclusions: Specific methodological aspects for SM comprise considerations on the choice of comparator, measuring effectiveness and outcomes, appropriate modeling structure and the scope of sensitivity analyses. Although current HE methodology can be applied for SM, greater complexity requires further methodology development and modifications in the guidelines. PMID:27242524

  18. Newborn falls in-hospital: time to address the issue.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Goodman, Alexander; Remorino, Rowena; Bolger, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Newborn falls in-hospital are considered rare and mostly accidental. Few studies are available explaining such accidents. The number of cases may be under reported by parents because of the inevitable sense of guilt they experience. Although deaths have been rarely reported, such accidents may be associated with serious outcomes. An urgent assessment by both the midwifery and paediatric teams should be undertaken following the reporting of such accidents. This paper explains what is meant by newborn falls, presents some relevant literature and uses a case study involving a newborn in hospital to form the basis of a discussion. Importantly it is felt that there is a need to raise awareness of the potential of these accidents amongst health professionals. We hope this paper goes some way towards highlighting some key issues and, moreover, increases awareness of newborn falls in hospital. PMID:21560948

  19. "Cairo must address the equity issue." Interview: Sandra Postel.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Sandra Postel, of the Worldwatch Institute, believes that inequalities in consumption and income foster environmental degradation. The richest 20% are getting richer and consuming excessively. The bottom 20%, comprising about 1 billion people, are getting poorer and are degrading their environment in order to survive. Per capita availability of resources is continually being reduced. If there is a desire to improve the quality of life for the poorest segment of the world population, then the richest must forfeit something. Environmental taxation could reduce excessive consumption in general; this strategy would be the most efficient and useful. Taxes would be placed on pollution and resources in danger of depletion; income taxes could be reduced to balance the impact of increased taxes on the economy. Wealthy countries must make a renewed commitment to poverty alleviation and to realistic sustainable development. Aid budgets should no longer reflect military priorities or strategic objectives. Trade is clearly related to the environment and poverty, and these connections must be made publicly known. National and international trade policies must deal with poverty issues and not contribute to further environmental destruction. Eliminating debt problems is another problem in need of change. The World Bank and structural adjustment policies have not proved to be environmentally sound and have not benefitted the poor. Evaluation of programs is needed, and lending policies should reflect the growing awareness of the problems of the poor and environmental consequences. Consumption of energy, wood, paper, and water are all higher among industrialized wealthy countries. Technology needs to be applied to maximize resource use, and policies must reflect this commitment. Israel has set a good example with water consumption reduction through advanced technology. PMID:12345839

  20. Methodological issues in HIV-related social research in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Erinosho, Olayiwola; Joseph, Richard; Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche; Dike, Nkem; Aderinto, Adeyinka A

    2013-12-01

    This paper is about methodological issues in a community-wide study in Nigeria on an infectious disease, namely HIV/AIDS. The study was designed to ascertain the risk factors that contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and how that can be tackled in order to bring about behavioural change. The research team believed at the onset that a study on the interplay between HIV/AIDS and sensitive issues like sexual mores and sexuality requires much more than a straightjacket social science method, such as simply doing a cross-section study and/or using interview schedule. This paper reviews the essence of cross-disciplinary approach; team building; as well as the use of a non-participatory observational approach in data collection. It also shows why ample consideration was given to ethical issues which are often glossed over in social research in developing countries. The lessons from the study underscore the methodological imperatives in social research that focus on sensitive issues in largely non-literate context like Nigeria. Although there are formidable challenges in community-based studies in largely non-literate societies, nevertheless they could easily be surmounted if there are ample time and resources to navigate the various sticking points.

  1. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  2. Methodological issues in the study of violence against women

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz‐Pérez, Isabel; Plazaola‐Castaño, Juncal; Vives‐Cases, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the methodological issues that arise when studying violence against women as a public health problem, focusing on intimate partner violence (IPV), since this is the form of violence that has the greatest consequences at a social and political level. The paper focuses first on the problems of defining what is meant by IPV. Secondly, the paper describes the difficulties in assessing the magnitude of the problem. Obtaining reliable data on this type of violence is a complex task, because of the methodological issues derived from the very nature of the phenomenon, such as the private, intimate context in which this violence often takes place, which means the problem cannot be directly observed. Finally, the paper examines the limitations and bias in research on violence, including the lack of consensus with regard to measuring events that may or may not represent a risk factor for violence against women or the methodological problem related to the type of sampling used in both aetiological and prevalence studies. PMID:18000113

  3. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  4. Soft System Methodology as a Tool to Understand Issues of Governmental Affordable Housing Programme of India: A Case Study Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sukanya; Roy, Souvanic; Sanyal, Manas Kumar

    2016-09-01

    With the help of a case study, the article has explored current practices of implementation of governmental affordable housing programme for urban poor in a slum of India. This work shows that the issues associated with the problems of governmental affordable housing programme has to be addressed to with a suitable methodology as complexities are not only dealing with quantitative data but qualitative data also. The Hard System Methodologies (HSM), which is conventionally applied to address the issues, deals with real and known problems which can be directly solved. Since most of the issues of affordable housing programme as found in the case study are subjective and complex in nature, Soft System Methodology (SSM) has been tried for better representation from subjective points of views. The article explored drawing of Rich Picture as an SSM approach for better understanding and analysing complex issues and constraints of affordable housing programme so that further exploration of the issues is possible.

  5. Interviewing young men about sex and procreation: methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Sally; Marsiglio, William; Cohan, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Because clear instructions for interviewing men about their developing procreative identities do not exist, the authors discuss a variety of methodological issues that surfaced during in-depth interviews with young men about relationships, sex, contraception, pregnancy, and fatherhood. The authors interviewed a diverse sample of 50 single male participants, ages 16 to 30, who had dated at least one woman in the past 3 years (or had been married). The purpose of the reflexive analysis was to sensitize researchers, social service providers, and the authors to the challenges of conducting qualitative interviews with young men. The authors present indices for assessing interview success.

  6. Influence Map Methodology for Evaluating Systemic Safety Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    "Raising the bar" in safety performance is a critical challenge for many organizations, including Kennedy Space Center. Contributing-factor taxonomies organize information about the reasons accidents occur and therefore are essential elements of accident investigations and safety reporting systems. Organizations must balance efforts to identify causes of specific accidents with efforts to evaluate systemic safety issues in order to become more proactive about improving safety. This project successfully addressed the following two problems: (1) methods and metrics to support the design of effective taxonomies are limited and (2) influence relationships among contributing factors are not explicitly modeled within a taxonomy.

  7. Pharmacogenetics of Antipsychotics: Recent Progress and Methodological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Importance of the field Antipsychotic drug is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, and there are large inter-individual differences in clinical response and side effects. Pharmacogenetics provides a valuable tool to fulfill the promise of personalized medicine by tailoring treatment based on one’s genetic markers. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the recent progress in pharmacogenetic research of antipsychotic drugs since 2010, focusing on two areas: antipsychotic-induced weight gain and clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Important methodological issues in this area of research are discussed. What the reader will gain Readers are expected to learn the up-to-date evidence in pharmacogenetic research, and to gain familiarity to the issues and challenges facing the field. Take home message Pharmacogenetic studies of antipsychotic drugs are promising despite of many challenges. Recent advances as reviewed in this article push the field closer to routine clinical utilization of pharmacogenetic testing. Progress in genomic technology and bioinformatics, larger sample sizes, better phenotype characterization, and careful consideration of study design issues will help to elevate antipsychotic pharmacogenetics to its next level. PMID:23199282

  8. Developing a science of land change: Challenges and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Turner, B. L.; Fox, Jefferson; Mishra, Vinod

    2004-01-01

    Land-change science has emerged as a foundational element of global environment change and sustainability science. It seeks to understand the human and environment dynamics that give rise to changed land uses and covers, not only in terms of their type and magnitude but their location as well. This focus requires the integration of social, natural, and geographical information sciences. Each of these broad research communities has developed different ways to enter the land-change problem, each with different means of treating the locational specificity of the critical variables, such as linking the land manager to the parcel being managed. The resulting integration encounters various data, methodological, and analytical problems, especially those concerning aggregation and inference, land-use pixel links, data and measurement, and remote sensing analysis. Here, these integration problems, which hinder comprehensive understanding and theory development, are addressed. Their recognition and resolution are required for the sustained development of land-change science. PMID:15383671

  9. Methodological issues in workplace substance abuse prevention research.

    PubMed

    Hersch, R K; Cook, R F; Deitz, D K; Trudeau, J V

    2000-05-01

    Substance abuse among working adults represents billions of dollars in preventable health care costs and industry financial loss. Therefore, it is imperative to develop and test effective substance abuse prevention programs for the workplace. However, applied workplace substance abuse prevention research is fraught with numerous methodological challenges. This article highlights a number of these challenges, which include (1) reaching a broad audience with prevention messages, (2) handling the concerns of the employer, (3) collecting substance use data in the workplace, (4) accessing and using records-based data, and (5) linking survey and records-based data. Using examples from the authors' ongoing research assessing a workplace health promotion and substance abuse prevention program, funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the authors address these challenges.

  10. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    PubMed Central

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927

  11. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues.

    PubMed

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered.

  12. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues.

    PubMed

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927

  13. The New ASERVIC Competencies for Addressing Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Watts, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, leaders in the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC) developed new competencies for addressing spiritual and religious issues in counseling. This article briefly addresses the need for new ASERVIC competencies, provides an overview of the process whereby the new competencies emerged, and concludes…

  14. Race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status: measurement and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Williams, D R

    1996-01-01

    This article considers the ways in which race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) relate to each other and combine to affect racial variations in health status. The author reviews a number of methodological issues concerning the assessment of race in the United States that importantly affect the quality of the available data on racial differences in health. These issues include the discrepancy between self-identification and observer-reported race, changing racial classification categories and racial identification, the difficulties in categorizing persons of mixed racial parentage, and census undercount. In discussing the complex interactions between race and SES, the author first describes the relationship between race and SES and assesses the role of SES in accounting for racial differences in health, then shows how the failure of SES to completely account for racial variations in health status emphasizes the need for health researchers to give more systematic attention to the unique factors linked to race that affect health. These factors include racism, migration, acculturation, and the comprehensive assessment of SES.

  15. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  16. Sarah's Story: Using Ritual Therapy to Address Psychospiritual Issues in Treating Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Radha J.; Horton, H. Shelton, Jr.; Watson, Terri

    1997-01-01

    Describes an individual's healing from the trauma of childhood sexual abuse through counseling, spiritual growth, and the use of therapeutic ritual. Explores relationships between the psychospiritual issues associated with childhood sexual abuse and commonly designated treatment goals. Claims that addressing psychospiritual issues is crucial in…

  17. Issues with ozone attainment methodology for Houston, TX.

    PubMed

    Vizuete, William; Jeffries, Harvey E; Tesche, T W; Olaguer, Eduardo P; Couzo, Evan

    2011-03-01

    To comply with the federal 8-hr ozone standard, the state of Texas is creating a plan for Houston that strictly follows the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) guidance for demonstrating attainment. EPA's attainment guidance methodology has several key assumptions that are demonstrated to not be completely appropriate for the unique observed ozone conditions found in Houston. Houston's ozone violations at monitoring sites are realized as gradual hour-to-hour increases in ozone concentrations, or by large hourly ozone increases that exceed up to 100 parts per billion/hr. Given the time profiles at the violating monitors and those of nearby monitors, these large increases appear to be associated with small parcels of spatially limited plumes of high ozone in a lower background of urban ozone. Some of these high ozone parcels and plumes have been linked to a combination of unique wind conditions and episodic hydrocarbon emission events from the Houston Ship Channel. However, the regulatory air quality model (AQM) does not predict these sharp ozone gradients. Instead, the AQM predicts gradual hourly increases with broad regions of high ozone covering the entire Houston urban core. The AQM model performance can be partly attributed to EPA attainment guidance that prescribes the removal in the baseline model simulation of any episodic hydrocarbon emissions, thereby potentially removing any nontypical causes of ozone exceedances. This paper shows that attainment of all monitors is achieved when days with observed large hourly variability in ozone concentrations are filtered from attainment metrics. Thus, the modeling and observational data support a second unique cause for how ozone is formed in Houston, and the current EPA methodology addresses only one of these two causes.

  18. Assessing Campus Climates for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Students: Methodological and Political Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert D.; Gortmaker, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    Methodological and political issues arise during the designing, conducting, and reporting of campus-climate studies for LGBT students. These issues interact; making a decision about a methodological issue (e.g., sample size) has an impact on a political issue (e.g., how well the findings will be received). Ten key questions that must be addressed…

  19. The Issues and Methodologies in Sustainability Assessment Tools for Higher Education Institutions: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarime, Masaru; Tanaka, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    Assessment tools influence incentives to higher education institutions by encouraging them to move towards sustainability. A review of 16 sustainability assessment tools was conducted to examine the recent trends in the issues and methodologies addressed in assessment tools quantitatively and qualitatively. The characteristics of the current…

  20. Medical databases in studies of drug teratogenicity: methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Ehrenstein, Vera; Sørensen, Henrik T; Bakketeig, Leiv S; Pedersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    More than half of all pregnant women take prescription medications, raising concerns about fetal safety. Medical databases routinely collecting data from large populations are potentially valuable resources for cohort studies addressing teratogenicity of drugs. These include electronic medical records, administrative databases, population health registries, and teratogenicity information services. Medical databases allow estimation of prevalences of birth defects with enhanced precision, but systematic error remains a potentially serious problem. In this review, we first provide a brief description of types of North American and European medical databases suitable for studying teratogenicity of drugs and then discuss manifestation of systematic errors in teratogenicity studies based on such databases. Selection bias stems primarily from the inability to ascertain all reproductive outcomes. Information bias (misclassification) may be caused by paucity of recorded clinical details or incomplete documentation of medication use. Confounding, particularly confounding by indication, can rarely be ruled out. Bias that either masks teratogenicity or creates false appearance thereof, may have adverse consequences for the health of the child and the mother. Biases should be quantified and their potential impact on the study results should be assessed. Both theory and software are available for such estimation. Provided that methodological problems are understood and effectively handled, computerized medical databases are a valuable source of data for studies of teratogenicity of drugs.

  1. Methodological issues in the quantitative assessment of quality of life.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Yfantopoulos, John N

    2011-10-01

    The term quality of life can be identified in Aristotle's classical writings of 330 BC. In his Nichomachian ethics he recognises the multiple relationships between happiness, well-being, "eudemonia" and quality of life. Historically the concept of quality of life has undergone various interpretations. It involves personal experience, perceptions and beliefs, attitudes concerning philosophical, cultural, spiritual, psychological, political, and financial aspects of everyday living. Quality of life has been extensively used both as an outcome and an explanatory factor in relation to human health, in various clinical trials, epidemiologic studies and health interview surveys. Because of the variations in the definition of quality of life, both in theory and in practice, there are also a wide range of procedures that are used to assess quality of life. In this paper several methodological issues regarding the tools used to evaluate quality of life is discussed. In summary, the use of components consisted of large number of classes, as well as the use of specific weights for each scale component, and the low-to-moderate inter-correlation level between the components, is evident from simulated and empirical studies.

  2. Measuring persistence: A literature review focusing on methodological issues

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.; Brown, M.A.; Trumble, D.

    1995-03-01

    This literature review was conducted as part of a larger project to produce a handbook on the measurement of persistence. The past decade has marked the development of the concept of persistence and a growing recognition that the long-term impacts of demand-side management (DSM) programs warrant careful assessment. Although Increasing attention has been paid to the topic of persistence, no clear consensus has emerged either about its definition or about the methods most appropriate for its measurement and analysis. This project strives to fill that gap by reviewing the goals, terminology, and methods of past persistence studies. It was conducted from the perspective of a utility that seeks to acquire demand-side resources and is interested in their long-term durability; it was not conducted from the perspective of the individual consumer. Over 30 persistence studies, articles, and protocols were examined for this report. The review begins by discussing the underpinnings of persistence studies: namely, the definitions of persistence and the purposes of persistence studies. Then. it describes issues relevant to both the collection and analysis of data on the persistence of energy and demand savings. Findings from persistence studies also are summarized. Throughout the review, four studies are used repeatedly to illustrate different methodological and analytical approaches to persistence so that readers can track the data collection. data analysis, and findings of a set of comprehensive studies that represent alternative approaches.

  3. Addressing sustainable contributions to GEO/GEOSS from Science and Technology Communities: the EGIDA Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The European Project EGIDA (Coordinating Earth and Environmental cross-disciplinary projects to promote GEOSS) co-funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework programme, has started in September 2010. It aims to prepare a sustainable process of contribution to GEO/GEOSS promoting coordination of activities carried out by: the GEO Science & Technology (S&T) Committee; S&T national and European initiatives; and other S&T Communities. This will be done by supporting broader implementation and effectiveness of the GEOSS S&T Roadmap and the GEOSS mission through coherent and interoperable networking of National and European projects, and International initiatives. The definition of a general methodology for a sustainable contribution to GEO/GEOSS through the implementation of a System-of-System (re-) engineering process is one of the objectives of the EGIDA Project in order to consolidate the results of the actions carried out in support of the GEO Science and Technology Committee (STC) Road Map. The EGIDA Methodology is based on several sources including GEO activities and documents, activities of the EGIDA project in support of the GEO STC Road Map, lessons learned from the initiatives and projects already contributing, in different ways, to the building of advanced infrastructures as direct or indirect part to GEO/GEOSS. The design of the EGIDA Methodology included several steps: a) an operational definition of the EGIDA Methodology, b) the identification of the target audience for the EGIDA Methodology, c) the identification of typical scenarios for the application of the EGIDA Methodology. Basing on these design activities the EGIDA Methodology is defined as a set of two activities running in parallel: Networking Activities - to identify and address the relevant S&T community(-ies) and actors (Community Engagement) - and Technical Activities: - to guide the infrastructure development and align it with the GEO/GEOSS interoperability principles

  4. Methodological issues in the validation of complex human-machine systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Wachtel, J.

    1995-05-01

    Integrated system validation is one aspect of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s design review process for human-system interfaces. This paper will consider three methodological issues that must be addressed in validation and their implications for drawing conclusions about the acceptability of the integrated system. They are: representing the integrated system, representing the operational events it must handle, and representing system performance. A logical basis for generalizability from validation tests to predicted performance of the integrated system emerges from the comparability of the psychological and physical processes of the test and actual situations. Generalizability of results is supported when the integrated system, operating conditions and performance are representative of their real-world counterparts. The methodological considerations for establishing representativeness are discussed.

  5. Investigating eating disorders in elite gymnasts: conceptual, ethical and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jacinta; Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Mike; Hewitt, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Elite gymnastics, and other sports where athletes and coaches are particularly concerned with aesthetic considerations, weight and shape, are fields within which the risk of eating disorders may be unusually high. Adolescent gymnasts, developing their own sense of self, at a time of life where body image concerns are common, often compete at the very top of the sport with a need to maintain a body shape and weight optimal for elite performance. Research into this field should address the range of sociological and ethical aspects of eating disorders in elite sport, their prevalence as well as the ethos of the sport itself. This paper addresses a range of conceptual, ethical and methodological issues relevant to conducting research in this sensitive yet important field.

  6. Research ethics in Internet-enabled research: human subjects issues and methodological myopia.

    PubMed

    Walther, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    As Internet resources are used more frequently for research on social and psychological behavior, concerns grow about whether characteristics of such research affect human subjects protections. Early efforts to address such concerns have done more to identify potential problems than to evaluate them or to seek solutions, leaving bodies charged with human subjects oversight in a quagmire. This article critiques some of these issues in light of the US Code of Federal Regulations' policies for the Protection of Human Subjects, and argues that some of the issues have no pertinence when examined in the context of common methodological approaches that previous commentators failed to consider. By separating applicable contexts from those that are not, and by identifying cases where subjects' characteristics are irrelevant and/or impossible to provide, oversight committees may be able to consider research applications more appropriately, and investigators may be less ethically bound to ascertain and demonstrate those characteristics.

  7. Interventions to address parenting and parental substance abuse: conceptual and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Neger, Emily N; Prinz, Ronald J

    2015-07-01

    Parental substance abuse is a serious problem affecting the well-being of children and families. The co-occurrence of parental substance abuse and problematic parenting is recognized as a major public health concern. This review focuses on 21 outcome studies that tested dual treatment of substance abuse and parenting. A summary of theoretical conceptualizations of the connections between substance abuse and parenting provides a backdrop for the review. Outcomes of the dual treatment studies were generally positive with respect to reduction of parental substance use and improvement of parenting. Research in this area varied in methodological rigor and needs to overcome challenges regarding design issues, sampling frame, and complexities inherent in such a high-risk population. This area of work can be strengthened by randomized controlled trials, use of mixed-methods outcome measures, consideration of parent involvement with child protective services, involvement of significant others in treatment, provision of concrete supports for treatment attendance and facilitative public policies.

  8. Addressing the shortage of health professionals in rural China: issues and progress

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianlin; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Maldistribution of health professionals between urban and rural areas has been a serious problem in China. Urban hospitals attract most of the health professionals with serious shortages in rural areas. To address this issue, a number of policies have been implemented by the government, such as free medical education in exchange for obligatory rural service. PMID:25905487

  9. From Professional Development to Classroom Instruction: Addressing Issues Related to Science Inquiry Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, I first provide a more detailed account of the discourse-focused professional development activities facilitated as part of the SMIT'N program, specifically addressing issues raised by van Zee with regard to the institute's overall format, goals and development strategies. Next, I resort to Peter Medawar's metaphorical view of…

  10. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  11. Recommendations and Strategies for Addressing Comprehensive Health Issues on Two-Year College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Gene M.; And Others

    The Two-Year College Development Center invited representatives from two-year colleges throughout New York to attend a two-day meeting to address comprehensive health issues, particularly pertaining to the transmission and prevention of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), as well as other infectious and chronic diseases. The attending…

  12. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  13. Methodological issues in the psychology of religion: toward another paradigm?

    PubMed

    Belzen, Jacob A; Hood, Ralph W

    2006-01-01

    Recent evaluations have identified the psychology of religion as a field in crisis and have called for a new multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm. However, a critical meta-perspective on methods reveals a broad range of methodologies, each appropriate for particular levels of complexity in the psychology of religion. No single methodology is appropriate for every level, nor can higher levels of complexity be explained by data from lower levels. The authors identify the different types of research practiced in the psychology of religion and critically discuss philosophical presuppositions involved in two major methodological traditions, the empiricist-analytical and the hermeneutical, often identified as quantitative and qualitative traditions, respectively.

  14. Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn,, Paul P.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

  15. Addressing Key Science and Technology Issues for IFE Chambers, Target Fabrication and Target Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Goodin, D T; Nobile, A; Besenbruch, G; Haynes, D; Hoffer, J; Latkowski, J; Maxwell, J; Najmabadi, F; Nikroo, A; Peterson, P; Petzoldt, R; Rickman, W; Sethian, J; Steckle, W; Stephens, E; Tillack, M; Ying, A; Yoda, M

    2002-09-25

    Significant progress has been made in addressing critical issues for high repetition rate chambers, target fabrication and injection for inertial fusion energy (IFE) for both heavy ion and laser drivers. Research is being conducted in a coordinated manner by national laboratories, universities and industry. This paper provides an overview of U.S. research activities and discusses how interface considerations (such as beam propagation and target survival during injection) impact design choices.

  16. Multiple views to address diversity issues: an initial dialog to advance the chiropractic profession

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Christensen, Mark G.; Hyland, John K.; Mrozek, John P.; Zuker, R. Fred; Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Perle, Stephen M.; Oyelowo, Tolu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide expert viewpoints on the topic of diversity in the chiropractic profession, including cultural competency, diversity in the profession, educational and clinical practice strategies for addressing diversity, and workforce issues. Over the next decades, changing demographics in North America will alter how the chiropractic profession functions on many levels. As the population increases in diversity, we will need to prepare our workforce to meet the needs of future patients and society. PMID:23966884

  17. Contemporary Qualitative Research Methodologies and Issues in Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph; Steinkuehler, Constance A.; Black, Rebecca W.; Clinton, Katherine A.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Dillon, Deborah R.

    2005-01-01

    Scholars who are drawn to qualitative research methodologies represent a diverse group of disciplines and fields. They also represent themselves as researchers and the theoretical frameworks in which they work quite differently. Indeed, it was this diversity in representation that initially motivated us to propose a New Directions feature on…

  18. What Is "Research" in Adult Education? Issues in Methodological Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David C.

    The range of methodological choices appropriate to adult education research is surveyed in this study. The most central consideration is the conflict between emphases on quantitative techniques and various approaches to researchable areas which are not grounded in positivistic/empirical designs. Skills, talents, defects, and ideologies reflected…

  19. Issues in Measurement and Methodology: CSE's 1978 Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burry, James, Ed.; Quellmalz, Edys S., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts are presented of the major conference papers and thematic discussions delivered at the 1978 Measurement and Methodology Conference. The titles of the presentations are: Policy-Responsive Evaluation (Wiley); When Educators Set Standards (Glass); Comments on Wiley and Glass (Schutz); Key Standard-Setting Considerations for Minimal…

  20. Interventions to Address Parenting and Parental Substance Abuse: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Neger, Emily N.; Prinz, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is a serious problem affecting the well-being of children and families. The co-occurrence of parental substance abuse and problematic parenting is recognized as a major public health concern. This review focuses on 21 outcome studies that tested dual treatment of substance abuse and parenting. A summary of theoretical conceptualizations of the connections between substance abuse and parenting provides a backdrop for the review. Outcomes of the dual treatment studies were generally positive with respect to reduction of parental substance use and improvement of parenting. Research in this area varied in methodological rigor and needs to overcome challenges regarding design issues, sampling frame, and complexities inherent in such a high-risk population. This area of work can be strengthened by randomized controlled trials, use of mixed-methods outcome measures, consideration of parent involvement with child protective services, involvement of significant others in treatment, provision of concrete supports for treatment attendance and facilitative public policies. PMID:25939033

  1. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  2. The Role of Violence Against Women Act in Addressing Intimate Partner Violence: A Public Health Issue

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Monica N.; Palmer, Sheallah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  3. 76 FR 58846 - Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... is to clarify the NRC staff guidance to address issues of gas accumulation in safety related systems... guidance documents. Disposition: On November 12, 2009 (74 FR 58323), the NRC staff issued proposed DC/COL... COMMISSION Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in...

  4. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are constructed through media, the use of mass media in the science classroom may be risky. Limited research has explored how science teachers naturally use mass media to explore scientific issues in the classroom or how mass media is used to address potential overlaps between socio-scientific-issue based instruction and education for sustainability. This naturalistic study investigated the reported and actual classroom uses of mass media by secondary science teachers' to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues as well as the extent to which their instructional approaches did or did not overlap with frameworks for SSI-based instruction, education for sustainability, and media literacy education. The results of this study suggest that secondary science teachers use mass media to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues, but their use of frameworks aligned with SSI-based, education for sustainability, and media literacy education was limited. This paper provides suggestions for how we, as science educators and researchers, can advance a teaching and learning agenda for encouraging instruction that more fully utilizes the potential of mass media to explore socio-scientific issues in line with perspectives from education for sustainability.

  5. Video Analysis in Cross-Cultural Environments and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montandon, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of videography combined with group interviews, as a way to better understand the informal learnings of 11-12 year old children in cross-cultural encounters during French-German school exchanges. The complete, consistent video data required the researchers to choose the most significant sequences to highlight the…

  6. Measurement error and outcome distributions: Methodological issues in regression analyses of behavioral coding data.

    PubMed

    Holsclaw, Tracy; Hallgren, Kevin A; Steyvers, Mark; Smyth, Padhraic; Atkins, David C

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral coding is increasingly used for studying mechanisms of change in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, behavioral coding data typically include features that can be problematic in regression analyses, including measurement error in independent variables, non normal distributions of count outcome variables, and conflation of predictor and outcome variables with third variables, such as session length. Methodological research in econometrics has shown that these issues can lead to biased parameter estimates, inaccurate standard errors, and increased Type I and Type II error rates, yet these statistical issues are not widely known within SUD treatment research, or more generally, within psychotherapy coding research. Using minimally technical language intended for a broad audience of SUD treatment researchers, the present paper illustrates the nature in which these data issues are problematic. We draw on real-world data and simulation-based examples to illustrate how these data features can bias estimation of parameters and interpretation of models. A weighted negative binomial regression is introduced as an alternative to ordinary linear regression that appropriately addresses the data characteristics common to SUD treatment behavioral coding data. We conclude by demonstrating how to use and interpret these models with data from a study of motivational interviewing. SPSS and R syntax for weighted negative binomial regression models is included in online supplemental materials.

  7. Measurement error and outcome distributions: Methodological issues in regression analyses of behavioral coding data.

    PubMed

    Holsclaw, Tracy; Hallgren, Kevin A; Steyvers, Mark; Smyth, Padhraic; Atkins, David C

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral coding is increasingly used for studying mechanisms of change in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, behavioral coding data typically include features that can be problematic in regression analyses, including measurement error in independent variables, non normal distributions of count outcome variables, and conflation of predictor and outcome variables with third variables, such as session length. Methodological research in econometrics has shown that these issues can lead to biased parameter estimates, inaccurate standard errors, and increased Type I and Type II error rates, yet these statistical issues are not widely known within SUD treatment research, or more generally, within psychotherapy coding research. Using minimally technical language intended for a broad audience of SUD treatment researchers, the present paper illustrates the nature in which these data issues are problematic. We draw on real-world data and simulation-based examples to illustrate how these data features can bias estimation of parameters and interpretation of models. A weighted negative binomial regression is introduced as an alternative to ordinary linear regression that appropriately addresses the data characteristics common to SUD treatment behavioral coding data. We conclude by demonstrating how to use and interpret these models with data from a study of motivational interviewing. SPSS and R syntax for weighted negative binomial regression models is included in online supplemental materials. PMID:26098126

  8. Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions to fund and support research, (b) maintain a critical stance on prostitution, and therefore WTSW (c) use multiple paradigms and methods to accurately reflect WTSW's reality, (d) present the purpose of the study, and (e) protect respondents' identities. Ethical issues include (a) complications with informed consent procedures, (b) problematic access to WTSW (c) loss of WTSW to follow-up, (d) inability to intervene in illegal acts or human rights violations, and (e) the need to maintain trustworthiness as researchers. Methodological issues include (a) constructing representative samples, (b) managing media interest, and (c) handling incriminating materials about law enforcement and immigration.

  9. SOFTWARE TOOLS THAT ADDRESS HAZARDOUS MATERIAL ISSUES DURING NUCLEAR FACILITY D and D

    SciTech Connect

    M. COURNOYER; R. GRUNDEMANN

    2001-03-01

    The 49-year-old Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility is where analytical chemistry and metallurgical studies on samples of plutonium and nuclear materials are conduct in support of the Department of Energy's nuclear weapons program. The CMR Facility is expected to be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) over the next ten to twenty years. Over the decades, several hazardous material issues have developed that need to be address. Unstable chemicals must be properly reassigned or disposed of from the workspace during D and D operation. Materials that have critical effects that are primarily chronic in nature, carcinogens, reproductive toxin, and materials that exhibit high chronic toxicity, have unique decontamination requirements, including the decontrolling of areas where these chemicals were used. Certain types of equipment and materials that contain mercury, asbestos, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls have special provisions that must be addressed. Utilization of commercially available software programs for addressing hazardous material issues during D and D operations such as legacy chemicals and documentation are presented. These user-friendly programs eliminate part of the tediousness associated with the complex requirements of legacy hazardous materials. A key element of this approach is having a program that inventories and tracks all hazardous materials. Without an inventory of chemicals stored in a particular location, many important questions pertinent to D and D operations can be difficult to answer. On the other hand, a well-managed inventory system can address unstable and highly toxic chemicals and hazardous material records concerns before they become an issue. Tapping into the institutional database provides a way to take advantage of the combined expertise of the institution in managing a cost effective D and D program as well as adding a quality assurance element to the program. Using laboratory requirements as a logic flow

  10. Multilevel Models in Family Research: Some Conceptual and Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay; Crowder, Kyle

    2002-01-01

    Article introduces this journal's themes that are used to discuss issues surrounding analysis of multilevel data. It cites Butler's work on whether the effect of welfare benefits on premarital childbearing varies by context, Hoffman's work on the effect of context on adolescent drug use, and Simons' research on how the relationship between…

  11. Imagery and the autonomic nervous system: some methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Di Giusto, E L; Bond, N W

    1979-04-01

    The present paper is concerned with the role played by image content in the mediation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal. The minimum methodological requirements of such studies are described including controls for imaging, image content, and expectancy effects. Studies meeting these requirements are then reviewed. It is concluded that image content can be a significant modifier of ANS arousal and that this property is not restricted to images containing affective, e.g., phobic, content. These conclusions have relevance to research into techniques such as biofeedback, Transcendental Meditation, and progressive relaxation, where imagery many have a profound influence but where it has received little direct empirical attentiol.

  12. Imaging emotional brain functions: conceptual and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Peper, Martin

    2006-06-01

    This article reviews the psychophysiological and brain imaging literature on emotional brain function from a methodological point of view. The difficulties in defining, operationalising and measuring emotional activation and, in particular, aversive learning will be considered. Emotion is a response of the organism during an episode of major significance and involves physiological activation, motivational, perceptual, evaluative and learning processes, motor expression, action tendencies and monitoring/subjective feelings. Despite the advances in assessing the physiological correlates of emotional perception and learning processes, a critical appraisal shows that functional neuroimaging approaches encounter methodological difficulties regarding measurement precision (e.g., response scaling and reproducibility) and validity (e.g., response specificity, generalisation to other paradigms, subjects or settings). Since emotional processes are not only the result of localised but also of widely distributed activation, a more representative model of assessment is needed that systematically relates the hierarchy of high- and low-level emotion constructs with the corresponding patterns of activity and functional connectivity of the brain.

  13. Everyday life of Jews under Nazi occupation: methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Ofer, D; Greenwood, N

    1995-01-01

    Despite the dire circumstances of Jews under Nazi occupation, individuals continued to persevere in their efforts to maintain patterns of everyday life. An understanding of daily routines may help us comprehend the reality of the Holocaust, but it may also contribute to the trivialization and banalization of the topic. To counter this danger, the methodology proposed in this article asserts that the individual's struggle reveals another perspective on the state of mind and the social order of various strata of Jewish society under Nazi occupation. Invoking the concepts of Berger and Luckmann in their analysis of understanding the knowledge of everyday life, this article examines the perception of reality of intellectuals in the ghetto.

