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Sample records for addresses problems related

  1. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  2. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  3. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  4. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  5. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  6. Initiative Addresses Subsurface Energy and Environment Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Majer, Ernest L.; Wang, Joseph S. Y.; Colwell, Frederick; Redden, George

    2006-01-01

    Members of the geoscience community are cooperating in conceptualizing fundamental, crosscutting research to address major obstacles to solving energy and environmental problems related to the subsurface, through the SECUREarth initiative, which began in 2004. Addressing problems, such as reliable nuclear waste storage and safe carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, are critical to maintaining an economical and safe energy supply and clean environment. A recent workshop in Golden, Colo., helped to further the development of the SECUREarth (Scientific Energy/Environmental Crosscutting Underground Research for Urgent Solutions to Secure the Earth's Future) initiative by identifying the key scientific challenges in the geosciences, as well as to target possible approaches for overcoming roadblocks.

  7. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  8. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  9. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  10. Addressing Sexual Problems in HIV Primary Care: Experiences from Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Collier, Kate L.; Grossberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that sexual problems are common among people living with HIV and may be related to sexual risk taking and treatment adherence. This study explored the extent to which sexual problems experienced by people with HIV are addressed in primary care as well as how primary care responses to sexual problems are experienced by patients. Structured interviews were conducted with 60 patients at an urban HIV clinic. The average age of the participants (37 male, 23 female) was 45.8 years (SD = 7.9). Sexual problems were common. The most common sexual problem experienced in the past year was a lack of interest in sex (53.3 % reported) and the least common problem was painful intercourse (reported by 20 %). There were no gender differences in reports of sexual problems, except that painful intercourse was more frequently reported by women than men. Relatively few individuals who experienced sexual problems had discussed them with their provider, but these individuals were generally pleased with the counseling they had received and could identify several factors that facilitated a positive patient-provider interaction. Those who offer primary care services to people with HIV should be aware of sexual problems their patients may be experiencing and should feel confident in their ability to successfully address these problems. Providers may need additional training in order to adequately address sexual problems among people with HIV in primary care settings. PMID:22965768

  11. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems.

    PubMed

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin's dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber's structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure. PMID:27345617

  12. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  13. Addressing the call-back problem

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, R.

    1985-08-01

    Service recalls or call-backs are one of the costliest and most persistent of service management problems. Although all service industries have call-back problems each time the oilburner breaks down, the customer has what could be a costly inconvenience. Every customer complaint reduces loyalty and makes the industry more and more vulnerable to competition, not just from each other but, from the utilities and the discounters. A customer who gets prompt, capable service will usually stay with his present company and, just as importantly, he stays with fuel oil. If the industry were to place the blame for call-backs on a particular person or area it would probably be in the individual serviceman. The lack of training, lack of motivation, lack of compassion for the customer or lack of company spirit, is discussed.

  14. The Significance of Problems Addressed in Recent Vocational Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the significance of problems addressed in recent vocational education research published in volumes 4 and 5 of the "Journal of Vocational Education Research" and volumes 16 and 17 of the "Journal of Industrial Teacher Education." (SSH)

  15. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    Neural engineers have made significant, if not remarkable, progress in interfacing with the nervous system in the last ten years. In particular, neuromodulation of the brain has generated significant therapeutic benefits [1-5]. EEG electrodes can be used to communicate with patients with locked-in syndrome [6]. In the central nervous system (CNS), electrode arrays placed directly over or within the cortex can record neural signals related to the intent of the subject or patient [7, 8]. A similar technology has allowed paralyzed patients to control an otherwise normal skeletal system with brain signals [9, 10]. This technology has significant potential to restore function in these and other patients with neural disorders such as stroke [11]. Although there are several multichannel arrays described in the literature, the workhorse for these cortical interfaces has been the Utah array [12]. This 100-channel electrode array has been used in most studies on animals and humans since the 1990s and is commercially available. This array and other similar microelectrode arrays can record neural signals with high quality (high signal-to-noise ratio), but these signals fade and disappear after a few months and therefore the current technology is not reliable for extended periods of time. Therefore, despite these major advances in communicating with the brain, clinical translation cannot be implemented. The reasons for this failure are not known but clearly involve the interface between the electrode and the neural tissue. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) as well as other federal funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Health have provided significant financial support to investigate this problem without much success. A recent funding program from DARPA was designed to establish the failure modes in order to generate a reliable neural interface technology and again was unsuccessful at producing a robust

  16. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere

    2015-01-01

    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Uruguay. The tolls of disease-related malnutrition are high in both human and financial terms—increased infectious complications, higher incidence of pressure ulcers, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, greater costs of care, and increased risk of death. In an effort to draw attention to malnutrition in Latin American healthcare, a feedM.E. Latin American Study Group was formed to extend the reach and support the educational efforts of the feedM.E. Global Study Group. In this article, the feedM.E. Latin American Study Group shows that malnutrition incurs excessive costs to the healthcare systems, and the study group also presents evidence of how appropriate nutrition care can improve patients’ clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. To achieve the benefits of nutrition for health throughout Latin America, the article presents feedM.E.’s simple and effective Nutrition Care Pathway in English and Spanish as a way to facilitate its use. PMID:25883116

  17. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    Neural engineers have made significant, if not remarkable, progress in interfacing with the nervous system in the last ten years. In particular, neuromodulation of the brain has generated significant therapeutic benefits [1-5]. EEG electrodes can be used to communicate with patients with locked-in syndrome [6]. In the central nervous system (CNS), electrode arrays placed directly over or within the cortex can record neural signals related to the intent of the subject or patient [7, 8]. A similar technology has allowed paralyzed patients to control an otherwise normal skeletal system with brain signals [9, 10]. This technology has significant potential to restore function in these and other patients with neural disorders such as stroke [11]. Although there are several multichannel arrays described in the literature, the workhorse for these cortical interfaces has been the Utah array [12]. This 100-channel electrode array has been used in most studies on animals and humans since the 1990s and is commercially available. This array and other similar microelectrode arrays can record neural signals with high quality (high signal-to-noise ratio), but these signals fade and disappear after a few months and therefore the current technology is not reliable for extended periods of time. Therefore, despite these major advances in communicating with the brain, clinical translation cannot be implemented. The reasons for this failure are not known but clearly involve the interface between the electrode and the neural tissue. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) as well as other federal funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Health have provided significant financial support to investigate this problem without much success. A recent funding program from DARPA was designed to establish the failure modes in order to generate a reliable neural interface technology and again was unsuccessful at producing a robust

  18. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425

  19. Evidence-Based Practices for Addressing Classroom Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hye-Suk Lee; Lynch, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of young children can plan proactively so that they avoid some of the serious problem behaviors in the classroom. The strategies presented in this article are part of a problem solving approach to challenging behavior based on the principles of positive behavioral support. Although these methods presented here have research-based…

  20. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  1. Stressed Stream Analysis--Addressing Environmental Problems in Local Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses environmental impact analysis as a unifying theme to provide students with real problem-solving experiences without neglecting the principles and theories of the basic scientific disciplines undergirding environmental science. Provides information about stressed stream analysis, which connects environmental impact analysis and Great Lakes…

  2. An effective way to address global environmental and energy problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, O.; Garelina, S.; Gysev, A.; Zakharyan, R.; Kazaryan, M.; Sachkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    This work scales the present globalism of ecological and energetic problems. The ecological problem is connected with environment pollution by polymeric waste. The energetic problem - with traditional approaches of modern energetic, in particular, use of fossil fuel for energy production and concentration of capacities for ensuring overall performance of global power supply systems that doesn't guarantee a sustainable development of power for long prospect, doesn't provide power safety of the country. The second part of work is devoted to a choice of the most effective solutions of the present global problems. The authors have proposed the plasma-chemical method of the polymer waste processing and developed a schematic diagram of the reactor. The paper contains the results of the theoretical calculation of the polymer waste processing products. The reagents, allowing to obtain hydrogen and other liquid products from polymer waste are selected. It is proposed to use rare elements for increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste. The results of the calculation of the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste using molybdenum are revealed in the paper.

  3. How Do Medical Teachers Address the Problem of Transfer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laksov, Klara Bolander; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Clinical teachers often complain that medical students have forgotten or somehow "lost" knowledge that has been taught at pre-clinical levels at the time of entering the clinical part of education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, whether transfer of knowledge was identified as a problem by the teaching staff of anatomy and…

  4. Addressing Problems Encountered in Case-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgeon, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    TURF 436 (Case Studies in Turfgrass Management) is the capstone course for turfgrass science majors at the Pennsylvania State University. Students are introduced to problems and complex problematic situations encountered in the management of golf and sports turf and in professional lawn-care operations. Following completion of the orientation case…

  5. Air toxics risk standards: are we addressing the real problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie Miller; Richard Becker; Ted Cromwell

    2005-06-01

    Cost-effective risk reductions from major stationary emission sources have seen significant progress. EPA and state data demonstrate that their programs have dramatically reduced emissions and risk from these sources. Analyses indicate that the next generation of risk reductions for stationary sources will be provide little risk reduction, but will be much more costly and more challenging from a policy perspective. Facing these tough choices, EPA and state regulators should, with stakeholder input, be developing scientifically driven and cost-effective approaches to provide the public with honest answers and results. Air toxics risk policies and programs must prioritize and address significant remaining air toxics risks, educate and communicate to the public about the decision alternatives, build support for a holistic approach and openly communicate results. 6 refs.

  6. Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec

    SciTech Connect

    Sfiligoi, I.; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; Yocum, D.; Groep, D.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

  7. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. Multidimensional Family Therapy: Addressing Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Other Problems among Adolescents with Comprehensive Family-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance abuse and co-occurring problems. MDFT is uniquely suited to address adolescent substance abuse and related disorders given its comprehensive interventions that systematically target the multiple interacting risk factors underlying many developmental disruptions of adolescence. PMID:20682221

  9. Addressing inequities in alcohol consumption and related harms.

    PubMed

    Roche, Ann; Kostadinov, Victoria; Fischer, Jane; Nicholas, Roger; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Pidd, Ken; Trifonoff, Allan

    2015-09-01

    Social determinants, or the conditions in which individuals are born, grow, live, work and age, can result in inequities in health and well-being. However, to-date little research has examined alcohol use and alcohol-related problems from an inequities and social determinants perspective. This study reviewed the evidence base regarding inequities in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health outcomes in Australia and identified promising approaches for promoting health equity. Fair Foundations: the VicHealth framework for health equity was used as an organizing schema. The review found that social determinants can strongly influence inequities in alcohol consumption and related harms. In general, lower socioeconomic groups experience more harm than wealthier groups with the same level of alcohol consumption. While Australia has implemented numerous alcohol-related interventions and policies, most do not explicitly aim to reduce inequities, and some may inadvertently exacerbate existing inequities. Interventions with the greatest potential to decrease inequities in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms include town planning, zoning and licensing to prevent disproportionate clustering of outlets in disadvantaged areas; interventions targeting licensed venues; and interventions targeting vulnerable populations. Interventions that may worsen inequities include national guidelines, technological interventions and public drinking bans. There is a need for further research into the best methods for reducing inequities in alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:26420810

  10. Achieving Success with More Students: Addressing the Problem of Students At Risk, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This resource book was developed to provide information that state and local leaders can use to stimulate discussion of the problem of students at risk and support the planning of initiatives that address the problem. An overview defines students at risk, summarizes the content of the book, and lists recent reports and publications on the problem…

  11. A Problem-Solving Approach to Addressing Current Global Challenges in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Judith D.; Aspin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of global problems shaping education, particularly as they impact upon learning and life chances. In addressing these problems a range of philosophical positions and controversies are considered, including: traditional romantic and institutional views of schooling; and more recent maximalist, neo-liberal,…

  12. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  13. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  14. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  15. Routing and Addressing Problems in Large Metropolitan-Scale Internetworks. ISI Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Gregory G.

    This report discusses some of the problems and limitations in existing internetwork design for the connection of packet-switching networks of different technologies and presents an algorithm that has been shown to be suitable for internetworks of unbounded size. Using a new form of address and a flat routing mechanism called Cartesian routing,…

  16. Measuring Sixth-Grade Students' Problem Solving: Validating an Instrument Addressing the Mathematics Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan David; Sondergeld, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a problem-solving instrument intended for classroom use that addresses the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. In this study, 137 students completed the assessment, and their responses were analyzed. Evidence for validity was collected and examined using the current standards for educational and…

  17. Addressing the Missing Instructional Data Problem: Using a Teacher Log to Document Tier 1 Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…

  18. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M., Ed.; Dunlap, Glen, Ed.; Albin, Richard W., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this volume address theory, research, and practice concerning positive behavior support with families of children and youth with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. The chapters are: (1) "Positive Behavior Support with Families" (Joseph Lucyshyn and others); (2) "Finding Positive Behavior Support One Piece at a…

  19. On Using Meta-Modeling and Multi-Modeling to Address Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Jbara, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Models, created using different modeling techniques, usually serve different purposes and provide unique insights. While each modeling technique might be capable of answering specific questions, complex problems require multiple models interoperating to complement/supplement each other; we call this Multi-Modeling. To address the syntactic and…

  20. Exploring the role of Natural Helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Aguilar, Gerardo; Vilca, Jeanette; Abbenante-Honold, Emily S.; Christian, Allison S.; Peer, Samuel O.

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of natural helpers into services has been suggested as an innovative strategy to address disparities for historically underserved children with conduct problems. In order to inform incorporation efforts, this study examined the perceptions of natural helpers serving one U.S. Latina/o community regarding need for services for children with conduct problems, their reactions to a specific parent training intervention, and the training and support needed to deliver this intervention successfully. Participants identified a need for culturally-responsive services for children with conduct problems, and felt that parent training would be appropriate for the families they serve. Participants further identified specific training and support that they would require in order to deliver parent training with fidelity and effectiveness. Findings support the suggestion that natural helpers have the potential to address service disparities among Latina/o children with conduct problems. Recommendations from natural helpers should guide the development of culturally-adapted preventive interventions that help address existing service disparities. PMID:24910488

  1. Learning dominance relations in combinatorial search problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Chee-Fen; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1988-01-01

    Dominance relations commonly are used to prune unnecessary nodes in search graphs, but they are problem-dependent and cannot be derived by a general procedure. The authors identify machine learning of dominance relations and the applicable learning mechanisms. A study of learning dominance relations using learning by experimentation is described. This system has been able to learn dominance relations for the 0/1-knapsack problem, an inventory problem, the reliability-by-replication problem, the two-machine flow shop problem, a number of single-machine scheduling problems, and a two-machine scheduling problem. It is considered that the same methodology can be extended to learn dominance relations in general.

  2. Alcohol-Related Problems of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Pamela A.

    The study of older adults is relatively new for the social sciences. There is a growing awareness of the alcohol-related problems in this population. Between 2 and 10 percent of older social drinkers present severe alcohol-related problems of different kinds. Three terms describe the major consequences of "too much" alcohol: intoxication,…

  3. Nutrition and diet-related problems.

    PubMed

    Miller, E C; Maropis, C G

    1998-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of remarkable change. Nutrient requirements increase to promote physical growth and development and adolescents begin to make lifelong diet choices. These choices are often influenced by family, peers, and individual nutrition beliefs. This article addresses typical problems and recommendations for normal adolescent nutrition as well as nutrient needs for special conditions such as obesity, athletics, and vegetarianism. PMID:9469923

  4. Activity theory as a tool to address the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary school chemical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aalsvoort, Joke

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is that, while logical positivism creates a divide between science and society, activity theory offers a model of society in which science and society are related. With the use of this model, a new course for grade nine has been constructed. This results in a confirmation of the hypothesis, at least at a theoretical level. A comparison with the Salters' approach is made in order to demonstrate the relative merits of a mediated way of dealing with the problem of the lack of relevance of chemistry in chemical education.

  5. [Alcohol-related problems in Cantabria].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Pérez, A M; Díez Manrique, J F; Peña Martín, C; García Usieto, E

    1995-01-01

    It is a cross sectorial epidemiological community survey into a random sample of 1,816 adult people. The objetivo of our work is to test the existence of some social-demographic variables that can be accumulated to the existence of alcohol related problems. We found that the men, the young people, with low socioeconomic level, and semiurban style of life have the highest risk of alcohol related problems. 48% of the sample men have recognized any alcohol related problems during the previous year to our study. The highest problem prevalence is associated to increased alcohol consumption. After all, there are many people with low alcohol consumption who have alcohol related problems. PMID:7717148

  6. What is occupational therapy's role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    PubMed

    Leland, Natalie E; Marcione, Nicole; Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Kelkar, Kaivalya; Fogelberg, Don

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. The current scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the practice framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, multicomponent interventions, and other interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence base for occupation-centered sleep interventions to improve the health and quality of life of older adults. PMID:24844879

  7. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  8. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  9. Early Intervention of Eating- and Weight-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Anna; White, Emily K.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and other eating-related problems are widespread and are associated with harmful physical, psychological, and social problems. The dramatic increases in rates of pediatric obesity has created a mounting need for psychologists and other mental health care providers to play a significant role in the assessment and treatment of youth with eating- and weight-related problems. Therefore, it is imperative for providers to be aware of the causes and consequences of eating- and weight-related problems and to be familiar with evidence-based assessment and intervention approaches. Currently, the most well-established intervention approaches are family-based behavioral treatments, and weight loss maintenance treatments with a socio-ecological focus are promising. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these topics and highlights the important roles that mental health care providers can have. Medical settings are often the patient’s first point of contact within the healthcare system, making mental health care providers in such settings uniquely suited to assess for a broad range of eating- and weight-related problems and associated comorbidities, to deliver relevant evidence-based interventions, and to make appropriate referrals. Moving forward, providers and researchers must work together to address key questions related to the nature of eating- and weight-related problems in youth and to achieve breakthroughs in the prevention and treatment of such problems in this vulnerable population. PMID:20960039

  10. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  11. Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review

    PubMed Central

    Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Design Review. Data sources and review methods Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Results Most of the 38 articles identified were case reports or case series. Injuries and problems ranged from neurological and psychological to surgical. Traditional controllers with buttons were associated with tendinitis of the extensor of the thumb. The joystick on the Nintendo 64 controller was linked to palmar ulceration. The motion sensitive Wii remote was associated with musculoskeletal problems and various traumas. Conclusions Most problems are mild and prevalence is low. The described injuries were related to the way the games are controlled, which varies according to the video game console. PMID:25515525

  12. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; Bansemer, A.; Borrmann, S.; Brown, P.; Bundke, U.; Chuang, P. Y.; Cziczo, D.; Field, P.; et al

    2012-02-01

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently undermore » review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.« less

  13. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; Bansemer, A.; Borrmann, S.; Brown, P.; Bundke, U.; Chuang, P. Y.; Cziczo, D.; Field, P.; Gallagher, M.; Gayet, J. -F.; Korolev, A.; Kraemer, M.; McFarquhar, G.; Mertes, S.; Moehler, O.; Lance, S.; Lawson, P.; Petters, M. D.; Pratt, K.; Roberts, G.; Rogers, D.; Stetzer, O.; Stith, J.; Strapp, W.; Twohy, C.; Wendisch, M.

    2012-02-01

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently under review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.

  14. Interpreting Perceived Effectiveness: Understanding and Addressing the Problem of Mean Validity.

    PubMed

    Dillard, James Price; Ha, Yerheen

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown that perceived message effectiveness (PE) correlates reasonably well with indices of actual effectiveness, but little attention has been given to how to interpret mean PE. This article describes the problem of mean validity and presents a research design that can be used to address it. Participants (N = 195) viewed messages that advocated being screened for colorectal cancer. The results showed downward bias in PE among members of the non-target audience (persons younger than 50) and upward bias as the referent for the judgment became more abstract/distant (self vs. persons older than 50 vs. general). The need for more research on mean validity is discussed. For applied researchers, recommendations for preferred indices of PE are offered. PMID:27565189

  15. The Burnside problem and related topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adian, Sergei I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of results related to the famous Burnside problem on periodic groups. A negative solution of this problem was first published in joint papers of P.S. Novikov and the author in 1968. The theory of transformations of words in free periodic groups that was created in these papers and its various modifications give a very productive approach to the investigation of hard problems in group theory. In 1950 the Burnside problem gave rise to another problem on finite periodic groups, formulated by Magnus and called by him the restricted Burnside problem. Here it is called the Burnside-Magnus problem. In the Burnside problem the question of local finiteness of periodic groups of a given exponent was posed, but the Burnside-Magnus problem is the question of the existence of a maximal finite periodic group R(m,n) of a fixed period n with a given number m of generators. These problems complement each other. The publication in a joint paper by the author and Razborov in 1987 of the first effective proof of the well-known result of Kostrikin on the existence of a maximal group R(m,n) for any prime n, together with an indication of primitive recursive upper bounds for the orders of these groups, stimulated investigations of the Burnside-Magnus problem as well. Very soon other effective proofs appeared, and then Zel'manov extended Kostrikin's result to the case when n is any power of a prime number. These results are discussed in the last section of this paper. Bibliography: 105 titles.

  16. Pathological Gambling and Related Problems among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…

  17. Fast Edge-Searching and Related Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Boting

    Given a graph G = (V,E) in which a fugitive hides on vertices or along edges, graph searching problems are usually to find the minimum number of searchers required to capture the fugitive. In this paper, we consider the problem of finding the minimum number of steps to capture the fugitive. We introduce the fast edge-searching problem in the edge search model, which is the problem of finding the minimum number of steps (called the fast edge-search time) to capture the fugitive. We establish relations between the fast edge-search time and the fast search number. While the family of graphs whose fast search number is at most k is not minor-closed for any positive integer k ≥ 2, we show that the family of graphs whose fast edge-search time is at most k is minor-closed. We establish relations between the fast (edge-)searching and the node searching. These relations allow us to transform the problem of computing node search numbers to the problem of computing fast edge-search time or fast search numbers. Using these relations, we prove that the problem of deciding, given a graph G and an integer k, whether the fast (edge-)search number of G is less than or equal to k is NP-complete; and it remains NP-complete for Eulerian graphs. We also prove that the problem of determining whether the fast (edge-)search number of G is a half of the number of odd vertices in G is NP-complete; and it remains NP-complete for planar graphs with maximum degree 4. We present a linear time approximation algorithm for the fast edge-search time that always delivers solutions of at most (1+|V|-1/|E|+1) times the optimal value. This algorithm also gives us a tight upper bound on the fast search number of the graph. We also show a lower bound on the fast search number using the minimum degree and the number of odd vertices.

  18. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  19. Activity Theory as a Tool to Address the Problem of Chemistry's Lack of Relevance in Secondary School Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aalsvoort, Joke

    2004-01-01

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is…

  20. Preferred Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Anxiety Disorders, Parenting Problems, Eating Disorders, and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Laura; Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

    Although the Internet offers information about psychological problems and support resources for behavioral health problems, the quality of this information varies widely. So as to offer guidance in this area, preferred sites pertaining to anxiety disorders, parenting problems, eating disorders, and chemical dependency were analyzed. A total of 365…

  1. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    SciTech Connect

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2011-10-15

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies E{sub macro} much larger than M{sub P}. We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order E{sub macro}/N{center_dot}M{sub P}.

  2. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Smolin, Lee

    2011-10-01

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies Emacro much larger than MP. We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order Emacro/N·MP.

  3. Cospatial [O III] emission with Herschel and Hubble to address the nebular abundance discrepancy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Robert

    2012-10-01

    There exist planetary nebulae {PNe} whose heavy element C, N, O, and Ne abundances as derived from optical recombination lines {ORLs} are a factor more than 5 higher than those derived from the traditional method based on collisionally excited lines {CELs}. This ratio is called the abundance discrepancy factor {adf}. A promising proposition to explain this long-standing nebular abundance problem posits that these nebulae contain {at least} two distinct regions - one of "normal" electron temperature, Te { 10000 K} and chemical composition { solar} and another of very low Te {< 1000} that is H-deficient, thus having high metal abundances relative to H. The latter component emits strong heavy element ORLs and IR fine-structure {FS} CELs, but essentially no optical/UV CELs. Efforts to directly detect these inclusions in PNe have been unsuccessful to date. However, there is mounting circumstantial evidence for their existence, such as presented in our recent paper that modeled the high-adf PN NGC 6153 using a 3-D photoionization code. The models that included the low Te, H-deficient knots fit most observations far better than did those models without the clumps. It has been shown that the adf varies with position in a PN and is highest close to the central star. The very low Te inclusions must be cooled predominantly by FS mid-IR lines. We propose to use HST archival images to derive [O III] 5007 A flux maps to compare with the [O III] 88 micron fluxes from our Herschel observations of four PNe - NGC 2392, NGC 2440, NGC 6720 and NGC 7009 - all on the largest adf list, to find if the IR line flux relative to the cospatial optical forbidden line flux peaks where the adf peaks.

  4. A Case Study of Team-Initiated Problem Solving Addressing Student Behavior in One Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Anne W.; Horner, Robert H.; Berry, Dorothy; Sanders, Carol; Bugni, Michelle; Currier, Allison; Potts, Nicky; Newton, J. Stephen; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) is an approach for organizing school team meetings to improve identification of targeted problems, use of data in the development of solutions, and development of implemented action plans. TIPS has been demonstrated in single-case and randomized controlled trial studies to improve the effectiveness of teams to…

  5. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  6. "Who Are You Calling a Problem?": Addressing Transphobia and Homophobia through School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loutzenheiser, Lisa W.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a detailed analysis of two school board-level policies in British Columbia, Canada that address the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and transgender, Two Spirit (LGBQ and TT) youth to demonstrate how the language of the policy holds meaning and re/produces particular knowledges. Rather than offer an analysis that…

  7. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  8. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  9. Incorporating Natural Helpers to Address Service Disparities for Young Children with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnet, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high levels of unmet need among historically underserved young children with conduct problems, this paper outlines some of the key issues involved in incorporating natural helpers into the delivery of parenting interventions for the treatment of conduct problems among historically underserved children. Strategies for the selection and training of natural helpers are discussed along with challenges that might be encountered in these processes. Directions for future research are also highlighted. With appropriate selection and training procedures in place, natural helpers may increase the accessibility of services for children and families and foster the reduction of service disparities. PMID:24729649

  10. Addressing Problems of Conceptualization and Construct Validity in Researching Teachers' Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Ambiguity in the meaning of job satisfaction has caused construct validity problems in research. A series of small-scale studies of teachers suggested a distinction between job fulfillment and job comfort as well as a need for understanding how job satisfaction is interpreted by researchers. (SK)

  11. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  12. Ecosystem services and cooperative fisheries research to address a complex fishery problem

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River represents a complex fishery management problem. Current fishery management goals have to be developed taking into account bi-state commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries which are valued for different characteristics by a wide range of anglers, as...

  13. Addressing Students' Difficulties with Faraday's Law: A Guided Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2014-01-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…

  14. Addressing Bullying Problems in Irish Schools and in Cyberspace: A Challenge for School Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Lucie; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2014-01-01

    Background: School management, in Ireland and also internationally, are currently faced with the problem of peer aggression among students both in a traditional school context and in a cyber context. Although Irish school principals are obliged to implement policy and procedures to counter bullying among students, there is a need for guidance that…

  15. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  16. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  17. Scientific problems addressed by the Spektr-UV space project (world space Observatory—Ultraviolet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarchuk, A. A.; Shustov, B. M.; Savanov, I. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Wiebe, D. Z.; Shematovich, V. I.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Chugai, N. N.; Ivanov, P. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.; Lamzin, S. A.; Piskunov, N.; Ayres, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Jeffrey, S.; Zwintz, S. K.; Shulyak, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Werner, K.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Sichevskii, S. G.; Ustamuich, S.; Kanev, E. N.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a review of scientific problems and methods of ultraviolet astronomy, focusing on perspective scientific problems (directions) whose solution requires UV space observatories. These include reionization and the history of star formation in the Universe, searches for dark baryonic matter, physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, the physics of accretion and outflows in astrophysical objects, from Active Galactic Nuclei to close binary stars, stellar activity (for both low-mass and high-mass stars), and processes occurring in the atmospheres of both planets in the solar system and exoplanets. Technological progress in UV astronomy achieved in recent years is also considered. The well advanced, international, Russian-led Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) project is described in more detail. This project is directed at creating a major space observatory operational in the ultraviolet (115-310 nm). This observatory will provide an effective, and possibly the only, powerful means of observing in this spectral range over the next ten years, and will be an powerful tool for resolving many topical scientific problems.

  18. Dual-Use Partnership Addresses Performance Problems with "Y" Pattern Control Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Dual-Use Cooperative Agreement between the Propulsion Test Directorate (PTD) at Stennis Space Center (SSC) and Oceaneering Reflange, Inc. of Houston, TX has produced an improved 'Y' pattern split-body control valve for use in the propulsion test facilities at Stennis Space Center. The split-body, or clamped bonnet technology, provides for a 'cleaner' valve design featuring enhanced performance and increased flow capacity with extended life expectancy. Other points addressed by the partnership include size, weight and costs. Overall size and weight of each valve will be reduced by 50% compared to valves currently in use at SSC. An initial procurement of two 10 inch valves will result in an overall cost reduction of 15% or approximately $50,000 per valve.

  19. Learning Related Visual Problems. ERIC Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This fact sheet defines vision, outlines the visual skills needed for school achievement (ocular motility, binocularity, eye-hand coordination skills, and visual form perception), and describes how visual problems are evaluated and treated. The fact sheet also lists clues to look for when a visual problem is suspected, including the appearance of…

  20. Treating and Precepting with RESPECT: A Relational Model Addressing Race, Ethnicity, and Culture in Medical Training

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Julie; Gordon, Sandra; Chapman, Sheila; Gonzalez, Peter; Hardt, Eric; Delgado, Leyda; James, Thea; David, Michele

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2000 a diverse group of clinicians/educators at an inner-city safety-net hospital identified relational skills to reduce disparities at the point of care. DESCRIPTION The resulting interviewing and precepting model helps build trust with patients as well as with learners. RESPECT adds attention to the relational dimension, addressing documented disparities in respect, empathy, power-sharing, and trust while incorporating prior cross-cultural models. Specific behavioral descriptions for each component make RESPECT a concrete, practical, integrated model for teaching patient care. CONCLUSIONS Precepting with RESPECT fosters a safe climate for residents to partner with faculty, address challenges with patients at risk, and improve outcomes. PMID:20352510

  1. Engaging science in a climate of values: tools for animal scientists tasked with addressing ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Croney, C C; Anthony, R

    2010-04-01

    In the United States, escalating concerns about current farm animal science and production methods have resulted not only in increased food animal protection policies, but also in animal welfare legislation. Animal scientists and industry leaders are apprehensive that such policies may be driven primarily by emotion and a lack of scientific understanding, and thus may have unforeseen consequences. However, decisions about animal care, and particularly animal welfare, cannot be made solely on the basis of science because the potential effects on producers, animals, and concerned citizens and the implications for the environment and on food prices must also be considered. Balancing the interests and values of all stakeholders in regard to animal welfare problems has presented a considerable challenge. Ethical accounting processes, such as the Ethical Matrix and the ethics assessment process by Campbell, offer models to combine socioethical concerns with relevant factual information, thereby facilitating decision making that is ethically responsible and that offers viable solutions. A case study is used to illustrate application of the ethics assessment process by Campbell that includes identification of the ethical problems, the embedded values, the relevant facts, and moral tests that can be applied. Awareness of these emerging ways of examining ethics that offer real solutions to conflicts of interests and not merely "one size fits all" answers should be an asset to animal and poultry scientists. PMID:19854996

  2. EFFICIENCY PROBLEMS RELATED TO PERMANGANATE OXIDATION SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation schemes for the in-situ destruction of chlorinated solvents, using potassium permanganate, are receiving considerable attention. Indication from field studies and from our own work are that permanganate oxidation schemes have inherent problems that could severely limit...

  3. Brown Superfund Basic research Program: a multistakeholder partnership addresses real-world problems in contaminated communities.

    PubMed

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-07-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well-integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  4. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  5. Addressing behavior problems among school-aged children: traditional and controversial approaches.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, M L

    1997-08-01

    Managing children's behaviors is primarily the responsibility of parents, but pediatricians can help parents be more effective managers, especially when the child involved is presenting a particular challenge. Such help can range from providing reading material and brief counseling to referring the family to mental health clinicians. First, the pediatrician must be able to identify and judge the severity of the problems to refer appropriately. Behavioral interventions, commonly based on the principles of behavior modification with an emphasis on improving the positive and reinforcing aspects of parent-child relationships, can be effective. In addition, pediatricians need to be aware of unconventional therapies in the categories of dietary and exercise interventions. They need to know what motivates parents to seek such therapies, how to judge the efficacy of these approaches, and how to help parents become better-informed consumers. PMID:9255992

  6. Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H

    2005-12-01

    Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada's remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow's milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalence of IDA in Canadian children is between 3.5% and 10.5% in the general population, in two Northern Ontario First Nations communities and one Inuit community, the anemia rate was 36%, with 56% having depleted iron stores. Traditional methods of preventing IDA, including targeted fortification, dietary diversification and supplementation, have not solved the problem. The authors' research group at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, conceived of the strategy of 'home fortification' with 'Sprinkles' - single-dose sachets containing micronutrients in a powder form, which are easily sprinkled onto any foods prepared in the household. In Sprinkles, the iron (ferrous fumarate) is encapsulated within a thin lipid layer to prevent the iron from interacting with food. Sprinkles have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of anemia in many developing countries. Their use in Aboriginal communities to treat and prevent anemia is described in the present paper. The authors believe that children in Aboriginal communities across Canada would potentially benefit if Sprinkles were incorporated into Health Canada's current distribution system, in combination with a social marketing strategy to encourage their use. PMID:19668671

  7. Using Research to Identify and Address Student Difficulties with Galilean and Special Relativity*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokos, Stamatis

    1998-04-01

    The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington has been engaged in an ongoing project in which research is used as a guide for the development of curriculum on Galilean and special relativity. Results from the analysis of student interviews, pretests and examinations form the basis for the design of instructional materials to supplement the lecture and textbook of a standard introductory course and an undergraduate course on relativity. Examples of specific student difficulties and instructional strategies to address them will be presented. * This work has been funded in part by NSF grants DUE 9354501 and 9727648, which include support from other Divisions of EHR and the Physics Division of MPS.

  8. Addressing the Problem of Switched Class Labels in Latent Variable Mixture Model Simulation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tueller, Stephen J.; Drotar, Scott; Lubke, Gitta H.

    2011-01-01

    The discrimination between alternative models and the detection of latent classes in the context of latent variable mixture modeling depends on sample size, class separation, and other aspects that are related to power. Prior to a mixture analysis it is useful to investigate model performance in a simulation study that reflects the research…

  9. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, L.W.; Chawla, M.K.; Swor, C.T.

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  10. What kind of curriculum can better address community needs? Problems arisen by hypothetical-deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Haeri, A; Hemmati, P; Yaman, H

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify problems arisen by conventional curricula, the guidelines for development of an appropriate educational model for 21st century, and the advantages and disadvantages of the last two curricular models. The medical education literature published from 1995 through 2002 of four reputable journals in medical education were searched (Academic Medicine, Teaching and Learning in Medicine, Medical Education, and Medical Teacher). First the possibly best articles were identified. During the second screening process 76 of 180 articles were found to be highly relevant to our questions. A review of the chosen articles revealed a concept map which starts from currently applied hypothetical-deductive reasoning (HDR)-based curricula in many medical schools all around the world. Results revelaed that continuing cyclical process might be time consuming, enhance burden of faculty and might be stressful for students involved. Current issues in health care system are possibly attributable to current HDR-based curricular models including PBL. Advantages of reiterative PBL theory can not be denied, but it appears that its limited application should be mainly seen in some academic classes to develop some generic transferable skills simultaneously with other teaching methods. Therefore vast application of HDR in clinical settings is not recommended according to our study. However the relationships demonstrated between factors and outcomes mentioned in the concept map can be used to run some new studies to test some hypotheses. PMID:17622019

  11. Addressing the issue of cataloging and making chiropractic literature accessible: Part I: Defining the problem.

    PubMed

    Curl, D D; Antovich, T J

    1990-06-01

    Health science journals are a principle source of new knowledge for chiropractors, chiropractic faculty and students. Regrettably, clinically or educationally relevant articles (appearing in the nearly 20,000 journals annually) are often overlooked due to access difficulties. Innovations are needed to assist the reader to select articles relevant to chiropractic and reduce the time spent sorting through the volumes of literature. A review of the literature shows there is a trend toward database management for cataloging and accessibility of other, nonchiropractic, literature. Most notable of these is an endeavor by National Technical Information Service, commonly referred to as MEDLARS (Medline). It is interesting to note that a computer-assisted library database program does not exist on any chiropractic campus. This is in contrast with the trend on campuses of other health care fields. Manual search strategies within the chiropractic literature are time consuming, subject to a high failure rate, and even if the search produces citations, there is no assurance the journal can be accessed unless a chiropractic campus is nearby. Furthermore, difficulties exist when a chiropractic literature search is attempted in any computerized database, e.g., MEDLARS (Medline). Journals/articles that are unique to chiropractic (national, international or on the state level) are not specifically included in these computerized databases. Aside from these difficulties, there exists the problem of finding those articles that contain valid and relevant information from among those that are less valid or informative. PMID:2198323

  12. [Health-related problems in adopted children].

    PubMed

    Laubjerg, Merete; Petersson, Birgit H

    2006-10-01

    International research shows that the standard of health among children adopted from abroad, especially those adopted by single parents, is not as good as that of other children. Danish studies indicate similar problems. The causes could be several, such as poor development in the embryonic and fetal stages, low birth weight, starvation, neglect, infections, and the lack of the natural bonds between mother and child. Surveys indicate that many adoptive parents, single parents in particular, receive children with health problems. There is no Danish research available, but it is important to be aware of these issues in order for both adoptees and adoptants to receive the most support. PMID:17059801

  13. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  14. Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

  15. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  16. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  17. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  18. [Proposal to address the mental health problems detected after the February 27, 2010 earthquake].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rodrigo A; Cortés, Paula F

    2016-02-01

    One of the most important topics mentioned by people from places affected by the February 27th, 2010 earthquake to the Presidential Delegation for the Reconstruction, was the urgent need of mental health care. Given the enormous individual and social burden of mental health sequelae after disasters, its treatment becomes a critical issue. In this article, we propose several actions to be implemented in Chile in the context of the process of recovery and reconstruction, including optimization of social communication and media response to disasters; designing and deployment of a national strategy for volunteer service; training of primary care staff in screening and initial management of post-traumatic stress reactions; and training, continuous education and clinical supervision of a critical number of therapists in evidence-based therapies for conditions specifically related to stress. PMID:27092680

  19. Addressing dysfunctional relations among healthcare teams: improving team cooperation through applied organizational theories.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Sujin K; Horwitz, Irwin B; Barshes, Neal R

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that communication failure and interpersonal conflicts are significant impediments among health-care teams to assess complex information and engage in the meaningful collaboration necessary for optimizing patient care. Despite the prolific research on the role of effective teamwork in accomplishing complex tasks, such findings have been traditionally applied to business organizations and not medical contexts. This chapter, therefore, reviews and applies four theories from the fields of organizational behavior (OB) and organization development (OD) as potential means for improving team interaction in health-care contexts. This study is unique in its approach as it addresses the long-standing problems that exist in team communication and cooperation in health-care teams by applying well-established theories from the organizational literature. The utilization and application of the theoretical constructs discussed in this work offer valuable means by which the efficacy of team work can be greatly improved in health-care organizations. PMID:21887945

  20. The Gum nebula and related problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, S. P.; Brandt, J. C.; Stecher, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Papers were presented in conference sessions on the Gum nebula, the Vela X remnant, the hot stars gamma Velorum and zeta Puppis, the B associations in the Vela-Puppis complex, and pulsars. Ground-based optical and radio astronomy; rocket and satellite observations in the radio, visible, ultraviolet, and X-ray regions; and theoretical problems in the physical state of the interstellar medium, stellar evolution, and runaway star dynamics were considered.

  1. Using Simulation to Address Hierarchy-Related Errors in Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Aaron William; Boone, Megan C; Porter, Melissa B; Miller, Karen H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hierarchy, the unavoidable authority gradients that exist within and between clinical disciplines, can lead to significant patient harm in high-risk situations if not mitigated. High-fidelity simulation is a powerful means of addressing this issue in a reproducible manner, but participant psychological safety must be assured. Our institution experienced a hierarchy-related medication error that we subsequently addressed using simulation. The purpose of this article is to discuss the implementation and outcome of these simulations. Methods: Script and simulation flowcharts were developed to replicate the case. Each session included the use of faculty misdirection to precipitate the error. Care was taken to assure psychological safety via carefully conducted briefing and debriefing periods. Case outcomes were assessed using the validated Team Performance During Simulated Crises Instrument. Gap analysis was used to quantify team self-insight. Session content was analyzed via video review. Results: Five sessions were conducted (3 in the pediatric intensive care unit and 2 in the Pediatric Emergency Department). The team was unsuccessful at addressing the error in 4 (80%) of 5 cases. Trends toward lower communication scores (3.4/5 vs 2.3/5), as well as poor team self-assessment of communicative ability, were noted in unsuccessful sessions. Learners had a positive impression of the case. Conclusions: Simulation is a useful means to replicate hierarchy error in an educational environment. This methodology was viewed positively by learner teams, suggesting that psychological safety was maintained. Teams that did not address the error successfully may have impaired self-assessment ability in the communication skill domain. PMID:24867545

  2. Impaired Control over Alcohol Use: An Under-Addressed Risk Factor for Problem Drinking in Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired control over alcohol use may be defined as “a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption in a particular situation” (Heather, Tebbutt, Mattick, & Zamir, 1993, p. 701) and has long been considered an important feature of alcohol dependence. Evidence suggests impaired control is highly relevant to young adult problem drinking. In the natural history of problem drinking, impaired control tends to develop early and may predict alcohol-related problems prospectively in undergraduates. Impaired control over alcohol use may be a facet of generalized behavioral under-control specifically related to drinking. In particular, impaired control is theoretically and empirically related to impulsivity. The question of whether impaired control represents a facet of impulsivity or a related but separate construct requires further study. However, theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique qualities to the constructs. Specifically, existing data suggest that self-report measures of impaired control and impulsivity over alcohol use relate distinctly to problem drinking indices in young adults. Several lines of future research concerning impaired control are suggested, using the impulsivity literature as a guide. We conclude that impaired control is a valuable construct to the study of young adult problem drinking and that measures of impaired control should be included in more young adult alcohol studies. The extent to which impaired control over the use of other substances and impaired control over engagement in other addictive behaviors are clinically relevant constructs requires additional study. PMID:22182417

  3. Relations between Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems are closely related and often co-occur. Directional models have been employed to test how these problems are related, while few studies have tested a third variables model. Objective: This study investigates whether internalizing and externalizing problems are reciprocally or…

  4. Problems and Suggestions Related to Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2013-01-01

    Drastic change is required in the Teacher Education in view of the ongoing changes in the social, cultural, economical and political environment so that teacher could come in terms with the changing needs of contemporary Indian society. Society and education stands in a relation of reciprocal cause and effect. The character of a given society…

  5. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  6. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies. PMID:20566555

  7. Origins and development of the Cauchy problem in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringström, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The seminal work of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published in 1952 demonstrates that it is possible to formulate Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the background to and impact of this achievement, as well as the result itself. In some respects, the idea of viewing the field equations of general relativity as a system of evolution equations goes back to Einstein himself; in an argument justifying that gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light, Einstein used a special choice of coordinates to derive a system of wave equations for the linear perturbations on a Minkowski background. Over the following decades, Hilbert, de Donder, Lanczos, Darmois and many others worked to put Einstein's ideas on a more solid footing. In fact, the issue of local uniqueness (giving a rigorous justification for the statement that the speed of propagation of the gravitational field is bounded by that of light) was already settled in the 1930s by the work of Stellmacher. However, the first person to demonstrate both local existence and uniqueness in a setting in which the notion of finite speed of propagation makes sense was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat. In this sense, her work lays the foundation for the formulation of Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. Following a description of the results of Choquet-Bruhat, we discuss the development of three research topics that have their origin in her work. The first one is local existence. One reason for addressing it is that it is at the heart of the original paper. Moreover, it is still an active and important research field, connected to the problem of characterizing the asymptotic behaviour of solutions that blow up in finite time. As a second topic, we turn to the questions of global uniqueness and strong cosmic censorship. These questions are of fundamental importance to anyone interested in justifying that the Cauchy problem makes sense globally. They are also closely

  8. Certain scientific problems relating to planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marov, M. Ia.

    The paper examines concepts relating to the exploration of the solar-system planets. These concepts are based on the current understanding of the physical conditions, chemical composition, and atmospheres of the planets, as well as on evolutionary models which derive from this understanding. A strategy is defined for the further exploration of the planets up to the first few decades of the 21st century. This strategy depends on expected progress in the development of rocket and space technology and involves the search for answers to fundamental questions of solar-system evolution and comparative planetology.

  9. The Gum Nebula and Related Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Proceedings of a symposium concerning the Gum Nebula (GN) and related topics are reported. Papers presented include: Colin Gum and the discovery of the GN; identification of the GN as the fossil Stromgren sphere of Vela X Supernova; size and shape of GN; formation of giant H-2 regions following supernova explosions; radio astronomy Explorer 1 observations of GN; cosmic ray effects in the GN; low intensity H beta emission from the interstellar medium; and how to recognize and analyze GN. Astronomical charts and diagrams are included.