  14. Methodological Issues in the Neuroscience of Moral Judgement

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy; Shackel, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Neuroscience and psychology have recently turned their attention to the study of the subpersonal underpinnings of moral judgment. In this article we critically examine an influential strand of research originating in Greene's neuroimaging studies of ‘utilitarian’ and ‘non-utilitarian’ moral judgement. We argue that given that the explananda of this research are specific personal-level states—moral judgments with certain propositional contents—its methodology has to be sensitive to criteria for ascribing states with such contents to subjects. We argue that current research has often failed to meet this constraint by failing to correctly ‘fix’ key aspects of moral judgment, criticism we support by detailed examples from the scientific literature. PMID:22427714

  15. Classroom Management Strategies to Address the Needs of Sudanese Refugee Learners: Support Document--Methodology and Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Ursula; Hull, Oksana

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the methodology and literature review for the research report "Classroom Management Strategies to Address the Needs of Sudanese Refugee Learners" (ED499673), which examined the extent to which English language, literacy and numeracy teachers used classroom management strategies to meet the needs of adult Sudanese refugee…

  16. Exploring issues in the development of Ayurvedic research methodology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram H

    2010-04-01

    Research is the prime need of contemporary Ayurveda, but modern research on Ayurveda has not been very rewarding for Ayurveda itself. Much of it uses Ayurveda to extend modern bioscience. In contrast, Ayurveda needs research designed to test and validate its fundamental concepts as well as its treatments. In this context, if Ayurveda is to be truly explored and validated in all its aspects, scientific inputs should conform to Ayurveda's principles and philosophy. While its evidence base, established since antiquity, may need further verification, research should now focus on the Science of Ayurveda, rather than merely looking for new drugs based on Ayurveda herbals; in-depth research is needed on Ayurveda. Such research will require teamwork between scientists and vaidyas based on truth and trust. Ayurveda research methodology requires the 'whole system testing approach', global participation with protocols evolved through intense interface with modern science, regulatory reforms to eliminate barriers, and to be investigated 'as it is', using approaches adapted from its own basic principles.

  17. E-cigarettes: methodological and ideological issues and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette combustion, rather than either tobacco or nicotine, is the cause of a public health disaster. Fortunately, several new technologies that vaporize nicotine or tobacco, and may make cigarettes obsolete, have recently appeared. Research priorities include the effects of vaporizers on smoking cessation and initiation, their safety and toxicity, use by non-smokers, dual use of vaporizers and cigarettes, passive vaping, renormalization of smoking, and the development of messages that effectively communicate the continuum of risk for tobacco and nicotine products. A major difficulty is that we are chasing a moving target. New products constantly appear, and research results are often obsolete by the time they are published. Vaporizers do not need to be safe, only safer than cigarettes. However, harm reduction principles are often misunderstood or rejected. In the context of a fierce ideological debate, and major investments by the tobacco industry, it is crucial that independent researchers provide regulators and the public with evidence-based guidance. The methodological and ideological hurdles on this path are discussed in this commentary. PMID:25856794

  18. Commentary: what role should physician organizations play in addressing social justice issues?

    PubMed

    Bright, Cedric M

    2012-06-01

    A study by Peek and colleagues in this issue reveals that although racial and ethnic health disparities are recognized as a major national challenge, few physician organizations with both the influence and ability to change practice standards and address disparities appear to be effectively directing their resources to mitigate health disparities. In this commentary, the author examines the history of U.S. health disparities through the lens of social justice. He argues that today, physician organizations have the opportunity to change the paradigm of medicine from being a reactive industry to becoming a proactive industry through collaborations such as the Commission to End Health Disparities, which brings together more than 60 organizations, and the National Medical Association's "We Stand With You" program to improve health and combat disparities. Physician organizations can also address health disparities through advocacy for fair reimbursement policies, funding for pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the workforce, diversity in clinical trials, and other issues. Health disparities present to us in organized medicine a challenge that is cleverly disguised as an immovable object but that is truly a great opportunity for innovation, improvement, and growth. Physician organizations have a unique opportunity to provide avenues of innovation and accomplishment.

  19. Developing and Using Benchmarks for Eddy Current Simulation Codes Validation to Address Industrial Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayos, M.; Buvat, F.; Costan, V.; Moreau, O.; Gilles-Pascaud, C.; Reboud, C.; Foucher, F.

    2011-06-01

    To achieve performance demonstration, which is a legal requirement for the qualification of NDE processes applied on French nuclear power plants, the use of modeling tools is a valuable support, provided that the employed models have been previously validated. To achieve this, in particular for eddy current modeling, a validation methodology based on the use of specific benchmarks close to the actual industrial issue has to be defined. Nonetheless, considering the high variability in code origin and complexity, the feedback from experience on actual cases has shown that it was critical to define simpler generic and public benchmarks in order to perform a preliminary selection. A specific Working Group has been launched in the frame of COFREND, the French Association for NDE, resulting in the definition of several benchmark problems. This action is now ready for mutualization with similar international approaches.

  20. Methodological, Theoretical, Infrastructural, and Design Issues in Conducting Good Outcome Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael P.; Moore, Tessa A.

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a set of methodological, theoretical, and other issues relating to the conduct of good outcome studies. The article begins by considering the contribution of evidence-based medicine to the methodology of outcome research. The lessons which can be applied in outcome studies in nonmedical settings are described. The article…

  1. Methodological and Conceptual Issues Confronting a Cross-Country Delphi Study of Educational Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsin-Ling; Altschuld, James W.; Lee, Yi-Fang

    2008-01-01

    Although the Delphi is widely used, research on certain methodological issues is somewhat limited. After a brief introduction to the strengths, limitations, and methodological challenges of the technique, we share our experiences (as well as problems encountered) with an electronic Delphi of educational program evaluation (EPE) in the Asia-Pacific…

  2. Methodological issues in research on sexual behavior with Latino gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Reisen, Carol A; Díaz, Rafael M

    2003-06-01

    Latino gay men are at high risk for HIV/AIDS, and therefore it is critical that we increase our understanding of their sexual behavior. This paper discusses theoretical and methodological issues of conducting research with Latino gay and bisexual men. The importance of culture in psychological theory addressing sexual behavior is highlighted. Cultural and socioeconomic forces that impact the social construction of sexuality and sexual risk need to be taken into account to increase research validity. Social context and internalized sociocultural experiences can affect a variety of issues, including sexual scripts and the definition and fluidity of sexual orientation identity. Moreover, Latino gay men's sexuality may be influenced by experiences of oppression, discrimination, racism, and homophobia. Level of acculturation should also be considered. Measures that are developed by taking into account the cultural context and incorporating a Latino perspective are helpful in conducting meaningful research. Triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods will help provide a picture rich in context and at the same time generalizable. The relationship between researchers and participants is affected by Latino cultural styles, and suggestions for approaches to conduct research in the Latino gay community are offered.

  3. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million. PMID:12125747

  4. Optimization of Compound Plate Preparation to Address Precipitation Issue in Mammalian A549 Cytotoxicity Assay.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra Achar, Vijayashree Gauribidanur; Barde, Shubhada Pramod; Mallya, Meenakshy Venkatesh; Awasthy, Disha; Narayan, Chandan

    2016-06-01

    This study illustrates the optimization of low-volume dispensing on a liquid handling system (LHS) to overcome the precipitation of compounds in the mammalian cytotoxicity assay with low dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) tolerance. All compounds at AstraZeneca Bangalore are tested in the mammalian cytotoxicity assay. In order to maintain the DMSO levels, serially diluted plates were prepared in DMSO/water. It was observed that some of the compounds precipitated. The IC50 data for such compounds were therefore erratic. To circumvent the problem of compound precipitation, the LHS was optimized to dispense low volumes (<1 µL). The plates were serially diluted using neat DMSO. Since the dilution was done using neat DMSO, there were no issues with precipitation. The serially diluted sample (0.5 µL) from the plate was stamped onto the assay plate to give the desired DMSO concentration. No significant differences in IC50 data were observed for 1 µL dispenses made from DMSO/water and 0.5 µL dispenses from neat DMSO for the samples with no precipitation issues. These data therefore gave us the confidence to switch over to 0.5 µL dispenses for the cytotoxicity assay to address the precipitation issue. However, precipitation of samples in the assay buffer is beyond the scope of this discussion.

  5. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million.

  6. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  7. Afterschool: A Strategy for Addressing and Preventing Middle School Bullying. MetLife Foundation Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No. 51

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Afterschool Alliance, in partnership with MetLife Foundation, is proud to present the second in a series of four issue briefs examining critical issues facing middle school youth and the vital role afterschool programs play in addressing these issues. This brief focuses on bullying awareness and prevention. Bullying is a dangerous behavior…

  8. Beyond the "National Container": Addressing Methodological Nationalism in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Kezar, Adrianna J.

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that there is a need for higher education researchers to become aware of methodological nationalism (MN) and take steps to reframe their scholarship in new ways. It illuminates two characteristics of MN prevalent in higher education research and suggests that although a few researchers have attempted to move beyond MN in the…

  9. Methodological Issues in Comparative Educational Studies: The Case of the IEA Reading Literacy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Marilyn, Ed.; And Others

    This report discusses various methodological issues confronted in the Reading Literacy Study conducted under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) and issues relating to analysis of the data. The study analyzed in the report involved fourth- and ninth-grade students (9-year-olds and…

  10. Methodological Issues in the Study of Divergent Views of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-Ford, Steven L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses issues involved with selecting a methodology and data analysis technique for studying divergent views of the family. Qualitative and quantitative methods, and linear and nonlinear models, are described. Statistical and theoretical issues regarding the use of discrepancy scores are examined. (BC)

  11. Defining and Measuring Engagement and Learning in Science: Conceptual, Theoretical, Methodological, and Analytical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Engagement is one of the most widely misused and overgeneralized constructs found in the educational, learning, instructional, and psychological sciences. The articles in this special issue represent a wide range of traditions and highlight several key conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and analytical issues related to defining and measuring…

  12. Utilizing Internet-based Community Collaboration Tools and Geobrowsers to Address Issues of Water Resource Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agnese, F. A.

    2007-12-01

    More frequently society is demanding that earth- and environmental-resource issues be evaluated and addressed by interdisciplinary investigators from the scientific, engineering, planning, and regulatory communities. Often these investigators are required to interact with a larger community of public stakeholders. Also, these investigators, by necessity, develop databases and models derived from disparate data sets that are often large, complex, and vary dramatically in scale and quality. The tools to facilitate the interactions of these communities of individuals have only recently garnered the appropriate sophistication to enable real-time data viewing, encoding, browsing, and modeling. At the same time, the advent of second-generation internet, or Web 2.0, technologies found in web-based communities and hosted services (such as social-networking, wikis, weblogs, social bookmarking, podcasts, and RSS web feeds) have fused with the more traditional two- and three-dimensional geographic information systems. This "mash-up" of web-based and stand-alone tools and services creates a highly interactive user environment that is favorable to real-time collaboration, community discussion, and broad public dissemination in a wide-area distributed network. These tools and services are being utilized to facilitate the investigations and conversations of scientists and other stakeholders addressing water resource sustainability issues in the desert southwestern United States. The data and models derived from these investigations are visualized using industry standard tools like ArcGIS, Google Earth, and Google Maps to enable ease-of-use by both the technical and the public stakeholder communities.

  13. Ethical issues raised in addressing the needs of people with serious mental disorders in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Wissow, Lawrence S; Rutkow, Lainie; Kass, Nancy E; Rabins, Peter V; Vernick, Jon S; Hodge, James G

    2012-03-01

    Recent manmade and natural disasters highlight weaknesses in the public health systems designed to protect populations from harm and minimize disruption of the social and built environments. Emergency planning and response efforts have, as a result, focused largely on ensuring populations' physical well-being during and after a disaster. Many public health authorities, including the World Health Organization, have recognized the importance of addressing both mental and physical health concerns in emergency plans. Individuals with mental disorders represent a notable proportion of the overall population, and anticipating their needs is critical to comprehensive emergency planning and response efforts. Because people with serious mental disorders historically have been stigmatized, and many individuals with mental disorders may be unable to care for themselves, ethical guidance may be of assistance to those engaged in emergency planning and response. This article considers several broad categories of ethical issues that arise during emergencies for people with serious mental disorders and offers recommendations for ways in which emergency planners and other stakeholders can begin to address these ethical challenges.

  14. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  15. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  16. Methodological quality and outcomes of studies addressing manual cervical spine examinations: a review.

    PubMed

    Hollerwöger, Dieter

    2006-05-01

    The aims of this review were, first to rate the methodological quality of studies which investigate the reliability of manual tests for cervical spine dysfunctions by applying a new quality assessment tool; secondly to compare the outcomes of these studies. The literature search included databases of CINAHL, MEDLINE, AMED, AMI, and SPORT DISCUS, the Cochrane Library, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), the National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Factiva, the EBSCOT HOST Research Database, online journal databases of ELSEVIER Science periodicals, LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ELSEVIER Science @ Direct, THIEME ONLINE, and BLACKWELL SYNERGY. The application of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool (QUADAS) to the 15 studies which met the inclusion criteria showed methodological weaknesses such as not considering an independent reference standard, or a representative study population. The studies demonstrated methodological strength in describing selection criteria and in interpreting results. The studies' outcomes make the claim to be able to detect segmental cervical dysfunction based on a manual assessment only questionable. Further improvements in quality, uniform study designs, and a valid reference standard would be necessary in order to obtain more reliable data in the future.

  17. Keeping the Spirit Alive: Using Feminist Methodology to Address Silencing as a Structural Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shpungin, Elaine; Allen, Nicole; Loomis, Colleen; DelloStritto, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a feminist intervention to raise awareness about, and problematize, the pervasive experience of silencing, as reported by women, people of color, students, people identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer (GLBTQ), people with national origins outside of North America, and people with disabilities, within…

  18. Addressing Issues of Broadening Participation Highlighted in the Report on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Iverson, E. A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The final report for the Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education lays out a consensus on issues that must be tackled by the geoscience community collectively if there are to be enough qualified people to fill the large number of expected geoscience job vacancies over the coming decade. Focus areas cited in the report include: Strengthening the connections between two-year colleges and four-year institutions Sharing and making use of successful recruitment and retention practices for students from underrepresented groups Making students aware of high-quality job prospects in the geosciences as well as its societal relevance The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) program, and the Building Strong Geoscience Departments (BSGD) project together have developed a suite of web resources to help faculty and program leaders begin to address these and other issues. These resources address practices that support the whole student, both in the classroom and as a part of the co-curriculum as well as information on geoscience careers, guidance for developing coherent degree programs, practical advice for mentoring and advising, and many others. In addition to developing web resources, InTeGrate has also undertaken an effort to profile successful program practices at a variety of institutions. An analysis of these data shows several common themes (e.g. proactive marketing, community building, research experiences) that align well with the existing literature on what works to support student success. But there are also indications of different approaches and emphases between Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and Primarily White Institutions (PWIs) as well as between different kinds of MSIs. Highlighting the different strategies in use can point both MSIs and PWIs to possible alternate solutions to the challenges their students face. InTeGrate - http

  19. The National Academy of Sciences offers a new framework for addressing global warming issues.

    PubMed

    Barnard, R C; Morgan, D L

    2000-02-01

    The recent landmark report by the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the science on which the Kyoto Protocol was based. NAS concluded that the policy choices and the mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases by the developed nations were based on incomplete science with significant uncertainties. In view of these uncertainties the NAS report developed a comprehensive strategic 10-year research program to address the basic issue of whether human activity that results in environmental changes is responsible for climate changes. The report provides a new framework for consideration of global warming issues. The UN International Panel on Climate Change (the UN science advisor) in its 1997 report to the Kyoto parties pointed out the confusing difference between scientific usage of the term "climate change" that distinguishes human from natural causes of change and the official usage that combines natural and human causes of changes in climate. The conclusion of the UN panel on human causes is equivocal. The 1999 report of the U.S. Global Science Research Committee also reached an equivocal conclusion on human causes and announced a 10-year research program to be developed in consultation with NAS. The precautionary measures provided in the 1992 UN Framework Convention differ from the ill-defined "precautionary principle" based on fear of uncertainty, and are consistent with the objectives of the NAS proposed research program. These developments together with the third report of the UN Intergovernmental Science Panel on developments in climate science due in 2001 merit consideration by the convention of the parties under the Kyoto Protocol. PMID:10715229

  20. The National Academy of Sciences offers a new framework for addressing global warming issues.

    PubMed

    Barnard, R C; Morgan, D L

    2000-02-01

    The recent landmark report by the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the science on which the Kyoto Protocol was based. NAS concluded that the policy choices and the mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases by the developed nations were based on incomplete science with significant uncertainties. In view of these uncertainties the NAS report developed a comprehensive strategic 10-year research program to address the basic issue of whether human activity that results in environmental changes is responsible for climate changes. The report provides a new framework for consideration of global warming issues. The UN International Panel on Climate Change (the UN science advisor) in its 1997 report to the Kyoto parties pointed out the confusing difference between scientific usage of the term "climate change" that distinguishes human from natural causes of change and the official usage that combines natural and human causes of changes in climate. The conclusion of the UN panel on human causes is equivocal. The 1999 report of the U.S. Global Science Research Committee also reached an equivocal conclusion on human causes and announced a 10-year research program to be developed in consultation with NAS. The precautionary measures provided in the 1992 UN Framework Convention differ from the ill-defined "precautionary principle" based on fear of uncertainty, and are consistent with the objectives of the NAS proposed research program. These developments together with the third report of the UN Intergovernmental Science Panel on developments in climate science due in 2001 merit consideration by the convention of the parties under the Kyoto Protocol.

  1. How Does the Capability Approach Address Current Issues in Special Educational Needs, Disability and Inclusive Education Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwich, Brahm

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to examine what the capability approach has to offer to the field of special needs and inclusive education. Several key questions are addressed: can the capability approach replace the language of needs and rights; whether the capability approach can address key issues in the field of disabilities and difficulties in education and…

  2. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  3. Addressing issues associated with evaluating prediction models for survival endpoints based on the concordance statistic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Long, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Prediction models for disease risk and prognosis play an important role in biomedical research, and evaluating their predictive accuracy in the presence of censored data is of substantial interest. The standard concordance (c) statistic has been extended to provide a summary measure of predictive accuracy for survival models. Motivated by a prostate cancer study, we address several issues associated with evaluating survival prediction models based on c-statistic with a focus on estimators using the technique of inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). Compared to the existing work, we provide complete results on the asymptotic properties of the IPCW estimators under the assumption of coarsening at random (CAR), and propose a sensitivity analysis under the mechanism of noncoarsening at random (NCAR). In addition, we extend the IPCW approach as well as the sensitivity analysis to high-dimensional settings. The predictive accuracy of prediction models for cancer recurrence after prostatectomy is assessed by applying the proposed approaches. We find that the estimated predictive accuracy for the models in consideration is sensitive to NCAR assumption, and thus identify the best predictive model. Finally, we further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in both settings of low-dimensional and high-dimensional data under CAR and NCAR through simulations.

  4. Approaches and incentives to implement integrated pest management that addresses regional and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Goodell, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural, environmental, and social and policy interests have influenced integrated pest management (IPM) from its inception. The first 50 years of IPM paid special attention to field-based management and market-driven decision making. Concurrently, IPM strategies became available that were best applied both within and beyond the bounds of individual fields and that also provided environmental benefits. This generated an incentives dilemma for farmers: selecting IPM activities for individual fields on the basis of market-based economics versus selecting IPM activities best applied regionally that have longer-term benefits, including environmental benefits, that accrue to the broader community as well as the farmer. Over the past several decades, public-supported incentives, such as financial incentives available to farmers from conservation programs for farms, have begun to be employed to encourage use of conservation techniques, including strategies with IPM relevance. Combining private investments with public support may effectively address the incentives dilemma when advanced IPM strategies are used regionally and provide public goods such as those benefiting resource conservation. This review focuses on adaptation of IPM to these broader issues, on transitions of IPM from primarily individual field-based decision making to coordinated community decision making, and on the form of partnerships needed to gain long-lasting regional and environmental benefits.

  5. A modular approach to addressing model design, scale, and parameter estimation issues in distributed hydrological modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Restrepo, P.J.; Viger, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A modular approach to model design and construction provides a flexible framework in which to focus the multidisciplinary research and operational efforts needed to facilitate the development, selection, and application of the most robust distributed modelling methods. A variety of modular approaches have been developed, but with little consideration for compatibility among systems and concepts. Several systems are proprietary, limiting any user interaction. The US Geological Survey modular modelling system (MMS) is a modular modelling framework that uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to address collaboratively the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. Implementation of a common modular concept is not a trivial task. However, it brings the resources of a larger community to bear on the problems of distributed modelling, provides a framework in which to compare alternative modelling approaches objectively, and provides a means of sharing the latest modelling advances. The concepts and components of the MMS are described and an example application of the MMS, in a decision-support system context, is presented to demonstrate current system capabilities. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  6. From Silence to Safety and Beyond: Historical Trends in Addressing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Issues in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Pat; Ouellett, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an historical overview of changing perspectives in education practice and literature on addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) issues in public K-12 schools. This article describes how the presentation and analysis of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues in the past 80 years have…

  7. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  8. Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Hollie

    2005-01-01

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce.…

  9. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  11. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  12. To Think Aloud or Not to Think Aloud: The Issue of Reactivity in SLA Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Morgan-Short, Kara

    2004-01-01

    Recently, several studies in SLA (e.g., for discourse, Alanen, 1995; Leow, 2001b; Rott, 1999; for problem-solving tasks, Leow, 1998a, 1998b, 2000, 2001a; Rosa & Leow, in press a, in press b; Rosa & O'Neill, 1999) have addressed the operationalization and measurement of attention (and awareness) in their research methodology. Studies have employed…

  13. A Task-Based Needs Analysis for Australian Aboriginal Students: Going beyond the Target Situation to Address Cultural Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Grote, Ellen; Rochecouste, Judith; Exell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While needs analyses underpin the design of second language analytic syllabi, the methodologies undertaken are rarely examined. This paper explores the value of multiple data sources and collection methods for developing a needs analysis model to enable vocational education and training teachers to address the needs of Australian Aboriginal…

  14. Rewarding altruism: addressing the issue of payments for volunteers in public health initiatives.

    PubMed

    South, Jane; Purcell, Martin E; Branney, Peter; Gamsu, Mark; White, Judy

    2014-03-01

    Lay involvement in public health programmes occurs through formalised lay health worker (LHW) and other volunteer roles. Whether such participation should be supported, or indeed rewarded, by payment is a critical question. With reference to policy in England, UK, this paper argues how framing citizen involvement in health only as time freely given does not account for the complexities of practice, nor intrinsic motivations. The paper reports results on payment drawn from a study of approaches to support lay people in public health roles, conducted in England, 2007-9. The first phase of the study comprised a scoping review of 224 publications, three public hearings and a register of projects. Findings revealed the diversity of approaches to payment, but also the contested nature of the topic. The second phase investigated programme support matters in five case studies of public health projects, which were selected primarily to reflect role types. All five projects involved volunteers, with two utilising forms of payment to support engagement. Interviews were conducted with a sample of project staff, LHWs (paid and unpaid), external partners and service users. Drawing on both lay and professional perspectives, the paper explores how payment relates to social context as well as various motivations for giving, receiving or declining financial support. The findings show that personal costs are not always absorbed, and that there is a potential conflict between financial support, whether sessional payment or expenses, and welfare benefits. In identifying some of the advantages and disadvantages of payment, the paper highlights the complexity of an issue often addressed only superficially. It concludes that, in order to support citizen involvement, fairness and value should be considered alongside pragmatic matters of programme management; however policy conflicts need to be resolved to ensure that employment and welfare rights are maintained.

  15. Rewarding altruism: addressing the issue of payments for volunteers in public health initiatives.

    PubMed

    South, Jane; Purcell, Martin E; Branney, Peter; Gamsu, Mark; White, Judy

    2014-03-01

    Lay involvement in public health programmes occurs through formalised lay health worker (LHW) and other volunteer roles. Whether such participation should be supported, or indeed rewarded, by payment is a critical question. With reference to policy in England, UK, this paper argues how framing citizen involvement in health only as time freely given does not account for the complexities of practice, nor intrinsic motivations. The paper reports results on payment drawn from a study of approaches to support lay people in public health roles, conducted in England, 2007-9. The first phase of the study comprised a scoping review of 224 publications, three public hearings and a register of projects. Findings revealed the diversity of approaches to payment, but also the contested nature of the topic. The second phase investigated programme support matters in five case studies of public health projects, which were selected primarily to reflect role types. All five projects involved volunteers, with two utilising forms of payment to support engagement. Interviews were conducted with a sample of project staff, LHWs (paid and unpaid), external partners and service users. Drawing on both lay and professional perspectives, the paper explores how payment relates to social context as well as various motivations for giving, receiving or declining financial support. The findings show that personal costs are not always absorbed, and that there is a potential conflict between financial support, whether sessional payment or expenses, and welfare benefits. In identifying some of the advantages and disadvantages of payment, the paper highlights the complexity of an issue often addressed only superficially. It concludes that, in order to support citizen involvement, fairness and value should be considered alongside pragmatic matters of programme management; however policy conflicts need to be resolved to ensure that employment and welfare rights are maintained. PMID:24581065

  16. Designing Trend-Monitoring Sounds for Helicopters: Methodological Issues and an Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Kirsteen; Loxley, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    This article explores methodological issues in sonification and sound design arising from the design of helicopter monitoring sounds. Six monitoring sounds (each with 5 levels) were tested for similarity and meaning with 3 different techniques: hierarchical cluster analysis, linkage analysis, and multidimensional scaling. In Experiment 1,…

  17. Team Dynamics. Essays in the Sociology and Social Psychology of Sport Including Methodological and Epistemological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Hans

    This document contains nine essays on the sociology and social psychology of team dynamics, including methodological and epistemological issues involved in such study. Essay titles are: (1) Conflict and Achievement in Top Athletic Teams--Sociometric Structures of Racing Eight Oar Crews; (2) Top Performance Despite Internal Conflict--An Antithesis…

  18. A Content and Methodological Review of Articles Concerning Multiracial Issues in Six Major Counseling Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a comprehensive content and methodological review of articles about multiracial issues in 6 journals related to counseling up to the year 2006. The authors summarize findings about the 18 articles that emerged from this review of the "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of Counseling & Development," "The Counseling…

  19. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  20. Methodological Issues in Evaluating Rorschach Validity: A Comment on Burns and Viglione (1996), Weiner (1996), and Ganellen (1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, James M.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Stejskal, William J.; Garven, Sena; West, Stephen G.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three recent studies of the validity of Rorschach test (H. Rorschach, 1921) that have not evaluated methodological issues carefully. Identifies methodological errors in each study and offers specific information for the interpretation of Rorschach results. (SLD)

  1. Does influenza vaccination improve pregnancy outcome? Methodological issues and research needs.

    PubMed

    Savitz, David A; Fell, Deshayne B; Ortiz, Justin R; Bhat, Niranjan

    2015-11-25

    Evidence that influenza vaccination during pregnancy is safe and effective at preventing influenza disease in women and their children through the first months of life is increasing. Several reports of reduced risk of adverse outcomes associated with influenza vaccination have generated interest in its potential for improving pregnancy outcome. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, estimates maternal influenza immunization programs in low-income countries would have a relatively modest impact on mortality compared to other new or under-utilized vaccines, however the impact would be substantially greater if reported vaccine effects on improved pregnancy outcomes were accurate. Here, we examine the available evidence and methodological issues bearing on the relationship between influenza vaccination and pregnancy outcome, particularly preterm birth and fetal growth restriction, and summarize research needs. Evidence for absence of harm associated with vaccination at a point in time is not symmetric with evidence of benefit, given the scenario in which vaccination reduces risk of influenza disease and, in turn, risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. The empirical evidence for vaccination preventing influenza in pregnant women is strong, but the evidence that influenza itself causes adverse pregnancy outcomes is inconsistent and limited in quality. Studies of vaccination and pregnancy outcome have produced mixed evidence of potential benefit but are limited in terms of influenza disease assessment and control of confounding, and their analytic methods often fail to fully address the longitudinal nature of pregnancy and influenza prevalence. We recommend making full use of results of randomized trials, re-analysis of existing observational studies to account for confounding and time-related factors, and quantitative assessment of the potential benefits of vaccination in improving pregnancy outcome, all of which should be informed by the collective engagement of experts in influenza

  2. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change. PMID:25613801

  3. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.

  4. Methodological and conceptual issues regarding occupational psychosocial coronary heart disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Burr, Hermann; Formazin, Maren; Pohrt, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Overview Psychosocial occupational epidemiology has mainly focused on the demand-control and, to a much lesser extent, the effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) models. These models and the strong focus on them raise some conceptual and methodological issues we will address in the following letter. The conceptual issues include the empirical confirmation of the assumptions of these models, the extent to which the focus on the demand-control and ERI models is warranted, and whether the sub-dimensions of the scales in these models have common health effects. We argue that there is a lack of empirical approval of (i) the assumptions behind both models and (ii) the focus on these models. The methodological issues include how exposure to job strain is categorized, how ERI previously has been measured, and the validity of self-reports of job strain. We argue that (i) a population independent definition of job strain is lacking, (ii) the older measurements of ERI mix exposure and effect, and (iii) we know little regarding the validity of the measurement of the psychosocial working environment. Finally, we suggest that analyses of monitoring data with a broader focus on the psychosocial working environment can be used to shed light to some of the issues raised above. Introduction In the last three decades (1, 2), psychosocial occupational epidemiology related to coronary heart disease (CHD) has mainly focused on the job-strain model, also referred to as the demand-control model (3, 4). In this model, two aspects of work are deemed relevant: demands and control. Negative consequences to health are to be expected when high demands are simultaneously present with low control. This combination has been termed job strain (3, 4). Recently, there has also been increased interest in the ERI model (5, 6) which considers the level of effort relative to rewards at work: an imbalance is present when the efforts outweigh the rewards (5, 6). In longitudinal studies of CHD, there has been only a

  5. Methodological and conceptual issues regarding occupational psychosocial coronary heart disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Burr, Hermann; Formazin, Maren; Pohrt, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Overview Psychosocial occupational epidemiology has mainly focused on the demand-control and, to a much lesser extent, the effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) models. These models and the strong focus on them raise some conceptual and methodological issues we will address in the following letter. The conceptual issues include the empirical confirmation of the assumptions of these models, the extent to which the focus on the demand-control and ERI models is warranted, and whether the sub-dimensions of the scales in these models have common health effects. We argue that there is a lack of empirical approval of (i) the assumptions behind both models and (ii) the focus on these models. The methodological issues include how exposure to job strain is categorized, how ERI previously has been measured, and the validity of self-reports of job strain. We argue that (i) a population independent definition of job strain is lacking, (ii) the older measurements of ERI mix exposure and effect, and (iii) we know little regarding the validity of the measurement of the psychosocial working environment. Finally, we suggest that analyses of monitoring data with a broader focus on the psychosocial working environment can be used to shed light to some of the issues raised above. Introduction In the last three decades (1, 2), psychosocial occupational epidemiology related to coronary heart disease (CHD) has mainly focused on the job-strain model, also referred to as the demand-control model (3, 4). In this model, two aspects of work are deemed relevant: demands and control. Negative consequences to health are to be expected when high demands are simultaneously present with low control. This combination has been termed job strain (3, 4). Recently, there has also been increased interest in the ERI model (5, 6) which considers the level of effort relative to rewards at work: an imbalance is present when the efforts outweigh the rewards (5, 6). In longitudinal studies of CHD, there has been only a

  6. Pursuing Justice for Refugee Students: Addressing Issues of Cultural (Mis)Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper Nancy Fraser's conceptual tools are drawn on to theorise issues of justice in a culturally diverse primary school in Australia where approximately 30% of the student population are immigrant/refugees. The paper examines justice issues of cultural recognition in relation to refugee student identity, behaviour and assessment. Drawing…

  7. A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, and How May These Be Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    This paper has firstly discussed the topic of Ethical Issues in Education, and has accordingly highlighted the fact that ethics are not something to deem at the commencement of a research project or fieldwork, but rather throughout the entire research process. Furthermore, two of the most important ethical issues have been given…

  8. Methodological and Epistemological Issues in the Interpretation of Infant Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ulrich; Giesbrecht, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This commentary on J. Kagan (2008) addresses 2 issues. The first concerns the importance of studying developmental sequences and processes of change. The second concerns epistemological differences between contemporary neonativist approaches and classical theories of development. The commentary argues that classical theories of infant cognition…

  9. Methodological issues concerning the application of reliable laser particle sizing in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mascellis, R.; Impagliazzo, A.; Basile, A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Terribile, F.

    2009-04-01

    During the past decade, the evolution of technologies has enabled laser diffraction (LD) to become a much widespread means of particle size distribution (PSD), replacing sedimentation and sieve analysis in many scientific fields mainly due to its advantages of versatility, fast measurement and high reproducibility. Despite such developments of the last decade, the soil scientist community has been quite reluctant to replace the good old sedimentation techniques (ST); possibly because of (i) the large complexity of the soil matrix inducing different types of artefacts (aggregates, deflocculating dynamics, etc.), (ii) the difficulties in relating LD results with results obtained through sedimentation techniques and (iii) the limited size range of most LD equipments. More recently LD granulometry is slowly gaining appreciation in soil science also because of some innovations including an enlarged size dynamic range (0,01-2000 m) and the ability to implement more powerful algorithms (e.g. Mie theory). Furthermore, LD PSD can be successfully used in the application of physically based pedo-transfer functions (i.e., Arya and Paris model) for investigations of soil hydraulic properties, due to the direct determination of PSD in terms of volume percentage rather than in terms of mass percentage, thus eliminating the need to adopt the rough approximation of a single value for soil particle density in the prediction process. Most of the recent LD work performed in soil science deals with the comparison with sedimentation techniques and show the general overestimation of the silt fraction following a general underestimation of the clay fraction; these well known results must be related with the different physical principles behind the two techniques. Despite these efforts, it is indeed surprising that little if any work is devoted to more basic methodological issues related to the high sensitivity of LD to the quantity and the quality of the soil samples. Our work aims to

  10. Core Issues that Must be Addressed in Order to Improve Vocational Education and Training in Indonesia. An Institutional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cully, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Indonesia, like many other countries has to come to terms with the challenges of a rapidly advancing economic globalization. In order to address the major issues involved the government must take some very essential steps that are practical, attainable and sustainable. With global economies evolving from a traditional resource structure to that of…

  11. Teaching for Change: Addressing Issues of Difference in the College Classroom. Reprint Series No. 25. Harvard Educational Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geismar, Kathryn, Ed.; Nicoleau, Guitele, Ed.

    Contributors to this collection of essays describe how they address issues of race, gender, and class in their college courses as they attempt to ensure that their curricula and class discussions represent the perspectives of all students. Essays include: (1) "Introduction" (Kathryn Giesmar and Guitele Nicoleau); (2) "Dialogue across Differences:…

  12. Encouraging Pre-Service Teachers to Address Issues of Sexual Orientation in Their Classrooms: Walking the Walk & Talking the Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurie E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe ways that teacher educators can encourage future teachers to address lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) issues in their own classrooms. The Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network's ThinkB4YouSpeak Educator's Guide served as the framework for the activities that the author has implemented in…

  13. ISSUES THAT MUST BE ADDRESSED FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF MIXED EXPOSURES: THE EPA EXPERIENCE WITH AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues that Must be Addressed for Risk Assessment of Mixed Exposures: The EPA Experience with Air Quality

    Daniel L. Costa, Sc.D.

    Abstract
    Humans are routinely exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants in both their outdoor and indoor environments. The wide...

  14. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1996-04-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.

  15. Evaluation of speech errors in Putonghua speakers with cleft palate: a critical review of methodology issues.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chenghui; Whitehill, Tara L

    2014-04-01

    Speech errors associated with cleft palate are well established for English and several other Indo-European languages. Few articles describing the speech of Putonghua (standard Mandarin Chinese) speakers with cleft palate have been published in English language journals. Although methodological guidelines have been published for the perceptual speech evaluation of individuals with cleft palate, there has been no critical review of methodological issues in studies of Putonghua speakers with cleft palate. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies published over the past 30 years in Chinese language journals. Only studies incorporating perceptual analysis of speech were included. Thirty-seven articles which met inclusion criteria were analyzed and coded on a number of methodological variables. Reliability was established by having all variables recoded for all studies. This critical review identified many methodological issues. These design flaws make it difficult to draw reliable conclusions about characteristic speech errors in this group of speakers. Specific recommendations are made to improve the reliability and validity of future studies, as well to facilitate cross-center comparisons.

  16. Addressing Air, Land & Water Nitrogen Issues under Changing Climate Trends & Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    The climate of western U.S. dairy producing states is anticipated to change significantly over the next 50 to 75 years. A multimedia modeling system based upon the “nitrogen cascade” concept has been configured to address three aspects of sustainability (environmenta...

  17. Teaching Water: Connecting across Disciplines and into Daily Life to Address Complex Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Hall, Anne; Lee, Tong Soon; Zupko, Jack

    2009-01-01

    A central problem in higher education is how to best develop in students interdisciplinary thinking and application skills necessary to work and engage effectively in the twenty-first century. Traditional university structures make addressing this problem especially challenging. Using as a model courses with diverse perspectives on water taught by…

  18. 2016 State of the State Addresses: Governors' Top Education Issues. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auck, Alyssa; Railey, Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Each year, governors take the stage to highlight accomplishments and outline policy priorities for their states. In an effort to provide up-to-date information on education policy trends, Education Commission of the States tracks all education policy proposals and accomplishments featured by governors in these State of the State addresses. At the…

  19. Afterschool in Action: How Innovative Afterschool Programs Address Critical Issues Facing Middle School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four years, the Afterschool Alliance and MetLife Foundation have worked together to identify exemplary, and often lesser-known afterschool programs across the nation. For the past two years, efforts have focused on finding innovative afterschool programs serving middle school students. This focus was developed to address the need for…

  20. Use of Social Software to Address Literacy and Identity Issues in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The emerging trend of social software technology can address many different second language (L2) learner needs through authentic social interaction and a variety of scaffolding processes. Social software connects education with real-life learning and interests, and engages and motivates students. It can facilitate learning environments that are…

  1. Standards, Assessment, and Readiness: Addressing Postsecondary Transition Issues across State Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demarée K.

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes major challenges ahead for states, institutions, and most importantly, students as the standards and assessments from the Common Core Standards (CCSS) are implemented. It also offers recommendations to create a network structure that would assist K-12 and higher education leaders in addressing those challenges. To begin the…

  2. Governors' Top Education Issues: 2015 State of the State Addresses. ECS Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Education Commission of the States (ECS) strives to keep its constituency apprised of education policy trends across the states. To provide a comprehensive overview of educational priorities outlined by governors, ECS summarized the education proposals and accomplishments detailed in every 2015 State of the State address delivered to date. Each…

  3. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  4. Bridging the Gap: Essential Issues to Address in Recurring Writing Center Appointments with Chinese ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    As the population of international--and particularly Chinese--students grows in US academic institutions, it is critical that writing center tutors be able to address these students' needs. However, whereas writing tutors at the author's institution are often taught to be indirect and focus on higher order concerns, such strategies are not always…

  5. Open Lives, Safe Schools: Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

    In all but a handful of states, it is legal to discriminate against individuals on the basis of sexual orientation. Ways in which homophobia and anti-gay sentiments affect education in the United States are addressed in this collection of essays. They are written for educators and others concerned about schooling, from kindergarten through…

  6. 32 CFR 37.1010 - What substantive issues should my award document address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and negotiate a TIA individually to meet the specific requirements of the particular project, so the... document must address: (a) Project scope. The scope is an overall vision statement for the project, including a discussion of the project's purpose, objectives, and detailed military and commercial goals....

  7. 32 CFR 37.1010 - What substantive issues should my award document address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and negotiate a TIA individually to meet the specific requirements of the particular project, so the... document must address: (a) Project scope. The scope is an overall vision statement for the project, including a discussion of the project's purpose, objectives, and detailed military and commercial goals....

  8. Clothing the Emperor: Addressing the Issue of English Language Proficiency in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunworth, Katie

    2010-01-01

    The English language proficiency levels of students in Australian higher education who have English as an additional language (EAL) has become an increasingly prominent issue, particularly as it relates to international students. In 2009 this resulted in the publication of a set of good practice principles for the sector. This paper argues that…

  9. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-Scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different…

  10. Where We Live: A Curriculum Guide. ABE Materials that Address Housing Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellowitch, Azi

    This curriculum was developed to give adult basic education (ABE) teachers starting points for developing their own units around housing-related issues. The texts have been chosen thematically, rather than by skill level. The materials are designed for group work--oral reading and discussion. Readings focus on housing repairs, court procedures,…

  11. Extending Transition to Address Guardianship Alternatives: An Issue Concerning Students Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dorothy Squatrito

    2014-01-01

    As students who have intellectual disability reach or have reached the age of majority, concerns regarding their competence to make informed decisions are often raised, as is the issue of adult guardianship. Guardianship refers to when a judge appoints an adult to be the guardian of another adult (ward) who has been determined to be unable to care…

  12. Teach to Reach: Addressing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth Issues in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Horace R.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the delicate and complex issues immediate to the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. The author places the discussion within the context of learning environments and presents ways in which pre-service and in-service teachers can help create safe and equitable spaces for all learners. Presented are…

  13. Skirting the Issue: Teachers' Experiences "Addressing Sexuality in Middle School Language Arts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Klein, Nicole Aydt

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine perceptions, attitudes, and reported practices of a group of middle level Language Arts teachers concerning sexuality-related issues. Through interviews with 15 teachers, the study found that sexuality was in one sense pervasive, as it came up frequently in the teachers' practice. Yet at the same time the…

  14. The Role of Sexual Trauma in the Treatment of Chemically Dependent Women: Addressing the Relapse Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Rick; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores issues surrounding sexual trauma and chemical dependency. Aims to provide direction for relapse prevention with a relapse-prone population and explores application of traditional milieu substance-abuse treatment for sexual-trauma survivors. Makes recommendations for working with sexual-trauma survivors who are also substance abusers. (RJM)

  15. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  16. The Use of Cohorts: A Powerful Way for Addressing Issues of Diversity in Preparation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Bruce G.; Caffarella, Rosemary S.

    Educational administration preparation programs increasingly are using cohorts, particularly as a way to teach diversity issues. Cohorts are groups of students who go through a 1- to 2-year study program together. The special characteristics of adult learning, the need for acknowledgement and use of experience, the different learning techniques,…

  17. A Risk Analysis Methodology to Address Human and Organizational Factors in Offshore Drilling Safety: With an Emphasis on Negative Pressure Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Maryam

    According to the final Presidential National Commission report on the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, there is need to "integrate more sophisticated risk assessment and risk management practices" in the oil industry. Reviewing the literature of the offshore drilling industry indicates that most of the developed risk analysis methodologies do not fully and more importantly, systematically address the contribution of Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) in accident causation. This is while results of a comprehensive study, from 1988 to 2005, of more than 600 well-documented major failures in offshore structures show that approximately 80% of those failures were due to HOFs. In addition, lack of safety culture, as an issue related to HOFs, have been identified as a common contributing cause of many accidents in this industry. This dissertation introduces an integrated risk analysis methodology to systematically assess the critical role of human and organizational factors in offshore drilling safety. The proposed methodology in this research focuses on a specific procedure called Negative Pressure Test (NPT), as the primary method to ascertain well integrity during offshore drilling, and analyzes the contributing causes of misinterpreting such a critical test. In addition, the case study of the BP Deepwater Horizon accident and their conducted NPT is discussed. The risk analysis methodology in this dissertation consists of three different approaches and their integration constitutes the big picture of my whole methodology. The first approach is the comparative analysis of a "standard" NPT, which is proposed by the author, with the test conducted by the DWH crew. This analysis contributes to identifying the involved discrepancies between the two test procedures. The second approach is a conceptual risk assessment framework to analyze the causal factors of the identified mismatches in the previous step, as the main contributors of negative pressure test

  18. A Risk Analysis Methodology to Address Human and Organizational Factors in Offshore Drilling Safety: With an Emphasis on Negative Pressure Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Maryam

    According to the final Presidential National Commission report on the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, there is need to "integrate more sophisticated risk assessment and risk management practices" in the oil industry. Reviewing the literature of the offshore drilling industry indicates that most of the developed risk analysis methodologies do not fully and more importantly, systematically address the contribution of Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) in accident causation. This is while results of a comprehensive study, from 1988 to 2005, of more than 600 well-documented major failures in offshore structures show that approximately 80% of those failures were due to HOFs. In addition, lack of safety culture, as an issue related to HOFs, have been identified as a common contributing cause of many accidents in this industry. This dissertation introduces an integrated risk analysis methodology to systematically assess the critical role of human and organizational factors in offshore drilling safety. The proposed methodology in this research focuses on a specific procedure called Negative Pressure Test (NPT), as the primary method to ascertain well integrity during offshore drilling, and analyzes the contributing causes of misinterpreting such a critical test. In addition, the case study of the BP Deepwater Horizon accident and their conducted NPT is discussed. The risk analysis methodology in this dissertation consists of three different approaches and their integration constitutes the big picture of my whole methodology. The first approach is the comparative analysis of a "standard" NPT, which is proposed by the author, with the test conducted by the DWH crew. This analysis contributes to identifying the involved discrepancies between the two test procedures. The second approach is a conceptual risk assessment framework to analyze the causal factors of the identified mismatches in the previous step, as the main contributors of negative pressure test

  19. Addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues from the inside: one federal agency's approach.

    PubMed Central

    Craft, E M; Mulvey, K P

    2001-01-01

    The mission of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is to protect and serve underserved and vulnerable populations. Congress established SAMHSA under Public Law 102-321 on October 1, 1992, to strengthen the nation's health care capacity to provide prevention, diagnosis, and treatment services for substance abuse and mental illnesses. SAMHSA works in partnership with states, communities, and private organizations to address the needs of people with substance abuse and mental illnesses as well as the community risk factors that contribute to these illnesses. As part of its efforts to address the unique needs of special populations, SAMHSA has reached out to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. SAMHSA and its centers (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and Center for Mental Health Services) have made a concerted effort, through both policy and programs, to develop services responsive to this community. PMID:11392928

  20. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve. PMID:24532788

  1. Methodological Issues in the Collection, Analysis, and Reporting of Granular Data in Asian American Populations: Historical Challenges and Potential Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Nadia Shilpi; Khan, Suhaila; Kwon, Simona; Jang, Deeana; Ro, Marguerite; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2011-01-01

    There are close to 15 million Asian Americans living in the United States, and they represent the fastest growing populations in the country. By the year 2050, there will be an estimated 33.4 million Asian Americans living in the country. However, their health needs remain poorly understood and there is a critical lack of data disaggregated by Asian American ethnic subgroups, primary language, and geography. This paper examines methodological issues, challenges, and potential solutions to addressing the collection, analysis, and reporting of disaggregated (or, granular) data on Asian Americans. The article explores emerging efforts to increase granular data through the use of innovative study design and analysis techniques. Concerted efforts to implement these techniques will be critical to the future development of sound research, health programs, and policy efforts targeting this and other minority populations. PMID:21099084

  2. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different aspects of the issues. In addition, students were given time to search for further information themselves. Analysis of students' written arguments, from the beginning of the intervention and afterwards, suggests that many students seem to be moving away from their use of everyday language towards using scientific concepts in their arguments. In addition, they moved from considering cloning and 'designer babies' solely in terms of the present to considering them in terms of the future. Furthermore, the students started to approach the issues in additional ways using not only consequentialism but also the approaches of virtue ethics, and rights and duties. Students' progression in ethical reasoning could be related to the characteristics of the interactions in peer discussions as students who critically and constructively argued with each other's ideas, and challenged each other's claims, made progress in more aspects of ethical reasoning than students merely using cumulative talk. As such, the work provides valuable indications for the importance of introducing peer discussions and debates about SSIs in connection to biotechnology into the teaching of science in schools.

  3. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors.

  4. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors. PMID:26691601

  5. Religiosity/spirituality of German doctors in private practice and likelihood of addressing R/S issues with patients.

    PubMed

    Voltmer, Edgar; Bussing, Arndt; Koenig, Harold G; Al Zaben, Faten

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the self-assessed religiosity and spirituality (R/S) of a representative sample of German physicians in private practice (n = 414) and how this related to their addressing R/S issues with patients. The majority of physicians (49.3 %)reported a Protestant denomination, with the remainder indicating mainly either Catholic(12.5 %) or none (31.9 %). A significant proportion perceived themselves as either religious(42.8 %) or spiritual (29.0 %). Women were more likely to rate themselves R/S than did men. Women (compared to men) were also somewhat more likely to attend religious services (7.4 vs. 2.1 % at least once a week) and participate in private religious activities(14.9 vs. 13.7 % at least daily), although these differences were not statistically significant.The majority of physicians (67.2 %) never/seldom addressed R/S issues with a typical patient. Physicians with higher self-perceived R/S and more frequent public and private religious activity were much more likely to address R/S issues with patients. Implications for patient care and future research are discussed.

  6. Addressing Control Research Issues Leading to Piloted Simulations in Support of the IFCS F-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, Marcello; Perhinschi, Mario; Campa, Giampiero; Seanor, Brad

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the research effort by a team of researchers at West Virginia University in support of the NASA Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) F-15 program. In particular, WVU researchers assisted NASA Dryden researchers in the following technical tasks leading to piloted simulation of the 'Gen_2' IFCS control laws. Task #1- Performance comparison of different neural network (NN) augmentation for the Dynamic Inversion (DI) -based VCAS 'Gen_2' control laws. Task #2- Development of safety monitor criteria for transition to research control laws with and without failure during flight test. Task #3- Fine-tuning of the 'Gen_2' control laws for cross-coupling reduction at post-failure conditions. Matlab/Simulink-based simulation codes were provided to the technical monitor on a regular basis throughout the duration of the project. Additional deliverables for the project were Power Point-based slides prepared for different project meetings. This document provides a description of the methodology and discusses the general conclusions from the simulation results.

  7. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds.

  8. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-01-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  9. Elective induction of labor symposium: nomenclature, research methodological issues, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Darney, Blair G; Caughey, Aaron B

    2014-06-01

    Elective induction of labor is a controversial topic. An observed relationship between elective induction and primary cesarean delivery has been of particular concern, and has guided much of the research to date on both indicated and elective induction of labor. However, it is unclear whether elective induction of labor actually increases the risk of cesarean delivery. This chapter focuses on key method issues to consider in studies of elective induction of labor. We first identify methodological concerns with the existing literature and discuss each in turn. We then review existing evidence about the relationship between elective induction and cesarean delivery.

  10. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  11. Evaluation of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program: addressing resettlement issues in prison.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Pritchard, Cecilia; Haskayne, Donna; Watson, Andy; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the impact of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program on a sample of offenders who attended it. This program used theatre performance, experiential exercises, skills practice role-plays, and metaphors such as the masks to invite a group of offenders to consider and explore issues connected with their release and reconnecting with a life outside prison. Pre- and postprogram psychometric tests, behavior ratings, and interviews were completed to assess the effectiveness of the program. Significant changes were observed from pre- to posttreatment in terms of self-efficacy, motivation to change, and improved confidence in skills (i.e., social and friendship, occupational, family and intimacy, dealing with authority, alternatives to aggression or offending, and self-management and self-control skills). Improved behavior and engagement within the program was observed over the 3 days of the program. Interviews also revealed the positive impact the program had on the participants. This provides evidence supporting the short-term effectiveness of the Re-Connect program.

  12. Addressing the amorphous content issue in quantitative phase analysis : the certification of NIST SRM 676a.

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J. P.; Von Dreele, R. B.; Winburn, R.; Stephens, P. W.; Filliben, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% {+-} 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  13. Addressing oral health disparities, inequity in access and workforce issues in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M

    2013-10-01

    The health sector challenges in India like those in other low and middle income countries are formidable. India has almost one-third of the world's dental schools. However, provisions of oral health-care services are few in rural parts of India where the majority of the Indian population resides. Disparities exist between the oral health status in urban and rural areas. The present unequal system of mainly private practice directed towards a minority of the population and based on reparative services needs to be modified. National oral health policy needs to be implemented as a priority, with an emphasis on strengthening dental care services under public health facilities. A fast-changing demographic profile and its implications needs to be considered while planning for the future oral health-care workforce. Current oral health status in developing countries, including India, is a result of government public health policies, not lack of dentists. The aim of the article is to discuss pertinent issues relating to oral health disparities, equity in health-care access, dental workforce planning and quality concerns pertaining to the present-day dental education and practices in India, which have implications for other developing countries. PMID:24074015

  14. Multiaxial Creep-Fatigue and Creep-Ratcheting Failures of Grade 91 and Haynes 230 Alloys Toward Addressing Design Issues of Gen IV Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Tasnim; Lissenden, Cliff; Carroll, Laura

    2015-04-01

    The proposed research will develop systematic sets of uniaxial and multiaxial experimental data at a very high temperature (850-950°C) for Alloy 617. The loading histories to be prescribed in the experiments will induce creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting failure mechanisms. These experimental responses will be scrutinized in order to quantify the influences of temperature and creep on fatigue and ratcheting failures. A unified constitutive model (UCM) will be developed and validated against these experimental responses. The improved UCM will be incorporated into the widely used finite element commercial software packages ANSYS. The modified ANSYS will be validated so that it can be used for evaluating the very high temperature ASME-NH design-by-analysis methodology for Alloy 617 and thereby addressing the ASME-NH design code issues.

  15. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  16. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Muir, William M.; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  17. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  18. End of Life and Life After Death - Issues to be Addressed.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Poojar; Renuka, Pramod Kallur Parameshwar; Bonanthaya, Ravikiran

    2012-09-01

    Being an Oncologist, I have seen many patients suffering from cancer. It pains a lot looking at them fighting the battle of life, though knowing that they would lose miserably and surrender meekly as majority of the patients report to the hospital at an advanced stage of disease and only palliative care may be the option. There is an urgent need to create - Cancer Awareness in the villages and also about the end of life care in all terminally ill patients. 20 patients in the terminal phase were questioned regarding end of life care. The common questions they asked are, why has God punished me like this? Why me on earth? Should I die so early? Why should I leave my near and dear ones and go far away, from the point of no return? Do I ever see them again? With deep sorrow and sigh, they suffer till the last breath, having the feeling of insecurity as what would happen to their dear ones. In the terminal phase, the patients wishes must be respected and their needs must be fulfilled. The health care professionals should plan an appropriate care for each patient. Most of them feel that the best place to be in end of life is the home. Research has shown that Hospice care may improve the quality of life of a patient who is dying and of the patient's family. Communication about end of life care and decision making during the final moments of a person's life are very important. The patients suffering are mainly due to the physical, psychological, social and spiritual issues. Death of a terminally ill patient should never be a sudden loss. All healthcare professionals, Social workers and Non-Governmental Organisations must install the life after death of the person, who has struggled for every breath and assure that he/she shall rest in peace and shall smile seeing their near and dear ones living with dignity and pride in the society. Ultimately, the patient must have dignity in dying.

  19. Earthquake Seismic Risk Reduction in Ohio: ODNR's Efforts to Address Issues with Natural and Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing concerns regarding both natural and induced seismicity in Ohio, ODNR (Ohio Department of Natural Resources) initial efforts on seismic risk reduction paved way to various changes and improvement to tackle several major issues. For natural earthquakes, regional seismicity indicates a NE-SW structure in the northern portion of the area associated with a number of moderate historical earthquakes but no active trace identified. On the other hand, earthquakes of 1986 and 2011 are most probably incidents of induced seismicity that trigger more public uproar against disposal of regulated waste waters through injections. ODNR, in efforts to adapt with increasing need to regulate all operations related to both the Utica and Marcellus shale play within the state, had recently strengthen itself both through additional human resources and improved infrastructure. Tougher regulations and additional field tests were required that took effect immediately when a M4 earthquake was associated with the operations of an injection well. Public meetings were undertaken focused on educating many local inhabitants related to oil and gas operations, hydraulic fracturing, injection wells, and seismicity. Trainings for new and existing staff were regularly done especially for field inspection, data management and technology advancements. Considering the existing seismic stations that are few and distant related to sites of the injection wells, additional seismic stations were installed to gather baseline data and monitor for earthquakes within the injection area(s). Furthermore, to assess if the sites of the injection wells are safe from active structures, initial geomorphic and structural analyses indicated possible active faults in the northern portion of state oriented NE-SW. With the above-mentioned recent changes, ODNR had made a significant leap not only in the improvement of its principal regulatory role in the state for oil and gas operations but also in its

  20. Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Hollie

    2005-06-01

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce. Foreshadowing such under-representation in the workforce are the disproportionately low rates of African American and Hispanic students attaining college degrees in science and related fields. Evidence suggests disparate systemic factors in secondary science education are contributing to disproportionately low numbers of African American and Hispanic students in the science education pipeline. The present paper embarks on a critical analysis of the issue by elucidating some of the systemic factors within secondary education that contribute to the leak in the science education pipeline. In addition, this review offers a synthesis and explication of some of the policies and programs being implemented to address disparate systemic factors in secondary schools. Finally, recommendations are offered regarding potential mechanisms by which disparities may be alleviated.

  1. Conducting Community Research in Rural China –Addressing the Methodological Challenges of Recruiting Participants in Rapidly Changing Social Environments

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jing; Chiu, Helen F.K.; Hou, Zai-Jin; Caine, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper addressed a unique challenge for public health and community research in rural China, i.e., the very large percentage of young adults that comprises a highly mobile working population that has been an essential component of the country’s economic transformation. Fluid local demographic patterns potentially have a substantial impact on sample representativeness and data validity. Methods This report is based upon a cross sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of residents aged 16–34 years in rural communities of Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. Two waves of fieldwork and other strategies were adopted in response to recruitment challenges. Results 1654 of 3008 potential participants took part in the study; this constituted 98% of those individuals approached and 55% of the persons enumerated in the local household registration system (hukou). Analyses revealed substantial differences among those who were interviewed during September and October 2005, versus those seen during the Chinese Lunar New Year of 2006 when many migrant workers and students returned to their homes. Both groups together differed from those who were unavailable during either recruiting episode. Discussion and Conclusions We discuss potential responses to associated methodological challenges, including, (1) permanent hukou mismatches; (2) temporary hukou mismatches; (3) difficulties faced by potential participants to fully understand the purpose of research, the informed consent process, and specific research questions; and (4) appreciation of the importance of local social networks, as they pertain in particular to rural China. These findings underscore that there may be a need to make “on-the-ground” adjustments to varying local conditions to maximize sample representativeness and data validity. PMID:22662022

  2. Methodology issues concerning the accuracy of kinematic data collection and analysis using the ariel performance analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmington, R. P.; Klute, Glenn K. (Editor); Carroll, Amy E. (Editor); Stuart, Mark A. (Editor); Poliner, Jeff (Editor); Rajulu, Sudhakar (Editor); Stanush, Julie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Kinematics, the study of motion exclusive of the influences of mass and force, is one of the primary methods used for the analysis of human biomechanical systems as well as other types of mechanical systems. The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory (ABL) in the Crew Interface Analysis section of the Man-Systems Division performs both human body kinematics as well as mechanical system kinematics using the Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS). The APAS supports both analysis of analog signals (e.g. force plate data collection) as well as digitization and analysis of video data. The current evaluations address several methodology issues concerning the accuracy of the kinematic data collection and analysis used in the ABL. This document describes a series of evaluations performed to gain quantitative data pertaining to position and constant angular velocity movements under several operating conditions. Two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional data collection and analyses were completed in a controlled laboratory environment using typical hardware setups. In addition, an evaluation was performed to evaluate the accuracy impact due to a single axis camera offset. Segment length and positional data exhibited errors within 3 percent when using three-dimensional analysis and yielded errors within 8 percent through two-dimensional analysis (Direct Linear Software). Peak angular velocities displayed errors within 6 percent through three-dimensional analyses and exhibited errors of 12 percent when using two-dimensional analysis (Direct Linear Software). The specific results from this series of evaluations and their impacts on the methodology issues of kinematic data collection and analyses are presented in detail. The accuracy levels observed in these evaluations are also presented.

  3. Addressing Methodological Challenges in Large Communication Datasets: Collecting and Coding Longitudinal Interactions in Home Hospice Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Reblin, Maija; Clayton, Margaret F; John, Kevin K; Ellington, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present strategies for collecting and coding a large longitudinal communication dataset collected across multiple sites, consisting of over 2000 hours of digital audio recordings from approximately 300 families. We describe our methods within the context of implementing a large-scale study of communication during cancer home hospice nurse visits, but this procedure could be adapted to communication datasets across a wide variety of settings. This research is the first study designed to capture home hospice nurse-caregiver communication, a highly understudied location and type of communication event. We present a detailed example protocol encompassing data collection in the home environment, large-scale, multi-site secure data management, the development of theoretically-based communication coding, and strategies for preventing coder drift and ensuring reliability of analyses. Although each of these challenges have the potential to undermine the utility of the data, reliability between coders is often the only issue consistently reported and addressed in the literature. Overall, our approach demonstrates rigor and provides a “how-to” example for managing large, digitally-recorded data sets from collection through analysis. These strategies can inform other large-scale health communication research. PMID:26580414

  4. Addressing Methodological Challenges in Large Communication Data Sets: Collecting and Coding Longitudinal Interactions in Home Hospice Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Reblin, Maija; Clayton, Margaret F; John, Kevin K; Ellington, Lee

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present strategies for collecting and coding a large longitudinal communication data set collected across multiple sites, consisting of more than 2000 hours of digital audio recordings from approximately 300 families. We describe our methods within the context of implementing a large-scale study of communication during cancer home hospice nurse visits, but this procedure could be adapted to communication data sets across a wide variety of settings. This research is the first study designed to capture home hospice nurse-caregiver communication, a highly understudied location and type of communication event. We present a detailed example protocol encompassing data collection in the home environment, large-scale, multisite secure data management, the development of theoretically-based communication coding, and strategies for preventing coder drift and ensuring reliability of analyses. Although each of these challenges has the potential to undermine the utility of the data, reliability between coders is often the only issue consistently reported and addressed in the literature. Overall, our approach demonstrates rigor and provides a "how-to" example for managing large, digitally recorded data sets from collection through analysis. These strategies can inform other large-scale health communication research.

  5. Addressing Methodological Challenges in Large Communication Data Sets: Collecting and Coding Longitudinal Interactions in Home Hospice Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Reblin, Maija; Clayton, Margaret F; John, Kevin K; Ellington, Lee

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present strategies for collecting and coding a large longitudinal communication data set collected across multiple sites, consisting of more than 2000 hours of digital audio recordings from approximately 300 families. We describe our methods within the context of implementing a large-scale study of communication during cancer home hospice nurse visits, but this procedure could be adapted to communication data sets across a wide variety of settings. This research is the first study designed to capture home hospice nurse-caregiver communication, a highly understudied location and type of communication event. We present a detailed example protocol encompassing data collection in the home environment, large-scale, multisite secure data management, the development of theoretically-based communication coding, and strategies for preventing coder drift and ensuring reliability of analyses. Although each of these challenges has the potential to undermine the utility of the data, reliability between coders is often the only issue consistently reported and addressed in the literature. Overall, our approach demonstrates rigor and provides a "how-to" example for managing large, digitally recorded data sets from collection through analysis. These strategies can inform other large-scale health communication research. PMID:26580414

  6. Legal issues to address when managing clinical information across Europe: the ECIT case study (www.ECIT.info).

    PubMed

    Lawford Davies, James; Jenkins, Julian

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies issues which will need to be addressed in pursuing the aims and objectives of the European Classification of Infertility Taskforce (ECIT), namely: to establish classification codes for infertility management; to improve the consistency of infertility information collection by specialist centres, particularly but not exclusively by computerised systems; to use these codes to enable the transfer of infertility information from specialist centres to national infertility data registries; to develop a Grid linking the data held in European infertility data registries; to use Grid processing to mine the data in the European infertility data registries to optimise patient management improving the effectiveness of treatment and reducing the risk.

  7. Langley's DEVELOP Team Applies NASA's Earth Observations to Address Environmental Issues Across the Country and Around the Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Miller, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program was established over a decade ago to provide students with experience in the practical application of NASA Earth science research results. As part of NASA's Applied Sciences Program, DEVELOP focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to address environmental issues. Cultivating a diverse and dynamic group of students and young professionals, the program conducts applied science research projects during three terms each year (spring, summer, and fall) that focus on topics ranging from water resource management to natural disasters.

  8. Methodological issues in life cycle assessment of mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production utilising waste as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Heimersson, Sara; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Peters, Gregory M; Werker, Alan; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-06-25

    Assessing the environmental performance of emerging technologies using life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging due to a lack of data in relation to technologies, application areas or other life cycle considerations, or a lack of LCA methodology that address the specific concerns. Nevertheless, LCA can be a valuable tool in the environmental optimisation in the technology development phase. One emerging technology is the mixed-culture production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHA production by pure microbial cultures has been developed and assessed in several LCAs during the previous decade. Recent developments within mixed-culture PHA production call for environmental assessment to guide in technology development. Mixed-culture PHA production can use the organic content in wastewater as a feedstock; the production may then be integrated with wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This means that mixed-culture PHA is produced as a by-product from services in the WWT. This article explores different methodological challenges for LCA of mixed-culture PHA production using organic material in wastewater as feedstock. LCAs of both pure- and mixed-culture PHA production were reviewed. Challenges, similarities and differences when assessing PHA production by mixed- or pure-cultures were identified and the resulting implications for methodological choices in LCA were evaluated and illustrated, using a case study with mixed- and pure-culture PHA model production systems, based on literature data. Environmental impacts of processes producing multiple products or services need to be allocated between the different products or services. Such situations occur both in feedstock production and when the studied system is providing multiple functions. The selection of allocation method is shown to determine the LCA results. The type of data used, for electricity in the energy system, is shown to be important for the results, which indicates, a strong regional dependency of

  9. Combining nutrition and exercise to optimize survival and recovery from critical illness: Conceptual and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Heyland, Daren K; Stapleton, Renee D; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hough, Catherine L; Morris, Peter; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Day, Andrew; Prado, Carla M; Needham, Dale M

    2016-10-01

    Survivors of critical illness commonly experience neuromuscular abnormalities, including muscle weakness known as ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). ICU-AW is associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation, extended ICU and hospital stays, more healthcare-related hospital costs, a higher risk of death, and impaired physical functioning and quality of life in the months after ICU admission. These observations speak to the importance of developing new strategies to aid in the physical recovery of acute respiratory failure patients. We posit that to maintain optimal muscle mass, strength and physical function, the combination of nutrition and exercise may have the greatest impact on physical recovery of survivors of critical illness. Randomized trials testing this and related hypotheses are needed. We discussed key methodological issues and proposed a common evaluation framework to stimulate work in this area and standardize our approach to outcome assessments across future studies.

  10. A cost utility analysis of treatment options for gallstone disease: methodological issues and results.

    PubMed

    Cook, J; Richardson, J; Street, A

    1994-01-01

    The techniques of cost utility analysis (CUA) were used to evaluate the treatment of gallstone disease by open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). The application of the techniques in this context raised three methodological questions which are not satisfactorily resolved in the literature. The first is whether an ex ante or ex post perspective is best adopted for the measurement of quality of life (QoL). The second is the method for converting a short term deterioration in QoL followed by full health into QALYs and the reliability of the methods available. The third is the issue of indirect costs which, in the context of a temporary disease state, cannot be easily avoided. The economic evaluation found laparoscopic cholecystectomy to be generally superior than the competitor technologies (entailing lower costs and better outcomes). However, the results were sensitive to assumptions about the perspective for measuring benefits and the inclusion of indirect costs.