  10. Cognitive problems related to vertebrobasilar circulation.

    PubMed

    Koçer, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by decreased regional cerebral blood flow. Supporting this concept, both cognitive training exercises and physical activity promote blood flow increase and correlate with healthy cognitive aging. The terminal branches of the posterior circulation supply blood to areas of the brain, such as the thalamus, hippocampus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum, involved with important intellectual functions, particularly recent memory, visual-spatial functioning, and visuomotor adaptations. Amnesia and visual agnosia may be a complication of not only posterior circulation infarctions but also vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) without accompanying structural infarcts. The cognitive impairment maybe a manifestation of transient attacks and may persist beyond resolution of symptoms related to ischemia. Early recognition of cognitive deficits in the VBI patient is important because several recent reports show stent placements or medical treatment may improve cognition. PMID:26738337

  11. Problems Relating Mathematics and Science in the High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Richard; Beard, Earl

    This document contains various science problems which require a mathematical solution. The problems are arranged under two general areas. The first (algebra I) contains biology, chemistry, and physics problems which require solutions related to linear equations, exponentials, and nonlinear equations. The second (algebra II) contains physics…

  12. Addressing the sexual problems of Iranian women in a primary health care setting: A quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Ozgoli, Giti; Shakeri, Masomeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization emphasizes on integration of sexual health into primary health care services, educating people and health care workers about sexuality, and promoting optimal sexual health. Despite the high prevalence of sexual problems, these problems are poorly managed in primary health care services. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the first two steps of PLISSIT (Permission, Limited Information, Specific Suggestions, Intensive Treatment) model for handling of women sexual problems in a primary health care setting. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study that was carried out in Zanjan, northwest of Iran. Eighty women who had got married in the past 5 years and had sexual problem were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. The intervention group received consultation based on PLISSIT model by a trained midwife and the control group received routine services. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used for assessing and tracking any changes in sexual function. Data were collected at three points: Before consultation and 2 and 4 weeks after consultation. Paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for comparison of scores within groups. Results: Significant improvement was found in FSFI sub-domain scores, including sexual desire (P < 0.0001), arousal (P < 0.0001), lubrication (P < 0.0001), orgasm (P = 0.005), satisfaction (P = 0.005), pain (P < 0.0001), and FSFI total score (P < 0.0001) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusions: This study showed that PLISSIT model can meet the sexual health needs of clients in a primary health care setting and it can be used easily by health workers in this setting for addressing sexual complaints and dysfunctions. PMID:25709703

  13. Parents as Behavior Change Agents with School-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkeson, Beverly M.; Forehand, Rex

    1978-01-01

    The school-related problems discussed in this article cover three major areas: disruptive behaviors in the classroom; academic behaviors in the classroom and at home; and school attendance as related to both truancy and school phobias. (Author/AM)

  14. Parental Meta-Emotion Philosophy in Families with Conduct-Problem Children: Links with Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Windecker-Nelson, Bess

    2004-01-01

    We addressed the question of whether mothers of conduct-problem (CP) children differ from mothers of non-CP children in their awareness and coaching of emotion, and also examined whether mother's awareness and coaching of emotion is associated with better peer relations in CP children. Meta-emotion philosophy, assessed through audio taped…

  15. Indoor moisture and mold-related health problems.

    PubMed

    Johanning, Eckardt

    2004-05-01

    Moisture, microbial and in particular mold related indoor exposure and health problems in homes, offices, and public buildings (Kindergartens, schools, library, and hospitals) have been gaining recognition as one of the most common indoor environmental health issues. Proper recognition of microbial related health problems and the differential diagnosis of sick building syndrome (SBS) or building related illness (BRI) are important for early and effective exposure intervention, treatment, referral and prevention of more serious illness. PMID:15206571

  16. Work-related low-back problems in nursing.

    PubMed

    Lagerström, M; Hansson, T; Hagberg, M

    1998-12-01

    This scientific literature review focuses on the relation between nursing work and low-back problems. Its aim was to estimate the risk of physical, psychosocial, and work organizational exposure factors that may lead to low-back problems. In addition this paper reviews and evaluates reported ergonomic intervention, with the object of decreasing the prevalence and incidence of low-back problems among nurses. A considerable number of studies of nursing staff has shown the connection between lifts and transfers of patients on one hand and low-back problems on the other. Factors in nursing work that may be significant in this connection are staff density and work satisfaction. In this review the single individual factor that was indisputably related to low-back problems was "history of back problems". Prevention programs do not show unequivocally positive results. There is a great need to carry out prospective studies with preventive programs. PMID:9988087

  17. Singular perturbation analysis of AOTV-related trajectory optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Bae, Gyoung H.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of real time guidance and optimal control of Aeroassisted Orbit Transfer Vehicles (AOTV's) was addressed using singular perturbation theory as an underlying method of analysis. Trajectories were optimized with the objective of minimum energy expenditure in the atmospheric phase of the maneuver. Two major problem areas were addressed: optimal reentry, and synergetic plane change with aeroglide. For the reentry problem, several reduced order models were analyzed with the objective of optimal changes in heading with minimum energy loss. It was demonstrated that a further model order reduction to a single state model is possible through the application of singular perturbation theory. The optimal solution for the reduced problem defines an optimal altitude profile dependent on the current energy level of the vehicle. A separate boundary layer analysis is used to account for altitude and flight path angle dynamics, and to obtain lift and bank angle control solutions. By considering alternative approximations to solve the boundary layer problem, three guidance laws were derived, each having an analytic feedback form. The guidance laws were evaluated using a Maneuvering Reentry Research Vehicle model and all three laws were found to be near optimal. For the problem of synergetic plane change with aeroglide, a difficult terminal boundary layer control problem arises which to date is found to be analytically intractable. Thus a predictive/corrective solution was developed to satisfy the terminal constraints on altitude and flight path angle. A composite guidance solution was obtained by combining the optimal reentry solution with the predictive/corrective guidance method. Numerical comparisons with the corresponding optimal trajectory solutions show that the resulting performance is very close to optimal. An attempt was made to obtain numerically optimized trajectories for the case where heating rate is constrained. A first order state variable inequality

  18. Variables Related to Sleep Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Our study of 477 children with autism (1-15 years, IQs 9-146) showed that parent reported sleep problems are found in most children with autism and are not significantly related to age, IQ, gender, race, parent occupation, neuropsychological functioning, and learning ability. However, sleep problems increased with severity of autistic symptoms and…

  19. Personal and Contextual Factors Related to Internalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Alfredo; Parra, Águeda; Reina, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, ample empirical evidence has been collected about the factors linked to internalizing problems during adolescence. However, there is a lack of research that use holistic approaches to study the joint analysis of a series of contextual and personal variables considered to be related to internalizing problems.…

  20. The 2003 ASBMB-Avanti Award in Lipids Address: Applications of novel synthetic lipids to biological problems.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Robert

    2004-05-01

    This paper is an overview of the 2003 Avanti Award in Lipids address that was presented by Robert Bittman at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) Annual Meeting held in San Diego, CA in conjunction with meetings of five other FASEB Societies, April 15, 2003. The theme of the lecture is: "How can the chemical synthesis of unnatural lipids provide insights into problems ranging from cell biology to biophysics?" The following examples are presented: (1) novel ceramide analogs as experimental anticancer agents, (2) photoactivatable sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs as probes of protein targets of this bioactive lipid, (3) a 13C-enriched cerebroside as a quantitative probe of glycosphingolipid (GSL) transbilayer distribution in bilayers with and without sphingomyelin, (4) cis and trans unsaturated sphingomyelin analogs as modulators of the existence of cholesterol-enriched microdomains (rafts) that may facilitate fusion of alphaviruses with target membranes, (5) ceramide as an indirect enhancer of the permeabilization of membranes induced by cholesterol-specific cytolysins, (6) fluorescent GSL analogs of widely disparate structure as probes of the molecular features responsible for the selective internalization of GSLs in caveolae of living mammalian cells, (7) enantiomeric lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogs as probes of receptor subtypes that mediate LPA signaling, and (8) phosphonocholine analogs of the antitumor ether lipid ET-18-OCH3 as tools for discerning the primary targets that are critical for cytotoxic activity in tumor cells. PMID:15081855

  1. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  2. General Overview and Summary of Concepts Regarding Tendon Disease Topics Addressed Related to Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Paul W; Hart, David A

    2016-01-01

    Painful and non-healing musculoskeletal disorders, eg. tendinopathy, pose a tremendous burden on society and the quality of life for patients. New advances in the understanding of connective tissue disorders such as tendinopathy reveal that common health problems such as obesity, atherosclerosis, hormonal dysfunctions and diabetes mellitus are closely linked to the metabolism of components of the musculoskeletal system, particularly tendons. As tendons function as multi-component "organ systems" (Muscle-TMJ-Tendon-Enthesis to Bone), tendons can be influenced directly, or indirectly via, for instance, alterations to muscle. However, this volume/set of chapters focus mainly on the tendon.Emerging findings in musculoskeletal research have established important new links in our understanding of tendon metabolism. Thereby, the function of the neuroendocrine/-immune axis, as well as supply of neuro-vascular factors, can be directly linked to the quality of tendon metabolism.Since some conditions, eg. atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, are more common in individuals as they age, and aging can also affect pain and tissue repair, convergence of such complications will potentially exert an increasingly significant impact on tendons as the demographics of many societies change with expanding percentages of the populations >60-65 years of age.Comorbidities related to metabolic dysfunction have to be identified early in patients with musculoskeletal disorders, such as acute tendon injuries or chronic tendinopathy, for therapeutic considerations regarding both operative and non-operative treatment protocols. Necessary interactions between researchers and clinicians with different subspecialties have to be initiated in order to optimize tissue metabolism for improved healing potentials. PMID:27535271

  3. Identifying personality-related problems in living: the multi-context problems checklist.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, Michael J; Piedmont, Ralph L; Sherman, Martin F; Ozer, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Context Problems Checklist (MCPC) is a new measure of personality-related problems designed for a young adult population. Previously published problem checklists either have little supporting empirical documentation to support their validity or focus on specific kinds of difficulties in specific contexts (e.g., interpersonal, close relationships). The MCPC is a straightforward and easy-to-use instrument covering 6 domains of functioning, takes about 5 minutes to complete, and is intended for young adults ages 18 to 29. Psychometric data are presented in 3 studies. In Study 1, correlations with self- and observer ratings showed scores on the MCPC to be consensually valid, and associations with measures of well-being and personality provided evidence of construct validity. Study 2 added to these findings by identifying specific personality-related problems associated with each pole of each trait of the five-factor model of personality, demonstrating moderate to high test-retest reliability of problem endorsements, and showing strong associations with measures of psychological distress. Study 3 indicated that the MCPC is sufficiently sensitive to capture more frequent problem reporting among individuals undergoing counseling. Problem-trait associations are related to a broader literature on global personality dimensions and psychosocial outcomes at the individual, interpersonal, and social and institutional levels. The MCPC deserves attention from both researchers and clinicians who are interested in assessing personality-related problems in living. PMID:22946821

  4. Supporting adaptation decisions to address climate related impacts and hazards in the Caribbean (the CARIWIG project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aidan

    2015-04-01

    Managers and policy makers from regional and national institutions in the Caribbean require knowledge of the likely impacts and hazards arising from the present and future climate that are specific to their responsibility and geographical range, and relevant to their planning time-horizons. Knowledge, experience and the political support to develop appropriate adaptation strategies are also required. However, the climate information available for the region is of limited use as: observational records are intermittent and typically of short duration; climate model projections of the weather suffer from scale and bias issues; and statistical downscaling to provide locally relevant unbiased climate change information remains sporadic. Tropical cyclone activity is a considerable sporadic hazard in the region and yet related weather information is limited to historic events. Further, there is a lack of guidance for managers and policy makers operating with very limited resources to utilize such information within their remit. The CARIWIG project (June 2012 - May 2015) will be presented, reflecting on stakeholder impact, best practice and lessons learned. This project seeks to address the climate service needs of the Caribbean region through a combination of capacity building and improved provision of climate information services. An initial workshop with regional-scale stakeholders initiated a dialogue to develop a realistic shared vision of the needed information services which could be provided by the project. Capacity building is then achieved on a number of levels: knowledge and expertise sharing between project partners; raising understanding and knowledge of resources that support national and regional institutions' adaptation decisions; developing case studies in key sectors to test and demonstrate the information services; training for stakeholder technical staff in the use of the provided services; the development of a support network within and out

  5. Addressing Individual Difficulties in Reading: Issues Relating to Reading Recovery and Pause, Prompt, Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Recently the DfES has issued guidance on ways to address the needs of students who experience difficulties in literacy through Wave Three provision in the National Literacy Strategy (DfES, 2002). This guidance raises the issue of what kind of programmes might be initiated in mainstream schools that will improve what is available generally for…

  6. From Professional Development to Classroom Instruction: Addressing Issues Related to Science Inquiry Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, I first provide a more detailed account of the discourse-focused professional development activities facilitated as part of the SMIT'N program, specifically addressing issues raised by van Zee with regard to the institute's overall format, goals and development strategies. Next, I resort to Peter Medawar's metaphorical view of…

  7. Addressing Dropout Related Factors at the Local Level: Recommendations for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra Covington

    2008-01-01

    As educators and practitioners continue to seek effective interventions to prevent dropout, they must focus on identifying, monitoring, and addressing risk factors that are influenced by teachers (e.g., academic performance, peer and adult interactions, attendance, and behavior). As a result, teachers' roles in dropout prevention are critical.…

  8. Extraction of a group-pair relation: problem-solving relation from web-board documents.

    PubMed

    Pechsiri, Chaveevan; Piriyakul, Rapepun

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to extract a group-pair relation as a Problem-Solving relation, for example a DiseaseSymptom-Treatment relation and a CarProblem-Repair relation, between two event-explanation groups, a problem-concept group as a symptom/CarProblem-concept group and a solving-concept group as a treatment-concept/repair concept group from hospital-web-board and car-repair-guru-web-board documents. The Problem-Solving relation (particularly Symptom-Treatment relation) including the graphical representation benefits non-professional persons by supporting knowledge of primarily solving problems. The research contains three problems: how to identify an EDU (an Elementary Discourse Unit, which is a simple sentence) with the event concept of either a problem or a solution; how to determine a problem-concept EDU boundary and a solving-concept EDU boundary as two event-explanation groups, and how to determine the Problem-Solving relation between these two event-explanation groups. Therefore, we apply word co-occurrence to identify a problem-concept EDU and a solving-concept EDU, and machine-learning techniques to solve a problem-concept EDU boundary and a solving-concept EDU boundary. We propose using k-mean and Naïve Bayes to determine the Problem-Solving relation between the two event-explanation groups involved with clustering features. In contrast to previous works, the proposed approach enables group-pair relation extraction with high accuracy. PMID:27540498

  9. Building non-traditional collaborations to innovatively address climate-related scientific and management needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamzai, A.; Mcpherson, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The South Central Climate Science Center (SC-CSC) is one of eight regional centers formed by the U.S. Department of the Interior in order to provide decision makers with the science, tools, and information they need to address the impacts of climate variability and change on their areas of responsibility. The SC-CSC is operated through the U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with a consortium led by the University of Oklahoma that also includes Texas Tech University, Oklahoma State University, Louisiana State University, the Chickasaw Nation, the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, and NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab (GFDL). The SC-CSC is distinct from all other CSCs in that we have strategically included non-traditional collaborators directly within our governing consortium. The SC-CSC is the only CSC to include any Tribal nations amongst our consortium (the Chickasaw Nation and the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma) and to employ a full-time tribal liaison. As a result and in partnership with Tribes, we are able to identify the unique challenges that the almost 70 federally recognized Tribes within our region face. We also can develop culturally sensitive research projects or outreach efforts that bridge western science and traditional knowledge to address their needs. In addition, the SC-CSC is the only CSC to include another federal institution (GFDL) amongst our consortium membership. GFDL is a world-leader in climate modeling and model interpretation. Partnering GFDL's expertise in the evaluation of climate models and downscaling methods with the SC-CSC's stakeholder-driven approach allows for the generation and dissemination of guidance documents and training to accompany the high quality datasets already in development. This presentation will highlight the success stories and co-benefits of the SC-CSC's collaborations with Tribal nations and with GFDL, as well as include information on how other partners can connect to our ongoing efforts.

  10. Review of Selected Dissertations Addressing School Public Relations, Administrator Communication, and Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decman, John M.; Simieou, Felix, III

    2009-01-01

    This article is an extension to Kowalski's (2005) identification of possible lines of scholarly inquiry into themes related to schools and public relations. The article first cites professional accreditation standards for educational leaders as significant factors in providing a framework for increased scholarly inquiry. It then summarizes the…

  11. Solving the relative Lambert's problem and accounting for its singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Changxuan; Zhao, Yushan; Li, Baojun; Shi, Peng

    2014-04-01

    A novel approach based on Lagrange's time equation and differential orbital elements is developed to solve the relative Lambert's problem for circular reference orbits. Compared with the conventional Clohessy-Wiltshire equation, the proposed method directly obtains differences of orbital elements between a transfer orbit and a reference orbit. This advantage enables us to account for singularities that occur in the relative Lambert's problem. The solved relative velocities depend on the five differential orbital elements. Accordingly, singularities can be attributed to any significant change in the semi-major axis, eccentricity, or orbital plane. Furthermore, appropriately adjusting initial and final relative positions eliminates some singularities. A numerical simulation based on the classic Lambert's formula for a rendezvous mission in closed range demonstrates the analytical results.

  12. Contributions to Statistical Problems Related to Microarray Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Microarray is a high throughput technology to measure the gene expression. Analysis of microarray data brings many interesting and challenging problems. This thesis consists three studies related to microarray data. First, we propose a Bayesian model for microarray data and use Bayes Factors to identify differentially expressed genes. Second, we…

  13. College Students' Alcohol-Related Problems: An Autophotographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patrick F.; Dollinger, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This study related standard self-report measures to an innovative approach (the autophotographic essay) as a way to provide insight into patterns of alcohol consumption and associated problem behaviors. College students (N = 135) completed self-report measures of alcohol consumption and created autophotographic essays of identity coded for alcohol…

  14. On the Relationships between (Relatively) Advanced Mathematical Knowledge and (Relatively) Advanced Problem-Solving Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koichu, Boris

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of "three mathematical worlds"; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of "proof schemes" and "heuristic behaviours". The relationships…

  15. Health-related safety: a framework to address barriers to aging in place.

    PubMed

    Lau, Denys T; Scandrett, Karen Glasser; Jarzebowski, Mary; Holman, Kami; Emanuel, Linda

    2007-12-01

    Maintaining safety in the home and community is a national public health concern, especially for older adults who "age in place." In this article, we introduce a multicausal concept called "health-related safety," which is defined as the minimization of the probability of preventable, unintended harm in community-dwelling individuals. Derived from the modern patient safety movement, health-related safety attributes adverse health events in the home and community to systematic breakdowns in the societal system, not to the commission of errors by particular individuals. Extending beyond health care institutions, the health-related safety framework is composed of multiple levels: micro (consumers and providers); mezzo (homes and communities); and macro (policies). Because the societal system is complex with inherent risks, health-related safety will require a culture shift and system redesign, new tools of risk assessments and management, and continuous safety improvement. We propose a research agenda to further refine the health-related safety framework by using empirical evidence and to develop appropriate mathematical and practical models from safety sciences to support this initiative. This article moves the field forward by applying systems thinking and safety sciences to health-related safety in the home and community, thereby paralleling what researchers have begun to do with patient safety in health care systems. PMID:18192636

  16. A Radio Model: A Community Strategy To Address the Problems and Needs of Mexican American Women Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Trevino, Maria Elena

    Interviews with 60 Mexican-American female farmworkers in the Coachella Valley (California) identified their major problems, needs, and suggestions of topics to be presented in a community-based educational radio program. Two major problems identified by these women were low wages and occupational exposure to pesticides. Contrary to cultural…

  17. The Japanese society of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Katsuya; Higuchi, Susumu

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents an outline of the Japanese Society of Alcohol-Related Problems. The precursor of the Society was the Japan Alcoholism Treatment Research Group, inaugurated in 1979, by merging two local research groups in the Tokyo and Osaka areas, both of which were exclusive gatherings of psychiatrists associated with alcoholism clinics. The Research Group developed into the Society in 1992, as the number of participants including those from other medical professions increased yearly, and the subjects of the group widened to include all addictive behaviours. In reflecting the process of establishment, it is unique in many aspects as a scientific society. The Society is not a science-orientated body for presentation of new research findings. The main programme of the annual meeting is therefore a set of symposia in which members participate and discuss clinical and/or social problems arising from dependency on alcohol or drugs. Perhaps because of its content, the annual meeting is attended each year by the largest number of participants among all the societies in Japan concerned with alcohol and drugs. For the next several years, the Society's activities will be directed at (1) establishment of guidelines for early identification of and intervention in alcohol-related problems; (2) expansion of its membership to include those in related fields of medicine and non-medical professions; (3) improvement of the system of journal publication; and (4) creation of a system for timely adequate response to social problems associated with drugs and alcohol. PMID:15049741

  18. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  19. Addressing Size Stereotypes: A Weight Bias and Weight-Related Teasing Intervention among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyairi, Maya; Reel, Justine J.; Próspero, Moisés; Okang, Esther N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a weight-related teasing prevention program implemented for both female and male students in a school setting. Methods: Junior High School students (N = 143) in seventh grade were invited to participate in the program. One hundred eighteen participants completed pre- and posttest surveys to assess…

  20. Indoor Air Quality: Federal and State Actions To Address the Indoor Air Quality Problems of Selected Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    U.S. House of Representative members requested that the General Accounting Office determine what federal and state actions have been taken in addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns raised in certain school, state, and federal buildings within Vermont, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. This report responds to this request and describes…

  1. Why Has It Taken So Long to Address the Problems Created by Uranium Mining in the Navajo Nation?

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Following the start of uranium mining after World War II, progress toward addressing the hazards it created for workers and nearby communities was slow, taking many decades. This essay asks why it took so long and suggests several factors that might have contributed. PMID:26463258

  2. Adult Illiteracy in Canada: Identifying and Addressing the Problem = L'analphabetisme chez les adultes au Canada: definition et traitement de la question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council of Ministers of Education, Toronto (Ontario).

    This statement of the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, focuses on the approaches that provincial ministers have taken to address the problem of adult illiteracy. First, it sets out concisely the nature and extent of functional illiteracy in Canada. Second, it describes a sample of the initiatives already under way to create effective…

  3. Influences of Motivational Contexts on Prescription Drug Misuse and Related Drug Problems

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Vuolo, Mike; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has emerged as a significant problem among young adults. While the effects of motivational contexts have been demonstrated for illicit drugs, the role of motivational contexts in prescription drug misuse remains understudied. Using data from 400 young adults recruited via time-space sampling, we examined the role of motivational contexts in the frequency of misuse of three prescription drug types as well as drug-related problems and symptoms of dependency. Both negative and positive motivations to use drugs are associated with increases in prescription drug misuse frequency. Only negative motivations are associated directly with drug problems and drug dependence, as well as indirectly via prescription pain killer misuse. Addressing positive and negative motivational contexts of prescription drug misuse may not only provide a means to reduce misuse and implement harm reduction measures, but may also inform the content of treatment plans for young adults with prescription drug misuse problems. PMID:25115134

  4. Influences of motivational contexts on prescription drug misuse and related drug problems.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Vuolo, Mike; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has emerged as a significant problem among young adults. While the effects of motivational contexts have been demonstrated for illicit drugs, the role of motivational contexts in prescription drug misuse remains understudied. Using data from 400 young adults recruited via time-space sampling, we examined the role of motivational contexts in the frequency of misuse of three prescription drug types as well as drug-related problems and symptoms of dependency. Both negative and positive motivations to use drugs are associated with increases in prescription drug misuse frequency. Only negative motivations are associated directly with drug problems and drug dependence, as well as indirectly via prescription pain killer misuse. Addressing positive and negative motivational contexts of prescription drug misuse may not only provide a means to reduce misuse and implement harm reduction measures, but may also inform the content of treatment plans for young adults with prescription drug misuse problems. PMID:25115134

  5. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare: A Latin American Perspective.

    PubMed

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere

    2016-03-01

    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Uruguay. The tolls of disease-related malnutrition are high in both human and financial terms-increased infectious complications, higher incidence of pressure ulcers, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, greater costs of care, and increased risk of death. In an effort to draw attention to malnutrition in Latin American healthcare, a feedM.E. Latin American Study Group was formed to extend the reach and support the educational efforts of the feedM.E. Global Study Group. In this article, the feedM.E. Latin American Study Group shows that malnutrition incurs excessive costs to the healthcare systems, and the study group also presents evidence of how appropriate nutrition care can improve patients' clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. To achieve the benefits of nutrition for health throughout Latin America, the article presents feedM.E.'s simple and effective Nutrition Care Pathway in English and Spanish as a way to facilitate its use. PMID:25883116

  6. Difficult conversations in health care: cultivating relational learning to address the hidden curriculum.

    PubMed

    Browning, David M; Meyer, Elaine C; Truog, Robert D; Solomon, Mildred Z

    2007-09-01

    The authors describe the philosophy and pedagogical approach of an innovative educational program, grounded in principles of relational learning and designed to improve the preparedness of health care professionals for engaging in challenging conversations with patients and families. The Program to Enhance Relational and Communication Skills (PERCS) is a project of The Institute for Professionalism and Ethical Practice at Children's Hospital Boston, developed in collaboration with Education Development Center, Inc. The one-day workshop is interdisciplinary in its structure, includes practitioners with varying levels of professional experience, uses trained actors to portray patients and family members, and involves learners in improvised case scenarios. The program responds to several developments in contemporary health care: medical education reform, changing definitions of professional competence, and calls for greater attention to qualities of compassion, trust, and respect in practitioners' relationships with patients and families. The program's pedagogy responds to these developments by creating a safe climate for relational learning, by enacting emotionally challenging and ethically salient case scenarios, and by integrating patient and family perspectives in novel and substantive ways. By creating a curriculum and learning environment that explicitly embraces the moral experience of learners, the program's developers aim to exert a countercultural influence on the dehumanizing effects of the hidden curriculum. PMID:17726405

  7. An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gaher, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Hahn, Nicole L; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Buchkoski, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed eight brief questionnaires daily for two weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

  8. Dress-Related Behavioral Problems and Violence in the Public School Setting: Prevention, Intervention, and Policy--A Holistic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloman, Lillian; LaPoint, Velma; Alleyne, Sylvan I.; Palmer, Ruth J.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    1996-01-01

    Addresses clothing-related behavioral problems for public school children and the increasing use of dress codes and uniform policies as preventive measures. It describes dress-related conflicts for black public school students and parents across socialization and contextual settings. The implications of preventive policies and practices are…

  9. Handle with care: The American Nurses Association's Campaign to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A B

    2004-09-01

    In response to the significant number and severity of work-related back injuries and other musculoskeletal disorders among nurses, the American Nurses Association (ANA) has launched the Handle With Care campaign. The campaign seeks to build a health care industry-wide effort to prevent back and other musculoskeletal injuries. This is being done through developing partnerships and coalitions, education and training, increasing use of assistive equipment and patient-handling devices, reshaping nursing education to incorporate safe patient handling, and pursuing federal and state ergonomics policy by highlighting technology-oriented safe-patient handling benefits for patients and nurses. In the absence of ergonomics regulations at national or state levels that protect health care workers, ANA has taken on alternative approaches to encourage a movement to control ergonomic hazards in the health care workplace and prevent back injuries among the nation's nursing workforce. PMID:15482089

  10. The Ability of Narrative Communication to Address Health-related Social Norms

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Murphy, Sheila T.; Frank, Lauren; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Social norms are an important predictor of health behavior and have been targeted by a variety of health communication campaigns. However, these campaigns often encounter challenges related to the socially specific context in which norms exist: specifically, the extent to which the target population identifies with the reference group presented in the ad and the extent to which the target population believes the campaign's message. We argue that because of its capacity to effect identification among viewers, narrative communication is particularly appropriate for impacting social norms and, consequently, behavioral intention. This manuscript presents the results of a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of two films – one narrative, one non-narrative – in changing perceived social norms and behavioral intention regarding Pap testing to detect cervical cancer. Results of the study indicate that the narrative film was in fact more effective at producing positive changes in perceived norm and intention. PMID:24179677

  11. Understanding and Addressing AIDS-Related Stigma: From Anthropological Theory to Clinical Practice in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Arachu; Farmer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    For the past several years, diverse and often confused concepts of stigma have been invoked in discussions on AIDS. Many have argued compellingly that AIDS-related stigma acts as a barrier to voluntary counseling and testing. Less compelling are observations regarding the source of stigma or its role in decreasing interest in HIV care. We reviewed these claims as well as literature from anthropology, sociology, and public health. Preliminary data from research in rural Haiti suggest that the introduction of quality HIV care can lead to a rapid reduction in stigma, with resulting increased uptake of testing. Rather than stigma, logistic and economic barriers determine who will access such services. Implications for scale-up of integrated AIDS prevention and care are explored. PMID:15623859

  12. Sleep-Related Problems in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Lack, Caleb W.; Geffken, Gary R.; Jacob, Marni L.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2008-01-01

    Although attention has been given to presence of sleep related problems (SRPs) in children with psychiatric conditions, little has been reported on SRPs in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Sixty-six children and adolescents with OCD were administered the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and completed the Children’s Depression Inventory and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale. Their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and Children’s Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale. A subset of youth (n = 41) completed a trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, OCD symptom severity, child-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety, parent-proxy ratings of internalizing and externalizing problems, and functional impairment. Ninety-two percent of youth experienced at least one SRP, with 27.3% reporting five or more SRPs. Total SRPs were positively associated with OCD symptom severity, child-rated anxiety, and parent-proxy ratings of internalizing problems. Total and several specific SRPs were reduced following cognitive-behavioral treatment. These results suggest that SRPs are relatively common in youth with OCD, are associated with symptom severity, and warrant attention during assessment and treatment. PMID:17951025

  13. Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda

    2012-01-01

    In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers. PMID:22470226

  14. Modifications of bundles, elliptic integrable systems, and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, A. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2013-10-01

    We describe a construction of elliptic integrable systems based on bundles with nontrivial characteristic classes, especially attending to the bundle-modification procedure, which relates models corresponding to different characteristic classes. We discuss applications and related problems such as the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard equations, classical and quantum R-matrices, monopoles, spectral duality, Painlevé equations, and the classical-quantum correspondence. For an SL(N,ℂ)-bundle on an elliptic curve with nontrivial characteristic classes, we obtain equations of isomonodromy deformations.

  15. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  16. Less drinking, yet more problems: understanding African American drinking and related problems.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  17. Tethered body problems and relative motion orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eades, J. B., Jr.; Wolf, H.

    1972-01-01

    Selected problems dealing with orbiting tethered body systems have been studied. In addition, a relative motion orbit determination program was developed. Results from these tasks are described and discussed. The expected tethered body motions were examined, analytically, to ascertain what influence would be played by the physical parameters of the tether, the gravity gradient and orbit eccentricity. After separating the motion modes these influences were determined; and, subsequently, the effects of oscillations and/or rotations, on tether force, were described. A study was undertaken, by examining tether motions, to see what type of control actions would be needed to accurately place a mass particle at a prescribed position relative to a main vehicle. Other applications for tethers were studied. Principally these were concerned with the producing of low-level gee forces by means of stabilized tether configurations; and, the initiation of free transfer trajectories from tether supported vehicle relative positions.

  18. Addressing weight-related issues in an elementary school: what do students, parents, and school staff recommend?

    PubMed

    Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Thiel, Lynnell

    2007-01-01

    This study examined weight-related issues affecting elementary school children to gain insight into how best to address these issues within a school-based intervention. The study population included 21 students, 12 school staff members, and 21 parents from a school that serves an ethnically-diverse population. Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews and were analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Weight-related teasing and poor body image emerged as prominent issues affecting students. Results suggest that programs aimed at the prevention of weight-related disorders should go beyond issues of nutrition and physical activity and include strategies to reduce weight-related mistreatment and to improve students' body image. PMID:17162638

  19. Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or extend information theory to account for

  20. Stochastic partial differential equations in turbulence related problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, P.-L.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs) and problems relating to turbulence are discussed by employing the theories of Brownian motion and diffusion in infinite dimensions, functional differential equations, and functional integration. Relevant results in probablistic analysis, especially Gaussian measures in function spaces and the theory of stochastic PDEs of Ito type, are taken into account. Linear stochastic PDEs are analyzed through linearized Navier-Stokes equations with a random forcing. Stochastic equations for waves in random media as well as model equations in turbulent transport theory are considered. Markovian models in fully developed turbulence are discussed from a stochastic equation viewpoint.

  1. Binge drinking among Brazilians: Higher drinking frequency increases related problems.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Daniel Sócrates; Sanchez, Zila M; Zaleski, Marcos; Palhares Alves, Hamer Nastasy; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2014-05-14

    Abstract Aims: To correlate binge drinking (BD) with alcohol-related problems (ARP) in the Brazilian population. Methods: A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted in 143 Brazilian cities. Associations between the frequencies of BD and ARP were gathered using an ordered logit regression model. Results: Higher BD frequencies significantly increased the chance of injury in accidents, job loss, and involvement in intense arguments and assaults over the year. High frequency in BD increases the odds of all ARP. Conclusion: There is a dose-response association between the frequency BD and ARP and is therefore a possible target for public prevention policies. PMID:24829095

  2. Randomized shortest-path problems: two related models.

    PubMed

    Saerens, Marco; Achbany, Youssef; Fouss, François; Yen, Luh

    2009-08-01

    This letter addresses the problem of designing the transition probabilities of a finite Markov chain (the policy) in order to minimize the expected cost for reaching a destination node from a source node while maintaining a fixed level of entropy spread throughout the network (the exploration). It is motivated by the following scenario. Suppose you have to route agents through a network in some optimal way, for instance, by minimizing the total travel cost-nothing particular up to now-you could use a standard shortest-path algorithm. Suppose, however, that you want to avoid pure deterministic routing policies in order, for instance, to allow some continual exploration of the network, avoid congestion, or avoid complete predictability of your routing strategy. In other words, you want to introduce some randomness or unpredictability in the routing policy (i.e., the routing policy is randomized). This problem, which will be called the randomized shortest-path problem (RSP), is investigated in this work. The global level of randomness of the routing policy is quantified by the expected Shannon entropy spread throughout the network and is provided a priori by the designer. Then, necessary conditions to compute the optimal randomized policy-minimizing the expected routing cost-are derived. Iterating these necessary conditions, reminiscent of Bellman's value iteration equations, allows computing an optimal policy, that is, a set of transition probabilities in each node. Interestingly and surprisingly enough, this first model, while formulated in a totally different framework, is equivalent to Akamatsu's model ( 1996 ), appearing in transportation science, for a special choice of the entropy constraint. We therefore revisit Akamatsu's model by recasting it into a sum-over-paths statistical physics formalism allowing easy derivation of all the quantities of interest in an elegant, unified way. For instance, it is shown that the unique optimal policy can be obtained by

  3. The Brown Superfund Basic Research Program: A Multistakeholder Partnership Addresses Real-World Problems in Contaminated Communities

    PubMed Central

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult, community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively-held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  4. The relative degree enhancement problem for MIMO nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenwald, D.A.; Oezguener, Ue.

    1995-07-01

    The authors present a result for linearizing a nonlinear MIMO system by employing partial feedback - feedback at all but one input-output channel such that the SISO feedback linearization problem is solvable at the remaining input-output channel. The partial feedback effectively enhances the relative degree at the open input-output channel provided the feedback functions are chosen to satisfy relative degree requirements. The method is useful for nonlinear systems that are not feedback linearizable in a MIMO sense. Several examples are presented to show how these feedback functions can be computed. This strategy can be combined with decentralized observers for a completely decentralized feedback linearization result for at least one input-output channel.

  5. Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Martins-Oliveira, Juliana Gabrielle; Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability. PMID:26816159

  6. The Relationships between Problem Characteristics, Achievement-Related Behaviors, and Academic Achievement in Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity,…

  7. The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program: addressing the challenge of infections related to war injuries and skin and soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory J; Tribble, David R

    2010-07-01

    The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program (IDCRP) at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-funded network of military treatment and research facilities coordinated through USU and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine (HJF). IDCRP functions in collaboration with the NIAID, universities, and industry to address infectious diseases threats to the U.S. military and to the nation. Although IDCRP has projects in diseases from HIV to tuberculosis, a major focus has been on skin, soft-tissue, and war-related infections. PMID:23634479

  8. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  9. Global symmetry relations in linear and viscoplastic mobility problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamrin, Ken; Goddard, Joe

    2014-11-01

    The mobility tensor of a textured surface is a homogenized effective boundary condition that describes the effective slip of a fluid adjacent to the surface in terms of an applied shear traction far above the surface. In the Newtonian fluid case, perturbation analysis yields a mobility tensor formula, which suggests that regardless of the surface texture (i.e. nonuniform hydrophobicity distribution and/or height fluctuations) the mobility tensor is always symmetric. This conjecture is verified using a Lorentz reciprocity argument. It motivates the question of whether such symmetries would arise for nonlinear constitutive relations and boundary conditions, where the mobility tensor is not a constant but a function of the applied stress. We show that in the case of a strongly dissipative nonlinear constitutive relation--one whose strain-rate relates to the stress solely through a scalar Edelen potential--and strongly dissipative surface boundary conditions--one whose hydrophobic character is described by a potential relating slip to traction--the mobility function of the surface also maintains tensorial symmetry. By extension, the same variational arguments can be applied in problems such as the permeability tensor for viscoplastic flow through porous media, and we find that similar symmetries arise. These findings could be used to simplify the characterization of viscoplastic drag in various anisotropic media. (Joe Goddard is a former graduate student of Acrivos).

  10. U.S. view of human problems to be addressed for long duration space flights. [physiological and psychological effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Russian and American space programs have consisted of several thousands of hours of exposure of man to the space environment. In spite of numerous biological phenomena of adaptation observed, the space travellers have displayed, after their return, no enduring pathological effect. Although the usable data remain too limited to reflect fully the effects of space flight, it is possible to sketch the biological responses in the absence of gravity and to define the work bases for the future. Beyond its basic physiological effects, weightlessness has operational consequences in the daily life of the astronauts. These consequences will be still more evident during missions of long duration. The conclusions drawn in flight as well as on the ground are reviewed, and future requirements concerning prolonged flights are outlined. The gaps in actual knowledge are discussed and solutions are suggested. The problems of habitability are considered, particularly those which remain at present without satisfactory solutions: psychological responses to a confined life, cleaning, hygiene, and used material.

  11. The Energy-Momentum Problem in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xulu, S. S.

    2003-08-01

    Energy-momentum is an important conserved quantity whose definition has been a focus of many investigations in general relativity. Unfortunately, there is still no generally accepted definition of energy and momentum in general relativity. Attempts aimed at finding a quantity for describing distribution of energy-momentum due to matter, non-gravitational and gravitational fields resulted in various energy-momentum complexes whose physical meaning have been questioned. The problems associated with energy-momentum complexes resulted in some researchers even abandoning the concept of energy-momentum localization in favour of the alternative concept of quasi-localization. However, quasi-local masses have their inadequacies, while the remarkable work of Virbhadra and some others, and recent results of Cooperstock and Chang et al. have revived an interest in various energy-momentum complexes. Hence in this work we use energy-momentum complexes to obtain the energy distributions in various space-times. We elaborate on the problem of energy localization in general relativity and use energy-momentum prescriptions of Einstein, Landau and Lifshitz, Papapetrou, Weinberg, and Møller to investigate energy distributions in various space-times. It is shown that several of these energy-momentum complexes give the same and acceptable results for a given space-time. This shows the importance of these energy-momentum complexes. Our results agree with Virbhadra's conclusion that the Einstein's energy-momentum complex is still the best tool for obtaining energy distribution in a given space-time. The Cooperstock hypothesis for energy localization in GR is also supported.

  12. Using Adventure-Based Cooperation Training To Develop Job Related Social Skills for Adolescents with Severe Behavioral and Emotional Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reganick, Karol

    This practicum addressed the attitudes and behaviors of 10 adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems participating in a cooperative job training program. The intervention used an adventure approach to help the students replace aggression and misconduct with job-related social skills. A needs assessment was conducted to identify…

  13. Does Parental Psychological Control Relate to Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood? An Examination Using the Berkeley Puppet Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Soenens, Bart; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Parental psychological control has been linked to symptoms of psychopathology in adolescence, yet less is known about its correlates in childhood. The current study is among the first to address whether psychological control is related to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood. A community sample of 298 children aged 7.04…

  14. A Solution to the Cosmological Problem of Relativity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, Daryl

    After nearly a century of scientific investigation, the standard cosmological theory continues to have many unexplained problems, which invariably amount to one troubling statement: we know of no good reason for the Universe to appear just as it does, which is described extremely well by the flat ΛCDM cosmological model. Therefore, the problem is not that the physical model is at all incompatible with observation, but that, as our empirical results have been increasingly constrained, it has also become increasingly obvious that the Universe does not meet our prior expectations; e.g., the evidence suggests that the Universe began from a singularity of the theory that is used to describe it, and with space expanding thereafter in cosmic time, even though relativity theory is thought to imply that no such objective foliation of the spacetime continuum should reasonably exist. Furthermore, the expanding Universe is well-described as being flat, isotropic, and homogeneous, even though its shape and expansion rate are everywhere supposed to be the products of local energy-content---and the necessary prior uniform distribution, of just the right amount of matter for all three of these conditions to be met, could not have been causally determined to begin with. And finally, the empirically constrained density parameters now indicate that all of the matter that we directly observe should make up only four percent of the total, so that the dominant forms of energy in the Universe should be dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant, Λ, and cold dark matter (CDM). The most common ways of attacking these problems have been: to apply modifications to the basic physical model, e.g. as in the inflation and quintessence theories which strive to resolve the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems; to use particle physics techniques in order to formulate the description of dark matter candidates that might fit with observations; and, in the case of the Big

  15. Dimensions of disinhibited personality and their relation with alcohol use and problems

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Rachel L.; Finn, Peter R.; Endres, Michael J.; Gerst, Kyle R.; Spinola, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been associated with different aspects of disinhibited personality and antisociality, less is known about the specific relationships among different domains of disinhibited personality, antisociality, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. The current study was designed to address three goals, (i) to provide evidence of a three-factor model of disinhibited personality (comprised of impulsivity [IMP], risk taking/ low harm avoidance [RTHA], excitement seeking [ES]), (ii) to test hypotheses regarding the association between each dimension and alcohol use and problems, and (iii) to test the hypothesis that antisociality (social deviance proneness [SDP]) accounts for the direct association between IMP and alcohol problems, while ES is directly related to alcohol use. Measures of disinhibited personality IMP, RTHA, ES and SDP and alcohol use and problems were assessed in a sample of young adults (N=474), which included a high proportion of individuals with AUDs. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model of disinhibited personality reflecting IMP, RTHA, and ES. A structural equation model (SEM) showed that IMP was specifically associated with alcohol problems, while ES was specifically associated with alcohol use. In a second SEM, SDP accounted for the majority of the variance in alcohol problems associated with IMP. The results suggest aspects of IMP associated with SDP represent a direct vulnerability to alcohol problems. In addition, the results suggest that ES reflects a specific vulnerability to excessive alcohol use, which is then associated with alcohol problems, while RTHA is not specifically associated with alcohol use or problems when controlling for IMP and ES. PMID:23588138

  16. Efficient algorithms for distributed simulation and related problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, D.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis presents efficient algorithms for distributed simulation, and for the related problems of termination detection and sequential simulation. Distributed simulation algorithms applicable to the simulation of special classes of systems, such that almost no overhead messages are required are presented. By contrast, previous distributed simulation algorithms, although applicable to the general class of any discrete-event system, usually require too many overhead messages. First, a simple distributed simulation algorithm is defined with nearly zero overhead messages for simulating feedforward systems. An approximate method is developed to predict its performance in simulating a class of feedforward-queuing networks. Performance of the scheme is evaluated in simulating specific subclasses of these queuing networks. It is shown that the scheme offers a high performance for serial-parallel networks. Next, another distributed simulation scheme is defined for a class of distributed systems whose topologies may have cycles. One important problem in devising distributed simulation algorithms is that of efficient detection of termination. With this in mind, a class of termination-detection algorithms using markers is devised. Finally, a new sequential simulation algorithm is developed, based on a distributed one. This algorithm often reduces the event-list manipulations of traditional-event list-driven simulation.

  17. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college. PMID:23380486

  18. Recent materials problems relating to catastrophic balloon failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, I. S.

    1985-01-01

    Balloons fabricated of thin polyethylene materials have provided relatively inexpensive and reliable scientific research platforms for approximately three decades. Reliability of the modern day balloon, as launched by the U.S.A. National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF), has been approximately 85 percent. Recent balloon failures, coupled with an increased ocurrence of catastrophic failures, created grave concern over the integrity of the present balloon inventory of the U.S.A. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). An investigative team was established by NASA to review the circumstances surrounding the catastrophic balloon failures, determine the cause and to make recommendations to correct the problem and to prevent its reoccurrence. The most probable cause of failure as determined by the investigation was the polyethylene balloon film, although the film had passsed the established standard quality control measures of the film manufacturer. The approach, findings, and conclusions of the investigation are presented along with planned procedures to assure future quality balloon film for NASA balloons.

  19. In Silico target fishing: addressing a “Big Data” problem by ligand-based similarity rankings with data fusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ligand-based in silico target fishing can be used to identify the potential interacting target of bioactive ligands, which is useful for understanding the polypharmacology and safety profile of existing drugs. The underlying principle of the approach is that known bioactive ligands can be used as reference to predict the targets for a new compound. Results We tested a pipeline enabling large-scale target fishing and drug repositioning, based on simple fingerprint similarity rankings with data fusion. A large library containing 533 drug relevant targets with 179,807 active ligands was compiled, where each target was defined by its ligand set. For a given query molecule, its target profile is generated by similarity searching against the ligand sets assigned to each target, for which individual searches utilizing multiple reference structures are then fused into a single ranking list representing the potential target interaction profile of the query compound. The proposed approach was validated by 10-fold cross validation and two external tests using data from DrugBank and Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). The use of the approach was further demonstrated with some examples concerning the drug repositioning and drug side-effects prediction. The promising results suggest that the proposed method is useful for not only finding promiscuous drugs for their new usages, but also predicting some important toxic liabilities. Conclusions With the rapid increasing volume and diversity of data concerning drug related targets and their ligands, the simple ligand-based target fishing approach would play an important role in assisting future drug design and discovery. PMID:24976868

  20. A review of the NATO special group of experts on Naval hydromechanics and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlesworth, John; Leggat, L. John

    1987-06-01

    The Special Group of Experts on Naval Hydromechanics and Related Problems (SGE-HYDRO) was formed following an exploratory meeting on 3 to 4 November 1982. Its formation was spurred to a large degree by the need within NATO for a forum to promote multinational cooperation in the general area of Naval hydromechanics testing and research for problems not adequately covered by other NATO international exchange groups and the International Towing Tank Conference. The Group's mandate allows it to address current aspects of interest to Naval hydromechanics including test and research facilities, test techniques and instrumentation, prediction methods, model to full scale correlations, full scale trials, model tests, math modeling and simulation, and implications of instrumentation development in other fields.