  11. Substance use and risky sexual behavior for exposure to HIV: Issues in methodology, interpretation, and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Barbara C.; Stall, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the use of alcohol or drugs is related to sexual behavior that is high-risk for HIV infection. If substance use leads to unsafe sexual activity, understanding the dynamics of this relationship can contribute to research, preventive and education efforts to contain the spread of AIDS. In this paper, we review research on the relationship between substance use and high-risk sexual behavior. We then consider the inherent limitations of the research designs used to study this relationship, outline some methodological concerns including measurement and sampling issues, and comment on causal interpretations of correlational research findings. We end with a consideration of potential avenues for avenues for future research and a discussion of implications of these findings for current AIDS prevention policies. PMID:8256876

  12. The Epidemiology of Lead Toxicity in Adults: Measuring Dose and Consideration of Other Methodologic Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Howard; Shih, Regina; Rothenberg, Stephen; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2007-01-01

    We review several issues of broad relevance to the interpretation of epidemiologic evidence concerning the toxicity of lead in adults, particularly regarding cognitive function and the cardiovascular system, which are the subjects of two systematic reviews that are also part of this mini-monograph. Chief among the recent developments in methodologic advances has been the refinement of concepts and methods for measuring individual lead dose in terms of appreciating distinctions between recent versus cumulative doses and the use of biological markers to measure these parameters in epidemiologic studies of chronic disease. Attention is focused particularly on bone lead levels measured by K-shell X-ray fluorescence as a relatively new biological marker of cumulative dose that has been used in many recent epidemiologic studies to generate insights into lead’s impact on cognition and risk of hypertension, as well as the alternative method of estimating cumulative dose using available repeated measures of blood lead to calculate an individual’s cumulative blood lead index. We review the relevance and interpretation of these lead biomarkers in the context of the toxico-kinetics of lead. In addition, we also discuss methodologic challenges that arise in studies of occupationally and environmentally exposed subjects and those concerning race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status and other important covariates. PMID:17431499

  13. A Cost-Efficient LDPC Decoder for DVB-S2 with the Solution to Address Conflict Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yan; Bao, Dan; Yu, Zhiyi; Zeng, Xiaoyang; Chen, Yun

    In this paper, a cost-efficient LDPC decoder for DVB-S2 is presented. Based on the Normalized Min-Sum algorithm and the turbo-decoding message-passing (TDMP) algorithm, a dual line-scan scheduling is proposed to enable hardware reusing. Furthermore, we present the solution to the address conflict issue caused by the characteristic of the parity-check matrix defined by DVB-S2 LDPC codes. Based on SMIC 0.13µm standard CMOS process, the LDPC decoder has an area of 12.51mm2. The required operating frequency to meet the throughput requirement of 135Mbps with maximum iteration number of 30 is 105MHz. Compared with the latest published DVB-S2 LDPC decoder, the proposed decoder reduces area cost by 34%.

  14. Patient and healthcare perspectives on the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Shane; McConnell, Shelagh; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Ager, Naree; Booker, Reanne; Enns, Bert; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to use a qualitative approach to better understand the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic from the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Setting Participants were recruited from the bone marrow transplant clinic of a large urban outpatient cancer care centre in western Canada. Participants: Focus groups were conducted with patients (n=7) and healthcare providers (n=9) to explore the importance of addressing spiritual issues across the treatment trajectory and to identify factors associated with effectively addressing these needs. Results Data were analysed using the qualitative approach of latent content analysis. Addressing spiritual issues was understood by patients and healthcare providers, as a core, yet under addressed, component of comprehensive care. Both sets of participants felt that addressing basic spiritual issues was the responsibility of all members of the interdisciplinary team, while recognising the need for specialised and embedded support from a spiritual care professional. While healthcare providers felt that the impact of the illness and treatment had a negative effect on patients’ spiritual well-being, patients felt the opposite. Skills, challenges, key time points and clinical indicators associated with addressing spiritual issues were identified. Conclusions Despite a number of conceptual and clinical challenges associated with addressing spiritual issues patients and their healthcare providers emphasised the importance of an integrated approach whereby basic spiritual issues are addressed by members of the interdisciplinary team and by an embedded spiritual care professional, who in addition also provides specialised support. The identification of clinical issues associated with addressing spiritual needs provides healthcare providers with clinical guidance on how to better integrate this aspect of care into

  15. Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs).

    PubMed

    Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G H

    2010-11-01

    More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO).

  16. Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Upton, Jaki F.

    2010-02-01

    On October 9, 2008, federal, state and local policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and public health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about recovery and restoration through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems. The Principal Federal Official (PFO) provided an overview of the role of the PFO in a catastrophic event. A high-level summary of an anthrax scenario was presented. The remainder of the day was focused on interactive discussions among federal, state and local emergency management experts in the areas of: • Decision-making, prioritization, and command and control • Public health/medical services • Community resiliency and continuity of government. Key topics and issues that resulted from discussions included: • Local representation in the Joint Field Office (JFO) • JFO transition to the Long-Term Recovery Office • Process for prioritization of needs • Process for regional coordination • Prioritization - process and federal/military intervention • Allocation of limited resources • Re-entry decision and consistency • Importance of maintaining a healthy hospital system • Need for a process to establish a consensus on when it is safe to re-enter. This needs to be across all jurisdictions including the military. • Insurance coverage for both private businesses and individuals • Interaction between the government and industry. The symposium was sponsored by the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration, a collaborative regional program jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of Defense. To aid the program’s efforts and inform the development of blueprint for recovery from a biological incident

  17. Application of the API/NPRA SVA methodology to transportation security issues.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A

    2006-03-17

    Security vulnerability analysis (SVA) is becoming more prevalent as the issue of chemical process security is of greater concern. The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the National Petrochemical and Refiner's Association (NPRA) have developed a guideline for conducting SVAs of petroleum and petrochemical facilities in May 2003. In 2004, the same organizations enhanced the guidelines by adding the ability to evaluate transportation security risks (pipeline, truck, and rail). The importance of including transportation and value chain security in addition to fixed facility security in a SVA is that these issues may be critically important to understanding the total risk of the operation. Most of the SVAs done using the API/NPRA SVA and other SVA methods were centered on the fixed facility and the operations within the plant fence. Transportation interfaces alone are normally studied as a part of the facility SVA, and the entire transportation route impacts and value chain disruption are not commonly considered. Particularly from a national, regional, or local infrastructure analysis standpoint, understanding the interdependencies is critical to the risk assessment. Transportation risks may include weaponization of the asset by direct attack en route, sabotage, or a Trojan Horse style attack into a facility. The risks differ in the level of access control and the degree of public exposures, as well as the dynamic nature of the assets. The public exposures along the transportation route need to be carefully considered. Risks may be mitigated by one of many strategies including internment, staging, prioritization, conscription, or prohibition, as well as by administrative security measures and technology for monitoring and isolating the assets. This paper illustrates how these risks can be analyzed by the API/NPRA SVA methodology. Examples are given of a pipeline operation, and other examples are found in the guidelines. PMID:16171946

  18. Cobenefits of replacing car trips with alternative transportation: a review of evidence and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ting; Zhang, Ying; Crabb, Shona; Shah, Pushan

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed.

  19. Was Feyerabend a Popperian? Methodological issues in the History of the Philosophy of Science.

    PubMed

    Collodel, Matteo

    2016-06-01

    For more than three decades, there has been significant debate about the relation between Feyerabend and Popper. The discussion has been nurtured and complicated by the rift that opened up between the two and by the later Feyerabend's controversial portrayal of his earlier self. The first part of the paper provides an overview of the accounts of the relation that have been proposed over the years, disentangles the problems they deal with, and analyses the evidence supporting their conclusions as well as the methodological approaches used to process that evidence. Rather than advancing a further speculative account of the relation based on Feyerabend's philosophical work or autobiographical recollections, the second part of the paper strives to clarify the problems at issue by making use of a wider range of evidence. It outlines a historical reconstruction of the social context within which Feyerabend's intellectual trajectory developed, putting a special emphasis on the interplay between the perceived intellectual identity of Feyerabend, Feyerabend's own intellectual self-concept, and the peculiar features of the evolving Popperian research group.

  20. Development of the Spanish version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: methodology and main issues.

    PubMed Central

    Reynoso, G. A.; March, A. D.; Berra, C. M.; Strobietto, R. P.; Barani, M.; Iubatti, M.; Chiaradio, M. P.; Serebrisky, D.; Kahn, A.; Vaccarezza, O. A.; Leguiza, J. L.; Ceitlin, M.; Luna, D. A.; Bernaldo de Quirós, F. G.; Otegui, M. I.; Puga, M. C.; Vallejos, M.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation features linguistic and terminology management issues related to the development of the Spanish version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED). It aims at describing the aspects of translating and the difficulties encountered in delivering a natural and consistent medical nomenclature. Bunge's three-layered model is referenced to analyze the sequence of symbolic concept representations. It further explains how a communicative translation based on a concept-to-concept approach was used to achieve the highest level of flawlessness and naturalness for the Spanish rendition of SNOMED. Translation procedures and techniques are described and exemplified. Both the computer-aided and human translation methods are portrayed. The scientific and translation team tasks are detailed, with focus on Newmark's four-level principle for the translation process, extended with a fifth further level relevant to the ontology to control the consistency of the typology of concepts. Finally the convenience for a common methodology to develop non-English versions of SNOMED is suggested. PMID:11079973

  1. Cerebral blood flow during meditative prayer: preliminary findings and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Newberg, Andrew; Pourdehnad, Michael; Alavi, Abass; d'Aquili, Eugene G

    2003-10-01

    Meditative practices typically require several coordinated cognitive activities. This study measured changes in cerebral blood flow during "verbal" based meditation by Franciscan nuns involving the internal repetition of a particular phrase. These results are compared with those we previously described in eight Buddhist meditators who use a type of "visualization" technique. Three experienced practitioners of verbal meditation were injected via i.v. at rest with 260 MBq of Tc-99m HMPAO and scanned 30 min. later on a triple head SPECT camera for 45 min. Following the baseline scan, subjects meditated for approximately 40 min. at which time they were injected with 925 MBq of HMPAO while they continued to meditate for 10 min. more (total of 50 min. of meditation). The injection during meditation was designed not to disturb practice. Subjects were scanned 20 min. later for 30 min. Counts were obtained for regions of interest for major brain structures and normalized to whole-brain blood flow. Compared to baseline, mean verbal meditation scans showed increased blood flow in the prefrontal cortex (7.1%), inferior parietal lobes (6.8%), and inferior frontal lobes (9.0%). There was a strong inverse correlation between the blood flow, change in the prefrontal cortex and in the ipsilateral superior parietal lobe (p<.01). This study on a limited number of subjects demonstrated the feasibility of studying different types of meditation with neuroimaging techniques, suggested that several coordinated cognitive processes occur during meditation, and also raised important methodological issues.

  2. Cobenefits of Replacing Car Trips with Alternative Transportation: A Review of Evidence and Methodological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Crabb, Shona

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed. PMID:23956758

  3. Farmworker Exposure to Pesticides: Methodologic Issues for the Collection of Comparable Data

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Barr, Dana B.; Hoppin, Jane A.; McCauley, Linda; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Robson, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families to agricultural and residential pesticides is a continuing public health concern. Pesticide exposure research has been spurred on by the development of sensitive and reliable laboratory techniques that allow the detection of minute amounts of pesticides or pesticide metabolites. The power of research on farmworker pesticide exposure has been limited because of variability in the collection of exposure data, the predictors of exposure considered, the laboratory procedures used in analyzing the exposure, and the measurement of exposure. The Farmworker Pesticide Exposure Comparable Data Conference assembled 25 scientists from diverse disciplinary and organizational backgrounds to develop methodologic consensus in four areas of farmworker pesticide exposure research: environmental exposure assessment, biomarkers, personal and occupational predictors of exposure, and health outcomes of exposure. In this introduction to this mini-monograph, first, we present the rationale for the conference and its organization. Second, we discuss some of the important challenges in conducting farmworker pesticide research, including the definition and size of the farmworker population, problems in communication and access, and the organization of agricultural work. Third, we summarize major findings from each of the conference’s four foci—environmental exposure assessment, biomonitoring, predictors of exposure, and health outcomes of exposure—as well as important laboratory and statistical analysis issues that cross-cut the four foci. PMID:16759996

  4. Methodologic issues in clinical trials for prevention or risk reduction in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jordan, J M; Sowers, M F; Messier, S P; Bradley, J; Arangio, G; Katz, J N; Losina, E; Rovati, L; Bachtell, N; Cooper, C; Spector, T; Zhang, W; Gardiner, J; Wahba, M

    2011-05-01

    The design and execution of prevention trials for OA have methodological issues that are distinct from trials designed to impact prevalent disease. Disease definitions and their precise and sensitive measurement, identification of high-risk populations, the nature of the intervention (pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, behavioral) and its potential pleiotropic impacts on other organ systems are critical to consider. Because prevention trials may be prolonged, close attention to concomitant life changes and co-morbidities, adherence and participant retention in the trial is of primary importance, as is recognition of the potential for "preventive misconception" and "behavioral disinhibition" to affect the ability of the trial to show an effect of the intervention under study. None of these potential pitfalls precludes a successful and scientifically rigorous process and outcome. As technology improves the means to measure and predict the OA process and its clinical consequences, it will be increasingly possible to screen individuals for high-risk phenotypes, combining clinical factors with information from imaging, genetic, metabolic and other biomarkers and to impact this high-risk condition to avoid or delay OA both structurally and symptomatically. PMID:21396470

  5. Methodological issues in the evaluation of the quality of public health nursing: a case study of the maternal and child health centres in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Twinn, S

    1997-04-01

    The demand for the evaluation of the quality of patient and client care has increased in public health nursing as in all disciplines of nursing. In Hong Kong this demand led to the development of a collaborative study with the Department of Health to evaluate the quality of public health nursing in the maternal and child health centres. A multiple case study design was developed to undertake the research using both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. The findings from the study demonstrated not only implications for clinical practice which have been reported elsewhere, but also methodological issues for the evaluation of care. These findings indicate three major issues for consideration. The first issue is that of the cultural context of care which includes perceptions of care such as demands on the service and expectations of care. The second issue is the use of health data, including both the methods of recordings as well as the sources of data. The final issue is that of the method of data collection, in particular the implications of the use of language in data collection tools. The findings suggest that both the use of professional language and the need for translation have implications for data collection methods. Indeed in the author's view the development of methodologies for the evaluation of care must address culturally specific issues, particularly where English is not the first language of subjects in the study. In addition the use the use of language in the method of data collection highlights more general issues raised by the use of translation in the collection and analysis of qualitative data.

  6. What Is the Purpose of the Theses Addressing the Issue of Program Evaluation in Turkey? (The Case of Curriculum and Instruction: 1997-2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin-Sahin, Senar; Tunca, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the aim is to investigate the theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of Curriculum and Instruction (C&I) in 1997-2015. The study employed the survey model. The universe of the study consists of totally 87 theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of C&I in 1997-2015. As the…

  7. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  8. Impact of learning nutrition on medical students: their eating habits, knowledge and confidence in addressing dietary issues of patients.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shama; Dwivedi, Shraddha; Khan, Maroof A

    2011-12-01

    Nutrition is an important component in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases and is a cornerstone in strategies for disease prevention and health promotion. Despite the acknowledged importance of nutrition, there is evidence to indicate that the nutrition training of medical students is inadequate in both quality and quantity. The study aimed to know the dietary/eating habits of medical students, assess their knowledge on nutrition and to assess their confidence in addressing the dietary issues of patients. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on final year medical students, interns and postgraduate students of Moti Lal Nehru Government Medical College, Allahabad. The sampling was purposive and a total of 218 participated in the study voluntarily. Overall 55% of the students were less knowledgeable and only 45% of them were more knowledgeable. Most (62%) postgraduates were more knowledgeable (p < 0.001). Majority of them (89.9%) were having healthy eating habits. There was no association between their healthy habits and more knowledge (p > 0.340). Only 45.4% of them were confident in assessing the diet of patients and 44% of them were confident in recommending change of diet in patients. However this study shows no association between increase in the level of knowledge and confidence levels of the students (p > 0.339 and p > 0.109) suggesting that we need to incorporate innovative teaching methods to increase their confidence. Most students (79%) said that the medical curriculum was either just enough or not enough in preparing them to deal with the dietary issues of patients and 55% of them were of the opinion that the faculty should be trained in nutrition. The study results intend to stimulate active consideration of proper role of nutrition learning in medical education.

  9. Epilepsy therapy development: technical and methodologic issues in studies with animal models.

    PubMed

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Kokaia, Merab; Loeb, Jeffrey A; Nehlig, Astrid; Pitkänen, Asla; Rogawski, Michael A; Staley, Kevin J; Whittemore, Vicky H; Dudek, F Edward

    2013-08-01

    The search for new treatments for seizures, epilepsies, and their comorbidities faces considerable challenges. This is due in part to gaps in our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of most forms of epilepsy. An additional challenge is the difficulty in predicting the efficacy, tolerability, and impact of potential new treatments on epilepsies and comorbidities in humans, using the available resources. Herein we provide a summary of the discussions and proposals of the Working Group 2 as presented in the Joint American Epilepsy Society and International League Against Epilepsy Translational Workshop in London (September 2012). We propose methodologic and reporting practices that will enhance the uniformity, reliability, and reporting of early stage preclinical studies with animal seizure and epilepsy models that aim to develop and evaluate new therapies for seizures or epilepsies, using multidisciplinary approaches. The topics considered include the following: (1) implementation of better study design and reporting practices; (2) incorporation in the study design and analysis of covariants that may influence outcomes (including species, age, sex); (3) utilization of approaches to document target relevance, exposure, and engagement by the tested treatment; (4) utilization of clinically relevant treatment protocols; (5) optimization of the use of video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to best meet the study goals; and (6) inclusion of outcome measures that address the tolerability of the treatment or study end points apart from seizures. We further discuss the different expectations for studies aiming to meet regulatory requirements to obtain approval for clinical testing in humans. Implementation of the rigorous practices discussed in this report will require considerable investment in time, funds, and other research resources, which may create challenges for academic researchers seeking to contribute to epilepsy therapy discovery and

  10. Epilepsy Therapy Development: Technical and Methodological Issues in Studies with Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Kokaia, Merab; Loeb, Jeffrey A.; Nehlig, Astrid; Pitkänen, Asla; Rogawski, Michael A.; Staley, Kevin J.; Whittemore, Vicky H.; Dudek, F. Edward

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The search for new treatments for seizures, epilepsies and their comorbidities faces considerable challenges. Partly, this is due to gaps in our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of most forms of epilepsy. An additional challenge is the difficulty to predict the efficacy, tolerability and impact of potential new treatments on epilepsies and comorbidities in humans, using the available resources. Here we provide a summary of the discussions and proposals of the Working Group 2 as presented in the Joint American Epilepsy Society and International League Against Epilepsy Translational Workshop in London (September 2012). We propose methodological and reporting practices that will enhance the uniformity, reliability and reporting of early stage preclinical studies with animal seizure and epilepsy models that aim to develop and evaluate new therapies for seizures or epilepsies, using multi-disciplinary approaches. The topics considered include: (a) implementation of better study design and reporting practices, (b) incorporation in the study design and analysis of covariants that may impact outcomes (including species, age, sex), (c) utilization of approaches to document target relevance, exposure and engagement by the tested treatment, (d) utilization of clinically relevant treatment protocols, (e) optimization of the use of video-EEG recordings to best meet the study goals, and (f) inclusion of outcome measures that address the tolerability of the treatment or study endpoints apart from seizures. We further discuss the different expectations for studies aiming to meet regulatory requirements to obtain approval for clinical testing in humans. Implementation of the rigorous practices discussed in this report will require considerable investment in time, funds and other research resources, which may create challenges for academic researchers seeking to contribute to epilepsy therapy discovery and development. We propose several infrastructure

  11. Methodological issues in setting up a surveillance system for birth defects in India.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Seshadri; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Sujatha, Jagadeesh; Indrani, Suresh

    2005-01-01

    India is undergoing an epidemiological transition--communicable diseases are on the decline due to better living conditions and healthcare delivery. On the other hand, the relative increase in the prevalence of non-communicable, chronic and genetic diseases threatens to be a public health problem in India. One such group of disorders is congenital malformations. Though several studies have been done on congenital malformations in India since the early 1960s, coinciding with the thalidomide tragedy in the West, no uniform methods are available for the surveillance of birth defects. Each study has come out with varying results, not only because of the geographic variation in birth defects but also due to the varying standards adopted by each study in data collection, case definition and other methodological issues. Setting up a mechanism to understand the extent and nature of birth defects would involve the creation of a birth defects registry. The goals and objectives of such a registry should be formulated before it is set up. There are three types of registries-descriptive, analytical and preventive. These can also be classified as population- or hospital-based. Whether a registry is population- or hospital-based depends largely on the movement of mothers for delivery, registration of vital events in an area defined by the programme, as well as the resources available to the registry. Data can be collected in a passive or active manner, which also depends on the resources available to the registry. Every registry should have its own working definition of eligible cases to be reported, depending on the diagnostic services available in that area, and multiple sources of information should be used to improve the ascertainment rate. All the diagnostic terms should be coded and the information collected should be stored in a well-constructed database, preferably a relational type. Registries must evaluate their methods of data collection periodically to estimate the

  12. Checklists of Methodological Issues for Review Authors to Consider When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, George A.; Shea, Beverley; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Sterne, Jonathan; Tugwell, Peter; Reeves, Barnaby C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest from review authors about including non-randomized studies (NRS) in their systematic reviews of health care interventions. This series from the Ottawa Non-Randomized Studies Workshop consists of six papers identifying methodological issues when doing this. Aim: To format the guidance from the preceding…

  13. Methodological Issues Related to the Use of P Less than 0.05 in Health Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Elias; Graner, Stephen P.; Becker, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews methodological issues related to the use of P less than 0.05 in health behavior research and suggests how application and presentation of statistical significance may be improved. Assessment of sample size and P less than 0.05, the file drawer problem, the Law of Large Numbers and the statistical significance arguments in…

  14. Perceptual and category processing of the Uncanny Valley hypothesis' dimension of human likeness: some methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Marcus; Jancke, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Mori's Uncanny Valley Hypothesis(1,2) proposes that the perception of humanlike characters such as robots and, by extension, avatars (computer-generated characters) can evoke negative or positive affect (valence) depending on the object's degree of visual and behavioral realism along a dimension of human likeness (DHL) (Figure 1). But studies of affective valence of subjective responses to variously realistic non-human characters have produced inconsistent findings (3, 4, 5, 6). One of a number of reasons for this is that human likeness is not perceived as the hypothesis assumes. While the DHL can be defined following Mori's description as a smooth linear change in the degree of physical humanlike similarity, subjective perception of objects along the DHL can be understood in terms of the psychological effects of categorical perception (CP) (7). Further behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of category processing and CP along the DHL and of the potential influence of the dimension's underlying category structure on affective experience are needed. This protocol therefore focuses on the DHL and allows examination of CP. Based on the protocol presented in the video as an example, issues surrounding the methodology in the protocol and the use in "uncanny" research of stimuli drawn from morph continua to represent the DHL are discussed in the article that accompanies the video. The use of neuroimaging and morph stimuli to represent the DHL in order to disentangle brain regions neurally responsive to physical human-like similarity from those responsive to category change and category processing is briefly illustrated. PMID:23770728

  15. Perceptual and Category Processing of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis' Dimension of Human Likeness: Some Methodological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Marcus; Jancke, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Mori's Uncanny Valley Hypothesis1,2 proposes that the perception of humanlike characters such as robots and, by extension, avatars (computer-generated characters) can evoke negative or positive affect (valence) depending on the object's degree of visual and behavioral realism along a dimension of human likeness (DHL) (Figure 1). But studies of affective valence of subjective responses to variously realistic non-human characters have produced inconsistent findings 3, 4, 5, 6. One of a number of reasons for this is that human likeness is not perceived as the hypothesis assumes. While the DHL can be defined following Mori's description as a smooth linear change in the degree of physical humanlike similarity, subjective perception of objects along the DHL can be understood in terms of the psychological effects of categorical perception (CP) 7. Further behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of category processing and CP along the DHL and of the potential influence of the dimension's underlying category structure on affective experience are needed. This protocol therefore focuses on the DHL and allows examination of CP. Based on the protocol presented in the video as an example, issues surrounding the methodology in the protocol and the use in "uncanny" research of stimuli drawn from morph continua to represent the DHL are discussed in the article that accompanies the video. The use of neuroimaging and morph stimuli to represent the DHL in order to disentangle brain regions neurally responsive to physical human-like similarity from those responsive to category change and category processing is briefly illustrated. PMID:23770728

  16. Gaining information about home visits in primary care: methodological issues from a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Home visits are part of general practice work in Germany. Within the context of an expanding elderly population and a decreasing number of general practitioner (GPs), open questions regarding the organisation and adequacy of GPs’ care in immobile patients remain. To answer these questions, we will conduct a representative primary data collection concerning contents and organisation of GPs’ home visits in 2014. Because this study will require considerable efforts for documentation and thus substantial involvement by participating GPs, we conducted a pilot study to see whether such a study design was feasible. Methods We used a mixed methods design with two study arms in a sample of teaching GPs of the University Halle. The quantitative arm evaluates participating GPs and documentation of home visits. The qualitative arm focuses on reasons for non-participation for GPs who declined to take part in the pilot study. Results Our study confirms previously observed reasons for non-response of GPs in the particular setting of home visits including lack of time and/or interest. In contrast to previous findings, monetary incentives were not crucial for GPs participation. Several factors influenced the documentation rate of home visits and resulted in a discrepancy between the numbers of home visits documented versus those actually conducted. The most frequently reported problem was related to obtaining patient consent, especially when patients were unable to provide informed consent due to cognitive deficits. Conclusions The results of our feasibility study provide evidence for improvement of the study design and study instruments to effectively conduct a documentation-intensive study of GPs doing home visits. Improvement of instructions and questionnaire regarding time variables and assessment of the need for home visits will be carried out to increase the reliability of future data. One particularly important methodological issue yet to be resolved is how to

  17. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network: An Effective Infrastructure for Addressing Important Issues in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a rapidly evolving field with active preclinical and clinical development of new strategies for patient assessment, graft selection and manipulation, and pre- and post-transplantation drug and cell therapy. New strategies require evaluation in definitive clinical trials; however, HCT trials face unique challenges, including the relatively small number of transplantations performed at any single center, the diverse indications for HCT requiring dissimilar approaches, the complex nature of the intervention itself, the risk of multiple complications in the immediate post-transplantation period, and the risk of important, though infrequent, late effects. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) was established by the US National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute to meet these challenges. In its 15 years as a network, the BMT CTN has proven to be a successful infrastructure for planning, implementing, and completing such trials and for providing definitive answers to questions leading to improvements in the understanding and practice of HCT. It has opened 37 trials, about one-half phase 2 and one-half phase 3, enrolled more than 8000 patients, and published 57 papers addressing important issues in the treatment of patients with life-threatening malignant and nonmalignant blood disorders. This review describes the network's accomplishments, key components of its success, lessons learned over the past 15 years, and challenges for the future.

  18. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family.

  19. Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field is comprised of essays that delineate the genesis and evolution of the thought and work of pioneers in the field of social issues and education. The authors (many of whom, themselves, are noted professors of education and who have done…

  20. Addressing Cultural Issues in an Organizational Context. Edited Conference Proceedings of the Teachers College Winter Roundtable (New York, New York, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samuel D., Jr., Ed.; Carter, Robert T., Ed.

    Papers from this year's conference reflect the Roundtable's theme of addressing cultural issues in an organizational context. Topics cover a wide range of institutional and organizational issues in corporate, educational, and treatment settings. Papers include: (1) "The New Corporate Language for Race Relations" (keynote) (Clayton P. Alderfer);…

  1. Methodological issues related to pooling results from panel studies of heart rate variability and its association with ambient air pollution.

    PubMed

    Buteau, Stephane; Goldberg, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    Reviews of observational studies and subsequent meta-analyses are challenging to interpret because of potential methodological issues and biases inherent in studies. In reviewing panel studies of the association between heart rate variability and ambient air pollution we identified a number of methodological issues that make difficult interpreting and pooling findings from longitudinal studies, notably issues related to associations arising from different type of designs, differences in design characteristics, including study populations, measurements of heart rate variability (e.g., duration and condition of the electrocardiogram recordings), exposure assessment (e.g., types of monitoring), metrics of exposure used, and parameters estimated from regression models. We conclude that many panel studies of the association between heart rate variability and ambient air pollution may not be comparable to each other, and thus caution must be exercised to avoid misleading conclusions.

  2. Current Issues in Nuclear Data Evaluation Methodology: {sup 235}U Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra and Multiplicity for Thermal Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Trkov, A.; Capote, R.; Pronyaev, V.G.

    2015-01-15

    Issues in evaluation methodology of the prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) and neutron multiplicity for the thermal-neutron-induced fission of the {sup 235}U are discussed. The inconsistency between the experimental differential and integral data is addressed. By using differential data as ”shape data” good consistency was achieved between available sets of differential data. Integral dosimetry data have been used to define the PFNS slope at high outgoing neutron energies, where the quality of the differential data is poor. The inclusion into the fit of measured integral (spectrum-averaged) cross sections had a very small impact in the region where differential PFNS data are abundant and accurate, but removed the discrepancy with integral data at higher neutron emission energies. All experimental data are consistently fitted giving a PFNS average energy of 2.008 MeV. The impact on criticality prediction of the newly evaluated PFNS was tested. The highly enriched {sup 235}U solution assemblies with high leakage HEU-SOL-THERM-001 and HEU-SOL-THERM-009 benchmarks are the most sensitive to the PFNS. Criticality calculations for those solutions show a significant increase in reactivity if the average neutron energy of the fission neutrons is reduced from the ENDF/B-VI.5 value of 2.03 MeV. The proposed reduction of the PFNS average energy by 1.1% can be compensated by reducing the average number of neutrons per fission ν{sup ¯} at the thermal energy to the Gwin et al. measured value. The simple least-squares PFNS fit was confirmed by a more sophisticated combined fit of differential PFNS data for {sup 233,235}U, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 252}Cf nuclides with the generalised least-squares method using the GMA and GANDR codes.

  3. Complicating Contexts: Issues of Methodology in Researching the Language and Literacies of Instant Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gloria E.

    2004-01-01

    This commentary discusses the methodological challenges of researching the intersection of online and offline activities of an adolescent girl engaged in instant messaging. If the New Literacy Studies stance that literacy practices are locally situated is accepted, a methodology for interrogating the multiple online and offline contexts that…

  4. Current psychometric and methodological issues in the measurement of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James W; Sumner, Jennifer A; Raes, Filip; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Debeer, Elise; Hermans, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Autobiographical memory is a multifaceted construct that is related to psychopathology and other difficulties in functioning. Across many studies, a variety of methods have been used to study autobiographical memory. The relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) and psychopathology has been of particular interest, and many studies of this cognitive phenomenon rely on the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) to assess it. In this paper, we examine several methodological approaches to studying autobiographical memory, and focus primarily on methodological and psychometric considerations in OGM research. We pay particular attention to what is known about the reliability, validity, and methodological variations of the AMT. The AMT has adequate psychometric properties, but there is great variability in methodology across studies that use it. Methodological recommendations and suggestions for future studies are presented.

  5. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  6. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family. PMID:27497456

  7. Identifying and Responding to Ethical and Methodological Issues in After-Death Interviews with Next-of-Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Beverly R.; Woodby, Lesa L.; Bailey, F. Amos; Burgio, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    After-death research with next-of-kin can enhance our understanding of end-of-life care and translate into better services for dying persons and their survivors. This article describes ethical and methodological issues that emerged in a pilot of a face-to-face interview guide designed to elicit next-of-kin's perceptions of end-of-life care. The…

  8. What Educators in Catholic Schools Might Expect when Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues: A Study of Needs and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael J.; Sever, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicated that Catholic high schools in the United States were not addressing the topic of homosexuality in any significant and systematic way prior to the mid-1990s, though practitioners in Catholic high schools have begun to address the topic in recent years. This study, in sampling seven Catholic schools in the greater Chicago…

  9. Feminist-informed participatory action research: a methodology of choice for examining critical nursing issues.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Andrea M; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

    2007-04-01

    Identifying a methodology to guide a study that aims to enhance service delivery can be challenging. Participatory action research offers a solution to this challenge as it both informs and is informed by critical social theory. In addition, using a feminist lens helps acquiesce this approach as a suitable methodology for changing practice. This methodology embraces empowerment self-determination and the facilitation of agreed change as central tenets that guide the research process. Encouraged by the work of Foucault, Friere, Habermas, and Maguire, this paper explicates the philosophical assumptions underpinning critical social theory and outlines how feminist influences are complimentary in exploring the processes and applications of nursing research that seeks to embrace change. PMID:17394515

  10. New Directions in Research: Contemporary Qualitative Research Methodologies and Issues in Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph; Steinkuehler, Constance A.; Black, Rebecca W.; Clinton, Katherine A.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Dillon, Deborah R.

    2005-01-01

    Scholars who are drawn to qualitative research methodologies represent a diverse group of disciplines and fields. They also represent themselves as researchers and the theoretical frameworks in which they work quite differently. Indeed, it was this diversity in representation that initially motivated us to propose a New Directions feature on…

  11. Methodological Issues in the Use of Peer Sociometric Nominations with Middle School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, Francois; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies reporting sociometric assessments based on nominations have been characterized by important methodological inconsistencies when conducted in the middle school context. The purpose of this study was to examine (1) the possibility of a response bias when participants are provided with a long roster sorted alphabetically, (2) the impact of…

  12. Assessing the Self-Esteem of Female Undergraduate Students: An Issue of Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knightley, Wendy M.; Whitelock, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    For many students, embarking on higher education can pose particular threats and challenges, not only to academic identity, but also to fundamental, personal aspects of the self. This paper reports a methodological study that employed quantitative and qualitative research methods to explore the impact on the sense of self and self-esteem of a…

  13. Methodological Issues in Studying Elderly Populations: Looking at Survivors of the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahana, Boaz; And Others

    To investigate the coping skills and adaptational outcomes among elderly survivors of the holocaust and a comparison group of aged individuals who did not endure extreme stress requires overcoming several methodological challenges. First, stress must be defined to include the personal meaning or evaluation of the sources of stress and its…

  14. Methodological Issues in Meta-Analyzing Standard Deviations: Comment on Bond and DePaulo (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Therese D.; Wu, Meng-Jia

    2008-01-01

    In this comment on C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo, the authors raise methodological concerns about the approach used to analyze the data. The authors suggest further refinement of the procedures used, and they compare the approach taken by Bond and DePaulo with standard methods for meta-analysis. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  15. Evolution and application of instream flow methodologies to small hydropower developments: an overview of the issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trihey, E. Woody; Stalnaker, Clair B.