  1. Addressing the next challenges: A summary of the 22nd international symposium on hepatitis C virus and related viruses.

    PubMed

    Baumert, Thomas F; Schuster, Catherine; Cosset, François-Loïc; Dubuisson, Jean; Hofmann, Maike; Tautz, Norbert; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Thimme, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Following the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) more than 25years ago the field has succeeded to develop methods that have changed the safety of blood products, understand the molecular virology, epidemiology and clinical disease of HCV, and identify specific targets for the development of direct-acting antivirals for HCV cure. Nevertheless, major clinical and scientific challenges remain: therapy is still only available to a fraction of infected patients worldwide and many patients remain undiagnosed and/or live in countries where therapy is unattainable. An urgently needed HCV vaccine to eradicate infection remains still elusive. Scientifically, major questions remain regarding the life cycle, pathogenesis and mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence. Addressing these challenges, this meeting report reviews key findings of the 22nd International Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus and Related Viruses in Strasbourg, France from October 9 to 13, 2015. PMID:26780288

  2. Energy Use and Related Risk Management Problems in CEE Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, R.; Michna, J.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.; Zebergs, V.

    2008-03-01

    Nowadays, the efficiency of energy use in the Central and East-European (CEE) countries is insufficient, being much lower than in the "Old Europe". The problem becomes increasingly pressing due to non-stop increasing prices of energy carriers (especially of crude oil). The authors trace the development of research activities in this sphere, classifying the revealed changes in parameters of energy consumption processes in particular time intervals into deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy. The paper presents a thorough analysis of decision-making in the energy management at its different levels - normative, strategic, and operative. Particular attention is given to the management under uncertainty conditions - i.e. to the risk management. The most wanted research directions in this area proposed by the energy and environment policy (EEP) Center specially created for CEE countries concern management under risk connected with innovations, international activities, loss of reputation, etc. The authors consider in detail the risk management with insufficient knowledge (non-knowledge) and under chaos. Much consideration is given to the scenario management and the game theory principles as related to the sphere of energy use.

  3. [Stomatological problems related to pregnancy. A statistical study].

    PubMed

    Masoni, S; Panattoni, E; Rolla, P; Rossi, M; Giuca, M R; Gabriele, M

    1991-12-01

    Pregnancy is related to particular dental issues, such as the increased incidence of diseases( gingivitis, caries, epulis), the fluoride supplementation, and the limits of diagnostics and therapy. Moreover, the mysterious halo surrounding pregnancy often makes the dentist uneasy. In order to objectively evaluate the implications of pregnancy in dentistry, we distributed a form to 100 pregnant women. The results of the form showed that 53 of them had gingival bleeding, 22 had toothache, 19 had caries but that just 12 of them had gone to the dentist because of dental troubles while 54 had not gone at all. Among the pluri-gravidae, all the women with dental diseases in their previous pregnancies had them again in their current pregnancy but nonetheless only some had undergone a dental check-up. The dentists did not show any uneasiness, as they performed tooth extractions in 5 women, endodontics in 2 women and fillings in 11 women. Just 4 out of 100 women had taken a fluoride supplementation. We deem advisable a stronger collaboration between physician, gynecologist and dentist in order to resolve specialist problems and to make pregnant women more aware of the need for dental follow-ups and fluoride supplementations. PMID:1815129

  4. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Problem-Solving Intervention Addressing Barriers to Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Behaviors in 3 Underserved Populations: Colorado, North Carolina, West Virginia, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Lucinda L.; Leary, Janie M.; Vu, Maihan B.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D.; McMilin, Colleen R.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In low-income and underserved populations, financial hardship and multiple competing roles and responsibilities lead to difficulties in lifestyle change for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. To improve CVD prevention behaviors, we adapted, pilot-tested, and evaluated a problem-solving intervention designed to address barriers to lifestyle change. Methods The sample consisted of 81 participants from 3 underserved populations, including 28 Hispanic or non-Hispanic white women in a western community (site 1), 31 African-American women in a semirural southern community (site 2), and 22 adults in an Appalachian community (site 3). Incorporating focus group findings, we assessed a standardized intervention involving 6-to-8 week group sessions devoted to problem-solving in the fall of 2009. Results Most sessions were attended by 76.5% of participants, demonstrating participant adoption and engagement. The intervention resulted in significant improvement in problem-solving skills (P < .001) and perceived stress (P < .05). Diet, physical activity, and weight remained stable, although 72% of individuals reported maintenance or increase in daily fruit and vegetable intake, and 67% reported maintenance or increase in daily physical activity. Conclusion Study results suggest the intervention was acceptable to rural, underserved populations and effective in training them in problem-solving skills and stress management for CVD risk reduction. PMID:24602586

  5. Free boundary problems in shock reflection/diffraction and related transonic flow problems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Feldman, Mikhail

    2015-09-13

    Shock waves are steep wavefronts that are fundamental in nature, especially in high-speed fluid flows. When a shock hits an obstacle, or a flying body meets a shock, shock reflection/diffraction phenomena occur. In this paper, we show how several long-standing shock reflection/diffraction problems can be formulated as free boundary problems, discuss some recent progress in developing mathematical ideas, approaches and techniques for solving these problems, and present some further open problems in this direction. In particular, these shock problems include von Neumann's problem for shock reflection-diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with concave corner, Lighthill's problem for shock diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with convex corner, and Prandtl-Meyer's problem for supersonic flow impinging onto solid wedges, which are also fundamental in the mathematical theory of multidimensional conservation laws. PMID:26261363

  6. Free boundary problems in shock reflection/diffraction and related transonic flow problems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Feldman, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Shock waves are steep wavefronts that are fundamental in nature, especially in high-speed fluid flows. When a shock hits an obstacle, or a flying body meets a shock, shock reflection/diffraction phenomena occur. In this paper, we show how several long-standing shock reflection/diffraction problems can be formulated as free boundary problems, discuss some recent progress in developing mathematical ideas, approaches and techniques for solving these problems, and present some further open problems in this direction. In particular, these shock problems include von Neumann's problem for shock reflection–diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with concave corner, Lighthill's problem for shock diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with convex corner, and Prandtl-Meyer's problem for supersonic flow impinging onto solid wedges, which are also fundamental in the mathematical theory of multidimensional conservation laws. PMID:26261363

  7. Goals and everyday problem solving: examining the link between age-related goals and problem-solving strategy use.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2008-07-01

    Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving. PMID:17899456

  8. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Courtney D.; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  9. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment.

    PubMed

    Perry, Courtney D; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40-60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  10. Memphis: Finding and Fixing NUMA-related Performance Problems on Multi-core Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    McCurdy, Collin B; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, most high-end scientific applications have been immune to performance problems caused by Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA). However, current trends in micro-processor design are pushing NUMA to smaller and smaller scales. This paper examines the current state of NUMA and makes several contributions. First, we summarize the performance problems that NUMA can present for multithreaded applications and describe methods of addressing them. Second, we demonstrate that NUMA can indeed be a significant problem for scientific applications, showing that it can mean the difference between an application scaling perfectly and failing to scale at all. Third, we describe, in increasing order of usefulness, three methods of using hardware performance counters to aid in finding NUMA-related problems. Finally, we introduce Memphis, a data-centric toolset that uses Instruction Based Sampling to help pinpoint problematic memory accesses, and demonstrate how we used it to improve the performance of several production-level codes - HYCOM, XGC1 and CAM - by 13%, 23% and 24% respectively.

  11. Problems and Solutions Related to College Students' Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinming

    2008-01-01

    With China staying in its social transition period, its changes in economy, politics and culture have influenced college students' thought to a large extent. Currently, in spite of the healthy and upward mainstream thought among college students, there are also some problems. This article elaborates on the problems and manifestations in college…

  12. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. PMID:20617029

  13. Problems faced by relatives caring for cancer patients at home.

    PubMed

    Tsigaroppoulos, Thomas; Mazaris, Evangelos; Chatzidarellis, Eleftherios; Skolarikos, Andreas; Varkarakis, Ioannis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos

    2009-02-01

    The care of patients suffering from advanced cancer is not limited in the hospital setting. It continues at home where the burden of care is borne by specific individuals. The aim of the present study was to survey and record the various problems faced by those who care for cancer patients at home. The study was conducted in our hospital during the summer of 2007. All participants completed, during a personal interview, a questionnaire which covered pathologic, social, psychological, spiritual/religious and financial problems. Seventy-six carers returned fully completed questionnaires. The most frequent problems reported were: anxiety regarding the patient's future (61.8%), troublesome symptoms such as pain (54%), increased economic burden-financial difficulty (51.3%), problems with patient's feeding (50%), unhappiness or depression (48,7%), emotional upset (47.4%), worsening of the patient's behaviour and personality (38.2%), difficulty of establishing a positive attitude regarding their current status (34.2%), transport to hospital (32.9%), assistance from the wider family circle (25%). Taking care of cancer patients at home creates several problems among carers. Many of them remain undetected. The acknowledgement and recognition of these problems by health-care professionals might contribute to finding solutions in order to assist the difficult task of these individuals. PMID:19187163

  14. Enhanced care assistant training to address the workforce crisis in home care: changes related to job satisfaction and career commitment.

    PubMed

    Coogle, Constance L; Parham, Iris A; Jablonski, Rita; Rachel, Jason A

    2007-01-01

    Changes in job satisfaction and career commitment were observed as a consequence of a geriatric case management training program focusing on skills development among personal care attendants in home care. A comparison of pretraining and posttraining scores uncovered a statistically significant increase in Intrinsic Job Satisfaction scores for participants 18-39 years of age, whereas levels declined among the group of middle aged participants and no change was observed among participants age 52 and older. On the other hand, a statistically significant decline in Extrinsic Job Satisfaction was documented over all participants, but this was found to be primarily due to declines among participants 40-51 years of age. When contacted 6-12 months after the training series had concluded participants indicated that the training substantially increased the likelihood that they would stay in their current jobs and improved their job satisfaction to some extent. A comparison of pretraining and posttraining scores among participants providing follow-up data revealed a statistically significant improvement in levels of Career Resilience. These results are discussed as they relate to similar training models and national data sets, and recommendations are offered for targeting future educational programs designed to address the long-term care workforce shortage. PMID:17595925

  15. Problems Related to Computer Ethics: Origins of the Problems and Suggested Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzu, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) help individuals to solve several everyday problems, which used to be harder, more complicated and time consuming. Even though ICTs provide individuals with many advantages, they might also serve as grounds for several societal and ethical problems which vary in accordance with…

  16. Some population and related problems in the Ghanaian Economy.

    PubMed

    De Graft-johnson, J C

    1971-01-01

    A detailed review of the present situation of the Ghanaian economy indicates that, in spite of a decrease in the number of people employed in the agricultural sector (which might suggest an increase in agricultural productivity according to the thesis to this effect based on experiences in developed countries), food productivity has failed to improve. This is a serious situation for a population increasing at a rate of 2.7% per year. The large percentage of school-age children (21.8% with 44.5% of the population under 15 years as of 1960) necessitating education expenditures and the heavy immigration from surrounding countries (12% of the population are immigrants and they account for 50% of the male retail traders in the country according to the 1960 census) have created 2 of the largest problems for the country's economy. In 1960, 61.8% of the adult working population was employed in agriculture and agricultural products (primarily cocoa, which accounts for over 60% of this total) yet production lagged behind demand, making Ghana a net importer of food. Future prospects for Ghana's agricultural situation indicate that increase in production (estimated in 1965 at 1.62%) is far behind the estimated necessary increase of 7.7% based on food consumption levels of 1961. Even for cocoa production which had been progressing, the prospects are discouraging due to factors such as insufficient equipment, transportation facilities and other elements related to production maintenance, as well as to a shortage of labor (caused by the Aliens Compliance Order of 1969, the government's effort to reduce the involvement of immigrants in the economy) which has yet to be filled despite high urban unemployment rates and rural underemployment. Although producer prices for cocoa increased, little evidence can be found that this provided incentive for farmers to increase production. This review indicates that the country is still waiting for the agricultural revolution to arrive which

  17. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  18. Efficient parallel algorithms for string editing and related problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostolico, Alberto; Atallah, Mikhail J.; Larmore, Lawrence; Mcfaddin, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The string editing problem for input strings x and y consists of transforming x into y by performing a series of weighted edit operations on x of overall minimum cost. An edit operation on x can be the deletion of a symbol from x, the insertion of a symbol in x or the substitution of a symbol x with another symbol. This problem has a well known O((absolute value of x)(absolute value of y)) time sequential solution (25). The efficient Program Requirements Analysis Methods (PRAM) parallel algorithms for the string editing problem are given. If m = ((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)) and n = max((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)), then the CREW bound is O (log m log n) time with O (mn/log m) processors. In all algorithms, space is O (mn).

  19. Response to Reidun Tangen: Insiders and Relational Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvernbekk, Tone

    2008-01-01

    The uses of insider epistemology are many. In Reidun Tangen's thought-provoking paper it is seen as a tentative foundation for educational research involving listening to children's voices. The author argues elsewhere that insider epistemology, from a philosophical viewpoint, is full of paradoxes, inconsistencies and unsolved problems. Its…

  20. Teacher Perspectives on Peer Relation Problems of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Mugyeong

    2001-01-01

    Qualitative study involving 3 teachers' perspectives of peer relationship problems of 24-year-old children in a university-affiliated preschool. Teachers used three criteria to judge peer relationships: Children's emotional well-being, motivation behind social behavior, and social skills. Finds children's efforts to control peers to be the most…

  1. Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    C. M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13 997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black–White and Hispanic–White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183

  2. Relative accuracy of grid references derived from postcode and address in UK epidemiological studies of overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J; Vincent, T J; Bunch, K J

    2014-12-01

    In the UK, the location of an address, necessary for calculating the distance to overhead power lines in epidemiological studies, is available from different sources. We assess the accuracy of each. The grid reference specific to each address, provided by the Ordnance Survey product Address-Point, is generally accurate to a few metres, which will usually be sufficient for calculating magnetic fields from the power lines. The grid reference derived from the postcode rather than the individual address is generally accurate to tens of metres, and may be acceptable for assessing effects that vary in the general proximity of the power line, but is probably not acceptable for assessing magnetic-field effects. PMID:25325707

  3. A Bayesian Maximum Entropy approach to address the change of support problem in the spatial analysis of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Yeatts, Karin B; Serre, Marc L

    2009-01-01

    The spatial analysis of data observed at different spatial observation scales leads to the change of support problem (COSP). A solution to the COSP widely used in linear spatial statistics consists in explicitly modeling the spatial autocorrelation of the variable observed at different spatial scales. We present a novel approach that takes advantage of the non-linear Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) extension of linear spatial statistics to address the COSP directly without relying on the classical linear approach. Our procedure consists in modeling data observed over large areas as soft data for the process at the local scale. We demonstrate the application of our approach to obtain spatially detailed maps of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina (NC). Because of the high prevalence of childhood asthma in NC, the small number problem is not an issue, so we can focus our attention solely to the COSP of integrating prevalence data observed at the county-level together with data observed at a targeted local scale equivalent to the scale of school-districts. Our spatially detailed maps can be used for different applications ranging from exploratory and hypothesis generating analyses to targeting intervention and exposure mitigation efforts. PMID:20300553

  4. A Bayesian Maximum Entropy approach to address the change of support problem in the spatial analysis of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SEUNG-JAE; YEATTS, KARIN; SERRE, MARC L.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial analysis of data observed at different spatial observation scales leads to the change of support problem (COSP). A solution to the COSP widely used in linear spatial statistics consists in explicitly modeling the spatial autocorrelation of the variable observed at different spatial scales. We present a novel approach that takes advantage of the non-linear Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) extension of linear spatial statistics to address the COSP directly without relying on the classical linear approach. Our procedure consists in modeling data observed over large areas as soft data for the process at the local scale. We demonstrate the application of our approach to obtain spatially detailed maps of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina (NC). Because of the high prevalence of childhood asthma in NC, the small number problem is not an issue, so we can focus our attention solely to the COSP of integrating prevalence data observed at the county-level together with data observed at a targeted local scale equivalent to the scale of school-districts. Our spatially detailed maps can be used for different applications ranging from exploratory and hypothesis generating analyses to targeting intervention and exposure mitigation efforts. PMID:20300553

  5. NEW DIRECTIONS IN SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONS. AN ADDRESS DELIVERED TO THE GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT WORKSHOP, AUGUST 29, 1960, DETROIT, MICHIGAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCLUSKY, HOWARD

    IN AN ADDRESS DELIVERED TO A WORKSHOP IN THE GREAT CITIES PROJECT, IT WAS NOTED THAT SCHOOL PERSONNEL SHOULD DO EVERYTHING POSSIBLE TO RESEARCH THE PROBLEM OF IN-MIGRATION. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT, AS A KEY TO MIGRATION AND CHANGING NEIGHBORHOODS, A CUMULATIVE RECORD FOR THE NEIGHBORHOOD AND SCHOOL DISTRICT BE KEPT. THERE IS A NEED FOR TEACHERS TO…

  6. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  7. Progress on PRONGHORN Application to NGNP Related Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Dana A. Knoll

    2009-08-01

    We are developing a multiphysics simulation tool for Very High-Temperature gascooled Reactors (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly in parallel. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated by the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to improve the convergence. The initial development of PRONGHORN has been focused on the pebble bed corec concept. However, extensions required to simulate prismatic cores are underway. In this progress report we highlight progress on application of PRONGHORN to PBMR400 benchmark problems, extension and application of PRONGHORN to prismatic core reactors, and progress on simulations of 3-D transients.

  8. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  9. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    related fields such as nuclear astrophysics, hypernuclear physics, hadron physics, and condensate matter physics so on. In fact, in this workshop, we also discuss the clustering aspects in the related fields. Thus, I expect in this workshop we can grasp the present status of the nuclear cluster physics and demonstrate its perspective in near future. This workshop is sponsored by several institutes and organizations. In particular, I would express our thanks for financial supports to Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Joint Institute for Computational Fundamental Science (JICFuS), and RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator- Based Science. They are cohosting this workshop. I would like also to appreciate my University, Kanto Gakuin University, who offers this nice place for one week and helps us to hold this workshop smoothly and conveniently. Today, the president of my University, Prof. Kuku, is here to present a welcome address. Thank you very much. Finally, with many of the participants leading this field both in theory and in experiment, we wish this workshop offers an opportunity to simulate communications not only during the workshop but also in the future. In addition, we hope you enjoy exploring city of Yokohama and the area around, as well as scientific discussions. Thank you very much for your attention.

  10. The National Historic Preservation Act is Not Your Problem, But How You are Addressing it for Your CERCLA Project May Be - 12344

    SciTech Connect

    Cusick, Lesley T.

    2012-07-01

    The 1995 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joint 'Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under CERCLA was developed so that decommissioning could occur in a manner that ensures protection of worker and public health and the environment, that is consistent with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that provides for stakeholder involvement, and that achieves risk reduction without unnecessary delay'. The source of the 'unnecessary delays' the joint policy intended to avert could be attributed to numerous factors such as obtaining permits, conducting administrative activities, or implementing regulatory processes that could yield, among other things, differing preferred alternatives. Why, you might ask, more than fifteen years later, does DOE continue to struggle through CERCLA projects with unnecessary delays? From problem identification, to determination of nature and extent, to alternative analysis and ultimately remedy selection and implementation, reaching a compliant and effective clean-up end-point can be a process that seems to mimic geologic timescales. The source of these delays is often the failure to use all of the tools the CERCLA process offers. As one example, renewed commitment to follow the CERCLA process to address the regulatory reviews pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is called for. Project managers implementing CERCLA actions in any agency, not only DOE, do not need to be apprehensive about using the CERCLA process for NHPA review but should welcome it. It is critical that methods are used that address substantive NHPA requirements clearly and consistently, and that they are shared and communicated as frequently as needed to interested and questioning stakeholders. (author)

  11. Multiphase problems related to safety studies in the process industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, R. Grollier

    Safety risk and analysis, particularly in the petrochemical industry, are discussed. Multiphase flow problems resulting from loss of confinement are described: rupture of long pipes used for transporting liquefied gas; rupture of short pipes and branch connections in an installation; rupture of a container holding liquefied gas or another liquid at a temperature higher than its normal boiling temperature; and rupture of a container holding gas in the supercritical state. Operation of valves and rupture disks during reaction runaway; and artificial dispersion of gas layers are considered.

  12. [Some basic research problems related to energy: Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    A new simple relation has been found, between the transport coefficients of a fluid, in particular the viscosity, and the maximum and minimum Lyapunov exponents of the fluid in a non-equilibrium stationary state. This relation holds arbitrarily far from equilibrium, as long as the transport coefficients themselves make sense. It is hoped that this new relation will provide new insight in the nature and properties of transport coefficients or, in general, in fluid behavior far from equilibrium, i.e., in the strongly non-linear regime.

  13. (Some basic research problems related to energy: Annual progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A new simple relation has been found, between the transport coefficients of a fluid, in particular the viscosity, and the maximum and minimum Lyapunov exponents of the fluid in a non-equilibrium stationary state. This relation holds arbitrarily far from equilibrium, as long as the transport coefficients themselves make sense. It is hoped that this new relation will provide new insight in the nature and properties of transport coefficients or, in general, in fluid behavior far from equilibrium, i.e., in the strongly non-linear regime.

  14. Learning Problems Related to the Concept of Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradamante, Francesca; Michelini, Marisa; Stefanel, Alberto

    The concept of field has formed itself through a process of elaboration of concepts both on the historical level, and on that of mathematic formalism (integral or differential approach, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism), and in the relationship between mathematics and physics. In didactic tradition it is used as an example of the formalised analogical process. Its phenomenological aspects and its characteristics of time and space are only partially described for the various types of field, mixing the descriptive and interpretative levels. In this review we select some of the main teaching-learning problems and student's diffculties with learning the concept of field, that many researches have stressed, such as: the concept of field and its representation by lines of force, the difference between field and force, the connection between field and its sources, the concept of the field's superposition and the interpretation of mathematical formulas, the application of the third principle of dynamics, the motion of the field's characteristic particles in the field itself. We consider the field in static situations, because these learning problems are fundamental and basic for when we will pass to dynamic situations (electromagnetic field).

  15. Inverse spin glass and related maximum entropy problems.

    PubMed

    Castellana, Michele; Bialek, William

    2014-09-12

    If we have a system of binary variables and we measure the pairwise correlations among these variables, then the least structured or maximum entropy model for their joint distribution is an Ising model with pairwise interactions among the spins. Here we consider inhomogeneous systems in which we constrain, for example, not the full matrix of correlations, but only the distribution from which these correlations are drawn. In this sense, what we have constructed is an inverse spin glass: rather than choosing coupling constants at random from a distribution and calculating correlations, we choose the correlations from a distribution and infer the coupling constants. We argue that such models generate a block structure in the space of couplings, which provides an explicit solution of the inverse problem. This allows us to generate a phase diagram in the space of (measurable) moments of the distribution of correlations. We expect that these ideas will be most useful in building models for systems that are nonequilibrium statistical mechanics problems, such as networks of real neurons. PMID:25260004

  16. Relative information entropy in cosmology: The problem of information entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czinner, Viktor G.; Mena, Filipe C.

    2016-07-01

    The necessary information to distinguish a local inhomogeneous mass density field from its spatial average on a compact domain of the universe can be measured by relative information entropy. The Kullback-Leibler (KL) formula arises very naturally in this context, however, it provides a very complicated way to compute the mutual information between spatially separated but causally connected regions of the universe in a realistic, inhomogeneous model. To circumvent this issue, by considering a parametric extension of the KL measure, we develop a simple model to describe the mutual information which is entangled via the gravitational field equations. We show that the Tsallis relative entropy can be a good approximation in the case of small inhomogeneities, and for measuring the independent relative information inside the domain, we propose the Rényi relative entropy formula.

  17. Problems of Terminology in the Teaching of Plant Water Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbeer, Philip A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Recommends use by teachers of new terminology regarding plant water relations. Includes definitions and Greek symbols for the following terms: water potential, water potential of cell, osmotic potential, matric potential, and pressure potential. (CS)

  18. 'Inclined abstainers': a problem for predicting health-related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Orbell, S; Sheeran, P

    1998-06-01

    A longitudinal test of the association between motivation to undertake a precautionary health action and subsequent behaviour was conducted on women's uptake of the cervical screening test. A sample of never-screened women (N = 166) completed measures derived from protection-motivation theory (PMT; Rogers, 1983). One year later, screening uptake was reliably determined from medical records. While regression analyses demonstrated that PMT variables predicted both motivation to undergo cervical screening and screening uptake, there was, nonetheless, a good deal of inconsistency between protection motivation and screening behaviour. Fifty-seven per cent of those who indicated they were willing to undergo the test did not do so within a one-year period. Discriminant analysis was therefore used to test the ability of cognitions specified by PMT to distinguish four patterns of association between motivation and behaviour: inclined actors, inclined abstainers, disinclined actors and disinclined abstainers. While PMT variables could successfully classify the four groups, it was not possible to derive a reliable discriminant function which distinguished between inclined actors and inclined abstainers. The results suggest that PMT provides a useful account of choice motivation but does not address the psychological processes by which intention is translated into action. Recent calls for the development of a social psychology of volition are discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:9639861

  19. Symplectic structures related with higher order variational problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijowski, Jerzy; Moreno, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we derive the symplectic framework for field theories defined by higher order Lagrangians. The construction is based on the symplectic reduction of suitable spaces of iterated jets. The possibility of reducing a higher order system of partial differential equations to a constrained first-order one, the symplectic structures naturally arising in the dynamics of a first-order Lagrangian theory, and the importance of the Poincaré-Cartan form for variational problems, are all well-established facts. However, their adequate combination corresponding to higher order theories is missing in the literature. Here we obtain a consistent and truly finite-dimensional canonical formalism, as well as a higher order version of the Poincaré-Cartan form. In our exposition, the rigorous global proofs of the main results are always accompanied by their local coordinate descriptions, indispensable to work out practical examples.

  20. China's tax system relatively benign, but problems remain

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, M. )

    1994-11-28

    Recent developments in China's oil market have reignited the interest of multinational oil and gas companies in China. New onshore and offshore blocks are being granted, and the Tarim basin has been opened to foreign participation for the first time. Foreign participation is also being sought in refining and other downstream areas. Though Chinese officials have long been viewed as difficult negotiators, the tax provisions applicable to oil and gas exploration and production in China are some of the more generous in the area. This article describes some of the relevant features of the system and some of the problem areas. The paper describes production sharing contracts, applicable taxes, gross income determination, taxable income, tax consolidation, overseas charges, and withholding taxes on payments to subcontractors and employees.

  1. Trajectories of adolescent conduct problems in relation to cortical thickness development: a longitudinal MRI study.

    PubMed

    Oostermeijer, S; Whittle, S; Suo, C; Allen, N B; Simmons, J G; Vijayakumar, N; van de Ven, P M; Jansen, L M C; Yücel, M; Popma, A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cross-sectional imaging studies have identified structural abnormalities in prefrontal, temporal and limbic regions related to conduct problems (CPs). However, the relationship between development of such neurobiological deficits and developmental pathways of CPs has remained unclear. The current study investigated distinct trajectories of CP and related trajectories of cortical thickness within a community-based sample of adolescents (n=239), age range 12-19, to address this gap. Three trajectory classes were revealed using latent class growth analyses (LCGAs), comprising a 'desisting' CP group, an 'intermediate' CP group and a 'stable low' CP group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were collected with a subgroup of 171 adolescents at three waves throughout adolescence (ages 12, 16 and 19). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis-comparing longitudinal changes in cortical thickness and subcortical volume between CP groups for several regions of interest (ROIs)-showed that these CP groups had differential trajectories of cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dl-PFC), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and volume of the hippocampus. Adolescents in the desisting CP group showed an attenuation of the typical pattern of cortical thinning as present in the intermediate and stable low CP groups, in addition to an exaggeration of the typical pattern of hippocampal volume increase. These findings suggest that a deviant cortical thickness trajectory was related to a desisting CP pathway across adolescence. Such deviant neurodevelopmental growth trajectories may act as an underlying mechanism for developmental CP pathways, and possibly distinguish desisting antisocial adolescents. PMID:27327256

  2. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  3. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  4. Relations over Time among Children's Shyness, Emotionality, and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Sallquist, Julie; Michalik, Nicole M.; Liew, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality [parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and…

  5. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Alexander, P C

    1994-07-01

    Total world population is growing at the annual rate of 2%. While this rate of growth represents a decline from the annual growth rate of 2.5% during the early 1960s, world population still continues to grow rapidly in absolute terms as a result of the already enormous population base. Experts predict world population to grow to 12-14 billion before it stabilizes. Most of this growth will be due to high fertility amid declining mortality in developing countries; 80% of world population by the year 2000 will be in developing countries. India, for example, had a population of 358 million people in 1950. That population, however, should grow to more than one billion by the year 2000. The author, governor of Maharashtra, congratulates all who have successfully completed courses at the International Institute for Population Sciences during the year and voices his expectation that graduates will use their newfound knowledge and expertise in research and teaching as well as in developing meaningful and effective population policies in their respective countries. He also describes some of India's current population-related problems and future prospects. India has thus far kept its rate of food production above the rate of population growth. Even so, the average caloric intake in India needs to be increased by at least 50% in order for the population to maintain adequate health standards. The current scarcity of additional arable land, the need to halt further deforestation, and the ongoing absolute growth in population, however, suggest that India will be unable to raise the level of caloric intake for its people. India may even become dependent upon other countries to provide food for its population. PMID:12346131

  6. Gender-related voice problems in transsexuals - therapeutical demands.

    PubMed

    Misołek, Maciej; Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Morawska, Joanna; Orecka, Bogusława; Ścierski, Wojciech; Lisowska, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of a transsexual patient who underwent a voice pitch elevation surgery performed in Poland for the first time. The human voice is a reflection of the working of hormones and human psyche. This fact is of particular importance in transsexualism, a disorder consisting in incongruence between the individual's biological sex and their identified gender. For many transsexual people, especially of the MTF (male to female) type, who have undergone hormonal and surgical sex change, the voice still presents a major problem, causing difficulties in everyday life. Hormonal treatment does not influence feminisation of the larynx. In the described MTF case, the patient's low androphonic voice was perceived as a male voice. In order to feminise the patient's voice a phonosurgical procedure was performed: the length of the vibrating portion of the vocal folds was shortened by over 50% of their total length by means of suturing of the anterior part of the vocal fold. As a result of the surgical treatment the pitch of voice was raised considerably, with F0 of spoken voice increased from 109 Hz to 209 Hz. The voice range also changed towards female tones, from 59-146 Hz to 148-343 Hz. Pitch elevation positively influenced the patient's subjective voice assessment: total score of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) improved from 99 to 19 points, and the score of its emotional sub-scale: 39 and 2 points, respectively. The described case of a surgical male-to-female voice change presents one of the dilemmas faced by modern medicine. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (4): 452-455). PMID:27387248

  7. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  8. The Use of Original Sources and Its Potential Relation to the Recruitment Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Based on a study about using original sources with Danish upper secondary students, the paper addresses the potential outcome of such an approach in regard to the so-called recruitment problem to the mathematical sciences. 24 students were exposed to questionnaire questions and 16 of these to follow-up interviews, which form the basis for both a…

  9. The Relations among Cumulative Risk, Parenting, and Behavior Problems during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined relations among cumulative risk, nurturant and involved parenting, and behavior problems across early childhood. Methods: Cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems were measured in a sample of low-income toddlers participating in a family-centered program to prevent conduct problems. Results: Path analysis…

  10. Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Relation to Autonomic Function: A Population-Based Study in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Andrea; Riese, Harriette; Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; van Roon, Arie M.; Ormel, Johan; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether externalizing and internalizing problems are related to lower and higher heart rate (HR), respectively, and to explore the relationship of these problems with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Moreover, to study whether problems present at both preschool and preadolescent age…

  11. Moisture and Home Energy Conservation: How to Detect, Solve and Avoid Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    Moisture problems are identified as an important element in home energy conservation programs. A systematic approach to understanding, recognizing, solving, and preventing moisture-related problems is offered in this four-section report. Section I examines the root of moisture problems. Section II discusses symptoms and causes of excess moisture…

  12. Predictors of intimate partner problem-related suicides among suicide decedents in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Comiford, Ashley L.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Chesnut, Lorie; Brown, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, intimate partner problems are amid the top precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents. The aim of this study was to determine circumstantial associations of intimate partner problem-related suicides in suicide decedents in Kentucky. Methods: All suicides that were reported to the Kentucky Violent Death Reporting System between 2005 and 2012 were eligible for this study. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore predictors (precipitating health-related problems, life stressors, and criminal/legal issues) of intimate partner problem-related suicides. Results: Of the 4,754 suicides, included in this study, approximately 17% had intimate partner problems prior to suicide. In the adjusted analysis, mental health issues, alcohol problems, history of suicides attempts, suicides precipitated by another crime, and other legal problems increased the odds of having an intimate partner-related suicide. However, having physical health problems, prior to the suicide, decreased the odds of intimate partner-related suicide. Conclusions: These results provide insight for the development of suicide interventions for individuals with intimate partner problems by targeting risk factors that are prevalent among this population. Moreover, these results may help marriage/relationship and/or family/divorce court representatives identify individuals with intimate partner problems more at risk for suicide and alleviate the influence these suicide risk factors have on individuals experiencing Intimate partner problems. PMID:27092956

  13. Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

  14. Research funding for addressing tobacco-related disease: an analysis of UK investment between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Mary; Bogdanovica, Ilze; Britton, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the UK. However, research spending on tobacco-related disease, and particularly smoking prevention, is thought to be low. We therefore aimed to assess the relation between tobacco-related research investment and disease burden from 2008 to 2012. Methods We used the Health Research Classification System to classify UK government and charitable research funding by broad health category and then by tobacco prevention research and 18 WHO defined tobacco-related diseases. We used UK mortality figures to calculate disease-specific tobacco attributable deaths and then compared disease specific and tobacco prevention research investment with all cause and tobacco attributable mortality over the 5-year period and as annual averages. Results 12 922 research grants were identified with a total value of £6.69bn, an annual average of £1.34bn. Annually an average of 110 000 people die from tobacco-related disease, approximately 20% of total deaths. £130m is invested in researching tobacco-related disease each year and £5m on tobacco prevention, 10.8% and 0.42% of total annual research funding, respectively. Prevention research equated to an annual average of £46 per tobacco attributable death or one pound for every £29 spent on tobacco-related disease. Funding varied widely for diseases with different numbers of deaths (eg, lung cancer £68 per all cause death, cervical cancer £2500), similar numbers of deaths (leukaemia £983 per death, stomach cancer £43) or similar numbers of tobacco attributable deaths (eg, colorectal cancer £5k, pancreatic cancer £670, bladder cancer £340). Conclusions Tobacco-related research funding is not related to burden of disease or level of risk. As a result certain diseases receive a disproportionately low level of research funding and disease prevention funding is even lower. PMID:27377637

  15. Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Cañizo, T. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.

    2013-04-01

    Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distance between the planets, distances to the nearest stars (other than the Sun), the size of the Milky Way Galaxy, and the size of the Universe. An illustration or visualization may reinforce someone's understanding of, for example, the phases of the Moon. However, what other misconceptions, especially related to scale, are being reinforced?

  16. Internet-Related Problems Coming to the Attention of School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    The author provides a preliminary assessment of the extent to which a sample of 264 school social workers are aware of the Internet-related problems children are experiencing and proposes ways in which Internet-related problems could affect youths' social and academic competence and performance in a school setting. The findings have implications…

  17. Ethnic Differences in Relations between Family Process and Child Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendlinski, Matthew; Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lane, Tonya J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family process variables have been linked to child problem behavior, but recent research suggests that child ethnicity may moderate relations between family process and child outcomes. The current study examined how ethnicity moderates relations between parent conflict, parent-child relationship quality, and internalizing problems.…

  18. Community Colleges, Health-Related Social Problems, and the Community Services Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Donald Dean

    The major objective of the persent research was to determine the degree of commitment to community service in the area of health related social problems on the part of public community colleges. Specifically, the study sought to determine if these institutions have a responsibility for assisting in the amelioration of health-related problems. The…

  19. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  20. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  1. Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kylan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

  2. Trajectories of adolescent conduct problems in relation to cortical thickness development: a longitudinal MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Oostermeijer, S; Whittle, S; Suo, C; Allen, N B; Simmons, J G; Vijayakumar, N; van de Ven, P M; Jansen, L M C; Yücel, M; Popma, A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cross-sectional imaging studies have identified structural abnormalities in prefrontal, temporal and limbic regions related to conduct problems (CPs). However, the relationship between development of such neurobiological deficits and developmental pathways of CPs has remained unclear. The current study investigated distinct trajectories of CP and related trajectories of cortical thickness within a community-based sample of adolescents (n=239), age range 12–19, to address this gap. Three trajectory classes were revealed using latent class growth analyses (LCGAs), comprising a ‘desisting' CP group, an ‘intermediate' CP group and a ‘stable low' CP group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were collected with a subgroup of 171 adolescents at three waves throughout adolescence (ages 12, 16 and 19). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis—comparing longitudinal changes in cortical thickness and subcortical volume between CP groups for several regions of interest (ROIs)—showed that these CP groups had differential trajectories of cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dl-PFC), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and volume of the hippocampus. Adolescents in the desisting CP group showed an attenuation of the typical pattern of cortical thinning as present in the intermediate and stable low CP groups, in addition to an exaggeration of the typical pattern of hippocampal volume increase. These findings suggest that a deviant cortical thickness trajectory was related to a desisting CP pathway across adolescence. Such deviant neurodevelopmental growth trajectories may act as an underlying mechanism for developmental CP pathways, and possibly distinguish desisting antisocial adolescents. PMID:27327256

  3. Addressing Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

  4. Sociology, Music Education, and Social Change: The Prospect of Addressing Their Relations by Attending to Some Central, Expanded Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Studies on sociology and music education are important because they can enlighten how music education relates to social change. By studying how music education changes and is changed by society we enable ourselves to describe how it can contribute to the understanding of social change generally. This may lay the ground for us in contributing to…

  5. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  6. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals.

    PubMed

    Lukasczik, Matthias; Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Küffner, Roland; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  7. Addressing Pre-Service Teachers' Understandings and Difficulties with Some Core Concepts in the Special Theory of Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and…

  8. Relative Equilibria in the Spherical, Finite Density Three-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    The relative equilibria for the spherical, finite density three-body problem are identified. Specifically, there are 28 distinct relative equilibria in this problem which include the classical five relative equilibria for the point-mass three-body problem. None of the identified relative equilibria exist or are stable over all values of angular momentum. The stability and bifurcation pathways of these relative equilibria are mapped out as the angular momentum of the system is increased. This is done under the assumption that they have equal and constant densities and that the entire system rotates about its maximum moment of inertia. The transition to finite density greatly increases the number of relative equilibria in the three-body problem and ensures that minimum energy configurations exist for all values of angular momentum.

  9. The Alcohol Improvement Programme: Evaluation of an Initiative to Address Alcohol-Related Health Harm in England

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Betsy; MacGregor, Susanne; Godfrey, Christine; Herring, Rachel; Lloyd, Charlie; Tchilingirian, Jordan; Toner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The evaluation aimed to assess the impact of The Alcohol Improvement Programme (AIP). This was a UK Department of Health initiative (April 2008–March 2011) aiming to contribute to the reduction of alcohol-related harm as measured by a reduction in the rate of increase in alcohol-related hospital admissions (ARHAs). Methods: The evaluation (March 2010–September 2011) used a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the impact of the AIP on ARHAs, to describe and assess the process of implementation, and to identify elements of the programme which might serve as a ‘legacy’ for the future. Results: There was no evidence that the AIP had an impact on reducing the rise in the rate of ARHAs. The AIP was successfully delivered, increased the priority given to alcohol-related harm on local policy agendas and strengthened the infrastructure for the delivery of interventions. Conclusion: Although there was no measurable short-term impact on the rise in the rate of ARHAs, the AIP helped to set up a strategic response and a delivery infrastructure as a first, necessary step in working towards that goal. There are a number of valuable elements in the AIP which should be retained and repackaged to fit into new policy contexts. PMID:23729674

  10. The relation between peer victimization and sleeping problems: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Geel, Mitch; Goemans, Anouk; Vedder, Paul H

    2016-06-01

    Peer victimization has been found related to sleeping problems in children and adolescents in multiple studies. The aim of the current meta-analysis is to study the relation between peer victimization and sleeping problems. The databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC, Embase and LILACS were searched for articles. There were 21 articles that met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. These 21 articles contained 46 independent effect sizes and 363,539 children and adolescents, ranging in age from 7 up to 19 y of age. Results revealed that peer victimization is related to more sleeping problems. These results were not affected by publication bias. Moderator analyses revealed that for younger children the relation between peer victimization and sleeping problems was stronger than for older children. Results suggest that sleeping problems may be used as a possible signal that a child is victimized by peers. PMID:26140869

  11. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling. PMID:26487344

  12. Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance

  13. An Initial Evaluation of a Culturally-Adapted Social Problem Solving and Relational Aggression Prevention Program for Urban African American Relationally Aggressive Girls

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Paskewich, Brooke S.; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Jawad, Abbas F.; Grossman, Michael; Munro, Melissa A.; Power, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research demonstrating that relational aggression is associated with peer relationship difficulties, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, social processing deficits, and possibly later mental health disorders among girls has emphasized the need to address the unique expression of aggression amongst females. Despite these findings, almost all aggression interventions have been directed towards physically aggressive boys. In the current manuscript, authors describe the acceptability and initial effectiveness of a culturally-adapted social problem solving/social skills intervention for inner-city third to fifth grade urban, African American, relationally aggressive girls called the Friend to Friend Program. The authors partnered with youth, teachers, parents, and playground supervisors to design the program, and the current study presents preliminary data suggesting that the intervention is viewed as highly acceptable by participating girls and teachers. Further, the intervention appears to have promise for decreasing at-risk girls’ levels of relationally and physically aggressive behaviors, hostile attributions, and loneliness. PMID:19830622

  14. Ethiopian Youth in Israel: Gender-Related Alcohol Use and Related Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Shpiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Laytin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Jewish people from Ethiopia have been immigrating to Israel since 1973. Difficulties with language, unemployment; low socioeconomic status and prejudice have been common place and linked to problem behaviour including school drop out, delinquency and drug abuse among Ethiopian youth. This research examines the patterns of alcohol use and related…

  15. Uncovering Clinical Principles and Techniques to Address Minority Stress, Mental Health, and Related Health Risks Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men disproportionately experience depression, anxiety, and related health risks at least partially because of their exposure to sexual minority stress. This paper describes the adaptation of an evidence-based intervention capable of targeting the psychosocial pathways through which minority stress operates. Interviews with key stakeholders, including gay and bisexual men with depression and anxiety and expert providers, suggested intervention principles and techniques for improving minority stress coping. These principles and techniques are consistent with general cognitive behavioral therapy approaches, the empirical tenets of minority stress theory, and professional guidelines for LGB-affirmative mental health practice. If found to be efficacious, the psychosocial intervention described here would be one of the first to improve the mental health of gay and bisexual men by targeting minority stress. PMID:25554721

  16. Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal components were generated from self-report measures of negative affect and mood, alcohol use, and use-related problems. The Negative Mood component was positively related to a thoracic bias when measured throughout the study (including baseline and picture exposure). There was generally greater respiratory activity in response to the picture cues, although not specifically in response to the content (emotional or alcohol-related) of the picture cues. The Alcohol Problems component was positively associated with respiratory reactivity to picture cues, when baseline breathing patterns were controlled. Self-report arousal data indicated that higher levels of negative mood, but not alcohol problems, were associated with greater arousal ratings overall. However, those with alcohol problems reported greater arousal to alcohol cues, compared to emotionally neutral cues. These results are consistent with theories relating negative affect and mood to breathing patterns as well as the relationship between alcohol problems and negative emotions, suggesting that the use of respiratory interventions may hold promise for treating problems involving negative affect and mood, as well as drinking problems. PMID:23975541

  17. The role of medical schools in the prevention of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, J C

    1990-01-01

    There is agreement that physicians can play a major role in the prevention of alcohol problems among their patients and that medical schools should prepare physicians for this role by teaching three major subject areas: knowledge, attitudes and clinical skills. Despite this agreement and the acknowledged high prevalence of alcohol problems in clinical populations, medical school coverage of these problems is not proportional to their importance. Barriers to adequate coverage of alcohol problems are traditional attitudes, confusion as to whether such problems are "medical" and lack of adequate faculty role models. These problems could be remedied by encouragement and training of interested faculty members, establishment of substance abuse centres in university medical schools, integration of alcohol-related material with relevant topics in all departments and inclusion of alcohol-related questions on medical qualifying exams. PMID:2224672

  18. Factors Associated With Problems for Adolescents Returning to the Classroom After Sport-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    Baker, John G; Leddy, John J; Darling, Scott R; Rieger, Brian P; Mashtare, Terry L; Sharma, Tania; Willer, Barry S

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine factors in the clinic setting associated with concussion-related problems in the school setting. A total of 91 student athletes, 13 to 19 years old, completed the SCAT2 and computerized testing during their initial visit to the clinic. During a follow-up telephone interview, one-third reported problems with return to school. The presence of problems reported in school was associated with severity of concussion as represented by recovery time and the overall number of symptoms at the first clinic visit. Gender, age, and previous concussions were not associated with school problems. Athletes with computerized test scores below the ninth percentile were more likely to report school problems. The current study offers some descriptive information for clinicians and ideas for future research related to adolescent athletes with concussion and problems with return to the classroom. PMID:26084537

  19. Robust impact of social anxiety in relation to coping motives and expectancies, barriers to quitting, and cessation-related problems.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Jeffries, Emily R; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-08-01