    1985-01-01

    ethods for evaluating instream flow needs have evolved over the last 30 years resulting in two categories which are defined as “standard-setting” and “incremental”. Standard-setting methodologies refer to those measurement and interpretative techniques designed to generate a flow value(s) which is intended to maintain the fishery at some acceptable level. Incremental methodologies on the other hand are organized and repeatable processes by which: (1) a fishery habitat/streamflow relationship and the hydrology of the stream are transformed into a baseline habitat time series; (2) proposed water management alternatives are quantified and compared with the baseline; and (3) project operating rules are negotiated. A hierarchical approach to small-hydro instream flow analysis is suggested.

  16. Personality variables as mediators and moderators of family history risk for alcoholism: conceptual and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Rogosch, F; Chassin, L; Sher, K J

    1990-07-01

    Recently there has been great interest in possible mediators and moderators of family history risk for alcoholism. However, previous studies have failed to employ appropriate designs and data analytic strategies to identify moderators and mediators. This article uses a large data set to illustrate such analyses. In the current data, both presumed personality risk and dispositional self-awareness were found to play moderator (rather than mediator) roles. The conceptual, methodological and data analytic implications of the mediator-moderator distinction are discussed.

  17. Top 10 Ways To Improve Public Schools. Innovative Solutions To Help Address the Issues and Challenges Facing Most Public School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Comptroller of Public Accounts, Austin.

    This report offers the top 10 challenges identified by public schools and the ways that the Texas School Performance Review (TSPR) suggests that these issues be addressed. The TSPR ensures that scarce education resources are spent in the classroom. For a TSPR review, the TSPR team is invited in for months of detailed study, during which it asks…

  18. Some methodological and practical perspectives on severe-accident issue resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.

    1995-12-31

    Severe accidents involve intense multiphase interactions in highly complex and grossly evolving geometries, These processes can impact containment integrity in a variety of ways and to varying degrees of extent. When there is disagreement among experts about the magnitude of this impact and associated consequences, we have an {open_quotes}issue.{close_quotes} The appearance of such issues is a natural consequence of the complexity of the underlying long sequences, and their potential impact has been dramatized by NUREG-1150. Perhaps the nuclear field, especially through the severe-accident problem, has led the way, but the situation is similar in other aspects of human endeavor when we are asking to quantify risks in the absence of direct empirical evidence. Basically, one needs to make predictions on the basis of incomplete information, and the related use, and misuse, of expert opinion are well known. Issues that remain stubbornly unresolved for extended time spans are highly detrimental to public confidence regarding acceptability of the technology (or natural hazard) that give rise to them. On the other hand, when potential problems are not recognized, or when issues are artificially closed, this can lead to public mistrust about the {open_quote}keepers{close_quotes} of the technology as well - with a similar outcome. Worse, this can lead to damaging and unexpected consequences. Clearly, it is of major importance that potential problems are recognized and that issues are identified and resolved in a timely manner. But it is also extremely important that resolutions are robust.

  19. Methodological issues in measuring patient-reported outcomes: the agenda of the Work Group on Outcomes Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fowler, F J; Cleary, P D; Magaziner, J; Patrick, D L; Benjamin, K L

    1994-07-01

    The primary goal of the Inter-PORT work group on Outcomes Assessment is to foster methodological knowledge about the implications of various measure and design decisions for studies of the outcomes of treatment. A number of key methodological issues currently are unresolved and are in need of further study. These include: 1) the best questions to ask to assess how patients are affected by their treatments; 2) the comparative advantages of various study designs, including prospective cohorts, retrospective studies, and randomized clinical trials; 3) the way data collection decisions, such as mode of data collection and use of proxy respondents, affect study results; and 4) the best way to assess the significance of observed effects from patient, provider, and public policy perspectives. Studies conducted by the Patients Outcomes Research Teams (PORTs) are using diverse designs, measures, and data collection procedures. They provide a unique opportunity to further knowledge about methods of obtaining information about treatment outcomes. Through meetings, conferences, and publications, the Inter-PORT work group on Outcomes Assessment is trying to stimulate analyses aimed at methodological issues summarized in this paper and to ensure that new knowledge about methods is disseminated to a wide audience.

  20. Review of Research on Parent Training for Parents with Intellectual Disability: Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jane

    1997-01-01

    A review of the research on parent training programs for parents with intellectual disabilities found that, of 10 studies, 8 applied single-subject designs, two used quantitative methods, one examined basic child-care skills training, 2 examined decision making in child rearing, 5 were about safety, and 3 addressed the mother-child interaction.…

  1. Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…

  2. Inclusion in Urban Educational Environments: Addressing Issues of Diversity, Equity, and Social Justice. Issues in the Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice of Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Denise E.; McMahon, Brenda J.

    2006-01-01

    This book is motivated by the authors' experiences in working with students and their families in urban communities. They are particularly concerned about the urgent imperative to address the endemic educational and societal challenges that pervade the lives of urban students, particularly those who live in poverty, are of minority and immigrant…

  3. Context variations and pluri-methodological issues concerning the expression of a social representation: the example of the Gypsy community.

    PubMed

    Piermattéo, Anthony; Lo Monaco, Grégory; Moreau, Laure; Girandola, Fabien; Tavani, Jean-Louis

    2014-11-20

    Within the social representations' field of research, the "mute zone" hypothesis considers that some objects are characterized by counternormative content that people usually do not express in standard conditions of production. Within the framework of this approach, this study aims to explore the variations in the expression about the Gypsy community following the manipulation of different contexts and the issues associated with a pluri-methodological approach of data analysis. Indeed, two methodologies have been combined. The participants were asked to express themselves in public or in private. In addition, the identity of the experimenter was also manipulated as she presented herself as a Gypsy or not. Then, through a set of analyses based on a methodological triangulation approach, we were able to observe a recurrent modulation of the participants' answers. These analyses highlighted a greater incidence of the expression of counternormative elements when the context of expression was private and especially when the experimenter did not present herself as a Gypsy (p < .01, η p ² = .06). These results will be discussed in terms of the contribution of the methodologies employed and their comparison within the framework of the study of counternormative content.

  4. Addressing Three Common Issues in Research on Youth Activities: An Integrative Approach for Operationalizing and Analyzing Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Youth activity involvement has been operationalized and analyzed using a wide range of approaches. Researchers face the challenges of distinguishing between the effects of involvement versus noninvolvement and intensity of involvement in a particular activity, accounting simultaneously for cumulative effects of involvement, and addressing multiple…

  5. The American Competitiveness Initiative: Addressing the STEM Teacher Shortage and Improving Student Academic Readiness. BHEF Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    America's leaders are increasingly concerned about U.S. competitiveness in a rapidly globalizing world. In response, during the 2006 State of the Union Address, President Bush introduced the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) to promote policy that bolsters student achievement in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and…

  6. Insights into the Interactions between Educational Messages: Looking across Multiple Organizations Addressing Water Issues in Maricopa County, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Bethany; Saltz, Charlene; Elser, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The public receives environmental information from a variety of sources. Evaluation of a single program or one organization's effort is incomplete. Through surveys and interviews, we evaluate the cumulative impact of outreach by 20 water-related organizations in Maricopa County, Arizona. Household water conservation is a topic addressed by 18…

  7. Measuring Fidelity of Implementation--Methodological and Conceptual Issues and Challenges. CRESST Report 811

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmundson, Ellen; Herman, Joan; Ringstaff, Cathy; Dai, Yunyun; Timms, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A central challenge in efficacy studies centers on the issue of "fidelity of implementation," that is, the extent to which participants use the curriculum specified by curriculum developers. In this study, we describe and discuss a "fidelity of implementation" model using multiple methods and instruments to compare two versions of a science…

  8. Current Methodological Issues in the Study of Children with Inherited Neuromuscular Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercuri, Eugenio; Messina, Sonia; Pane, Marika; Bertini, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Several clinical trials assessing children with hereditary neuromuscular disorders have been performed over the last decade. These studies highlighted issues related to design and performance of clinical studies assessing children with this group of disorders. This article reviews recent literature and clinical experience in this area,…

  9. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics--an interdisciplinary field with a long tradition--is approached in this two-part article from two directions, in each case with several objectives. Part I, in this issue of "JAE", is devoted to the first direction, which is mainly definitional and organizational: the objectives are to present an outline of the field's…

  10. Methodological Issues in Developing a Multi-Dimensional Coding Procedure for Small-Group Chat Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Stahl, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    In CSCL research, collaboration through chat has primarily been studied in dyadic settings. This article discusses three issues that emerged during the development of a multi-dimensional coding procedure for small-group chat communication: (a) the unit of analysis and unit fragmentation, (b) the reconstruction of the response structure and (c)…

  11. Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Research on Relationships between Children and Nonparental Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses general conclusions for which evidence is provided by the research presented in this issue. Conclusions relate to (1) child-teacher relationships and attachments; (2) concordances between children's relationships with their teachers and parents; (3) children's internal representations of their relationships; (4) factors underlying…

  12. [The Philosophical Relevance of the Study of Schizophrenia. Methodological and Conceptual Issues].

    PubMed

    López-Silva, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The study of mental illness involves profound methodological and philosophical debates. This article explores the disciplinary complementarity, particularly, between philosophy of mind, phenomenology, and empirical studies in psychiatry and psychopathology in the context of the understanding of schizophrenia. After clarifying the possible role of these disciplines, it is explored the way in which a certain symptom of schizophrenia (thought insertion) challenges the current phenomenological approach to the relationship between consciousness and self-awareness. Finally, it is concluded that philosophy of mind, phenomenology, and empirical studies in psychiatry and psychopathology should, necessarily, regulate their progress jointly in order to reach plausible conclusions about what we call 'schizophrenia'. PMID:26575131

  13. [The Philosophical Relevance of the Study of Schizophrenia. Methodological and Conceptual Issues].

    PubMed

    López-Silva, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The study of mental illness involves profound methodological and philosophical debates. This article explores the disciplinary complementarity, particularly, between philosophy of mind, phenomenology, and empirical studies in psychiatry and psychopathology in the context of the understanding of schizophrenia. After clarifying the possible role of these disciplines, it is explored the way in which a certain symptom of schizophrenia (thought insertion) challenges the current phenomenological approach to the relationship between consciousness and self-awareness. Finally, it is concluded that philosophy of mind, phenomenology, and empirical studies in psychiatry and psychopathology should, necessarily, regulate their progress jointly in order to reach plausible conclusions about what we call 'schizophrenia'.

  14. Methodological and conceptual issues in health care system comparisons: Canada, Norway, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Brody, B A; Lie, R K

    1993-10-01

    There is a growing interest in comparison of international health care data with the hope that such studies will enable individual systems to learn from other systems. Such comparisons, however, presuppose that there exist common criteria for evaluating health care systems. The main thesis of this paper is that these comparative studies are misleading because they employ inappropriate operationalizations of these criteria because the operationalizations are based upon mistaken global conceptualizations of the criteria in question. The essay provides a methodological critique of what has been done and sets a new agenda for future research. PMID:8138739

  15. Methodological issues in the study of intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal functional disorder with the highest prevalence in the industrialized world. The intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a role in the pathogenesis of IBS and is not merely a consequence of this disorder. Previous research efforts have not revealed unequivocal microbiological signatures of IBS, and the experimental results are contradictory. The experimental methodologies adopted to investigate the complex intestinal ecosystem drastically impact the quality and significance of the results. Therefore, to consider the methodological aspects of the research on IM in IBS, we reviewed 29 relevant original research articles identified through a PubMed search using three combinations of keywords: "irritable bowel syndrome + microflora", "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiota" and "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiome". For each study, we reviewed the quality and significance of the scientific evidence obtained with respect to the experimental method adopted. The data obtained from each study were compared with all considered publications to identify potential inconsistencies and explain contradictory results. The analytical revision of the studies referenced in the present review has contributed to the identification of microbial groups whose relative abundance significantly alters IBS, suggesting that these microbial groups could be IM signatures for this syndrome. The identification of microbial biomarkers in the IM can be advantageous for the development of new diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of different subtypes of IBS.

  16. Methodological issues in the study of intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal functional disorder with the highest prevalence in the industrialized world. The intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a role in the pathogenesis of IBS and is not merely a consequence of this disorder. Previous research efforts have not revealed unequivocal microbiological signatures of IBS, and the experimental results are contradictory. The experimental methodologies adopted to investigate the complex intestinal ecosystem drastically impact the quality and significance of the results. Therefore, to consider the methodological aspects of the research on IM in IBS, we reviewed 29 relevant original research articles identified through a PubMed search using three combinations of keywords: “irritable bowel syndrome + microflora”, “irritable bowel syndrome + microbiota” and “irritable bowel syndrome + microbiome”. For each study, we reviewed the quality and significance of the scientific evidence obtained with respect to the experimental method adopted. The data obtained from each study were compared with all considered publications to identify potential inconsistencies and explain contradictory results. The analytical revision of the studies referenced in the present review has contributed to the identification of microbial groups whose relative abundance significantly alters IBS, suggesting that these microbial groups could be IM signatures for this syndrome. The identification of microbial biomarkers in the IM can be advantageous for the development of new diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of different subtypes of IBS. PMID:25083056

  17. Women Reaching Women: Change in Action--Using Action Learning to Help Address Seemingly Intractable and Large Scale Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Dawn; Watts, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 28 women from the Women's Institute volunteered to join us in a project exploring the issue of world poverty and gender inequality, specifically highlighting the disproportionate effects of climate change on women. Collectively we were asking a big question about how we as individuals, based in England, make a difference on a global…

  18. Beyond Boston: Applying Theory to Understand and Address Sustainability Issues in Focused Deterrence Initiatives for Violence Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Engel, Robin S.; Lovins, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Focused deterrence initiatives, including the most famous, Boston's Operation Ceasefire, have been associated with significant reductions in violence in several U.S. cities. Despite early successes, some cities have experienced long-term sustainability issues. Recent work in Cincinnati, Ohio, has focused on institutionalizing focused deterrence in…

  19. Active parental consent in school-based research. An examination of ethical and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Esbensen, F A; Deschenes, E P; Vogel, R E; West, J; Arboit, K; Harris, L

    1996-12-01

    To date, most school-based research has used passive parental consent. However, the Family Privacy Protection Act of 1995 aims to change these requirements. The proposed legislation requires written parental consent if minors are to be asked "sensitive" questions as part of any program or activity funded in whole or in part by the federal government. This act is representative of a growing trend toward restricting research involving minors. Whether or not this act is passed by Congress, two lines of concern are highlighted by this legislation. The first deals with ethical issues surrounding consent procedures. For instance, are parental rights compromised when active consent is not mandated? A second line of inquiry pertains to the effect of active consent procedures on response rates and sample bias. In this article, the authors discuss ethical issues surrounding passive and active consent procedures and then report response rates from two projects in which active consent procedures were implemented.

  20. Conducting Economic Evaluations Alongside Randomised Trials: Current Methodological Issues and Novel Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Dyfrig; Charles, Joanna; Dawoud, Dalia; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Holmes, Emily; Jones, Carys; Parham, Paul; Plumpton, Catrin; Ridyard, Colin; Lloyd-Williams, Huw; Wood, Eifiona; Yeo, Seow Tien

    2016-05-01

    Trial-based economic evaluations are an important aspect of health technology assessment. The availability of patient-level data coupled with unbiased estimates of clinical outcomes means that randomised controlled trials are effective vehicles for the generation of economic data. However there are methodological challenges to trial-based evaluations, including the collection of reliable data on resource use and cost, choice of health outcome measure, calculating minimally important differences, dealing with missing data, extrapolating outcomes and costs over time and the analysis of multinational trials. This review focuses on the state of the art of selective elements regarding the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of trial-based economic evaluations. The limitations of existing approaches are detailed and novel methods introduced. The review is internationally relevant but with a focus towards practice in the UK. PMID:26753558

  1. Everything Hertz: methodological issues in short-term frequency-domain HRV

    PubMed Central

    Heathers, James A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Frequency analysis of the electrocardiographic RR interval is a common method of quantifying autonomic outflow by measuring the beat-to-beat modulation of the heart (heart rate variability; HRV). This review identifies a series of problems with the methods of doing so—the interpretation of low-frequency spectral power, the multiple use of equivalent normalized low frequency (LFnu), high frequency (HFnu) and ratio (LF/HF) terms, and the lack of control over extraneous variables, and reviews research in the calendar year 2012 to determine their prevalence and severity. Results support the mathematical equivalency of ratio units across studies, a reliance on those variables to explain autonomic outflow, and insufficient control of critical experimental variables. Research measurement of HRV has a substantial need for general methodological improvement. PMID:24847279

  2. Conceptual and methodological issues in the comparative study of collective group movements.

    PubMed

    Pyritz, Lennart; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter

    2010-07-01

    In our commentary, we highlight several conceptual and methodological problems that have hampered broader integration of studies of collective group movements. Specifically, we argue that studies of captive animals should only be used to elucidate behavioural mechanisms. Moreover, the diversity of physical environments in which group movements occur as well as the social diversity of groups deserve more consideration in integrative studies. Furthermore, tests of predictions based on modelling studies are often hampered by the fact that models include variables that are difficult or impossible to measure in real animals. We also advocate the use of an empirical, rather than subjective establishment of operational definitions of group movements and the associated individual roles. Finally, we emphasize the utility of controlled experiments in the study of collective decision-making and group movements and encourage their wider application.

  3. Delivering spacecraft control centers with embedded knowledge-based systems: The methodology issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayache, S.; Haziza, M.; Cayrac, D.

    1994-01-01

    Matra Marconi Space (MMS) occupies a leading place in Europe in the domain of satellite and space data processing systems. The maturity of the knowledge-based systems (KBS) technology, the theoretical and practical experience acquired in the development of prototype, pre-operational and operational applications, make it possible today to consider the wide operational deployment of KBS's in space applications. In this perspective, MMS has to prepare the introduction of the new methods and support tools that will form the basis of the development of such systems. This paper introduces elements of the MMS methodology initiatives in the domain and the main rationale that motivated the approach. These initiatives develop along two main axes: knowledge engineering methods and tools, and a hybrid method approach for coexisting knowledge-based and conventional developments.

  4. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), “addressing inequalities” and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  5. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-05-29

    This paper describes a prototype for this EAS (real time) in the Bay area. Approach is pragmatic, attempting to establish a prototype system at a low cost and quickly. A real-time warning system can protect the public and mitigate earthquake damage. The proposed system is a distributed network of real-time strong-motion monitoring stations that telemetered data in real time to a central analysis facility which could transmit earthquake parameter information to an area before elastic wave energy arrived. Upgrades and issues that should be resolved before an operational EAS can be established, are listed.

  6. Methodological Issues in Monitoring Health Services and Outcomes for Stroke Survivors: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Mary; Papini, Donato; Benvenuti, Francesco; Nerattini, Marco; Roccato, Enrico; Macellari, Velio; Stanhope, Steven; Macko, Richard; Weinrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Obtaining comprehensive health outcomes and health services utilization data on stroke patients has been difficult. This research grew out of a memorandum of understanding between the NIH and the ISS (its Italian equivalent) to foster collaborative research on rehabilitation. Objective The purpose of this study was to pilot a methodology using administrative data to monitor and improve health outcomes for stroke survivors in Tuscany. Methods This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to study health resources available to and utilized by stroke survivors during the first 12 months post-stroke in two Italian health authorities (AUSL10 and 11). Mortality rates were used as an outcome measure. Results Number of inpatient days, number of prescriptions, and prescription costs were significantly higher for patients in AUSL 10 compared to AUSL 11. There was no significant difference between mortality rates. Conclusion Using administrative data to monitor process and outcomes for chronic stroke has the potential to save money and improve outcomes. However, measures of functional impairment and more sensitive outcome measures than mortality are important. Additional recommendations for enhanced data collection and reporting are discussed. PMID:21057665

  7. Evolutionary perspectives on learning: conceptual and methodological issues in the study of adaptive specializations.

    PubMed

    Krause, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Inquiry into evolutionary adaptations has flourished since the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology. Comparative methods, genetic techniques, and various experimental and modeling approaches are used to test adaptive hypotheses. In psychology, the concept of adaptation is broadly applied and is central to comparative psychology and cognition. The concept of an adaptive specialization of learning is a proposed account for exceptions to general learning processes, as seen in studies of Pavlovian conditioning of taste aversions, sexual responses, and fear. The evidence generally consists of selective associations forming between biologically relevant conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, with conditioned responses differing in magnitude, persistence, or other measures relative to non-biologically relevant stimuli. Selective associations for biologically relevant stimuli may suggest adaptive specializations of learning, but do not necessarily confirm adaptive hypotheses as conceived of in evolutionary biology. Exceptions to general learning processes do not necessarily default to an adaptive specialization explanation, even if experimental results "make biological sense". This paper examines the degree to which hypotheses of adaptive specializations of learning in sexual and fear response systems have been tested using methodologies developed in evolutionary biology (e.g., comparative methods, quantitative and molecular genetics, survival experiments). A broader aim is to offer perspectives from evolutionary biology for testing adaptive hypotheses in psychological science.

  8. Methodological issues in human-exposure studies of low-level-solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, D.; Hudnell, H.K.; Prah, J.

    1992-01-01

    The design of appropriate studies to assess the sensory irritant and neurobehavioral effects of exposure to complex VOC mixtures poses a variety of methodological challenges, particularly at the low levels found in new buildings. For instance, Otto et al (1989) exposed subjects to a 25 mg/m3 mixture of 22 VOCs representative of the highest concentration encountered in new homes. The concentration is equivalent, in mass, to about 7 ppm toluene. As one might predict, the mixture produced no consistent effects on the performance of an extensive neurobehavioral test battery, but did elicit classical SBS symptoms of eye and throat irritation, headache and fatigue. Failure to find functional deficits could be due to several factors. Perhaps the tests were not sensitive (or difficult) enough to detect effects. The authors used the neurobehavioral evaluation system which was designed for occupational field studies. Further study is needed to determine the optimal testing parameters for use in repeated-measure laboratory studies of university students. Further study is also needed to determine which subsets of the population are most vulnerable to adverse effects of VOC exposure. Finally, other physiological endpoints (e.g., measures of inflammation and pulmonary function) need to be explored.

  9. [Relevant methodological issues from the SBBrasil 2010 Project for national health surveys].

    PubMed

    Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe; Silva, Nilza Nunes da; Nascimento, Antonio Carlos; Freitas, Cláudia Helena Soares de Morais; Casotti, Elisete; Peres, Karen Glazer; Moura, Lenildo de; Peres, Marco A; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Cortes, Maria Ilma de Souza; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Paludetto Júnior, Moacir; Figueiredo, Nilcema; Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de; Pinto, Rafaela da Silveira; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Reis, Sandra Cristina Guimarães Bahia; Narvai, Paulo Capel

    2012-01-01

    The SBBrasil 2010 Project (SBB10) was designed as a nationwide oral health epidemiological survey within a health surveillance strategy. This article discusses methodological aspects of the SBB10 Project that can potentially help expand and develop knowledge in the health field. This was a nationwide survey with stratified multi-stage cluster sampling. The sample domains were 27 State capitals and 150 rural municipalities (counties) from the country's five major geographic regions. The sampling units were census tracts and households for the State capitals and municipalities, census tracts, and households for the rural areas. Thirty census tracts were selected in the State capitals and 30 municipalities in the countryside. The precision considered the demographic domains grouped by density of the overall population and the internal variability of oral health indices. The study evaluated dental caries, periodontal disease, malocclusion, fluorosis, tooth loss, and dental trauma in five age groups (5, 12, 15-19, 35-44, and 65-74 years). PMID:22714967

  10. What Can Be Learned From a Laboratory Model of Conceptual Change? Descriptive Findings and Methodological Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, Stellan; Cosejo, David G.

    2014-07-01

    The problem of how people process novel and unexpected information— deep learning (Ohlsson in Deep learning: how the mind overrides experience. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011)—is central to several fields of research, including creativity, belief revision, and conceptual change. Researchers have not converged on a single theory for conceptual change, nor has any one theory been decisively falsified. One contributing reason is the difficulty of collecting informative data in this field. We propose that the commonly used methodologies of historical analysis, classroom interventions, and developmental studies, although indispensible, can be supplemented with studies of laboratory models of conceptual change. We introduce re- categorization, an experimental paradigm in which learners transition from one definition of a categorical concept to another, incompatible definition of the same concept, a simple form of conceptual change. We describe a re-categorization experiment, report some descriptive findings pertaining to the effects of category complexity, the temporal unfolding of learning, and the nature of the learner's final knowledge state. We end with a brief discussion of ways in which the re-categorization model can be improved.

  11. Methodologic issues in a population-based health survey of Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Doebbeling, Bradley N; Jones, Martha F; Hall, Daniel B; Clarke, William R; Woolson, Robert F; Torner, James C; Burmeister, Leon F; Snyders-Crumley, Terri; Barrett, Drue H; Falter, Kenneth H; Merchant, James A; Nusser, Sarah; Anderson, Dianne; Schwartz, David A

    2002-05-01

    This report describes the principal methods used in the development, conduct, and analysis of the research study "Health Assessment of Persian Gulf War Veterans from Iowa" (Iowa Gulf War Study). The methods presented include an outline of the organizational structure, study timeline, hypotheses, outcome definitions, and study design. Adhering to a strict timeline, the study protocol and instruments were developed, and a stratified sample of 3,695 military personnel (76% participation) was located and surveyed by structured telephone interview. The study tracked personnel from all service branches residing nationally and internationally, including those discharged from service. This study required development and implementation of methods appropriate to analysis of data collected in a complex sampling framework and methodological procedures to ensure scientific rigor in a highly public and politicized environment. Statistical analyses were conducted on a priori health outcomes and required development of methods to compute Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel adjusted rate differences. This environment facilitated rapid implementation, critique by scientific and public advisors, a high participation rate, and rapid publication. PMID:12007551

  12. Methodologic issues in a population-based health survey of Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Doebbeling, Bradley N; Jones, Martha F; Hall, Daniel B; Clarke, William R; Woolson, Robert F; Torner, James C; Burmeister, Leon F; Snyders-Crumley, Terri; Barrett, Drue H; Falter, Kenneth H; Merchant, James A; Nusser, Sarah; Anderson, Dianne; Schwartz, David A

    2002-05-01

    This report describes the principal methods used in the development, conduct, and analysis of the research study "Health Assessment of Persian Gulf War Veterans from Iowa" (Iowa Gulf War Study). The methods presented include an outline of the organizational structure, study timeline, hypotheses, outcome definitions, and study design. Adhering to a strict timeline, the study protocol and instruments were developed, and a stratified sample of 3,695 military personnel (76% participation) was located and surveyed by structured telephone interview. The study tracked personnel from all service branches residing nationally and internationally, including those discharged from service. This study required development and implementation of methods appropriate to analysis of data collected in a complex sampling framework and methodological procedures to ensure scientific rigor in a highly public and politicized environment. Statistical analyses were conducted on a priori health outcomes and required development of methods to compute Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel adjusted rate differences. This environment facilitated rapid implementation, critique by scientific and public advisors, a high participation rate, and rapid publication.

  13. Body image in Brazil: recent advances in the state of knowledge and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Kakeshita, Idalina Shiraishi; Costa, Telma Maria Braga; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze Brazilian literature on body image and the theoretical and methodological advances that have been made. METHODS A detailed review was undertaken of the Brazilian literature on body image, selecting published articles, dissertations and theses from the SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS and PubMed databases and the CAPES thesis database. Google Scholar was also used. There was no start date for the search, which used the following search terms: “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “scale(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “questionnaire(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “instrument(s)”; “body image” limited to Brazil and “body image”. RESULTS The majority of measures available were intended to be used in college students, with half of them evaluating satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body. Females and adolescents of both sexes were the most studied population. There has been a significant increase in the number of available instruments. Nevertheless, numerous published studies have used non-validated instruments, with much confusion in the use of the appropriate terms (e.g., perception, dissatisfaction, distortion). CONCLUSIONS Much more is needed to understand body image within the Brazilian population, especially in terms of evaluating different age groups and diversifying the components/dimensions assessed. However, interest in this theme is increasing, and important steps have been taken in a short space of time. PMID:24897056

  14. On the extension of modern best-estimate plus uncertainy methodologies to future fast reactor and advanced fuel licensing - initial evaluation of issues

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Mcclure, Patrick R

    2009-01-01

    precedence in the NRC. The method is generically referred to as a 'Best Estimate plus Uncertainty' approach (BE+U), since the goal of the methodology is to compare the model value (best estimate) plus any uncertainty to a figure of merit like cladding temperature. The challenges for extending the BE+U (1) method for fuel qualification for an Advanced Reactor Fuel are driven by: schedule, the need for data, the data sufficiency, the identification of important phenomenon, the process of validation (with focus on the multi-scale model), and the need to produce and extended best estimate plus uncertainty methodology. This paper examines these issues an offers up a proposed set of methods that extend the current BE+U methodology address most if not all of these challenges.

  15. Brain imaging of the self--conceptual, anatomical and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg; Qin, Pengmin; Feinberg, Todd E

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we consider two major issues: conceptual-experimental approaches to the self, and the neuroanatomical substrate of the self. We distinguish content- and processed-based concepts of the self that entail different experimental strategies, and anatomically, we investigate the concept of midline structures in further detail and present a novel view on the anatomy of an integrated subcortical-cortical midline system. Presenting meta-analytic evidence, we show that the anterior paralimbic, e.g. midline, regions do indeed seem to be specific for self-specific stimuli. We conclude that future investigation of the self need to develop novel concepts that are more empirically plausible than those currently in use. Different concepts of self will require novel experimental designs that include, for example, the brain's resting state activity as an independent variable. Modifications of both conceptual and anatomical dimensions will allow an empirically more plausible account of the relationship between brain and self.

  16. An approach to addressing ethical issues in a community-based risk assessment for HIV: a case from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Murgavel, Kailapuri G; Mayer, Kenneth H; Anand, S; Celentano, David D; Solomon, Suniti

    2005-06-01

    Community-based assessment of HIV prevalence and behavioural risk factors is the basis for deciding priorities of prevention and care programmes. Here, upholding the human rights of participants in assessment is of utmost importance. The objective of the paper was to describe the process of implementation of an epidemiological survey to assess HIV-related behavioural and biological factors in Chennai city in South India and to suggest an ethical framework for conducting similar assessment activities in developing-country settings. A survey was conducted with participation from residents (n=1,659) of low-income urban communities (slums) as part of a community-based HIV/STD-prevention trial. Administration of the survey was preceded by extensive community contact and household visits to inform community members about the trial and assessment activities. Formative research further strengthened rapport with community, highlighted community concerns, and identified HIV-related risk behaviours that informed questionnaire design. The process of obtaining informed consent began before assessment activities and provided an opportunity for individuals to discuss participation with their families and friends. Privacy during assessment, comprehensive follow-up care for those who tested positive for HIV/STDs, such as nutritional and prevention counselling, referral services for opportunistic infections, and antenatal-care options for pregnant women increased trust and credibility of the project. The sustained availability of trial staff to facilitate access to resources to address non-HIV/STD-related felt-needs further strengthened participation of the community members. These resources included liaison services with local government to obtain public services, such as water and electricity and resources, to address concerns, such as alcohol abuse and domestic violence. Based on this experience, an ethical framework is suggested for conducting HIV epidemiological risk assessment

  17. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  18. Fostering youth leadership to address workplace and community environmental health issues: a university-school-community partnership.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Brown, Marianne; Domenzain, Alejandra

    2005-07-01

    Many communities of color are disproportionately exposed to workplace and community environmental hazards. This article presents the results of a pilot project designed by a university-school-community partnership to develop youth leadership to confront these exposures. Using a popular empowerment education approach, students applied peer education, research, and organizing skills learned in the classroom to community-based internships in a service-learning model. Evaluation results from pretests and posttests, focus groups, and in-depth interviews demonstrated that students shared what they learned about young workers' rights and environmental justice with family and friends. They developed a critical analysis of environmental inequities, created a citywide youth coalition that advocates around legal, educational, and environmental issues affecting youth, and implemented campaigns to enforce child labor laws and to prevent school construction on contaminated land. This multifaceted model can serve as an important foundation to develop youth leaders to influence environmental policies in a variety of communities.

  19. Understanding the support needs of patients accessing test results online. PHRs offer great promise, but support issues must be addressed to ensure appropriate access.

    PubMed

    Wiljer, David; Urowitz, Sara; Apatu, Emma; Leonard, Kevin; Quartey, Naa Kwarley; Catton, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Personal health records (PHR) offer great promise in transforming the patient experience, but a number of support issues must be addressed to ensure that patients have appropriate access to their health information. Two hundred and fifty breast cancer patients registered to use a portal providing access to personal health information over a six-week period. All support calls were directed to a research triage centre and redirected either to technical, clinical or psychosocial support. Log files were coded and analyzed. Two hundred and thirty-nine support contacts were logged by 122 participants. The majority was referred to technical support; the remaining contacts were directed to clinical support. Seven categories of technical support were identified: registration problems, site access, login issues, password reset, activation key issues, result access and other difficulties. In accessing their test results, patients required support in a number of technical domains, but educational and psychosocial support were not heavily utilized.

  20. Methodological Issues In Forestry Mitigation Projects: A CaseStudy Of Kolar District

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Murthy, I.K.; Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Sahana, C.A.; Srivathsa, K.G.; Khan, H.

    2007-06-01

    There is a need to assess climate change mitigationopportunities in forest sector in India in the context of methodologicalissues such as additionality, permanence, leakage, measurement andbaseline development in formulating forestry mitigation projects. A casestudy of forestry mitigation project in semi-arid community grazing landsand farmlands in Kolar district of Karnataka, was undertaken with regardto baseline and project scenariodevelopment, estimation of carbon stockchange in the project, leakage estimation and assessment ofcost-effectiveness of mitigation projects. Further, the transaction coststo develop project, and environmental and socio-economic impact ofmitigation project was assessed.The study shows the feasibility ofestablishing baselines and project C-stock changes. Since the area haslow or insignificant biomass, leakage is not an issue. The overallmitigation potential in Kolar for a total area of 14,000 ha under variousmitigation options is 278,380 tC at a rate of 20 tC/ha for the period2005-2035, which is approximately 0.67 tC/ha/yr inclusive of harvestregimes under short rotation and long rotation mitigation options. Thetransaction cost for baseline establishment is less than a rupee/tC andfor project scenario development is about Rs. 1.5-3.75/tC. The projectenhances biodiversity and the socio-economic impact is alsosignificant.