    Although social anxiety is related to smoking and nicotine dependence, few researchers have sought to identify factors that contribute to these relations. The current study examined whether social anxiety was associated with cognitive vulnerability factors related to smoking: perceived barriers for quitting, cessation-related problems, negative-affect-reduction-outcome expectancies, and negative-affect-reduction motives. Further, we tested whether social anxiety was robustly related to these factors after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day, gender, alcohol-use frequency, lifetime cannabis-use status, panic attack frequency, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affectivity. The sample consisted of 580 (38.6% female) treatment-seeking smokers. Social anxiety was associated with perceived barriers for quitting, cessation-related problems, negative-affect-reduction-outcome expectancies, and negative-affect-reduction motives. After controlling for covariates, social anxiety was robustly related to perceived barriers for quitting, cessation-related problems, and negative-affect-reduction-outcome expectancies. Social anxiety was robustly related to negative-affect-reduction motives among men, but not women. Results indicate that social anxiety is robustly related to cognitive vulnerability factors associated with poorer cessation outcomes, suggesting that social anxiety may be an important therapeutic target during smoking cessation. PMID:24978348

  20. Anxiety sensitivity facets in relation to tobacco use, abstinence-related problems, and cognitions in treatment-seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Casey R; Leventhal, Adam M; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS)--fear of anxiety-related experiences--has been implicated in smoking motivation and maintenance. In a cross-sectional design, we examined AS facets (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) in relation to tobacco use, abstinence-related problems, and cognitions in 473 treatment-seeking smokers. After controlling for sex, race, age, educational attainment, hypertension status, and neuroticism, linear regression models indicated that AS physical and cognitive concerns were associated with tobacco dependence severity (β=.13-.14, p<.01), particularly the severity of persistent smoking regardless of context or time of day (β=.14-.17, p<.01). All three AS facets were related to more severe problems during past quit attempts (β=.23-.27, p<.001). AS cognitive and social concerns were related to negative affect reduction smoking motives (β=.14, p<.01), but only the social concerns aspect of AS was related to pleasurable relaxation smoking motives and positive and negative reinforcement-related smoking outcome expectancies (β=.14-.17, p<.01). These data suggest that AS physical and cognitive concerns are associated with negative reinforcement-related smoking variables (e.g., abstinence-related problems), whereas the social concerns aspect of AS is associated with positive and negative reinforcement-related smoking variables. Together with past findings, current findings can usefully guide AS-oriented smoking cessation treatment development and refinement. PMID:26802790

  1. Working Memory and Impulsivity Predict Marijuana-Related Problems Among Frequent Users

    PubMed Central

    Day, Anne M.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the US, only a small portion of users go on to develop dependence, suggesting that there are substantial individual differences in vulnerability to marijuana-related problems among users. Deficits in working memory and high trait impulsivity are two factors that may place marijuana users at increased risk for experiencing related problems. Methods Using baseline data from an experimental study that recruited 104 frequent marijuana users (M=71.86% of prior 60 days, SD=22%), we examined the associations of working memory and trait impulsivity with marijuana-related problems. Results Lower working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test B, but not short-term memory capacity, predicted more marijuana-related problems. Higher trait impulsivity scores were independently associated with greater number of problems. Conclusions Results suggest that marijuana users with reduced executive cognitive ability are more susceptible to developing problems related to their use. Trait impulsivity and executive working memory appear to be independent risk factors for experiencing marijuana-related problems. PMID:23312340

  2. Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2011-01-01

    The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

  3. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Can It Help Address the Problem of Disproportionate Minority Representation in the Emotional Disturbance Disability Category?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jodi Abraham

    2012-01-01

    This research project investigated the possibility of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) as a way to address racial/ethnic disproportionality in the Emotional Disturbance (ED) category. The sample consisted of 114 elementary schools from a suburban school district in the Mid-Atlantic region. There were 57 SWPBS schools and 57 non-SWPBS…

  4. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  5. Determination of School-Related Problems in Children Treated for Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Medine C.; Sari, Hatice Yildirim; Cetingul, Nazan; Kantar, Mehmet; Erermis, Serpil; Aksoylar, Serap

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and case-control study was carried out in a pediatric oncology outpatient clinic to determine the school-related physical, social, and psychological problems and problems experienced in academic achievement of children treated for cancer. The sample of the study consisted of 56 Turkish patients with cancer, aged 7-18 years, who…

  6. Validating a Five-Factor Marijuana Motives Measure: Relations with Use, Problems, and Alcohol Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jeffrey; Correia, Christopher J.; Carey, Kate B.; Borsari, Brian E.

    1998-01-01

    Marijuana motives were studied in relationship to drinking motives among college students. Internal consistency and concurrent validity of the measure, gender, and interpersonal correlates of problem use patterns were examined. Analyses supported a five-factor marijuana motives model, prediction of use-related problems, and discriminant validity…

  7. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Relations with Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based social problem-solving task. Of these, 130…

  8. Perceptions of Neighborhood Problems and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Erin M.; Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; McBride, David

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the association between perceptions of neighborhood problems and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of New Zealand residents (n = 692). A modified version of the Neighborhood Problems Scale (originally developed by Steptoe and Feldman, 2001) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) were…

  9. Peer Victimization as a Mediator of the Relation between Facial Attractiveness and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations among facial attractiveness, peer victimization, and internalizing problems in early adolescence. We hypothesized that experiences of peer victimization would partially mediate the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Ratings of attractiveness were obtained from standardized photographs…

  10. Relation of Social Support and Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior: Investigation of Differing Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Benjamin L.; DuBois, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Relations of social support and self-esteem to problem behavior were investigated among young adolescents. Three models were evaluated, and the mediated and direct effects model was found best fitting. Social support and self-esteem predicted less involvement in problem behavior, and unique variance in peer self-esteem predicted greater problem…

  11. Relative Effects of Three Questioning Strategies in Ill-Structured, Small Group Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Hyunjung; Lee, Jung; Cerreto, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relative effectiveness of using three different question-prompt strategies on promoting metacognitive skills and performance in ill-structured problem solving by examining the interplay between peer interaction and cognitive scaffolding. An ill-structured problem-solving task was given to three…

  12. Implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation in terms of quantum white noise derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Un Cig; Obata, Nobuaki

    2010-12-15

    The implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation is reduced to a system of differential equations for Fock space operators containing new type of derivatives. We solve these differential equations systematically by means of quantum white noise calculus, and obtain the solution to the implementation problem.

  13. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  14. President's Address

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John

    1928-01-01

    The paper recalls how matters veterinary were regarded forty-six years ago, what has been achieved since, and future progress is reflected. The paper is divided into parts relating respectively to: (a) medicine; (b) surgery (c) teaching and research; (d) administration. Formerly, glanders and farcy, and rabies, though acknowledged as contagious and specific, were also believed to be of spontaneous origin. Experiences with regard to these two diseases, and the mallein test for glanders, are related. The discovery of the Bacillus anthracis led to the development of veterinary research, but for some time confusion existed. Tuberculosis was believed to be endogenous and the result of the absorption of caseous products of a previous inflammation. Treatment of “milk fever” in cows by udder inflation and biochemistry in relation to that disease are considered. The advance in veterinary surgery stands out most prominently; in canine practice, operations are now attempted which were never thought possible in the early days. Allusion is made to the recent formidable operations for the cure of “windsucking” in horses, and for traumatic pericarditis in bovines. The powers of observance of the old practitioners in diagnosing lameness, and some of the old methods of treatment for lameness, are supported. The great progress in veterinary research is referred to, also its advantages from an imperial point of view. The causative agents of those diseases which are at present ultravisible, particularly foot-and-mouth disease, will probably be found, and better methods of prevention result. In training, thorough instruction in animal physiology, animal nutrition and biochemistry is advocated, also affiliation of veterinary colleges to universities, the individuality of such colleges, and the one-portal system of qualification being maintained. PMID:19986709

  15. Selected aspects of absence at work and work-related health problems in Polish enterprises.

    PubMed

    Pęciłło, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Workers' working conditions, work-related health problems and sickness absence are interdependent factors. Both workers' health problems and their absence are adverse events which generate significant costs for both Poland's Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and employers. Despite the related burdens, it is difficult to assess the number of workers who experience work-related health problems, to indicate the share of those workers who have been unfit for work owing to such disorders and to indicate the types of workers' disorders which are caused by factors the workers are exposed to in the working environment. This article presents the findings of surveys carried out in selected production and service-providing companies, assessing the scale and nature of work-related health problems and their links with workers' sickness absence. PMID:26647948

  16. Applications of Desensitization Procedures for School-Related Problems; A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, H. Thompson; Harvey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of desensitization and counterconditioning procedures have been utilized to deal with school-related problems. These procedures are reviewed with respect to applications for treating school phobia, test anxiety, and other academic anxieties. (Author)

  17. Selected aspects of absence at work and work-related health problems in Polish enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Pęciłło, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Workers’ working conditions, work-related health problems and sickness absence are interdependent factors. Both workers’ health problems and their absence are adverse events which generate significant costs for both Poland's Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and employers. Despite the related burdens, it is difficult to assess the number of workers who experience work-related health problems, to indicate the share of those workers who have been unfit for work owing to such disorders and to indicate the types of workers’ disorders which are caused by factors the workers are exposed to in the working environment. This article presents the findings of surveys carried out in selected production and service-providing companies, assessing the scale and nature of work-related health problems and their links with workers’ sickness absence. PMID:26647948

  18. Treatment-related problems experienced by cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Wagland, R; Richardson, A; Armes, J; Hankins, M; Lennan, E; Griffiths, P

    2015-09-01

    Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy experience a range of treatment-related problems, and variations in prevalence exist between treatment centres. A scoping review was undertaken to map reported rates of problem prevalence in the literature. This will inform development of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to monitor prevalence and severity of problems over time and assist service providers optimise supportive care provision. Two databases (Embase and Medline) were searched from 2002 to 2013. Fifty one published papers and conference abstracts reporting problem prevalence rates were identified. The papers reported 98 different problems, from which a typology of 27 problem domains was developed, including both physical symptoms and psychosocial issues. The problem domains most often studied were nausea, vomiting and fatigue. This review reflects the chemotherapy-associated problems to which researchers attach the most importance. The range in reported prevalence across studies was very broad (e.g. nausea: 9-74%), with even less frequently studied problems showing high prevalence in some studies (e.g. gynaecological problems: up to 94%). The wide variation in prevalence and range of problems experienced raises challenges for PROM development. Patients should therefore be involved in consensus exercises to assist selection of items to ensure any instrument is complete and robust. PMID:25296389

  19. Solution of inverse problem of fuzzy relational equation by using perceptron model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirota, Kaoru; Ikoma, Norikazu

    1991-01-01

    A Max-Min fuzzy system can be regarded as a network of max and min operational elements. Thus, the inverse problem of a fuzzy relational equation is interpreted as an input estimation problem from output values in the corresponding network. An approximate network model of a fuzzy relational system is proposed. An algorithm for obtaining an approximate solution of the system is presented for using a neural network technique.

  20. Asian American Women and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Role of Multidimensional Feminine Norms.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Grivel, Margaux; Cheng, Alice; Clinton, Lauren; Kaya, Aylin

    2016-04-01

    Increasing rates of heavy episodic drinking (HED; four or more drinks in one sitting) and alcohol use disorders among young adult Asian American women signify the need to identify the risk and protective factors for HED and alcohol-related problems in this demographic. Multidimensional feminine norms, or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a woman, are theoretically relevant factors that may help elucidate within-group variability in HED and alcohol-related problems. The present study examined associations between nine salient feminine norms, HED, and alcohol-related problems among 398 second-generation Asian American college women. Our findings reveal that certain feminine norms are protective of HED and alcohol-related problems, while others are risk factors, even when controlling for well-established correlates of HED and alcohol-related problems, such as perceived peer drinking norms. The results elucidate the importance of multidimensional feminine norms and their relationship to HED and alcohol-related problems among the increasingly at-risk group, Asian American college women. PMID:25634626

  1. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  2. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    , traditional norms that may directly pertain to hyperfemininzed Asian-American women, including modesty and sexual fidelity, may protect against heavy episodic drinking (Young et al. 2005). Conversely, the risk for heavy episodic drinking may be enhanced in men who strive to demonstrate traditional notions of masculinity through risk-taking and endorsement of playboy norms (Iwamoto et al. 2010). Although this review has illustrated the contemporary state of research on alcohol use among Asian Americans, it also highlights the significant limitations in this literature. Many of the studies reviewed here have used cross-sectional data, which do not allow researchers to infer causality between the various sociocultural factors and problematic alcohol use. One way of addressing this gap in the existing literature may be to implement longitudinal designs to further understand how the temporal relationship between sociocultural factors, including acculturation and gender norms, may impact alcohol use and alcohol-related problem trajectories. There also is a pressing need to develop greater understanding of within-group differences among U.S.-born and foreign-born Asian Americans as well as among as specific ethnic groups. To date, epidemiological research has largely neglected to examine these significant discrepancies. Given the growing prevalence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among Asian-American women (Grant et al. 2004; Iwamoto et al. 2010), studies also should focus on this group and explore how the intersection of gender and culture may influence alcohol use. Finally, the majority of research on this population has been conducted in college samples; therefore, it is important to also examine community samples, including U.S.-born young adults who are not attending college and older adult Asian-American populations. PMID:27159808

  3. Peer Victimization as a Mediator of the Relation between Facial Attractiveness and Internalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations between facial attractiveness, peer victimization, and internalizing problems in early adolescence. We hypothesized that experiences of peer victimization would partially mediate the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Ratings of attractiveness were obtained from standardized photographs of participants (93 girls, 82 boys). Teachers provided information regarding peer victimization experiences in sixth grade, and seventh grade teachers assessed internalizing problems. Attractiveness was negatively correlated with victimization and internalizing problems. Experiences of peer victimization were positively correlated with internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling provided support for the hypothesized model of peer victimization partially mediating the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Implications for intervention programs and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21984861

  4. Relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in school for preadolescent children from economically disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Brian P; Izard, Carroll E; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D; Smith, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The person-centered results showed that children with reading problems in both grades had higher internalizing scores in 5th grade but not in 3rd grade than children with reading problems in 3rd grade or no problems. Child-reported negative emotion experiences varied similarly across grade. The results tie reading problems to emotional distress in school and support conclusions about the direction of effects and the internalization of academic difficulty for disadvantaged children. PMID:17381791

  5. Pain-related and Psychological Symptoms in Adolescents With Musculoskeletal and Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Two-thirds of adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain report a concurrent sleep problem. Both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems can have deleterious effects on physiological and psychological well-being. We explored the prevalence of sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain, using data on 3568 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive battery of questionnaires was administered to derive clinical phenotypes of musculoskeletal pain. Adolescents with single symptoms were compared with those reporting both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to compare groups on pain-related variables and psychological complaints. The association between sociodemographic variables and comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems was assessed using logistic regression. Results: Over half the sample was female (n=2076, 58.2%) and the majority of European ancestry (n=3174, 97.7%). Only 5.5% (n=196) of participants were identified as having a pain condition, while 21.2% (n=749) reported a significant sleep problem, and 2.8% (n=99) reported comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Adolescents with comorbid problems experienced greater pain intensity and pain-related anxiety. Other psychological complaints were also higher in those who experienced concurrent problems, including depression, fatigue, concentration, and overall severity of psychological symptoms. Discussion: Comorbid sleep and pain problems were associated with a higher incidence of pain-related and psychological symptoms. Sleep problems may therefore be an important modifiable risk factor for alleviating distress in adolescents with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:25974623

  6. Prevalence of problem-related drinking among doctors: a review on representative samples

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Aims: This paper is a review of the literature on problem-related drinking of alcohol among medical doctors, and it deals with the epidemiology and results. Methods: A search of computer literature databases - PubMed and ETOH - was performed to locate articles reporting problem-related drinking among doctors, using population-based samples of doctors within the last two decades. Results: In the light of different definitions of problem-related drinking, there was found a breadth of prevalence of problem-related drinking - from heavy drinking and hazardous drinking (12%-16%) to misuse and dependence (6%-8%) - within the population-based samples of doctors. An increased risk was positively related to male doctors and doctors of the age of 40-45 years and older, and to some factors of work, lifestyle and health. Conclusion: For the future, it seems necessary to sensitise the research for problem-related drinking of doctors in Germany, e.g. initiating a representative survey, analysing the drinking of alcohol in the context of health, life-style and work-related factors. PMID:19675724

  7. On relative periodic solutions of the planar general three-body problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.

    1975-01-01

    We describe two relatively simple reductions to order 6 for the planar general three-body problem. We also show that this reduction leads to the distinction between two types of periodic solutions: absolute or relative periodic solutions. An algorithm for obtaining relative periodic solutions using heliocentric coordinates is then described. It is concluded from the periodicity conditions that relative periodic solutions must form families with a single parameter. Finally, two such families have been obtained numerically and are described in some detail.

  8. Externalizing Behavior and Substance Use Related Problems at 15 Years in Prenatally Cocaine Exposed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Short, Elizabeth J.; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on externalizing behavior and substance use related problems at 15 years of age was examined. Participants consisted of 358 adolescents (183 PCE, 175 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study from birth. Regression analyses indicated that the amount of PCE was associated with higher externalizing behavioral problems (β=.15, p=.02). Adolescents with PCE were also 2.8 times (95% CI=1.38–5.56) more likely to have substance use related problems than their NCE counterparts. No differences between PCE adolescents in non-kinship adoptive or foster care (n=44) and PCE adolescents in maternal/relative care (n=139) were found in externalizing behavior or in the likelihood of substance use related problems. Findings demonstrate teratologic effects of PCE persisting into adolescence. PCE is a reliable marker for the potential development of problem behaviors in adolescence, including substance use related problems. PMID:24636687

  9. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  10. Comparing Cognitive, Relational and Stress Mechanisms Underlying Gender Differences in Recovery from Bereavement-related Internalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.

    2009-01-01

    Four putative mediators underlying gender differences in youths’ recovery from bereavement-related internalizing problems were examined in a sample (N = 109; age range of 8 to 16 years at the initial assessment) of parentally-bereaved youth: intrusive thoughts about grief, post-death stressors, negative appraisals of post-death stressors and fear of abandonment. A three-wave parallel process longitudinal growth model design was employed. Changes in internalizing problems and mediators were measured as a function of months since the death. Girls showed stability in depression symptoms and a slight rise in anxiety symptoms; boys’ trajectories of symptoms of anxiety and depression declined. Girls’ higher initial levels of post-death stressors, threat appraisals and fear of abandonment mediated their higher level of internalizing problems 14 months later. Girls’ higher initial fear of abandonment also mediated additional growth in anxiety relative to boys. PMID:20183636

  11. Age-related differences in sequential modulations of problem-size and rule-violation effects during arithmetic problem verification tasks.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick; Brun, Fleur

    2016-04-01

    Young and older adults were asked to verify true (e.g., 5 × 61 = 305) and false (5 × 61 = 315) arithmetic problems. Half the problems were small (e.g., 5 × 17 = 85) and half were large problems (e.g., 5 × 93 = 465). Half the false problems respected the five rule (i.e., the product of an operand multiplied by five ends with either 5 or 0), and half violated this rule (e.g., 21 × 5 = 115 vs. 21 × 5 = 113). Both young and older adults showed problem-size effects (i.e., they verified small problems more quickly than large problems) and five-rule violation effects (i.e., they verified problem violating five rule more quickly than problems respecting five rule). Moreover, we found sequential modulations of these problem-size and five-rule effects. Problem-size effects were larger on current problems following large problems than after small problems, and five-rule violation effects were larger after problems violating the five rule than after no-rule violation problems. Finally, sequential modulations of problem-size effects were larger in older adults than in young adults, and there were no age-related differences in sequential modulations of five-rule violation effects. These findings speak to the determiners of arithmetic performance, as to how well arithmetic calculation and non-calculation strategies are executed and selected on current problems depends on strategies used with preceding problems. PMID:26515986

  12. Comparing Cognitive, Relational and Stress Mechanisms Underlying Gender Differences in Recovery from Bereavement-Related Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Michelle; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.

    2009-01-01

    Four putative mediators underlying gender differences in youths' recovery from bereavement-related internalizing problems were examined in a sample (N = 109; age range = 8-16 years at the initial assessment) of parentally bereaved youth: intrusive thoughts about grief, postdeath stressors, negative appraisals of postdeath stressors, and fear of…

  13. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  14. Emerging adult identity development, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems during the transition out of college.

    PubMed

    Gates, Jonathan R; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early 20s and declines with age. These declines, referred to as "maturing out," are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g., marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g., personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (Wave 1) and the 2 following years (Waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time-varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of maturing out and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27077443

  15. Listen-Identify-Brainstorm-Reality-Test-Encourage (LIBRE) Problem-Solving Model: Addressing Special Education Teacher Attrition through a Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Norma S.; Hernandez, Art; Hector, Alison M.; Crosby, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Special education teacher attrition rates continue to challenge the profession. A cognitive-behavioral problem-solving approach was used to examine three alternative certification program special education teachers' professional development through a series of 41 interviews conducted over a 2-year period. Beginning when they were novice special…

  16. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  17. Clustering Qualitative Data Based on Binary Equivalence Relations: Neighborhood Search Heuristics for the Clique Partitioning Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusco, Michael J.; Kohn, Hans-Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    The clique partitioning problem (CPP) requires the establishment of an equivalence relation for the vertices of a graph such that the sum of the edge costs associated with the relation is minimized. The CPP has important applications for the social sciences because it provides a framework for clustering objects measured on a collection of nominal…

  18. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

    2012-01-01

    Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

  19. Student Drinking-Related Problems in an Urban Campus: Implications for Research and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Ozgur; Fendrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Researchers who study the etiology of college drinking typically employ measures of alcohol-use behaviors as outcomes; however, relatively little is known about the properties of alcohol-related problems (AP). This study aims to develop a single continuous measure of AP. Participants: The sample included 531 undergraduate college…

  20. Types and Qualities of Knowledge and Their Relations to Problem Solving in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friege, Gunnar; Lind, Gunter

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical findings and theoretical considerations related to the field of expertise research, the importance of "types" and "qualities" of knowledge in relation to problem solving in physics was investigated. The students (N = 138) in this study had a level of competence that corresponds to an intensive beginner college course in physics.…

  1. Obesity and Its Related Health Problems in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Jun-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Obesity and its related health problems in people with intellectual disabilities were examined, focusing on differences related to their place of residence. The prevalence of obesity was higher in older women living in community group homes than in the same age group of women living in institutes or among the general population. Hyperglycemia,…

  2. Sleep-Related Problems among Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined sleep-related problems (SRPs) among a large sample (n = 128) of youth with anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized, separation, and social). The frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, type of anxiety disorder, anxiety severity, and functional impairment. The impact of…

  3. The National Labor Relations Act and Higher Education: Prospects and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    The specific problems of private institutions concerned with faculty collective bargaining are discussed in relation to the National Labor Relations Act. Emphasis is placed on the rationale of and the implications for collective bargaining. The rationale of collective bargaining is viewed in light of the distribution of privileges, private…

  4. Anger and Approach Motivation in Infancy: Relations to Early Childhood Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jie; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A.; Hane, Amie Ashley; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    The relations among infant anger reactivity, approach behavior, and frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, and their relations to inhibitory control and behavior problems in early childhood were examined within the context of a longitudinal study of temperament. Two hundred nine infants' anger expressions to arm restraint were observed at 4…

  5. Information on actual medication use and drug-related problems in older patients: questionnaire or interview?

    PubMed

    Willeboordse, Floor; Grundeken, Lucienne H; van den Eijkel, Lisanne P; Schellevis, François G; Elders, Petra J M; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G

    2016-04-01

    Background Information on medication use and drug-related problems is important in the preparation of clinical medication reviews. Critical information can only be provided by patients themselves, but interviewing patients is time-consuming. Alternatively, patient information could be obtained with a questionnaire. Objective In this study the agreement between patient information on medication use and drug-related problems in older patients obtained with a questionnaire was compared with information obtained during an interview. Setting General practice in The Netherlands. Method A questionnaire was developed to obtain information on actual medication use and drug-related problems. Two patient groups ≥65 years were selected based on general practitioner electronic medical records in nine practices; I. polypharmacy and II. ≥1 predefined general geriatric problems. Eligible patients were asked to complete the questionnaire and were interviewed afterwards. Main outcome measure Agreement on information on medication use and drug-related problems collected with the questionnaire and interview was calculated. Results Ninety-seven patients participated. Of all medications used, 87.6 % (95 % CI 84.7-90.5) was reported identically in the questionnaire and interview. Agreement for the complete medication list was found for 45.4 % (95 % CI 35.8-55.3) of the patients. On drug-related problem level, agreement between questionnaire and interview was 75 %. Agreement tended to be lower in vulnerable patients characterized by ≥4 chronic diseases, ≥10 medications used and low health literacy. Conclusion Information from a questionnaire showed reasonable agreement compared with interviewing. The patients reported more medications and drug-related problems in the interview than the questionnaire. Taking the limitations into account, a questionnaire seems a suitable tool for medication reviews that may replace an interview for most patients. PMID:26830412

  6. Computation of Transonic Nozzle Sound Transmission and Rotor Problems by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Aganin, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    The transonic nozzle transmission problem and the open rotor noise radiation problem are solved computationally. Both are multiple length scales problems. For efficient and accurate numerical simulation, the multiple-size-mesh multiple-time-step Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme is used to calculate the time periodic solution. To ensure an accurate solution, high quality numerical boundary conditions are also needed. For the nozzle problem, a set of nonhomogeneous, outflow boundary conditions are required. The nonhomogeneous boundary conditions not only generate the incoming sound waves but also, at the same time, allow the reflected acoustic waves and entropy waves, if present, to exit the computation domain without reflection. For the open rotor problem, there is an apparent singularity at the axis of rotation. An analytic extension approach is developed to provide a high quality axis boundary treatment.