  1. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN THE ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL PREFERENCES, RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY, AND NEIGHBORHOOD CHANGE1

    PubMed Central

    Bruch, Elizabeth E.; Mare, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for analyzing both individual preferences and choices about where to live, and the implications of these choices for residential patterns. Although these methods are discussed in the context of residential choice, they can be applied more broadly to individual choices in a range of social contexts where behavior is interdependent. We review a variety of types of data on residential preferences and mobility and discuss appropriate statistical models for these data. We discuss the analysis of ranked and other types of clustered data; functional form issues; problems of unobserved heterogeneity in individuals and in neighborhoods; and strengths and weaknesses of stated preference data versus observations of actual mobility behavior. We also discuss specific problems with residential mobility data, including the treatment of one’s current location as a potential choice, how to specify the choice set of potential movers, the aggregation of units (such as dwelling units into neighborhoods) and the need to take account of variations in neighborhood size, the problem of very large choice sets and possible sampling solutions; and the link between residential mobility and patterns of neighborhood change. PMID:23476098

  2. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations.

  3. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals.

  4. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  5. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  6. Addressing the Amorphous Content Issue in Quantitative Phase Analysis: The Certification of NIST Standard Reference Material 676a

    SciTech Connect

    J Cline; R Von Dreele; R Winburn; P Stephens; J Filliben

    2011-12-31

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% {+-} 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  7. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals.

    PubMed

    Lukasczik, Matthias; Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Küffner, Roland; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  8. Successful Drug Development Despite Adverse Preclinical Findings Part 1: Processes to Address Issues and Most Important Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Prentice, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected adverse preclinical findings (APFs) are not infrequently encountered during drug development. Such APFs can be functional disturbances such as QT prolongation, morphological toxicity or carcinogenicity. The latter is of particular concern in conjunction with equivocal genotoxicity results. The toxicologic pathologist plays an important role in recognizing these effects, in helping to characterize them, to evaluate their risk for man, and in proposing measures to mitigate the risk particularly in early clinical trials. A careful scientific evaluation is crucial while termination of the development of a potentially useful drug must be avoided. This first part of the review discusses processes to address unexpected APFs and provides an overview over typical APFs in particular classes of drugs. If the mode of action (MoA) by which a drug candidate produces an APF is known, this supports evaluation of its relevance for humans. Tailor-made mechanistic studies, when needed, must be planned carefully to test one or several hypotheses regarding the potential MoA and to provide further data for risk evaluation. Safety considerations are based on exposure at no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAEL) of the most sensitive and relevant animal species and guide dose escalation in clinical trials. The availability of early markers of toxicity for monitoring of humans adds further safety to clinical studies. Risk evaluation is concluded by a weight of evidence analysis (WoE) with an array of parameters including drug use, medical need and alternatives on the market. In the second part of this review relevant examples of APFs will be discussed in more detail. PMID:22272031

  9. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.; English, M.; Altman, J.; Yourstone, E.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a ``cooperative arrangement,`` whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs` attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  10. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M. ); English, M.; Altman, J. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Yourstone, E. )

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a cooperative arrangement,'' whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs' attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  11. The work of the ICRP dose calculational task group: Issues in implementation of the ICRP dosimetric methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has had efforts underway to provide the radiation protection community with age-dependent dose coefficients, i.e.g, the dose per unit intake. The Task Group on Dose Calculations, chaired by the author, is responsible for the computation of these coefficients. The Task Group, formed in 1974 to produce ICRP Publication 30, is now international in its membership and its work load has been distributed among the institutions represented on the task group. This paper discusses: (1) recent advances in biokinetic modeling; (2) the recent changes in the dosimetric methodology; (3) the novel computational problems with some of the ICRP quantities; and (4) quality assurance issues which the Task Group has encountered. Potential future developments of the dosimetric framework which might strengthen the relationships with the emerging understanding of radiation risk will also be discussed.

  12. Methodology for evaluation of insulation-debris effects. Containment emergency sump performance-unresolved safety issue A-43

    SciTech Connect

    Wysocki, J.; Kolbe, R.

    1982-09-01

    The postulated failure of high energy piping within a light water reactor containment has raised safety questions related to the generation of insulation debris, the migration of such debris to the containment emergency sump screens and the potential for severe screen blockages. High, or total, screen blockages could result in impairment of the long term RHR recirculation systems. Debris considerations are an integral part of the unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. This report develops calculational methods and debris transport models which can be used for estimating the quantities of debris that might be generated by a LOCA, the transport of such debris, methods for estimating screen blockages and attendant pressure losses. Five operating plants were analyzed using this debris evaluation methodology. These calculations show the dependency on plant containment layout, sump location and design, and types and quantities of insulation employed. 9 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  14. Rat sperm motility analysis: methodologic considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Methodologic issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample c...

  15. Methodological challenges in quality of life research among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority cancer patients: translation, recruitment and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Hoopman, Rianne; Terwee, Caroline B; Muller, Martin J; Ory, Ferko G; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-06-01

    The large population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants who moved to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s is now reaching an age at which the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer, rises sharply. To date, little attention has been paid to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these ethnic minority groups, primarily due to the paucity of well translated and validated measures, but also because of a range of methodological and logistical barriers. The primary objective of this paper is to describe the methodological challenges in conducting HRQOL research among these patient populations, based on experience gained in a project in which four widely used HRQOL questionnaires were translated into Turkish, Moroccan-Arabic and Tarifit, and administered to a sample of 90 Turkish and 79 Moroccan cancer patients in the Netherlands. Problems encountered in translating and administering the questionnaires included achieving semantic equivalence (use of loanwords), use of numerical rating scales, lengthy questions and response scales, and culturally sensitive and/or inappropriate questions. Privacy laws that prohibit hospitals from registering the ethnicity of patients hampered efficient identification of eligible patients. Recruiting patients to studies is often difficult due to low literacy levels, lack of familiarity with and distrust of research, concerns about immigration status, and inaccurate or missing contact information. This can lead to lower response rates than is the case with the population of Dutch cancer patients. Additional ethical issues that arise in such studies concern patients' problems with communicating with their health care providers, their lack of understanding of their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, and the potential role conflict experienced by bilingual research assistants who may wish or be asked to intervene on the patients' behalf. Practical approaches to resolving these issues are presented. PMID

  16. Methodological challenges in quality of life research among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority cancer patients: translation, recruitment and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Hoopman, Rianne; Terwee, Caroline B; Muller, Martin J; Ory, Ferko G; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-06-01

    The large population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants who moved to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s is now reaching an age at which the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer, rises sharply. To date, little attention has been paid to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these ethnic minority groups, primarily due to the paucity of well translated and validated measures, but also because of a range of methodological and logistical barriers. The primary objective of this paper is to describe the methodological challenges in conducting HRQOL research among these patient populations, based on experience gained in a project in which four widely used HRQOL questionnaires were translated into Turkish, Moroccan-Arabic and Tarifit, and administered to a sample of 90 Turkish and 79 Moroccan cancer patients in the Netherlands. Problems encountered in translating and administering the questionnaires included achieving semantic equivalence (use of loanwords), use of numerical rating scales, lengthy questions and response scales, and culturally sensitive and/or inappropriate questions. Privacy laws that prohibit hospitals from registering the ethnicity of patients hampered efficient identification of eligible patients. Recruiting patients to studies is often difficult due to low literacy levels, lack of familiarity with and distrust of research, concerns about immigration status, and inaccurate or missing contact information. This can lead to lower response rates than is the case with the population of Dutch cancer patients. Additional ethical issues that arise in such studies concern patients' problems with communicating with their health care providers, their lack of understanding of their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, and the potential role conflict experienced by bilingual research assistants who may wish or be asked to intervene on the patients' behalf. Practical approaches to resolving these issues are presented.

  17. Adolescent substance-use assessment: methodological issues in the use of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD).

    PubMed

    Chinet, Léonie; Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique; Holzer, Laurent; Halfon, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    During the past twenty years, various instruments have been developed for the assessment of substance use in adolescents, mainly in the United States. However, few of them have been adapted to, and validated in, French-speaking populations. Consequently, although increasing alcohol and drug use among teenagers has become a major concern, the various health and social programs developed in response to this specific problem have received little attention with regard to follow-up and outcome assessment. A standardized multidimensional assessment instrument adapted for adolescents is needed to assess the individual needs of adolescents and assign them to the most appropriate treatment setting, to provide a single measurement within and across health and social systems, and to conduct treatment outcome evaluations. Moreover, having an available instrument makes it possible to develop longitudinal and transcultural research studies. For this reason, a French version of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) was developed and validated at the University Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic in Lausanne, Switzerland. This article aims to discuss the methodological issues that we faced when using the ADAD instrument in a 4-year longitudinal study including adolescent substance users. Methodological aspects relating to the content and format of the instrument, the assessment administration and the statistical analyses are discussed.

  18. Investigating outcomes following the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for treating depression in pregnancy: a focus on methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Grzeskowiak, Luke E; Gilbert, Andrew L; Morrison, Janna L

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this review was to critically appraise the existing literature with a particular focus on identifying methodological issues associated with studying outcomes following the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy. Existing studies evaluating outcomes following prenatal SSRI exposure suffer from a number of important methodological limitations that should be taken into account when interpreting their results. The contradictory results obtained from prospective and retrospective cohort studies and case-control studies could be accounted for by dissimilarity between study populations, selection bias, detection bias, confounding, or differences in underlying maternal illness, data sources used, exposure classification, follow-up and statistical power/analysis. Only a small number of studies actually account for underlying maternal illness and how this may lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Even when such information is available, studies that include data on maternal illness have small sample sizes, limiting the statistical power to identify statistically and clinically relevant associations. Pregnancy outcomes may be confounded by the higher incidence of smoking, alcohol consumption and substance abuse frequently encountered amongst those suffering from depression, factors that are often insufficiently controlled for. While evidence of associations between prenatal SSRI exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes are conflicting, there is an urgent need to evaluate how the particular SSRI used, the dose, timing and duration of use, genetics (maternal, paternal and/or fetal), concomitant medication use, maternal characteristics and underlying maternal illness all interact to alter pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  20. Lifting the veil: a typological survey of the methodological features of Islamic ethical reasoning on biomedical issues.

    PubMed

    Abdur-Rashid, Khalil; Furber, Steven Woodward; Abdul-Basser, Taha

    2013-04-01

    We survey the meta-ethical tools and institutional processes that traditional Islamic ethicists apply when deliberating on bioethical issues. We present a typology of these methodological elements, giving particular attention to the meta-ethical techniques and devices that traditional Islamic ethicists employ in the absence of decisive or univocal authoritative texts or in the absence of established transmitted cases. In describing how traditional Islamic ethicists work, we demonstrate that these experts possess a variety of discursive tools. We find that the ethical responsa-i.e., the products of the application of the tools that we describe-are generally characterized by internal consistency. We also conclude that Islamic ethical reasoning on bioethical issues, while clearly scripture-based, is also characterized by strong consequentialist elements and possesses clear principles-based characteristics. The paper contributes to the study of bioethics by familiarizing non-specialists in Islamic ethics with the role, scope, and applicability of key Islamic ethical concepts, such as "aims" (maqāṣid), "universals" (kulliyyāt), "interest" (maṣlaḥa), "maxims" (qawā`id), "controls" (ḍawābit), "differentiators" (furūq), "preponderization" (tarjīḥ), and "extension" (tafrī`).

  1. Addressing mental health disparities through clinical competence not just cultural competence: the need for assessment of sociocultural issues in the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Brekke, John S

    2008-12-01

    Recognition of ethnic/racial disparities in mental health services has not directly resulted in the development of culturally responsive psychosocial interventions. There remains a fundamental need for assessment of sociocultural issues that have been linked with the expectations, needs, and goals of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. The authors posit that embedding the assessment of sociocultural issues into psychosocial rehabilitation practice is one step in designing culturally relevant empirically supported practices. It becomes a foundation on which practitioners can examine the relevance of their interventions to the diversity encountered in everyday practice. This paper provides an overview of the need for culturally and clinically relevant assessment practices and asserts that by improving the assessment of sociocultural issues the clinical competence of service providers is enhanced. The authors offer a conceptual framework for linking clinical assessment of sociocultural issues to consumer outcomes and introduce an assessment tool adapted to facilitate the process in psychosocial rehabilitation settings. Emphasizing competent clinical assessment skills will ultimately offer a strategy to address disparities in treatment outcomes for understudied populations of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness.

  2. Estimating prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: cultural, geographic, logistic and philosophical issues of methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Headache, anxiety and depression are major disorders of the brain in terms of their prevalence and the burdens and costs they impose on society. Nationwide population-based studies of these disorders are necessary to inform health policy but, in research-naïve and resource-poor countries such as Nepal, a host of methodological problems are encountered: cultural, geographic, logistic and philosophical. Methods Expert consensus was sought among researchers from different professional and cultural backgrounds in planning and conceptualizing an epidemiological study and adapting established methods to the special situation and circumstances of Nepal. Results The methodological problems were sorted into different themes: study design; climate; geography, access and transport; sociocultural issues; safety of interviewers. Each of these was dealt with separately, and their inter-relationships explored, in finding solutions that were sometimes pragmatic. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study, with teams of interviewers visiting households across the three physiographic divisions (with extremes in altitude) in each of the five development regions of the country, would enable national sampling with sociocultural representativeness. However, the study instruments and interviews would be in Nepali only. Transport and access challenges were considerable, and their solutions combined travel by air, bus, river and foot, with allowances for rain-damaged roads, collapsed bridges and cancelled scheduled flights. The monsoon would render many routes impassable, and therefore set an absolute time limitation. Engaging participants willingly in the enquiry would be the key to success, and several tactics would be employed to enhance the success of this, most importantly enlisting the support of local community volunteers in each study site. Conclusion Anticipating problems in advance of investing substantial resources in a large nationwide epidemiological study in

  3. Investigation of indoor air volatile organic compounds concentration levels in dental settings and some related methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Santarsiero, Anna; Fuselli, Sergio; Piermattei, Alessandro; Morlino, Roberta; De Blasio, Giorgia; De Felice, Marco; Ortolani, Emanuela

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration levels in dental settings has a big health relevance for the potentially massive occupational exposure to a lot of diverse contaminants. The comparison of the VOCs profile relative to indoor conditions and to the corresponding outdoor concentrations, as well as the discovery of possible correlations between specific dental activities and VOCs concentration variations are of utmost importance for offering a reliable characterization of risk for dentists and dental staff health. In this study we review the most relevant environmental studies addressing the VOCs contamination level in dental settings. We analyze the methodological problems this kind of study must face and we report preliminary results of an indoor air investigation, carried out at dental hospital in Italy, the "Ospedale odontoiatrico George Eastman" of Rome, in which general lines for the analysis of dental settings in environmental terms are sketched. The aim of this work is to identify the kind of problems a typical enclosed (non-industrial) environment indoor air investigation has to cope with by means of the analysis of a case study.

  4. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Parkinsonism in Occupations with Manganese Exposure: A Review of Methodological Issues in the Epidemiological Literature

    PubMed Central

    Park, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to manganese (Mn) is associated with neurobehavioral effects. There is disagreement on whether commonly occurring exposures in welding, ferroalloy, and other industrial processes produce neurologically significant neurobehavioral changes representing parkinsonism. A review of methodological issues in the human epidemiological literature on Mn identified: (1) studies focused on idiopathic Parkinson disease without considering manganism, a parkinsonian syndrome; (2) studies with healthy worker effect bias; (3) studies with problematic statistical modeling; and (4) studies arising from case series derived from litigation. Investigations with adequate study design and exposure assessment revealed consistent neurobehavioral effects and attributable subclinical and clinical signs and symptoms of impairment. Twenty-eight studies show an exposure-response relationship between Mn and neurobehavioral effects, including 11 with continuous exposure metrics and six with three or four levels of contrasted exposure. The effects of sustained low-concentration exposures to Mn are consistent with the manifestations of early manganism, i.e., consistent with parkinsonism. This is compelling evidence that Mn is a neurotoxic chemical and there is good evidence that Mn exposures far below the current US standard of 5.0 mg/m3 are causing impairment. PMID:24106642

  5. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Álvarez, B. F.; Son, L. H.; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-03-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. Case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within their organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme showed a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM, models and decision support systems and international water law) which are required for such an integrated topic. The post training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed the increase in familiarity of the topics for all 37 respondents, with highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and educational institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught is shown by the fact that 95% of the respondents indicated they saw the relevance of the subjects and 78% had already used some knowledge acquired in their job. The respondents also indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge acquired. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops, had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their training institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a

  6. Dosimetric methodology of the ICRP

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1994-12-31

    Establishment of guidance for the protection of workers and members of the public from radiation exposures necessitates estimation of the radiation dose to tissues of the body at risk. The dosimetric methodology formulated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is intended to be responsive to this need. While developed for radiation protection, elements of the methodology are often applied in addressing other radiation issues; e.g., risk assessment. This chapter provides an overview of the methodology, discusses its recent extension to age-dependent considerations, and illustrates specific aspects of the methodology through a number of numerical examples.

  7. Methodological Issues in Mobile Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (mCSCL): What Methods, What to Measure and When to Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yanjie

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate (1) methods utilized in mobile computer-supported collaborative learning (mCSCL) research which focuses on studying, learning and collaboration mediated by mobile devices; (2) whether these methods have examined mCSCL effectively; (3) when the methods are administered; and (4) what methodological issues exist in…

  8. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal-Human-Ecosystem Interface.

    PubMed

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Meisser, Andrea; Thomas, Christopher James

    2015-07-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions' research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of "transmitters" using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines.

  9. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  10. Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit: Is it an adequate public health response to addressing the issue of caregiver burden in end-of-life care?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasingly significant public health issue in Canada, and elsewhere throughout the developed world, pertains to the provision of adequate palliative/end-of-life (P/EOL) care. Informal caregivers who take on the responsibility of providing P/EOL care often experience negative physical, mental, emotional, social and economic consequences. In this article, we specifically examine how Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit (CCB) - a contributory benefits social program aimed at informal P/EOL caregivers - operates as a public health response in sustaining informal caregivers providing P/EOL care, and whether or not it adequately addresses known aspects of caregiver burden that are addressed within the population health promotion (PHP) model. Methods As part of a national evaluation of Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit, 57 telephone interviews were conducted with Canadian informal P/EOL caregivers in 5 different provinces, pertaining to the strengths and weaknesses of the CCB and the general caregiving experience. Interview data was coded with Nvivo software and emerging themes were identified by the research team, with such findings published elsewhere. The purpose of the present analysis was identified after comparing the findings to the literature specific to caregiver burden and public health, after which data was analyzed using the PHP model as a guiding framework. Results Informal caregivers spoke to several of the determinants of health outlined in the PHP model that are implicated in their burden experience: gender, income and social status, working conditions, health and social services, social support network, and personal health practises and coping strategies. They recognized the need for improving the CCB to better address these determinants. Conclusions This study, from the perspective of family caregivers, demonstrates that the CCB is not living up to its full potential in sustaining informal P/EOL caregivers. Effort is required to

  11. The monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation projects: Discussion of issues and methodologies and review of existing protocols and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1997-12-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  12. A methodological approach to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages: socio-economic and technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagno, Eleonora; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Petrucci, Olga; Forciniti, Pinuccia R.

    2014-05-01

    Cavallerizzo have been analysed within the frame of a PhD thesis by one of the authors. The present study focuses on the Cavallerizzo case study to discuss a methodological approach useful to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages, aiming at properly considering socio-economic effects in addition to technical issues.

  13. Addressing the “It Is Just Placebo” Pitfall in CAM: Methodology of a Project to Develop Patient-Reported Measures of Nonspecific Factors in Healing

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Carol M.; Glick, Ronald M.; Morone, Natalia E.; Schneider, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    CAM therapies are often dismissed as “no better than placebo;” however, this belief may be overcome through careful analysis of nonspecific factors in healing. To improve trial methodology, we propose that CAM (and conventional) RCTs should evaluate and adjust for the effects of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors on outcomes. However, measurement of these is challenging, and there are no brief, precise instruments that are suitable for widespread use in trials and clinical settings. This paper describes the methodology of a project to develop a set of patient-reported instruments that will quantify the nonspecific or “placebo” effects that are in fact specific and active ingredients in healing. The project uses the rigorous instrument-development methodology of the NIH-PROMIS initiative. The methods include (1) integration of patients' and clinicians' opinions with existing literature; (2) development of relevant items; (3) calibration of items on large samples; (4) classical test theory and modern psychometric methods to select the most useful items; (5) development of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) that maximize information while minimizing patient burden; and (6) initial validation studies. The instruments will have the potential to revolutionize clinical trials in both CAM and conventional medicine through quantifying contextual factors that contribute to healing. PMID:24454501

  14. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  15. Improving the Effectiveness of the Management of Innovation and Change in Higher Education. Issues and Methodologies in Educational Development: An IIEP Series for Orientation and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Allan

    This review examines issues which need to be addressed in order to increase the effectiveness of institutional management of innovation and change in higher education, and is written primarily from a practical perspective rather than from a theoretical or research viewpoint. The paper is divided into two parts: Part I briefly reviews a number of…

  16. Issues in Case-Study Methodology in Investigating Environmental and Sustainability Issues in Higher Education: Towards a Problem-Based Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Justin; Reid, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Case studies are put to a variety of uses in investigating environmental and sustainability issues in higher education. These uses include: to document, describe (in detail), contextualize, investigate and/or explain information that characterizes and qualifies what is of interest in this area. The focus of the case study is often an event, a…

  17. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    PubMed

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  18. Quantitative transporter proteomics by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: addressing methodologic issues of plasma membrane isolation and expression-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vineet; Prasad, Bhagwat; Patilea, Gabriela; Gupta, Anshul; Salphati, Laurent; Evers, Raymond; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2015-02-01

    To predict transporter-mediated drug disposition using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, one approach is to measure transport activity and relate it to protein expression levels in cell lines (overexpressing the transporter) and then scale these to via in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE). This approach makes two major assumptions. First, that the expression of the transporter is predominantly in the plasma membrane. Second, that there is a linear correlation between expression level and activity of the transporter protein. The present study was conducted to test these two assumptions. We evaluated two commercially available kits that claimed to separate plasma membrane from other cell membranes. The Qiagen Qproteome kit yielded very little protein in the fraction purported to be the plasma membrane. The Abcam Phase Separation kit enriched the plasma membrane but did not separate it from other intracellular membranes. For the Abcam method, the expression level of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1/2B1 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) proteins in all subcellular fractions isolated from cells or human liver tissue tracked that of Na⁺-K⁺ ATPase. Assuming that Na⁺-K⁺ ATPase is predominantly located in the plasma membrane, these data suggest that the transporters measured are also primarily located in the plasma membrane. Using short hairpin RNA, we created clones of cell lines with varying degrees of OATP1B1 or BCRP expression level. In these clones, transport activity of OATP1B1 or BCRP was highly correlated with protein expression level (r² > 0.9). These data support the use of transporter expression level data and activity data from transporter overexpressing cell lines for IVIVE of transporter-mediated disposition of drugs.

  19. Toward improving hurricane forecasts using the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS): A framework to address the issues of Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Boothe, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Haddad, Z. S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; montgomery, M. T.; Niamsuwan, N.; Tallapragada, V. S.; Tanelli, S.; Turk, J.; Vukicevic, T.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forecasting of extreme weather requires the use of both regional models as well as global General Circulation Models (GCMs). The regional models have higher resolution and more accurate physics - two critical components needed for properly representing the key convective processes. GCMs, on the other hand, have better depiction of the large-scale environment and, thus, are necessary for properly capturing the important scale interactions. But how to evaluate the models, understand their shortcomings and improve them? Satellite observations can provide invaluable information. And this is where the issues of Big Data come: satellite observations are very complex and have large variety while model forecast are very voluminous. We are developing a system - TCIS - that addresses the issues of model evaluation and process understanding with the goal of improving the accuracy of hurricane forecasts. This NASA/ESTO/AIST-funded project aims at bringing satellite/airborne observations and model forecasts into a common system and developing on-line tools for joint analysis. To properly evaluate the models we go beyond the comparison of the geophysical fields. We input the model fields into instrument simulators (NEOS3, CRTM, etc.) and compute synthetic observations for a more direct comparison to the observed parameters. In this presentation we will start by describing the scientific questions. We will then outline our current framework to provide fusion of models and observations. Next, we will illustrate how the system can be used to evaluate several models (HWRF, GFS, ECMWF) by applying a couple of our analysis tools to several hurricanes observed during the 2013 season. Finally, we will outline our future plans. Our goal is to go beyond the image comparison and point-by-point statistics, by focusing instead on understanding multi-parameter correlations and providing robust statistics. By developing on-line analysis tools, our framework will allow for consistent

  20. An Examination of the State of Imitation Research in Children with Autism: Issues of Definition and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevlever, Melina; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that children with autism are impaired in their ability to imitate others. However, diverse methodologies, contradictory findings, and varying theoretical explanations continue to exist in the literature despite decades of research. A comprehensive account of imitation in children with autism is hampered by the lack…

  1. Exploring the Society-Body-School Nexus: Theoretical and Methodology Issues in the Study of Body Pedagogics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilling, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article I identify how developments in consumer culture, waged-work and health policy have informed our current interest in the body, before suggesting that Durkheim's and Mauss's methodological approach towards the external and internal dimensions of "social facts" provides us with a valuable basis on which we can analyse the impact of…

  2. Methodological Issues in Documentary Ethnography: A Renewed Call for Putting Cameras in the Hands of the People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesca, Robert

    The participatory method of image production holds enormous potential for communication and journalism scholars operating out of a critical/cultural framework. The methodological potentials of mechanical reproduction were evident in the 1930s, when Walter Benjamin contributed three enduring concepts: questioning the art/document dichotomy; placing…

  3. Observational and Methodological Issues in a Multi-Agency Community-Based Intervention to Reduce Excessive Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Simon; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the methodology and observational data from a project that sought to, first, investigate the prevalence of alcohol related harm and alcohol misuse in Cardiff's night-time economy and, second, deliver a targeted server training intervention to premises identified as at risk of misselling alcohol. The bulk of the work is…

  4. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  5. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  6. Methodological issues and research recommendations for prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury: results of the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kristman, Vicki L; Borg, Jörgen; Godbolt, Alison K; Salmi, L Rachid; Cancelliere, Carol; Carroll, Linda J; Holm, Lena W; Nygren-de Boussard, Catharina; Hartvigsen, Jan; Abara, Uko; Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David

    2014-03-01

    The International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) Prognosis performed a comprehensive search and critical review of the literature from 2001 to 2012 to update the 2002 best-evidence synthesis conducted by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Neurotrauma, Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation Task Force on the prognosis of MTBI. Of 299 relevant studies, 101 were accepted as scientifically admissible. The methodological quality of the research literature on MTBI prognosis has not improved since the 2002 Task Force report. There are still many methodological concerns and knowledge gaps in the literature. Here we report and make recommendations on how to avoid methodological flaws found in prognostic studies of MTBI. Additionally, we discuss issues of MTBI definition and identify topic areas in need of further research to advance the understanding of prognosis after MTBI. Priority research areas include but are not limited to the use of confirmatory designs, studies of measurement validity, focus on the elderly, attention to litigation/compensation issues, the development of validated clinical prediction rules, the use of MTBI populations other than hospital admissions, continued research on the effects of repeated concussions, longer follow-up times with more measurement periods in longitudinal studies, an assessment of the differences between adults and children, and an account for reverse causality and differential recall bias. Well-conducted studies in these areas will aid our understanding of MTBI prognosis and assist clinicians in educating and treating their patients with MTBI. PMID:24581912

  7. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  8. On Instructional Utility, Statistical Methodology, and the Added Value of ECD: Lessons Learned from the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Brian; Nugent, Rebecca; Rupp, Andre A.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue of "JEDM" was dedicated to bridging work done in the disciplines of "educational and psychological assessment" and "educational data mining" (EDM) via the assessment design and implementation framework of "evidence-centered design" (ECD). It consisted of a series of five papers: one…

  9. Classroom Climate and Contextual Effects: Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Evaluation of Group-Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abduljabbar, Adel S.; Koller, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Classroom context and climate are inherently classroom-level (L2) constructs, but applied researchers sometimes--inappropriately--represent them by student-level (L1) responses in single-level models rather than more appropriate multilevel models. Here we focus on important conceptual issues (distinctions between climate and contextual variables;…

  10. Methodological issues in observational studies and non-randomized controlled trials in oncology in the era of big data.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Kawakami, Koji

    2015-04-01

    Non-randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and database studies are appealing study designs when there are urgent needs for safety data, outcomes of interest are rare, generalizability is a matter of concern, or randomization is not feasible. This paper reviews four typical case studies from methodological viewpoints and clarifies how to minimize bias in observational studies in oncology. In summary, researchers planning observational studies should be cautious of selection of appropriate databases, validity of algorithms for identifying outcomes, comparison with incident users or self-control, rigorous collection of information on potential confounders and reporting details of subject selection. Further, a careful study protocol and statistical analysis plan are also necessary.

  11. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  12. Disentangling the complex association between childhood sexual abuse and alcohol-related problems: a review of methodological issues and approaches.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Carolyn E; Agrawal, Arpana; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Duncan, Alexis E; Lynskey, Michael T

    2008-09-01

    This review describes and evaluates methodological approaches aimed at unraveling the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later misuse of alcohol, which is complicated by the significant overlap between factors that elevate risk for CSA exposure and those that increase risk for problem alcohol use. We critique methods used to distinguish direct effects of CSA events on alcohol-related outcomes from the effects of risk factors frequently present in families in which CSA exposure occurs (e.g., parental alcohol-related problems). These methods include measurement and adjustment for potentially confounding factors and the use of co-twin designs. The findings across methodological approaches provide support for a CSA-specific risk for alcohol misuse, despite the significant contribution of family background factors to overall risk, but much work remains to be done before a comprehensive model for this association can be proposed. Additional directions for research, including the incorporation of measured genes and the use of longitudinal designs, are proposed to further efforts to model the pathways from CSA to alcohol-related problems.

  13. Consistent Assignment of Nursing Staff to Residents in Nursing Homes: A Critical Review of Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Tonya; Nolet, Kimberly; Bowers, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Study: Consistent assignment of nursing staff to residents is promoted by a number of national organizations as a strategy for improving nursing home quality and is included in pay for performance schedules in several states. However, research has shown inconsistent effects of consistent assignment on quality outcomes. In order to advance the state of the science of research on consistent assignment and inform current practice and policy, a literature review was conducted to critique conceptual and methodological understandings of consistent assignment. Design and Methods: Twenty original research reports of consistent assignment in nursing homes were found through a variety of search strategies. Results: Consistent assignment was conceptualized and operationalized in multiple ways with little overlap from study to study. There was a lack of established methods to measure consistent assignment. Methodological limitations included a lack of control and statistical analyses of group differences in experimental-level studies, small sample sizes, lack of attention to confounds in multicomponent interventions, and outcomes that were not theoretically linked. Implications: Future research should focus on developing a conceptual understanding of consistent assignment focused on definition, measurement, and links to outcomes. To inform current policies, testing consistent assignment should include attention to contexts within and levels at which it is most effective. PMID:23996209

  14. Meta-analyses and other methodological issues in meditation research: Reply to Orme-Johnson and Dillbeck (2014).

    PubMed

    Sedlmeier, Peter; Eberth, Juliane; Schwarz, Marcus

    2014-03-01

    We are grateful to Orme-Johnson and Dillbeck (2014) for raising several potential methodological concerns they have with our meta-analysis of the psychological effects of meditation and for thereby providing us with the opportunity to clarify these points. Orme-Johnson and Dillbeck raised 4 points that they believed might have led to unfair treatment of studies that reported the effects of transcendental meditation (TM). First, they were concerned with the way we aggregated effects over different categories of variables. Second, they disagreed with our contention that there might have been some upward bias in the effects reported for TM studies. Third, they argued that the results from TM studies do not differ depending on whether studies were done by researchers affiliated with TM institutions, and 4th, they questioned the completeness of our selection of TM studies. We still believe that our methodology for reporting study results was justified on theoretical grounds and argue that the results for all variable categories are readily available in our analysis. We also still find some indication of upward bias for TM studies, even using the method they propose. We cannot say much regarding author affiliation because we did not raise that point, and, last, we have to concede that we indeed missed some TM studies. Yet this omission did not have any substantial practical consequences concerning our conclusions. We end with a short discussion about how meditation research should be conducted in the future.

  15. Using a phenomenological research technique to examine student nurses' understandings of experiential teaching and learning: a critical review of methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Green, A J; Holloway, D G

    1997-11-01

    This paper provides a report of the usage of a phenomenological research methodology to investigate the influence on clinical practice of pre- and post-registration nurse education which makes explicit use of experiential teaching and learning approaches. The primary aim of the research was to explore the use of a phenomenological research methodology to examine the students' understanding of experiential teaching and learning. The claims made for the use of experiential teaching and learning approaches in both pre- and post-registration nurse courses and how clinical practice is influenced by the experiential learning elements of pre- and post-registration nurse education were also examined. The first stage of the enquiry involved focused non-directive interviews with members of BSc Nursing Studies and MSc Mental Health Branch programmes. Both programmes claim to make use of experiential teaching and learning. The data were analysed using a technique developed by Giorgi. Previous experiences of experiential teaching and learning were probed, student interpretations differentiated, and the relationship between course-based learning using experiential approaches and the implications for it's influence on practice were examined. The second stage of the enquiry has followed up the initial findings, exploring the students' experience of experiential approaches on their courses both in the classroom and in work-based learning situations. The findings are presented and discussed in the context of other studies from both nurse and higher education. Throughout the paper methodological concerns arising are discussed. The paper concludes with the identification of methodological problems arising from the research strategy: the implications of the power nexus created when teachers research students, and issues relating to the use of a phenomenological methodology in a longitudinal study.

  16. Measuring Recreation Benefits: Conceptual and Empirical Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookshire, David S.; Smith, V. Kerry

    1987-05-01

    The focus of this special section is the conceptual and empirical issues associated with the development of water-based recreation benefit estimation methodologies. The papers address two themes in the ongoing development of modeling the demand for outdoor recreation. The issues of characterizing and estimating nonuse (existence) values are discussed by K. J. Boyle and R. C. Bishop (this issue) and B. Madariaga and K. E. McConnell (this issue). R. Mendelsohn (this issue) and N. E. Bockstael et al. (this issue) address the problem of developing consistent methodologies for modeling the household's recreation decisions. This paper attempts to identify and highlight the issues and interrelationships of both sets of papers. An attempt is made to identify remaining research issues.

  17. Current issues in the utility of 19F nuclear magnetic resonance methodologies for the assessment of tumour hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Simon P; Griffiths, John R

    2004-01-01

    It is now well established that uncontrolled proliferation of tumour cells together with the chaotic and poorly regulated blood supply of solid tumours result in tissue hypoxia, and that hypoxic regions of tumours are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The development and application of non-invasive methods to rapidly determine the degree and extent of tumour hypoxia in an individual tumour would clearly enhance cancer treatment strategies. This review describes the current status of two (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methodologies that have been exploited to investigate tumour hypoxia, namely: (i) (19)F NMR oximetry following administration of perfluorocarbons, from which tumour p(O)(2) measurements can be made; and (ii) (19)F NMR measurements of the tumour retention of fluorinated 2-nitroimidazoles. PMID:15306411

  18. History, applications, methodological issues and perspectives for the use of environmental DNA (eDNA) in marine and freshwater environments.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo E; Moyer, Gregory R

    2014-12-01

    Genetic material (short DNA fragments) left behind by species in nonliving components of the environment (e.g. soil, sediment, or water) is defined as environmental DNA (eDNA). This DNA has been previously described as particulate DNA and has been used to detect and describe microbial communities in marine sediments since the mid-1980's and phytoplankton communities in the water column since the early-1990's. More recently, eDNA has been used to monitor invasive or endangered vertebrate and invertebrate species. While there is a steady increase in the applicability of eDNA as a monitoring tool, a variety of eDNA applications are emerging in fields such as forensics, population and community ecology, and taxonomy. This review provides scientist with an understanding of the methods underlying eDNA detection as well as applications, key methodological considerations, and emerging areas of interest for its use in ecology and conservation of freshwater and marine environments.

  19. Recommended Changes to the No Child Left Behind Act to Address Workforce Issues. Submitted to the House Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Linda; Tsoi-A-Fatt, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Center for Law and Social Policy's (CLASP's) recommendations on how No Child Left Behind (NCLB) could better address the workforce challenges faced by this country. CLASP is a nonprofit organization engaged in research, analysis, technical assistance, and advocacy on a range of issues affecting low-income families. The…

  20. Addressing the Causes of Chef Shortages in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratten, John; O'Leary, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the reasons for staff shortages in the UK catering industry and then to decide if further training could help to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives have been achieved by examining the training provisions at a college, and then asking the students, their training staff, employers and employees…

  1. Challenges in designing, conducting, and reporting oral health behavioral intervention studies in primary school age children: methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Anna Mary; Coffey, Margaret; Dugdill, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    Often within oral health, clinical outcome measures dominate trial design rather than behavioral outcome measures, and often there is a reliance on proxy self-reporting of children’s behavior with no corroboration through triangulation of measures. The complexity of the interventions involved in oral health intervention is often overlooked in trial design, and more flexible pragmatic designs that take account of the research context may be more appropriate. Some of the limitations in oral health behavioral intervention studies (trials) in primary school age children were reported in a recently published Cochrane review. This paper aims to critically discuss the findings of a recent Cochrane review in terms of the methodological implications that arise for future design, development, measurement, and reporting of oral health trials in primary school age children. Key components of the UK Medical Research Council’s framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions are discussed in relation to using taxonomies of behavior change. This paper is not designed to be a definitive guide but aims to bring learning from other areas of public health and health promotion into dental public health. Ultimately, the aim is to aid the design of more successful interventions that produce long-term behavioral changes in children in relation to toothbrushing and nighttime sugar snacking. PMID:27774028

  2. Religious Congregations' Collaborations: With Whom Do They Work and What Resources Do They Share in Addressing HIV and Other Health Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werber, Laura; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Dominguez, Blanca X.; Mata, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how religious congregations interact with other community organizations to address health and, in particular, HIV-related needs within their membership and/or local communities. Case study data from a diverse sample of 14 urban congregations (6 Black, 4 Latino, 2 White, and 2 mixed race-ethnicity) indicate that they engaged in…

  3. The Design and Evaluation of a Teaching-Learning Sequence Addressing the Solubility Concept with Turkish Secondary School Students. Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabapinar, Filiz; Leach, John; Scott, Phil

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports upon a study addressing teaching and learning about solubility to Turkish first-year secondary school students (age 14-15). The principal aim of the research was to investigate the impact on students' understanding of solubility, of introducing a simple particle model of matter. A teaching intervention to fit within the existing…

  4. Addressing Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue, extracted from a conversation among some members of the Equity Special Issue Editorial Panel, concerns racism in mathematics education. It raises issues about the use of various terms; about fields of research outside of mathematics education; and about the kinds of racialization processes that occur for students, teachers, and…

  5. The Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire: a new methodology for science and practice in criminology and forensics.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Marc A; Fugett, April; Lounder, Lindsay

    2014-10-01

    Most modern theories suggest that interpersonal relationships are of central importance in the development of criminal behavior. We tested the parent attachment scales of a new research and clinical measure, the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ). It is a 29-scale battery assessing attachments to mother, father, partner, and peers, which also includes several related clinical scales. Sixty-one (18-20 years of age) male offenders from a maximum security detention center and 131 contrasts completed the ACIQ. ANOVA demonstrated that mother and father attachments displayed different patterns. The attachment scales also predicted the numbers of crimes within the population of juvenile offenders. Thus, the parent attachment scales of the ACIQ showed promise as an instrument to test dynamic systems approaches to developmental models of criminal behavior.

  6. The Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire: A New Methodology for Science and Practice in Criminology and Forensics.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Marc A; Fugett, April; Lounder, Lindsay

    2013-06-19

    Most modern theories suggest that interpersonal relationships are of central importance in the development of criminal behavior. We tested the parent attachment scales of a new research and clinical measure, the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ). It is a 29-scale battery assessing attachments to mother, father, partner, and peers, which also includes several related clinical scales. Sixty-one (18-20 years of age) male offenders from a maximum security detention center and 131contrasts completed the ACIQ. ANOVA demonstrated that mother and father attachments displayed different patterns. The attachment scales also predicted the numbers of crimes within the population of juvenile offenders. Thus, the parent attachment scales of the ACIQ showed promise as an instrument to test dynamic systems approaches to developmental models of criminal behavior.

  7. Project 10 Handbook: Addressing Lesbian and Gay Issues in Our Schools. A Resource Directory for Teachers, Guidance Counselors, Parents and School-Based Adolescent Care Providers. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friends of Project 10, Inc.

    This handbook was developed by Project 10, an on-campus counseling program within the Los Angeles (California) Unified School District. The handbook covers many of the issues and problems that arise for homosexual high school students. Introductory material includes a history of the informal beginnings of Project 10. The first chapter describes…

  8. Looking beyond first-world problems: an emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality.

  9. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT): methodological issues and participant characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health problems and risk behaviours among young people are of great public health concern. Consequently, within the VII Framework Programme, the European Commission funded the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was conducted in eleven European countries, with Sweden as the coordinating centre, and was designed to identify an effective way to promote mental health and reduce suicidality and risk taking behaviours among adolescents. Objective To describe the methodological and field procedures in the SEYLE RCT among adolescents, as well as to present the main characteristics of the recruited sample. Methods Analyses were conducted to determine: 1) representativeness of study sites compared to respective national data; 2) response rate of schools and pupils, drop-out rates from baseline to 3 and 12 month follow-up, 3) comparability of samples among the four Intervention Arms; 4) properties of the standard scales employed: Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5). Results Participants at baseline comprised 12,395 adolescents (M/F: 5,529/6,799; mean age=14.9±0.9) from Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain. At the 3 and 12 months follow up, participation rates were 87.3% and 79.4%, respectively. Demographic characteristics of participating sites were found to be reasonably representative of their respective national population. Overall response rate of schools was 67.8%. All scales utilised in the study had good to very good internal reliability, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha (BDI-II: 0.864; Z-SAS: 0.805; SDQ: 0.740; WHO-5: 0.799). Conclusions SEYLE achieved its objective of recruiting a large representative sample of adolescents within participating European countries. Analysis

  10. Methodology requirements for intelligent systems architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Terry; Colombano, Silvano

    1987-01-01

    The methodology required for the development of the 'intelligent system architecture' of distributed computer systems which integrate standard data processing capabilities with symbolic processing to provide powerful and highly autonomous adaptive processing capabilities must encompass three elements: (1) a design knowledge capture system, (2) computer-aided engineering, and (3) verification and validation metrics and tests. Emphasis must be put on the earliest possible definition of system requirements and the realistic definition of allowable system uncertainties. Methodologies must also address human factor issues.

  11. Intravenous magnesium for pediatric sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis: methodological issues of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Badaki-Makun, Oluwakemi; Scott, J Paul; Panepinto, Julie A; Casper, T Charles; Hillery, Cheryl A; Dean, J Michael; Brousseau, David C

    2014-06-01

    Multiple recent Sickle Cell Disease studies have been terminated due to poor enrollment. We developed methods to overcome past barriers and utilized these to study the efficacy and safety of intravenous magnesium for vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). We describe the methods of the Intravenous Magnesium in Sickle Vaso-occlusive Crisis (MAGiC) trial and discuss methods used to overcome past barriers. MAGiC was a multi-center randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of intravenous magnesium versus normal saline for treatment of VOC. The study was a collaboration between Pediatric Hematologists and Emergency Physicians in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Eligible patients were randomized within 12 hours of receiving intravenous opioids in the Emergency Department (ED) and administered study medication every 8 hours. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay. Associated plasma studies elucidated magnesium's mechanism of action and the pathophysiology of VOC. Health-related quality of life was measured. Site-, protocol-, and patient-related barriers from prior studies were identified and addressed. Limited study staff availability, lack of collaboration with the ED, and difficulty obtaining consent were previously identified barriers. Leveraging PECARN resources, forging close collaborations between Sickle Cell Centers and EDs of participating sites, and approaching eligible patients for prior consent helped overcome these barriers. Participation in the PECARN network and establishment of collaborative arrangements between Sickle Cell Centers and their affiliated EDs are major innovative features of the MAGiC study that allowed improved subject capture. These methods could serve as a model for future studies of VOCs.

  12. Assessment methodologies and statistical issues for computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules in computed tomography: contemporary research topics relevant to the lung image database consortium.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Lori E; Wagner, Robert F; Armato, Samuel G; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Beiden, Sergey; Chan, Heang-Ping; Gur, David; McLennan, Geoffrey; Metz, Charles E; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Sayre, Jim

    2004-04-01

    Cancer of the lung and bronchus is the leading fatal malignancy in the United States. Five-year survival is low, but treatment of early stage disease considerably improves chances of survival. Advances in multidetector-row computed tomography technology provide detection of smaller lung nodules and offer a potentially effective screening tool. The large number of images per exam, however, requires considerable radiologist time for interpretation and is an impediment to clinical throughput. Thus, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) methods are needed to assist radiologists with their decision making. To promote the development of CAD methods, the National Cancer Institute formed the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). The LIDC is charged with developing the consensus and standards necessary to create an image database of multidetector-row computed tomography lung images as a resource for CAD researchers. To develop such a prospective database, its potential uses must be anticipated. The ultimate applications will influence the information that must be included along with the images, the relevant measures of algorithm performance, and the number of required images. In this article we outline assessment methodologies and statistical issues as they relate to several potential uses of the LIDC database. We review methods for performance assessment and discuss issues of defining "truth" as well as the complications that arise when truth information is not available. We also discuss issues about sizing and populating a database.

  13. Assessing body image issues and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction among Hmong American children 9-18 years of age using mixed methodology.

    PubMed

    Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Urvashi; Smith, Chery

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated body image issues and the usefulness of self-reported measurements among Hmong American children, 9-18 years using mixed methodology. Twelve focus groups were conducted (n=68) and a silhouette drawing instrument and six questions pertaining to body image were administered (n=335). About 50% of the children were either overweight or obese and 23% were short statured relative to US norms. About 70% of the girls and 53% of the boys selected smaller body ideals than their perceived body sizes. Further, 21% of the girls and 31% of the boys were satisfied with their bodies. Children underestimated their weights and overestimated their heights. During focus groups children reported that parents, peers, and media influenced their body image perceptions. Our results indicate that the majority of Hmong children are dissatisfied with their bodies and tend to endorse American ideals of beauty and attractiveness rather than the heavier, traditional Hmong body ideals supported by their parents.

  14. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  15. Evaluation of tuberculosis diagnostics in children: 2. Methodological issues for conducting and reporting research evaluations of tuberculosis diagnostics for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children. Consensus from an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Luis E; Browning, Renee; Bossuyt, Patrick; Casenghi, Martina; Cotton, Mark F; Cruz, Andrea T; Dodd, Lori E; Drobniewski, Francis; Gale, Marianne; Graham, Stephen M; Grzemska, Malgosia; Heinrich, Norbert; Hesseling, Anneke C; Huebner, Robin; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Kampmann, Beate; Lewinsohn, Deborah; Li, Meijuan; Lienhardt, Christian; Mandalakas, Anna M; Marais, Ben J; Menzies, Heather J; Montepiedra, Grace; Mwansambo, Charles; Oberhelman, Richard; Palumbo, Paul; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Shapiro, David E; Smith, Betsy; Soto-Castellares, Giselle; Starke, Jeffrey R; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wingfield, Claire; Worrell, Carol

    2012-05-15

    Confirming the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is a major challenge. However, research on childhood tuberculosis as it relates to better diagnostics is often neglected because of technical difficulties, such as the slow growth in culture, the difficulty of obtaining specimens, and the diverse and relatively nonspecific clinical presentation of tuberculosis in this age group. Researchers often use individually designed criteria for enrollment, diagnostic classifications, and reference standards, thereby hindering the interpretation and comparability of their findings. The development of standardized research approaches and definitions is therefore needed to strengthen the evaluation of new diagnostics for detection and confirmation of tuberculosis in children. In this article we present consensus statements on methodological issues for conducting research of Tuberculosis diagnostics among children, with a focus on intrathoracic tuberculosis. The statements are complementary to a clinical research case definition presented in an accompanying publication and suggest a phased approach to diagnostics evaluation; entry criteria for enrollment; methods for classification of disease certainty, including the rational use of culture within the case definition; age categories and comorbidities for reporting results; and the need to use standard operating procedures. Special consideration is given to the performance of microbiological culture in children and we also recommend for alternative methodological approaches to report findings in a standardized manner to overcome these limitations are made. This consensus statement is an important step toward ensuring greater rigor and comparability of pediatric tuberculosis diagnostic research, with the aim of realizing the full potential of better tests for children. PMID:22476719

  16. San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project: A Methodology for Evaluating Regional Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although there are several scientifically-based sustainability metrics, many are data intensive, difficult to calculate, and fail to capture all aspects of a system. To address these issues, we produced a scientifically-defensible, but straightforward and inexpensive, methodolog...

  17. Religious congregations' collaborations: with whom do they work and what resources do they share in addressing HIV and other health issues?

    PubMed

    Werber, Laura; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Domínguez, Blanca X; Mata, Michael A

    2012-12-01

    This study explores how religious congregations interact with other community organizations to address health and, in particular, HIV-related needs within their membership and/or local communities. Case study data from a diverse sample of 14 urban congregations (6 Black, 4 Latino, 2 White, and 2 mixed race-ethnicity) indicate that they engaged in three types of relationships to conduct HIV and other health-related activities: (a) resources flowed to congregations from external entities, (b) resources flowed from congregations to external entities, and (c) congregations interacted with external entities. These types of relationships were present in roughly equal proportions; thus, congregations were not primarily the recipients of resources from other organizations in these interactions. Financial, material, and human capital resources were shared across these three relationship types, and the most common organization types that congregations were involved with for health efforts were prevention and social service organizations, health care providers, and other congregations. In addition, congregations tended to have more collaborative relationships with other faith-based organizations (FBOs) and tended to engage with non-FBOs more to either receive or provide resources. Results suggest that congregations contribute to community health by not only sponsoring health activities for their own members but also by providing specific support or resources to enhance the programming of other community organizations and collaborating with external organizations to sponsor congregation-based and community-based health activities.

  18. Chemical Issues Addressing the Construction of the Distal Ni[Cysteine-Glycine-Cysteine]2- Site of Acetyl CoA Synthase: Why Not Copper?

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kayla. N.; Brothers, Scott M.; Lee, Boram; Darensbourg, Marcetta. Y.; Rockcliffe, David. A.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of the Ni(Cysteine-Glycine-Cysteine)2-, Ni(CGC)2-, in the A-cluster active site of Acetyl CoA Synthase has prompted the synthesis of many small molecule models which employ M(N2S2) complexes as metalloligands. In vitro studies have shown that nickel incorporates into the N2S2 binding pocket even when copper is in the enzyme growth medium, while copper is preferentially taken up in the proximal site, displacing the catalytically active nickel. (Darnault, C.; Volbeda, A.; Kim, E.J.; Legrand, P.; Vernede, X.; Lindahl, P.A.; Fontecilla-Camps, J.C. Nat. Struct. Biol. 2003, 10, 271-279.) The work herein has been designed to address the chemical viability of copper(II) within the tripeptide N2S2 ligand set. To this end, a series of CuN2S2 2- complexes, the resin-bound, O-Cu(CGC)2- (A) and free Cu(CGC)2- (B) complexes, as well as Cu(ema)2- (C) and Cu(emi)2- (D) dianions, have been characterized by UV-vis, EPR, and ESI-MS spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and, where appropriate, x-ray diffraction studies, and compared to the NiII congeners. EPR spectroscopic results have indicated that, in frozen DMF solution, the copper complexes are distorted square planar structures with nitrogen and sulfur donors. This is consistent with X-ray diffraction measurements which also show copper(II) in a distorted square planar environment that is bereft of CuN2S2 2- intermolecular interactions. DFT calculations resulted in optimized structures that are consistent with crystallographic data and indicated HOMO-SOMO gaps of 5.01 eV and 4.68 eV for C and D as respectively. Optimized structures of Ni(ema)2- and Ni(emi)2- share the same basic characteristics as for the copper(II) congeners. Electrochemical characterization of C and D resulted in a reversible CuIII/II couple at -1.20 V and - 1.40 V, respectively. Reactivity studies with Rh(CO)2+ show similar donor capabilities for complexes A-D. Analysis of A shows that transmetallation does not occur. From competitive metal

  19. Addressing Global Change Issues Using Atmospheric Chemistry Observations from Space: Providing Measurements for the Recovery of the Ozone Layer, Climate, and Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, J.

    2008-05-01

    As we enter the second decade of the 21st century, there is a trilogy of major issues around which satellite observations of trace gases and aerosols can be classified. The first large-scale problem focuses on the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer, where satellites have a multi-decadal heritage of making important contributions to understanding the chemistry and dynamics of stratospheric ozone. The second aspect of this trilogy is the long-term build up of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols that affect climate, where relevant measurements include methane and the precursors to tropospheric ozone formation, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. Satellite observations during the past decade have provided new insight into both trends and interannual variability of key tropospheric trace gases. However, the last and the most challenging aspect of this trilogy deals with the capability to use space observations to observe and hopefully help mitigate the detrimental aspects of air pollution that result in widespread harm to human health and other biological systems. The recently released "Decadal Survey" by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) concurs with this philosophy and strongly encourages the use of satellite measurements for societal benefits. The NRC emphasized that if Earth scientists are to foster applications and extend the societal benefits of their work, they must also understand that satellite measurements need to be transformed into useful information that is understandable and meets the needs of being a tool for those who make decisions regarding air quality and policy-makers as well as for scientists, the traditional users of such measurements. Specifically, with respect to future atmospheric chemistry missions, the NRC (2007) recommended that a mission dedicated to the measurement of tropospheric trace gases from a geostationary satellite should be launched in the 2013-2016 timeframe (GEO-CAPE, Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution

  20. A Critical Commentary on Combined Methods Approach to Researching Educational and Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nudzor, Hope Pius

    2009-01-01

    One major issue social science research is faced with concerns the methodological schism and internecine "warfare" that divides the field. This paper examines critically what is referred to as combined methods research, and the claim that this is the best methodology for addressing complex social issues. The paper discredits this claim on the…

  1. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  2. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Gore, M S

    1997-07-01

    In India, data from the decennial censuses have been the catalyst that has led researchers to identify social policy needs and craft programs to lower overall mortality rates, infant mortality rates, and fertility rates. A new demographic phenomenon that is being exposed by the data is the increase in life expectancy that will see large numbers of individuals surviving 15-20 years beyond age 60. This increased life expectancy will lead to an increased old age dependency ratio and will require reexamination of the issue of resources to meet the needs of the elderly. These needs are social and psychological as well as physical. Research is needed to predict the initial consequences of population aging within different states. International comparisons within the Asian region will also foster identification of effective policies. Research is also needed to identify whether longevity is tied to higher educational and socioeconomic status in order to improve life expectancy among low-income groups. Another aspect that requires consideration is that most elderly women will likely survive their husbands. This means that they will be available to care for their husbands but will have to depend upon their children to care for them. The possible demographic diversity in the experience of aging among various states and classes and between the genders may be of special interest to researchers. PMID:12293130

  3. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  4. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  5. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  6. Addressing Cyberbullying as a Media Literacy Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Christine Suniti; Chang, Shih-Hua; Linscott, Jamie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Asian region accounts for the highest number of internet and mobile cell phones consumers among the regions of the world. As the use of information and communications technology becomes more and more widespread, the misuse of such technology becomes a concern. Cyberbullying, or bullying using information and communications…

  7. Addressing hypertext design and conversion issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glusko, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Hypertext is a network of information units connected by relational links. A hypertext system is a configuration of hardware and software that presents a hypertext to users and allows them to manage and access the information that it contains. Hypertext is also a user interface concept that closely supports the ways that people use printed information. Hypertext concepts encourage modularity and the elimination of redundancy in data bases because information can be stored only once but viewed in any appropriate context. Hypertext is such a hot idea because it is an enabling technology in that workstations and personal computers finally provide enough local processing power for hypertext user interfaces.

  8. Scientific Issues Addressed by the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourcki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Lissauer, J. J.; Jenkins, J. M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Kepler Mission uses a wide field-of-view telescope to photometrically monitor 100,000 main-sequence stars for evidence of planetary transits. Because of the large number of stars monitored and because the mission is designed with a precision (0.002%) sufficient to readily recognize Earth-size planets transiting solar-like stars, several hundred Earth-size planets should be found. Based on the the Dopper velocity observations that find 2% of the main-sequence stars have Jupiter-size planets in short-period orbits, the Kepler mission is also expected to detect about 2000 giant planets. Several questions about the association of planet types and stellar characteristics can be investigated. For example; Are small planets found when Jupiter-mass planets are also present in inner orbits? What is the frequency of small planets compared to Jupiter-mass planets? What is the frequency and distribution of planets intermediate in size and mass to that of Earth and Jupiter? What correlations exist between planet size, distribution, and frequency with the characteristics of the stars they orbit? A comparison between model predictions and observation should be a useful step in evolving better models of planetary system formation and help put the formation of our Solar System in perspective.

  9. Addressing endotoxin issues in bioengineered heparin.

    PubMed

    Suwan, Jiraporn; Torelli, Amanda; Onishi, Akihiro; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Heparin is a widely used clinical anticoagulant that is prepared from pig intestine. A contamination of heparin in 2008 has led to a reexamination of animal-derived pharmaceuticals. A bioengineered heparin prepared by bacterial fermentation and chemical and enzymatic processing is currently under development. This study examines the challenges of reducing or removing endotoxins associated with this process that are necessary to proceed with preclinical in vivo evaluation of bioengineered heparin. The current process is assessed for endotoxin levels, and strategies are examined for endotoxin removal from polysaccharides and enzymes involved in this process. PMID:23586950

  10. Methodological issues and preliminary results from a combined sediment fingerprinting and radioisotope dating approach to explore changes in sediment sources with land-use change in the Brantian Catchment, Borneo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Rory; Higton, Sam; Marshall, Jake; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Nainar, Anand

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports some methodological issues and early results of a project investigating the erosional impacts of land use changes (multiple selective logging and progressive, partial conversion to oil palm) over the last 25-40 years in the 600km2 Brantian river catchment in Sabah, Borneo. A combined sediment fingerprinting and radioisotope dating approach is being applied to sediment cores taken in stream hierarchical fashion across the intermediate catchment scale. Changes in sediment sources and sedimentation rates over time can be captured by changes in the relative importance of geochemical elements with depth in downstream sediment cores, which in turn can be linked to parallel changes in upstream cores by the application of unmixing models and statistical techniques. Radioisotope analysis of the sediment cores allows these changes to be dated and sedimentation rates to be estimated. Work in the neighbouring Segama catchment had successfully demonstrated the potential of such an approach in a rainforest environment (Walsh et al. 2011). The paper first describes steps taken to address methodological issues. The approach relies on taking continuous sediment cores which have aggraded progressively over time and remain relatively undisturbed and uncontaminated. This issue has been tackled (1) through careful core sampling site selection with a focus on lateral bench sites and (2) deployment of techniques such as repeat-measurement erosion bridge transects to assess the contemporary nature of sedimentation to validate (or reject) candidate sites. The issue of sediment storage and uncertainties over lag times has been minimised by focussing on sets of above- and below-confluence sites in the intermediate zone of the catchment, thus minimising sediment transit times between upstream contributing and downstream destination core sites. This focus on the intermediate zone was also driven by difficulties in finding suitable core sites in the mountainous headwaters

  11. Research Methods and Methodologies for Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Issues in Art Education. Crossing Cultural, Artistic, and Cyber Borders: Issues and Examples in Art Education Conference (Tempe, Arizona, January 7-8, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Pierre, Sharon D., Ed; Stokrocki, Mary, Ed.; Zimmerman, Enid, Ed.

    This monograph is the outgrowth of a conference that explored research concerns related to multi-cultural and cross-cultural contexts in art education. In the monograph, presentations are organized into three sections. Section 1 deals with basic research methods and methodologies, and introduces new methodological perspectives for consideration.…

  12. Issues management made easier

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, L.

    1993-10-01

    Increases in ES&H compliance issues within the past few years have necessitated a formal process by which DOE facilities address these issues. In May 1991, ANL-W implemented the ANL-W Issues Management System (IMS) to facilitate the management of compliance issues and scheduling of corrective action plans with limited resources. The central focus of this process is a computer database, Integrated Resource Management System (IRMS), which allows quick retrieval of compliance information, organization of compliance issues based on a risk-based prioritization methodology, and tracking of corrective action plans. Without the IRMS, the ANL-W Issues Management System would have been difficult to administer and manage. ANL-W has used the IRMS for both audit preparation and audit response, most noticeably the preparation and subsequent response to the 1991 Tiger Team audit. The IRMS was used to track ANL-W Self-Assessment corrective action plans, provide instant information to Tiger Team members regarding Self-Assessment findings, produce prioritized lists of Tiger Team concerns for developing corrective action plans, and track Tiger Team corrective action plans. Status reports to senior, laboratory management regarding the Tiger Team corrective action plan are produced based on information provided by the IRMS. This paper discusses the criteria used for selecting the IRMS, implementation of the Issues Management System using the IRMS, lessons learned, and the future evolution of the IRMS.

  13. The importance for the MDG4 and MDG5 of addressing reproductive health issues during the second decade of life: review and analysis from times series data of 51 African countries.

    PubMed

    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate

    2011-06-01

    Addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health issues are central to efforts for reducing childhood and maternal mortality embedded in MDG4 and MDG5. This paper reviews these issues in Africa and uses statistical methods for measuring changes to analyze recent and comparable time series data from 51 African countries. The contribution of adolescent fertility to total fertility and mortality remains quite high. Delayed marriage is occurring concomitantly with postponement of sexual debut among unmarried adolescents. Six African countries are likely to achieve the MGD4 and five are likely to reach the target for the MDG5; the majority of sub-Saharan African countries will fall short of achieving these goals, not even by 2100 for many at current rates of change in progress indicators. Implementing ground-breaking nationally owned mortality-reduction schemes covering preconceptional and interconceptional periods and well-functioning comprehensive health-care system secured by sustained commitments and financial investments in health and social services are urgently needed, in order to repeal trends of further undoing successes achieved so far or slowing recent progress, thus hastening the pace of child and maternal mortality decline. PMID:22590890

  14. Work Group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology, Symposium on Research and Evaluation Methodology: Lifespan Issues Related to American Indians/Alaska Natives with Disabilities (Washington, DC, April 26-27, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jamie D., Ed.; Erickson, Jill Shepard, Ed.; Johnson, Sharon R., Ed.; Marshall, Catherine A., Ed.; Running Wolf, Paulette, Ed.; Santiago, Rolando L., Ed.

    This first symposium of the Work Group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology (AIRPEM) explored American Indian and Alaska Native cultural considerations in relation to "best practices" in research and program evaluation. These cultural considerations include the importance of tribal consultation on research projects and…

  15. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  16. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  17. Are health-based payments a feasible tool for addressing risk segmentation?

    PubMed

    Rogal, D L; Gauthier, A K

    1998-01-01

    As they attempt to increase health insurance coverage and improve the efficiency of the market, researchers, policymakers, and health plan representatives have been addressing the issue of risk segmentation. Many risk assessment tools and risk-adjusted payment methodologies have been developed and demonstrated for a variety of populations and payers experiencing various market constraints. The evidence shows that risk-adjusted payments are feasible for most populations receiving acute care, while technical obstacles, political issues, and some research gaps remain.

  18. A Digital Ecosystem for the Collaborative Production of Open Textbooks: The LATIn Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira, Ismar Frango; Ochôa, Xavier; Cuadros-Vargas, Alex; Pérez Casas, Alén; Casali, Ana; Ortega, Andre; Sprock, Antonio Silva; Alves, Carlos Henrique; Collazos Ordoñez, Cesar Alberto; Deco, Claudia; Cuadros-Vargas, Ernesto; Knihs, Everton; Parra, Gonzalo; Muñoz-Arteaga, Jaime; Gomes dos Santos, Jéssica; Broisin, Julien; Omar, Nizam; Motz, Regina; Rodés, Virginia; Bieliukas, Yosly Hernández C.

    2013-01-01

    Access to books in higher education is an issue to be addressed, especially in the context of underdeveloped countries, such as those in Latin America. More than just financial issues, cultural aspects and need for adaptation must be considered. The present conceptual paper proposes a methodology framework that would support collaborative open…

  19. Issues in Cross Cultural Comparative Research

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie; Parker, Ramona A.

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to describe the methodological issues when designing qualitative cultural comparative studies, which may be used to address health disparities. Overall, two broad types of comparative studies were found: primary and secondary comparative studies. Methodological issues to consider when designing primary studies were reviewed. The main areas discussed in this paper relate to sampling and study purpose, sample boundaries, theoretical context, concept development, analogous comparisons and systematic comparisons. Nurses are in a prime position to pose the qualitative research questions needed to address health disparities within their clinical settings. It is suggested that awareness of the method types and issues might inspire further qualitative comparative work. PMID:21197918

  20. Social Enterprise and the Measurement of Social Value: Methodological Issues with the Calculation and Application of the Social Return on Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Patrick W.; Lyne, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the methodological challenge of quantifying the social value generated through social enterprise activity. It argues that in the context of increasing enthusiasm for social enterprise as a mechanism for delivering social services and for tackling social exclusion, it is increasingly necessary to be able to value social…

  1. Rethinking Professional Issues in Special Education. Contemporary Studies in Social and Policy Issues in Education: The David C. Anchin Center Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, James L., Ed.; Lavely, Carolyn D., Ed.; ranston-Gingras, Ann, Ed.; Taylor, Ella L., Ed.

    Sixteen papers, developed as part of a 10-year study of substantive and methodological aspects of teacher education in special education at the University of South Florida, address professional issues in special education. The papers are: (1) "To Improve or Reconstruct Special Education: Issues Facing the Field" (James L. Paul and Ann…

  2. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  3. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Update of a Systematic Review on Methodologic Issues in Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Claassens, Lily; van Meerbeeck, Jan; Coens, Corneel; Quinten, Chantal; Ghislain, Irina; Sloan, Elizabeth K.; Wang, Xin Shelly; Velikova, Galina; Bottomley, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study is an update of a systematic review of health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) methodology reporting in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The objective was to evaluate HRQOL methodology reporting over the last decade and its benefit for clinical decision making. Methods A MEDLINE systematic literature review was performed. Eligible RCTs implemented patient-reported HRQOL assessments and regular oncology treatments for newly diagnosed adult patients with NSCLC. Included studies were published in English from August 2002 to July 2010. Two independent reviewers evaluated all included RCTs. Results Fifty-three RCTs were assessed. Of the 53 RCTs, 81% reported that there was no significant difference in overall survival (OS). However, 50% of RCTs that were unable to find OS differences reported a significant difference in HRQOL scores. The quality of HRQOL reporting has improved; both reporting of clinically significant differences and statistical testing of HRQOL have improved. A European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer HRQOL questionnaire was used in 57% of the studies. However, reporting of HRQOL hypotheses and rationales for choosing HRQOL instruments were significantly less than before 2002 (P < .05). Conclusion The number of NSCLC RCTs incorporating HRQOL assessments has considerably increased. HRQOL continues to demonstrate its importance in RCTs, especially in those studies in which no OS difference is found. Despite the improved quality of HRQOL methodology reporting, certain aspects remain underrepresented. Our findings suggest need for an international standardization of HRQOL reporting similar to the CONSORT guidelines for clinical findings. PMID:21464420

  5. A Methodology for Determining Statistical Performance Compliance for Airborne Doppler Radar with Forward-Looking Turbulence Detection Capability. Second Corrected Copy Issued May 23, 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.; Buck, Bill K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the research developed and presented in this document was to statistically assess turbulence hazard detection performance employing airborne pulse Doppler radar systems. The FAA certification methodology for forward looking airborne turbulence radars will require estimating the probabilities of missed and false hazard indications under operational conditions. Analytical approaches must be used due to the near impossibility of obtaining sufficient statistics experimentally. This report describes an end-to-end analytical technique for estimating these probabilities for Enhanced Turbulence (E-Turb) Radar systems under noise-limited conditions, for a variety of aircraft types, as defined in FAA TSO-C134. This technique provides for one means, but not the only means, by which an applicant can demonstrate compliance to the FAA directed ATDS Working Group performance requirements. Turbulence hazard algorithms were developed that derived predictive estimates of aircraft hazards from basic radar observables. These algorithms were designed to prevent false turbulence indications while accurately predicting areas of elevated turbulence risks to aircraft, passengers, and crew; and were successfully flight tested on a NASA B757-200 and a Delta Air Lines B737-800. Application of this defined methodology for calculating the probability of missed and false hazard indications taking into account the effect of the various algorithms used, is demonstrated for representative transport aircraft and radar performance characteristics.

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in behavioral and food addiction: a systematic review of efficacy, technical, and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Sauvaget, Anne; Trojak, Benoît; Bulteau, Samuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Wolz, Ines; Menchón, José M.; Achab, Sophia; Vanelle, Jean-Marie; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral addictions (BA) are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA. Methods: A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction). Study selection, data analysis, and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results: Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode/left prefrontal cathode) reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli. Conclusions: Despite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders. PMID:26500478

  7. Symbiotic empirical ethics: a practical methodology.

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy

    2012-05-01

    Like any discipline, bioethics is a developing field of academic inquiry; and recent trends in scholarship have been towards more engagement with empirical research. This 'empirical turn' has provoked extensive debate over how such 'descriptive' research carried out in the social sciences contributes to the distinctively normative aspect of bioethics. This paper will address this issue by developing a practical research methodology for the inclusion of data from social science studies into ethical deliberation. This methodology will be based on a naturalistic conception of ethical theory that sees practice as informing theory just as theory informs practice - the two are symbiotically related. From this engagement with practice, the ways that such theories need to be extended and developed can be determined. This is a practical methodology for integrating theory and practice that can be used in empirical studies, one that uses ethical theory both to explore the data and to draw normative conclusions.

  8. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  9. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  10. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  11. Methodological Issues to Consider When Collecting Data to Estimate Poverty Impact in Economic Evaluations in Low-income and Middle-income Countries.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sedona; Vassall, Anna; Foster, Nicola; Simms, Victoria; Ilboudo, Patrick; Kimaro, Godfather; Mudzengi, Don; Guinness, Lorna

    2016-02-01

    Out-of-pocket spending is increasingly recognized as an important barrier to accessing health care, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where a large portion of health expenditure comes from out-of-pocket payments. Emerging universal healthcare policies prioritize reduction of poverty impact such as catastrophic and impoverishing healthcare expenditure. Poverty impact is therefore increasingly evaluated alongside and within economic evaluations to estimate the impact of specific health interventions on poverty. However, data collection for these metrics can be challenging in intervention-based contexts in LMICs because of study design and practical limitations. Using a set of case studies, this letter identifies methodological challenges in collecting patient cost data in LMIC contexts. These components are presented in a framework to encourage researchers to consider the implications of differing approaches in data collection and to report their approach in a standardized and transparent way.

  12. Methodological Issues to Consider When Collecting Data to Estimate Poverty Impact in Economic Evaluations in Low-income and Middle-income Countries.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sedona; Vassall, Anna; Foster, Nicola; Simms, Victoria; Ilboudo, Patrick; Kimaro, Godfather; Mudzengi, Don; Guinness, Lorna

    2016-02-01

    Out-of-pocket spending is increasingly recognized as an important barrier to accessing health care, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where a large portion of health expenditure comes from out-of-pocket payments. Emerging universal healthcare policies prioritize reduction of poverty impact such as catastrophic and impoverishing healthcare expenditure. Poverty impact is therefore increasingly evaluated alongside and within economic evaluations to estimate the impact of specific health interventions on poverty. However, data collection for these metrics can be challenging in intervention-based contexts in LMICs because of study design and practical limitations. Using a set of case studies, this letter identifies methodological challenges in collecting patient cost data in LMIC contexts. These components are presented in a framework to encourage researchers to consider the implications of differing approaches in data collection and to report their approach in a standardized and transparent way. PMID:26774106

  13. School- and Group-Based Pay: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    Articles in this special issue address policy, organizational, collective-bargaining, and methodological dimensions of group- and school-based pay as they consider issues related to merit pay and show how the idea of pay for performance is being played out in policy debates. (SLD)

  14. Value-Creating Networks: Organizational Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allee, Verna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of evaluating value-creating networks and to address the organizational issues and challenges of a network orientation. Design/methodology/approach: Value network analysis was first developed in 1993 and was adapted in 1997 for intangible asset management. It has been applied from shopfloor…

  15. Treatment Confounded Missingness: A Comparison of Methods for Addressing Censored or Truncated Data in School Reform Evaluations. CRESST Report 832

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickles, Jordan H.; Hansen, Mark; Wang, Jia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine ways to conceptualize and address potential bias that can arise when the mechanism for missing outcome data is at least partially associated with treatment assignment, an issue we refer to as treatment confounded missingness (TCM). In discussing TCM, we bring together concepts from the methodological literature on missing…

  16. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Methods Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990–2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. Results We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. Conclusions In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may

  17. Methodological Issues to Consider When Collecting Data to Estimate Poverty Impact in Economic Evaluations in Low‐income and Middle‐income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Vassall, Anna; Foster, Nicola; Simms, Victoria; Ilboudo, Patrick; Kimaro, Godfather; Mudzengi, Don; Guinness, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Out‐of‐pocket spending is increasingly recognized as an important barrier to accessing health care, particularly in low‐income and middle‐income countries (LMICs) where a large portion of health expenditure comes from out‐of‐pocket payments. Emerging universal healthcare policies prioritize reduction of poverty impact such as catastrophic and impoverishing healthcare expenditure. Poverty impact is therefore increasingly evaluated alongside and within economic evaluations to estimate the impact of specific health interventions on poverty. However, data collection for these metrics can be challenging in intervention‐based contexts in LMICs because of study design and practical limitations. Using a set of case studies, this letter identifies methodological challenges in collecting patient cost data in LMIC contexts. These components are presented in a framework to encourage researchers to consider the implications of differing approaches in data collection and to report their approach in a standardized and transparent way. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26774106

  18. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  19. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  20. Issues in Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawamura, Mark H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on concerns raised at a workshop at the Southern California College of Optometry, addresses critical issues in the process of peer review of faculty teaching and possible alternatives to these issues as applied to an optometric institution. (EV)

  1. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.

    PubMed

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

    2013-10-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations.

  2. Social Security and Undergraduates with Disabilities: An Analysis of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey. Addressing Trends in Development in Secondary Education and Transition. Information Brief. Vol. 3, Issue 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Hugh; Conway, Megan A.; Change, Kelly B.T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this brief is to describe the characteristics of undergraduate students receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Social Security Administration (SSI) benefits as they relate to issues of participation in postsecondary education and employment. This brief describes results from the National Postsecondary Student Aid…

  3. Action Research as a Research Methodology for the Study of the Teaching and Learning of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Allan; Minstrell, Jim

    This chapter addresses issues of action research from three perspectives. In the first section, what it means to engage in action research as a methodology for investigating teaching and learning in science education is overviewed and various conceptions of action research are explicitly made. The second perspective is that of an individual…

  4. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  5. Developing Survey Research Infrastructure At An Historically Black College/University To Address Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Daniel L.; Boyd, Carlton L.; Kalsbeek, Bill; Godley, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Center for Survey Research at Shaw University, a Historically Black College and University (HBCU), and its efforts to build a data collection infrastructure that addresses issues germane to health disparities research in the African American population. Academic institutions that are similar to Shaw in size, mission, and background can use the Project EXPORT collaboration and the Center for Survey Research as models for establishing their own research infrastructure and subsequent survey center in order to address health disparities through the use of survey methodology. PMID:22090795

  6. Developing Survey Research Infrastructure At An Historically Black College/University To Address Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Howard, Daniel L; Boyd, Carlton L; Kalsbeek, Bill; Godley, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Center for Survey Research at Shaw University, a Historically Black College and University (HBCU), and its efforts to build a data collection infrastructure that addresses issues germane to health disparities research in the African American population. Academic institutions that are similar to Shaw in size, mission, and background can use the Project EXPORT collaboration and the Center for Survey Research as models for establishing their own research infrastructure and subsequent survey center in order to address health disparities through the use of survey methodology.

  7. Methodological Gravitism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author presents the case of the exchange marriage system to delineate a model of methodological gravitism. Such a model is not a deviation from or alteration to the existing qualitative research approaches. I have adopted culturally specific methodology to investigate spouse selection in line with the Grounded Theory Method. This…

  8. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?: Comment on "Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence From the Italian Experience".

    PubMed

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2015-09-02

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), "addressing inequalities" and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need.

  9. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?: Comment on "Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence From the Italian Experience".

    PubMed

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), "addressing inequalities" and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  10. Methodology issues in risk assessment for radon

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H. )

    1991-01-01

    The alpha dose per unit radon daughter exposure in mines and homes is comparable at about 5 mGy/WLM. This means that excess lung cancer risk determined in follow-up studies of miners should be valid to extrapolating to environmental populations. There are several models currently used for risk projection to estimate lung cancer in the US from indoor radon exposure. The accuracy of the estimated depends upon the quality of the exposure data and the models. Recent miner epidemiology confirms that excess lung cancer risk decreases with time subsequent to cessation of exposure. The most rigorous ecological study, to date, shows a persistent negative relationship between average measured indoor radon in US counties and lung cancer mortality. A model for lung cancer risk is proposed that includes smoking, urbanization, and radon exposure. The model helps to explain the difficulties in observing the direct effects of indoor radon in the environment.

  11. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: methodologic issues.

    PubMed

    Prisant, L M; Bottini, P B; Carr, A A

    1996-01-01

    Blood pressure, like heart rate, is a changing physiologic variable. Like ambulatory electrocardiography, ambulatory blood pressure can be recorded intermittently throughout the day. Ambulatory blood pressure is a dynamic variable influenced by multiple factors, and it correlates more strongly with target organ damage than do static office blood pressure measurements. Office (but not ambulatory) measurements are subject to the placebo and physician pressor effect. There is a great patient variability of blood pressure measurements in the office compared with ambulatory methods. Ambulatory blood pressure devices are portable rather than 'ambulatory'. The auscultatory (listens for Korotkoff sounds) and oscillometric (detects maximal arterial vibrations and calculates diastolic blood pressure) methods are used to detect blood pressure. Equipment is generally safe, although mild sleep derangements have been reported. The 24-h blood pressure and diurnal change are usually assessed. A 24-h ambulatory blood pressure mean of 140/90 mm Hg or above is clearly abnormal, though recent data suggest that the 95th centile is 134/84 mm Hg. Correlation of individual blood pressure readings with diary entries may be instructive. New American and British validation criteria have been published to assess the performance of each new device that becomes available. It should not be assumed that newer ambulatory devices have been tested (particularly by a third party) or are better. Test/retest 24-h ambulatory blood pressure shows less variability than office measurements; however, the percentage of patients with a mean difference greater than +/- 5 mm Hg on repeat 24-h blood pressure measurement after 1 week is still surprisingly high (49.3%, systolic; 52.1%, diastolic). European trials are in progress to assess the prognosis of hypertension assessed by ambulatory compared with office blood pressure. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been restricted for use in several clinical situations and is not used for the routine evaluation and management of hypertension. PMID:8739878

  12. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  13. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  14. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  15. Contemporary Native American Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestas, John R., Ed.

    A compilation of 58 representative speeches from the American Indian Community, this book is divided into 2 parts; Part I deals with issues of contemporary concern and Part II illustrates speech types and styles. All speeches are classified by issue as follows: sovereignty (2 speeches, 1 on the rise and fall of Indian sovereignty); trust…

  16. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  17. Physicians’ perspectives on cancer survivors’ work integration issues

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Tricia; Thomas, Roanne; Guitard, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore physicians’ perspectives on supporting cancer survivors’ work integration (WI) issues. Design Using vignette methodology, 10 physicians were individually interviewed. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed, and subsequently analyzed. Setting Ontario. Participants A total of 10 physicians participated: 5 oncologists and 5 FPs. Methods An inductive interpretive description approach was used to identify themes across the entire data set. Main findings Physicians primarily focused on patients’ medical needs and did not spontaneously address WI issues with them. Instead, it was their patients who raised WI issues, most often owing to insurance requirements. Physicians readily completed insurance forms to aid patients’ well-being, but they did not believe their guidance was empirically sound based upon their limited WI training; rather, they recognized other health professionals, such as occupational therapists, as being better equipped to address cancer survivors’ WI issues. Despite this recognition, referrals for WI support were not routinely facilitated owing to a lack of resources or knowledge. Conclusion Owing to a lack of training and time, as well as the belief that WI issues are not part of their mandate of care, physicians perceive themselves as ill-equipped to address cancer survivors’ WI issues. These findings underscore the need for enhanced awareness of cancer survivors’ WI issues and the need for accessible support services offered by duly trained health care professionals, such as occupational therapists, ideally working in a multidisciplinary team to holistically address cancer survivors’ unique needs. PMID:25756147

  18. Acoustic methodology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    It is important for industry and NASA to assess the status of acoustic design technology for predicting and controlling helicopter external noise in order for a meaningful research program to be formulated which will address this problem. The prediction methodologies available to the designer and the acoustic engineer are three-fold. First is what has been described as a first principle analysis. This analysis approach attempts to remove any empiricism from the analysis process and deals with a theoretical mechanism approach to predicting the noise. The second approach attempts to combine first principle methodology (when available) with empirical data to formulate source predictors which can be combined to predict vehicle levels. The third is an empirical analysis, which attempts to generalize measured trends into a vehicle noise prediction method. This paper will briefly address each.

  19. Using Modern Methodologies with Maintenance Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; Francis, Laurie K.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory uses multi-mission software produced by the Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) team to process, simulate, translate, and package the commands that are sent to a spacecraft. MPS works under the auspices of the Multi-Mission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS). This software consists of nineteen applications that are in maintenance. The MPS software is classified as either class B (mission critical) or class C (mission important). The scheduling of tasks is difficult because mission needs must be addressed prior to performing any other tasks and those needs often spring up unexpectedly. Keeping track of the tasks that everyone is working on is also difficult because each person is working on a different software component. Recently the group adopted the Scrum methodology for planning and scheduling tasks. Scrum is one of the newer methodologies typically used in agile development. In the Scrum development environment, teams pick their tasks that are to be completed within a sprint based on priority. The team specifies the sprint length usually a month or less. Scrum is typically used for new development of one application. In the Scrum methodology there is a scrum master who is a facilitator who tries to make sure that everything moves smoothly, a product owner who represents the user(s) of the software and the team. MPS is not the traditional environment for the Scrum methodology. MPS has many software applications in maintenance, team members who are working on disparate applications, many users, and is interruptible based on mission needs, issues and requirements. In order to use scrum, the methodology needed adaptation to MPS. Scrum was chosen because it is adaptable. This paper is about the development of the process for using scrum, a new development methodology, with a team that works on disparate interruptible tasks on multiple software applications.

  20. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  1. Development methodology for scientific software

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, G.; Goldstone, J.A.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.; Miller, L.; Barrus, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    We present the details of a software development methodology that addresses all phases of the software life cycle, yet is well suited for application by small projects with limited resources. The methodology has been developed at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility and was utilized during the recent development of the WNR Data Acquisition Command Language. The methodology emphasizes the development and maintenance of comprehensive documentation for all software components. The impact of the methodology upon software quality and programmer productivity is assessed.

  2. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  3. ISSUES IN DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY FOR MAPPING SUBMERSED AQUATIC VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the numerous issues that needed to be addressed when developing a methodology for mapping Submersed Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) from digital aerial photography. Specifically, we discuss 1) choice of film; 2) consideration of tide and weather constraints; 3) in-s...

  4. Addressing sleep disturbances: An opportunity to prevent cardiometabolic disease?

    PubMed Central

    GRANDNER, MICHAEL A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of the role of sleep disturbance as an important factor in health and disease. Although subclinical sleep disturbances (insufficient sleep duration or inadequate sleep quality) may be difficult to assess with conceptual and/or methodological clarity, this review attempts to summarize and synthesize these findings. First, the concept of sleep disturbance in a public health context is introduced, to provide context and rationale. Second, operational definitions of ‘cardiometabolic disease’ and ‘sleep disturbance’ are offered, to address many unclear operationalizations. Third, the extant literature is summarized regarding short or long sleep duration and/or insufficient sleep, insomnia and insomnia symptoms, general (non-specific sleep disturbances), circadian rhythm abnormalities that result in sleep disturbances, and, briefly, sleep-disordered breathing. Fourth, the review highlights the social/behavioural context of sleep, including discussions of sleep and race/ethnicity, socio-economic position, and other social/environmental factors, in order to place these findings in a social-environmental context relevant to public health. Fifth, the review highlights the issue of sleep as a domain of health behaviour and addresses issues regarding development of healthy sleep interventions. Finally, a research agenda of future directions is proposed. PMID:24892892

  5. Method and methodology in feminist research: what is the difference?

    PubMed

    King, K E

    1994-07-01

    Feminism and nursing have historically travelled separate paths. Nursing has only recently begun to embrace feminist philosophy, and consequently nurse researchers are just beginning to undertake truly feminist research. There appears to be little consensus between feminist researchers' interpretations of the concepts of method and methodology. Prior to embarking on the development of a feminist research proposal it is imperative to differentiate between these two concepts. This paper explores the concepts of method and methodology and explains their interrelationship. Feminist research methodology, with its emphasis on a non-hierarchical, reflexive, interactive approach is highlighted and its impact on the researcher's choice of an appropriate method is discussed. It is only through addressing these issues that nurse researchers will be effective in pursuing truly feminist research that can act as a catalyst for the emancipation of women and the nursing profession.

  6. Artificial intelligence issues related to automated computing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornfeck, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Large data processing installations represent target systems for effective applications of artificial intelligence (AI) constructs. The system organization of a large data processing facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is presented. The methodology and the issues which are related to AI application to automated operations within a large-scale computing facility are described. Problems to be addressed and initial goals are outlined.

  7. Methodology and the Research-Practice Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the mismatch between educational research methodologies and its application to generic features of practice and proposes a problem-based methodology that better links research with problem solving. Implications of this methodology are discussed from recent research on school tracking. (GR)

  8. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  9. Ethical issues in palliative care research.

    PubMed

    de Raeve, L

    1994-10-01

    Much has been written about the ethics of experimental research upon human subjects, particularly where such subjects can be said to be in a vulnerable position in relation to the researcher. This paper attempts to address such questions with reference to people who are dying. A case is made to defend the view that no research is morally justifiable with this client group. Less extreme views are also explored. One justification for such research activity comes from a rights-based perspective and another from the weighing of benefits and harms. In the process of exploring these issues, the author attempts to demonstrate that no research methodology can be said to be benign.

  10. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  11. Ethical Issues Involving Research Conducted With Homebound Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Locher, Julie L.; Bronstein, Janet; Robinson, Caroline O.; Williams, Charlotte; Ritchie, Christine S.

    2009-01-01

    Conducting research in the home setting with home-bound older adults presents distinct ethical and practical challenges that require special consideration. This article describes the methodological issues that make studying homebound older adults especially vulnerable to therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict and offers practical strategies for researchers to deal with these problems when studying this population. In writing this article, we draw on more than a decade of descriptive and intervention research focusing exclusively on the homebound older population in which the authors have collaborated. Therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict may occur because of methodological issues related to the recruitment of participants, the “homebound” status of participants, and the home setting as the interview site. Particular care is required on the part of the researcher to address these ethical issues. This may be accomplished especially through clear communication during the informed consent process with participants and in scientific communication with colleagues. PMID:16581879

  12. Using scan statistics for congenital anomalies surveillance: the EUROCAT methodology.

    PubMed

    Teljeur, Conor; Kelly, Alan; Loane, Maria; Densem, James; Dolk, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Scan statistics have been used extensively to identify temporal clusters of health events. We describe the temporal cluster detection methodology adopted by the EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) monitoring system. Since 2001, EUROCAT has implemented variable window width scan statistic for detecting unusual temporal aggregations of congenital anomaly cases. The scan windows are based on numbers of cases rather than being defined by time. The methodology is imbedded in the EUROCAT Central Database for annual application to centrally held registry data. The methodology was incrementally adapted to improve the utility and to address statistical issues. Simulation exercises were used to determine the power of the methodology to identify periods of raised risk (of 1-18 months). In order to operationalize the scan methodology, a number of adaptations were needed, including: estimating date of conception as unit of time; deciding the maximum length (in time) and recency of clusters of interest; reporting of multiple and overlapping significant clusters; replacing the Monte Carlo simulation with a lookup table to reduce computation time; and placing a threshold on underlying population change and estimating the false positive rate by simulation. Exploration of power found that raised risk periods lasting 1 month are unlikely to be detected except when the relative risk and case counts are high. The variable window width scan statistic is a useful tool for the surveillance of congenital anomalies. Numerous adaptations have improved the utility of the original methodology in the context of temporal cluster detection in congenital anomalies. PMID:26026722

  13. Using scan statistics for congenital anomalies surveillance: the EUROCAT methodology.

    PubMed

    Teljeur, Conor; Kelly, Alan; Loane, Maria; Densem, James; Dolk, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Scan statistics have been used extensively to identify temporal clusters of health events. We describe the temporal cluster detection methodology adopted by the EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) monitoring system. Since 2001, EUROCAT has implemented variable window width scan statistic for detecting unusual temporal aggregations of congenital anomaly cases. The scan windows are based on numbers of cases rather than being defined by time. The methodology is imbedded in the EUROCAT Central Database for annual application to centrally held registry data. The methodology was incrementally adapted to improve the utility and to address statistical issues. Simulation exercises were used to determine the power of the methodology to identify periods of raised risk (of 1-18 months). In order to operationalize the scan methodology, a number of adaptations were needed, including: estimating date of conception as unit of time; deciding the maximum length (in time) and recency of clusters of interest; reporting of multiple and overlapping significant clusters; replacing the Monte Carlo simulation with a lookup table to reduce computation time; and placing a threshold on underlying population change and estimating the false positive rate by simulation. Exploration of power found that raised risk periods lasting 1 month are unlikely to be detected except when the relative risk and case counts are high. The variable window width scan statistic is a useful tool for the surveillance of congenital anomalies. Numerous adaptations have improved the utility of the original methodology in the context of temporal cluster detection in congenital anomalies.

  14. Nanofluids Research: Key Issues

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets) in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities). Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids. PMID:20676214

  15. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  16. Addressing Poverty Issues in Christian Schools: Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankston, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of Christian education is to incorporate Biblical values in the curriculum, and one essential message in the Bible is to reach out and liberate the poor. Through interviews, writing protocols, a focus group meeting, and document analysis, this narrative study focuses on the question of how do Christian educators create pedagogical…

  17. A Strategic Model to Address Issues of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Leonard; Johnson, Elease; Green, Peggy; Macia, Jose; Wright, Ted; Daniel, Yanick; Distefano Diaz, Mary F.; Obenauf, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an interactive and collaborative strategic planning process by a community college in which student retention and success became a focus of a re-accreditation endeavor. The underlying assumption of this strategic planning effort was that engaging all groups that have a stake in student retention at the beginning of the…

  18. Jupiter's Polar Magnetosphere: Outstanding Issues to be Addressed By Juno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; McComas, D. J.; Mauk, B.; Gladstone, R.; Adriani, A.; Bagenal, F.; Bolton, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Juno is on course to enter polar orbit at Jupiter on July 4, 2016. After a small number of preliminary orbits during which the orbital period is reduced, approximately 30 science orbits will be executed to explore the interior of Jupiter, hence, its origin. A second primary objective of the mission, and the subject of this talk, is to carry out the first exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. All previous missions to Jupiter, including Ulysses, remained at low Jovian latitudes at close range, hence, our knowledge of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere is a composite of remote sensing (such as radio emissions in the hectometric and decametric bands as well as IR and UV images); application of observations of Earth's auroral and polar cap particles, fields, and auroral emissions; and modeling. While these likely inform our expectations of what Juno will actually measure qualitatively, Juno will provide the first in depth exploration of auroral processes at another planet, other than a small number of very brief encounters of Saturn's kilometric radio source region by Cassini. With a reasonably complete suite of in situ magnetospheric measurements coupled with remote sensing, Juno will enable us to compare Jupiter's polar magnetosphere with those expectations. Certainly, understanding the nature of auroral currents and mechanisms for particle acceleration are high on the list of priorities for these studies. In addition, it is expected that Juno will greatly improve our understanding of the mapping of auroral processes from high latitudes and low altitudes to the middle and outer magnetosphere.

  19. Ethical Issues in Addressing Inequity in/through ESL Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ena

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right thing" runs…

  20. Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."

  1. Advances in Pediatric Asthma in 2010: Addressing the Major Issues

    PubMed Central

    Szefler, Stanley J.

    2010-01-01

    Last year’s Advances in Pediatric Asthma concluded with the following statement “If we can close these [remaining] gaps through better communication, improvements in the health care system and new insights into treatment, we will move closer to better methods to intervene early in the course of the disease and induce clinical remission as quickly as possible in most children”. This year’s summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma that take steps moving forward as reported in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology publications in 2010. Some of those recent reports show us how to improve asthma management through steps to better understand the natural history of asthma, individualize asthma care, reduce asthma exacerbations, manage inner city asthma, and some potential new ways to use available medications to improve asthma control. It is clear that we have made many significant gains in managing asthma in children but we have a ways to go to prevent asthma exacerbations, alter the natural history of the disease, and to reduce health disparities in asthma care. Perhaps new directions in personalized medicine and improved health care access and communication will help maintain steady progress in alleviating the burden of this disease in children, especially young children. PMID:21211645

  2. Something to "Speak" about: Addressing Sensitive Issues through Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    "Speak," by Laurie Halse Anderson, is one of the most powerful young adult novels to come along in the past decade. It has won numerous awards, including the "School Library Journal" award for "Best Book of the Year," and was a National Book Award Finalist. Despite this acclaim, many English teachers are uncomfortable teaching "Speak" in their…

  3. A Model for Addressing Spiritual Issues in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the hesitancy of counselors and psychotherapists to approach the spiritual concerns of clients. Proposes a counseling and psychotherapy training model that contains discrete yet continuous levels of learning. The holistic epistemology of Gregory Bateson is used to derive guiding theoretical principles for the training model. (Author/JAC)

  4. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  5. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the technologies to mature enough to make self-sensing materials a reality. Nevertheless, recent advances in the field of nanotechnology demonstrate that nanotubes, nanorods, and nanoparticles of carbon, boron and other materials have remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. This would provide. for a plethora of potential applications including self-sensing materials. Record strength-to-weight ratios, ballistic conductivity, and sensing capabilities (i.e., piezo- resistance and piezoelectricity) have been reported for carbon nanotubes. The first transistors, sensors, and actuators have been made from the carbon nanotubes and other nanomaterials. However, nanomaterials are notoriously difficult to manipulate into useful geometries. Nano-manufacturing processes often produce bundles or random networks of nanostructured materials. Samples of the material are then manipulated with advanced microscopy tools to measure properties or to create a single device. This is a laborious and time consuming process. An often overlooked property of the manufactured nanotube bundles is their similarity to the dendritic structure of neural networks with a great quantity of interconnects that may serve as initiation sites for artificial neurons in a self-sensing material nervous system. To accelerate the development of self-sensing materials, future research should concentrate on naturally occurring dendritic nano-structures. While self-sensing materials with subgrain size sensors (scale of micrometers) remain in the realm of basic research, meso-scale (millimeters to centimeters) sensors and their networks are in the state of mature research and have begun to find their way into commercial applications. Macro-scale (centimeters to decimeters) sensors and their networks are commercially available from various sources. The majority of applications that employ sensor networks are driven by the needs of the Department of Defense. Widespread adaptation of sensor networks has been limited by, on one hand, the sensor's high cost of design, development, and deployment, and on the other hand, a lack of reliable long-term power sources. Solutions to both of these drawbacks require significant investments driven by real-life applications. Possible applications for sensor networks at Sandia National Laboratories include dense data collection techniques for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. For example, an array of distributed wireless macro-scale sensors can record the structural response of soils and reinforced concrete during explosive loading. Another example is an array of surface mounted micro-sensors that can record the modal response of nuclear weapon components. The collected data would be used to validate existing numerical codes and to identify new physical mechanisms to improve Sandia's computational models.

  6. Assessing Rural Coalitions That Address Safety and Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgus, Shari; Schwab, Charles; Shelley, Mack

    2012-01-01

    Community coalitions can help national organizations meet their objectives. Farm Safety 4 Just Kids depends on coalitions of local people to deliver farm safety and health educational programs to children and their families. These coalitions are called chapters. An evaluation was developed to identify individual coalition's strengths and…

  7. Creating Safety To Address Controversial Issues: Strategies for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valerio, Nina L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents seven elements of a safe classroom in controversy-driven courses, where students can exchange ideas rather than emotions as they learn and discuss. The elements are: collegiality, empowerment, role modeling, preparation, shared purpose, reflection, and commitment. Explains how teachers can create and nurture safe classrooms, describing…

  8. Addressing Issues of Peer Rejection in Child-Centered Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Mona W.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that children ignored or rebuffed by their peers may be denied access to learning opportunities involving peer interaction. Describes how the sociometric dynamics in one classroom affected three children. Suggests implementations to minimize negative impact of peer rejection including identifying sociometric patterns, and then utilizing…

  9. Addressing Issues of Workplace Harassment: Counseling the Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jacqueline; Coursol, Diane; Wahl, Kay Herting

    2002-01-01

    Workplace harassment includes dysfunctional personal interactions characterized by bullying behaviors, personal attacks, and attempts to denigrate others. Targets of workplace harassment may experience stress, depression, low self-esteem, loss of sleep, and even posttraumatic stress disorder. Strategies that counselors can use to work effectively…

  10. Addressing criminality in childhood: is responsivity the central issue?

    PubMed

    Nee, Claire; Ellis, Tom; Morris, Paul; Wilson, Amy

    2013-11-01

    The responsivity principle is the third element of the now well-established risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model of offender rehabilitation. Accruing evidence suggests it is often sacrificed in intervention programs. We aim to demonstrate the central importance of this principle when designing offender interventions by describing the results of a successful, highly responsive intervention for very young children (aged 7 upward) who have offended. A small slice of the offending population as a whole, child offenders are nevertheless tomorrow's serious, violent, and prolific lawbreakers, yet little is understood about what reduces their risk. Recent developments on responsivity are reviewed, before presenting the evaluation indicating significant and sustained drops in risk of recidivism. In-program factors such as the nature and dosage of interventions are examined, alongside outcome data. The article discusses how RNR and other models might apply to this particularly young and underresearched age group. PMID:23070956

  11. SLIIDEA: Positive Approaches for Addressing Behavioral Issues. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    When Congress passed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1997, it authorized an evaluation to track progress at the state and local levels on the legislative goals of IDEA. The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) commissioned a national longitudinal study, the Study of State and Local…

  12. Addressing Machining Issues for the Intermetallic Compound 60-NITINOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; Wozniak, Walter A.; McCue, Terry R.

    2012-01-01

    60-NITINOL (60 wt.% Ni - 40 wt.% Ti) is being studied as a material for advanced aerospace components. Frequent wire breakage during electrical-discharge machining of this material was investigated. The studied material was fabricated from hot isostatically pressed 60-NITINOL powder obtained through a commercial source. Bulk chemical analysis of the material showed that the composition was nominal but had relatively high levels of certain impurities, including Al and O. It was later determined that Al2O3 particles had contaminated the material during the hot isostatic pressing procedure and that these particles were the most likely cause of the wire breakage. The results of this investigation highlight the importance of material cleanliness to its further implementation.

  13. Addressing Issues of Power, Justice, and Privilege in Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Stacie L.

    2014-01-01

    Tate applauds Rogers's use of teacher research to illustrate how literacy coaches and teachers can approach an accelerative literacy framework with a critical literacy lens. Citing her own work, as well as the work of other critical literacy educators, Tate reminds readers that teacher research is a careful plan that encompasses the power of…

  14. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  15. Changing concepts: the presidential address.

    PubMed

    Weed, J C

    1974-09-01

    A discussion of conceptual change in areas related to fertility and medicine is presented in an address by the president of the American Fertility Society. Advances in technological research and medicine, particularly in steroids and reporductive physiology, have been the most readily acceptable changes. Cesarean section and surgical sterilization have also become increasingly accepted. Newer developments such as sperm banks, artificial insemination, and ovum transfer have created profound ethical, moral, and medical issued in human engineering research and evolutionary theory. The legalization of abortion has brought moral, ethical, and legal problems for many members of the medical profession. It is urged that the Society promote education of the people in reproductive function, sexual activity, and parental obligation while being acutely aware of the problems in influencing or altering human reproduction.

  16. Summary of technical information and agreements from Nuclear Management and Resources Council industry reports addressing license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, C.; Lee, S.; Chopra, O.K.; Ma, D.C.; Shack, W.J.

    1996-10-01

    In about 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) submitted for NRC review ten industry reports (IRs) addressing aging issues associated with specific structures and components of nuclear power plants ad one IR addressing the screening methodology for integrated plant assessment. The NRC staff had been reviewing the ten NUMARC IRs; their comments on each IR and NUMARC responses to the comments have been compiled as public documents. This report provides a brief summary of the technical information and NUMARC/NRC agreements from the ten IRs, except for the Cable License Renewal IR. The technical information and agreements documented herein represent the status of the NRC staffs review when the NRC staff and industry resources were redirected to address rule implementation issues. The NRC staff plans to incorporate appropriate technical information and agreements into the draft standard review plan for license renewal.

  17. Issue Brief on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division on Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    During the past year, the Diversity Committee of the Division of Developmental Disabilities (DDD) Board worked with the Board and the Issues Committee Chair to develop an issue brief addressing diversity, its impact on the membership and the wider community that is served by the work of DDD, resulting in recommendations that will influence policy…

  18. BWR internal cracking issues

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C.E. Jr.; Lund, A.L.

    1999-07-01

    The regulatory issues associated with cracking of boiling water reactor (BWR) internals is being addressed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and is the subject of a voluntary industry initiative. The lessons learned from this effort will be applied to pressurized water reactor (PWR) internals cracking issues.

  19. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  20. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.