  7. Quality of life in relation to future mental health problems and offending: Testing the good lives model among detained girls.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Lore; Hoeve, Machteld; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Colins, Olivier F

    2016-06-01

    Detained girls bear high levels of criminal behavior and mental health problems that are likely to persist into young adulthood. Research with these girls began primarily from a risk management perspective, whereas a strength-based empowering perspective may increase knowledge that could improve rehabilitation. This study examines detained girls' quality of life (QoL) in relation to future mental health problems and offending, thereby testing the strength-based good lives model of offender rehabilitation (GLM). At baseline, 95 girls (Mage = 16.25) completed the World Health Organization QoL instrument to assess their QoL prior to detention in the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Six months after discharge, mental health problems and offending were assessed by self-report measures. Structural equation models were conducted to test GLM's proposed (in)direct pathways from QoL (via mental health problems) toward offending. Although we could not find support for GLM's direct negative pathway from QoL to offending, our findings did provide support for GLM's indirect negative pathway via mental health problems to future offending. In addition, we found a direct positive pathway from detained girls' satisfaction with their social relationships to offending after discharge. The current findings support the potential relevance of addressing detained girls' QoL, pursuing the development of new skills, and supporting them to build constructive social contacts. Our findings, however, also show that clinicians should not only focus on strengths but that detecting and modifying mental health problems in this vulnerable group is also warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844913

  8. Substance-related health problems during rave parties in The Netherlands (1997-2008).

    PubMed

    Krul, Jan; Blankers, Matthijs; Girbes, Armand R J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a 12-year (1997-2008) observation of substance-related incidents occurring at rave parties in the Netherlands, including length of visits to first-aid stations, substances used, and severity of the incidents. During rave parties, specifically trained medical and paramedical personnel staffed first aid stations. Visitors were diagnosed and treated, and their data were recorded using standardized methods. During the 12-year period with 249 rave parties involving about 3,800,000 visitors, 27,897 people visited a first aid station, of whom 10,100 reported having a substance-related problem. The mean age of these people was 22.3+/-5.4 years; 52.4% of them were male. Most (66.7%) substance-related problems were associated with ecstasy or alcohol use or both. Among 10,100 substance-related cases, 515 required professional medical care, and 16 of these cases were life threatening. People with a substance-related problem stayed 20 min at the first aid station, which was significantly longer than the 5 min that those without a substance-related health problem stayed. These unique data from the Netherlands identify a variety of acute health problems related to the use of alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and GHB. Although most problems were minor, people using GHB more often required professional medical care those using the other substances. We recommended adherence to harm and risk reduction policy, and the use of first aid stations with specially trained staff for both minor and serious incidents. PMID:22216332

  9. Substance-Related Health Problems during Rave Parties in the Netherlands (1997–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Krul, Jan; Blankers, Matthijs; Girbes, Armand R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a 12-year (1997–2008) observation of substance-related incidents occurring at rave parties in the Netherlands, including length of visits to first-aid stations, substances used, and severity of the incidents. During rave parties, specifically trained medical and paramedical personnel staffed first aid stations. Visitors were diagnosed and treated, and their data were recorded using standardized methods. During the 12-year period with 249 rave parties involving about 3,800,000 visitors, 27,897 people visited a first aid station, of whom 10,100 reported having a substance-related problem. The mean age of these people was 22.3+/−5.4 years; 52.4% of them were male. Most (66.7%) substance-related problems were associated with ecstasy or alcohol use or both. Among 10,100 substance-related cases, 515 required professional medical care, and 16 of these cases were life threatening. People with a substance-related problem stayed 20 min at the first aid station, which was significantly longer than the 5 min that those without a substance-related health problem stayed. These unique data from the Netherlands identify a variety of acute health problems related to the use of alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and GHB. Although most problems were minor, people using GHB more often required professional medical care those using the other substances. We recommended adherence to harm and risk reduction policy, and the use of first aid stations with specially trained staff for both minor and serious incidents. PMID:22216332

  10. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lagasse, Linda L; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L; Dansereau, Lynne M; Butner, Jonathan E; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Lester, Barry M

    2016-08-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (a) how these transactions originate, (b) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (c) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth to age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  11. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  12. Classical Zero-Point Radiation and Relativity: The Problem of Atomic Collapse Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    2016-05-01

    The physicists of the early twentieth century were unaware of two aspects which are vital to understanding some aspects of modern physics within classical theory. The two aspects are: (1) the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and (2) the importance of special relativity. In classes in modern physics today, the problem of atomic collapse is still mentioned in the historical context of the early twentieth century. However, the classical problem of atomic collapse is currently being treated in the presence of classical zero-point radiation where the problem has been transformed. The presence of classical zero-point radiation indeed keeps the electron from falling into the Coulomb potential center. However, the old collapse problem has been replaced by a new problem where the zero-point radiation may give too much energy to the electron so as to cause "self-ionization." Special relativity may play a role in understanding this modern variation on the atomic collapse problem, just as relativity has proved crucial for a classical understanding of blackbody radiation.

  13. A Mediational Model of Racial Discrimination and Alcohol-Related Problems Among African American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Marcella H; O’Hara, Ross E; Covault, Jonathan; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Racial discrimination has been identified as an important predictor of alcohol-related outcomes for African Americans. The goal of the current study was to extend previously found links between lifetime discrimination, alcohol use, and alcohol problems as well as to elucidate the affective mechanisms underlying these associations, as moderated by gender. Method: A multiple-groups structural equation model was computed using survey data collected from 619 students from a historically Black college/university. Results: The final model provided excellent fit to the data, explaining 6% of the variance in alcohol consumption and 37% of the variance in alcohol problems. Discrimination was a significant predictor of alcohol-related problems but not, by and large, level of use. For men, anger—but not discrimination-specific anger—was a significant partial mediator of the link between discrimination and both alcohol use and alcohol problems. Depression partially mediated the link between discrimination and alcohol problems for both men and women. Conclusions: The results suggest that, for African Americans whose drinking leads to drinking-related problems, discrimination and poor affective self-regulation are highly relevant and predictive factors, especially for men. PMID:24650816

  14. Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden*

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Gustafsson, Nina-Katri; Mäkelä, Pia; Room, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found. PMID:20105411

  15. Classical Zero-Point Radiation and Relativity: The Problem of Atomic Collapse Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    2016-07-01

    The physicists of the early twentieth century were unaware of two aspects which are vital to understanding some aspects of modern physics within classical theory. The two aspects are: (1) the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and (2) the importance of special relativity. In classes in modern physics today, the problem of atomic collapse is still mentioned in the historical context of the early twentieth century. However, the classical problem of atomic collapse is currently being treated in the presence of classical zero-point radiation where the problem has been transformed. The presence of classical zero-point radiation indeed keeps the electron from falling into the Coulomb potential center. However, the old collapse problem has been replaced by a new problem where the zero-point radiation may give too much energy to the electron so as to cause "self-ionization." Special relativity may play a role in understanding this modern variation on the atomic collapse problem, just as relativity has proved crucial for a classical understanding of blackbody radiation.

  16. The Meaning of Emotional Overinvolvement in Early Development: Prospective Relations With Child Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Khafi, Tamar Y; Yates, Tuppett M; Sher-Censor, Efrat

    2015-08-01

    Emotional overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSSs; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive processes when parenting younger children. Thus, this study evaluated relations of each FMSS EOI criterion with changes in child behavior problems from preschool to first grade in a community sample of 223 child–mother dyads (47.98% female; Wave 1 M(age) 49.08 months; 56.50% Hispanic/Latina). Maternal FMSS EOI ratings were obtained at Wave 1, and independent examiners rated child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems at Wave 1 and again 2 years later. Path analyses indicated that both the self-sacrifice/overprotection (SSOP) and statements of attitude (SOAs) FMSS EOI criteria predicted increased externalizing problems. In contrast, excessive detail and exaggerated praise were not related to child externalizing behavior problems, and Emotional Display was not evident in this sample. None of the FMSS EOI criteria evidenced significant relations with internalizing behavior problems. Multigroup comparisons indicated that the effect of SOAs on externalizing behavior problems was significant for boys but not for girls, and there were no significant group differences by race/ethnicity. These findings point to the salience of SSOP and SOAs for understanding the developmental significance of EOI in early development. PMID:26147935

  17. The Meaning of Emotional Overinvolvement in Early Development: Prospective Relations with Child Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Khafi, Tamar Y.; Yates, Tuppett M.; Sher-Censor, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Emotional Overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSS; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS-EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS-EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive processes when parenting younger children. Thus, this study evaluated relations of each FMSS-EOI criterion with changes in child behavior problems from preschool to first grade in a community sample of 223 child-mother dyads (47.98% female; Mage_W1 = 49.08 months; 56.50% Hispanic/Latina). Maternal FMSS-EOI ratings were obtained at wave 1, and independent examiners rated child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems at wave 1 and two years later. Path analyses indicated that both the Self-Sacrifice/Overprotection (SSOP) and Statements of Attitude (SOAs) FMSS-EOI criteria predicted increased externalizing problems. In contrast, Excessive Detail and Exaggerated Praise were not related to child externalizing behavior problems, and Emotional Display was not evident in this sample. None of the FMSS-EOI criteria evidenced significant relations with internalizing behavior problems. Multigroup comparisons indicated that the effect of SOAs on externalizing behavior problems was significant for boys but not for girls, and there were no significant group differences by race/ethnicity. These findings point to the salience of SSOP and SOAs for understanding the developmental significance of EOI in early development. PMID:26147935

  18. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  19. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Van Beek, Leen; Ghesquièr, Pol; De Smedt, Bert; Lagae, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10) and large problem size (sum > 10) and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1, and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties. PMID:25309405

  20. Optically Addressable Silicon Vacancy-Related Spin Centers in Rhombic Silicon Carbide with High Breakdown Characteristics and ENDOR Evidence of Their Structure.

    PubMed

    Soltamov, V A; Yavkin, B V; Tolmachev, D O; Babunts, R A; Badalyan, A G; Davydov, V Yu; Mokhov, E N; Proskuryakov, I I; Orlinskii, S B; Baranov, P G

    2015-12-11

    We discovered a family of uniaxially oriented silicon vacancy-related centers with S=3/2 in a rhombic 15R-SiC crystalline matrix. We demonstrate that these centers exhibit unique characteristics such as optical spin alignment up to the temperatures of 250°C. Thus, the range of robust optically addressable vacancy-related spin centers is extended to the wide class of rhombic SiC polytypes. To use these centers for quantum applications it is essential to know their structure. Using high frequency electron nuclear double resonance, we show that the centers are formed by negatively charged silicon vacancies V_{Si}^{-} in the paramagnetic state with S=3/2 that is noncovalently bonded to the neutral carbon vacancy V_{C}^{0} in the nonparamagnetic state, located on the adjacent site along the SiC symmetry c axis. PMID:26705655

  1. Optically Addressable Silicon Vacancy-Related Spin Centers in Rhombic Silicon Carbide with High Breakdown Characteristics and ENDOR Evidence of Their Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltamov, V. A.; Yavkin, B. V.; Tolmachev, D. O.; Babunts, R. A.; Badalyan, A. G.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Mokhov, E. N.; Proskuryakov, I. I.; Orlinskii, S. B.; Baranov, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    We discovered a family of uniaxially oriented silicon vacancy-related centers with S =3 /2 in a rhombic 15 R -SiC crystalline matrix. We demonstrate that these centers exhibit unique characteristics such as optical spin alignment up to the temperatures of 250 °C . Thus, the range of robust optically addressable vacancy-related spin centers is extended to the wide class of rhombic SiC polytypes. To use these centers for quantum applications it is essential to know their structure. Using high frequency electron nuclear double resonance, we show that the centers are formed by negatively charged silicon vacancies VSi- in the paramagnetic state with S =3 /2 that is noncovalently bonded to the neutral carbon vacancy VC0 in the nonparamagnetic state, located on the adjacent site along the SiC symmetry c axis.

  2. Psychosocial factors in alcohol use-related problems of working youth.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Inci Ozgur; Demirbas, Hatice; Dogan, Yildirim B

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial correlates of alcohol use related problems in a sample of 581 working adolescents (N = 4405), recruited from five vocational schools in Ankara in June 2004 with the CAGE questionnaire, The Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Scale, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Using a multivariate analysis, the anxiety and hopelessness scores, and the length of stay in Ankara were found to be related to alcohol-use problems of the working youth. The study's limitations were noted and future research was suggested. PMID:17918024

  3. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multi-component, process-oriented approach, the links between Social Information Processing in the preschool years and a) sociodemographic risk, and b) behavior problems in preschool, were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in preschool are related to both sociodemographic risk and to behavior problems in preschool. Response evaluation, and in particular, the positive evaluation of an aggressive response, were related to both sociodemographic risk and children’s aggressive behavior and partially mediated the links between sociodemographic risk and aggressive behavior in preschool. PMID:21420102

  4. Development and Initial Evaluation of a Telephone-Delivered, Behavioral Activation and Problem-solving Treatment Program to Address Functional Goals of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Kathleen D.; Hull, Jay G.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L.; Ahles, Tim A.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Hegel, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment. PMID:25668509

  5. Drug use, mental health and problems related to crime and violence: cross-sectional study1

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Heloísa Garcia; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; Bourdreaux, Janet Titus; Fernandes, Ivan Filipe de Almeida Lopes; Pinho, Paula Hayasi; Tarifa, Rosana Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the correlation between disorders related to the use of alcohol and other drugs and symptoms of mental disorders, problems related to crime and violence and to age and gender. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study carried out with 128 users of a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and other Drugs, in the city of São Paulo, interviewed by means of the instrument entitled Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Short Screener. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to verify the correlation between the variables. Results: using univariate regression models, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and problems related to crime/violence proved significant and were included in the multiple model, in which only the internalizing symptoms and problems related to crime and violence remained significant. Conclusions: there is a correlation between the severity of problems related to alcohol use and severity of mental health symptoms and crime and violence in the study sample. The results emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary and intersectional character of attention to users of alcohol and other drugs, since they live in a socially vulnerable environment. PMID:26626010

  6. Do Personality Traits Moderate Relations Between Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Problem Behavior in Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Mabbe, Elien; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2016-06-01

    This research examined whether and how adolescents' personality traits moderate associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behaviors. On the basis of self-determination theory, we also examined the mediating role of psychological need frustration in the effects of psychologically controlling parenting. A cross-sectional study in two samples (N = 423 and 292; Mage = 12.43 and 15.74 years) was conducted. While in Sample 1 both mothers and adolescents provided reports of parenting and problem behavior, Sample 2 relied on adolescent-reported parenting and mother-reported problem behavior. Psychologically controlling parenting was related to internalizing and externalizing problems in both samples. Little systematic evidence was obtained for the moderating role of personality, with the exception of a moderating effect of Agreeableness. In both samples, psychological control was unrelated to externalizing problems among adolescents high on Agreeableness. Analyses of Sample 2 showed that associations between psychological control and problem behavior were mediated by psychological need frustration. Adolescent personality plays a modest role as a moderator of associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behavior. Frustration of adolescents' basic and universal psychological needs can account for the undermining effects of psychologically controlling parenting. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25676732

  7. Classroom intervention for illness-related problem behavior in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Carr, Edward G; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey

    2006-11-01

    There is growing evidence of an association between physical illness and problem behavior in children with developmental disabilities. Such behavior can compromise school performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate, using a group design, the effectiveness of medical intervention alone (N = 11) versus behavioral plus medical intervention (N = 10) for illness-related problem behavior in a school setting. Following intervention, the behavioral plus medical intervention group showed lower levels of problem behavior and completed more academic tasks than did the medical intervention alone group. The results are discussed with respect to the concept of illness and pain as a setting event for problem behavior. The need for research to develop algorithms that allow one to select the best combination of medical and behavioral interventions for specific illnesses and contexts is noted. PMID:17050770

  8. Green's functions and trace formulas for generalized Sturm-Liouville problems related by Darboux transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2010-05-15

    We study Green's functions of the generalized Sturm-Liouville problems that are related to each other by Darboux -equivalently, supersymmetrical - transformations. We establish an explicit relation between the corresponding Green's functions and derive a simple formula for their trace. The class of equations considered here includes the conventional Schroedinger equation and generalizations, such as for position-dependent mass and with linearly energy-dependent potential, as well as the stationary Fokker-Planck equation.

  9. How number line estimation skills relate to neural activations in single digit subtraction problems.

    PubMed

    Berteletti, I; Man, G; Booth, J R

    2015-02-15

    The Number Line (NL) task requires judging the relative numerical magnitude of a number and estimating its value spatially on a continuous line. Children's skill on this task has been shown to correlate with and predict future mathematical competence. Neurofunctionally, this task has been shown to rely on brain regions involved in numerical processing. However, there is no direct evidence that performance on the NL task is related to brain areas recruited during arithmetical processing and that these areas are domain-specific to numerical processing. In this study, we test whether 8- to 14-year-old's behavioral performance on the NL task is related to fMRI activation during small and large single-digit subtraction problems. Domain-specific areas for numerical processing were independently localized through a numerosity judgment task. Results show a direct relation between NL estimation performance and the amount of the activation in key areas for arithmetical processing. Better NL estimators showed a larger problem size effect than poorer NL estimators in numerical magnitude (i.e., intraparietal sulcus) and visuospatial areas (i.e., posterior superior parietal lobules), marked by less activation for small problems. In addition, the direction of the activation with problem size within the IPS was associated with differences in accuracies for small subtraction problems. This study is the first to show that performance in the NL task, i.e. estimating the spatial position of a number on an interval, correlates with brain activity observed during single-digit subtraction problem in regions thought to be involved in numerical magnitude and spatial processes. PMID:25497398

  10. Social Inequalities and Gender Differences in the Experience of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Methods: Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals’ education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. Conclusion: The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event. PMID:22542707

  11. An Employee Assistance Model of Health Care Management for Employees with Alcohol-Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Kerry D.; Balkin, David B.

    1992-01-01

    Describes employee assistance model in which cost-effective, high-quality treatment can be offered for a complex range of alcohol-related problems. Notes that this system of care allows the employee to be treated in the least restrictive therapeutic environment, thus encouraging continued productivity at work. (Author/NB)

  12. The Relation between Dimensions of Attachment and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Karlsson, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing and externalizing problems in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 62) who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ; J. Feeney, P. Noller, & M. Hanrahan, 1994) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR; T. M. Achenbach, 1991). In total, the ASQ dimensions accounted…

  13. Applications of dynamic scheduling technique to space related problems: Some case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakasuka, Shinichi; Ninomiya, Tetsujiro

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the applications of 'Dynamic Scheduling' technique, which has been invented for the scheduling of Flexible Manufacturing System, to two space related scheduling problems: operation scheduling of a future space transportation system, and resource allocation in a space system with limited resources such as space station or space shuttle.

  14. Can I Take the Car? Relations among Parenting Practices and Adolescent Problem-Driving Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartos, Jessica L.; Eitel, Patricia; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2000-01-01

    Examined relationships among parenting practices and problem-driving practices among licensed adolescents with less than 2 years of driving experience. Found that factors significantly related to risky driving behaviors, traffic violations, and motor vehicle crashes included lower levels of parental monitoring and control, lenient parental…

  15. Environmental Predictors of Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Short, Brian; Wagenaar, Alexander; Toomey, Tracie; Murray, David; Wolfson, Mark; Forster, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among drinking norms, peer alcohol use, alcohol availability, drinking location, alcohol consumption, and drinking-related problems among young adult drinkers (N=3,095). Results show that drinking norms and peer alcohol use influenced alcohol consumption and drinking consequences. Drinking in public contributed to alcohol…

  16. Cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability and alcohol use-related problems.

    PubMed

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P L M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N=57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting and were all abstinent and undergoing treatment at the time of testing. Three groups were formed based on the severity of alcohol use-related problems as measured by the AUDIT. In line with the expectations, no differences were found between participants based on the severity of their alcohol use-related problems. In addition, three groups were formed based on IQ to assess the relationship between IQ and the strength of the cognitive biases. There were also no differences between individuals with mild or borderline ID and individuals with (below) average IQ on any of the variables. It is concluded that computer tasks such as these can be used in individuals with mild to borderline ID. As the results suggest no influence of IQ on the strength of cognitive biases, this study opens up new opportunities for future research on the application of measuring cognitive biases in screening, diagnosing and treating individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. PMID:22728604

  17. Vision Problems and Their Relation to Learning, Working, Living and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodnoy, Bernard E.

    Presented is an abstract of a lecture-workshop presentation on vision problems and their relation to learning, working, living, and health. Areas covered by the author in his lecture are outlined as including the essential tests of the primary vision examination; the value of testing depth perception at the reading distance; the testing and care…

  18. Applications of dynamic scheduling technique to space related problems: Some case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasuka, Shinichi; Ninomiya, Tetsujiro

    1994-10-01

    The paper discusses the applications of 'Dynamic Scheduling' technique, which has been invented for the scheduling of Flexible Manufacturing System, to two space related scheduling problems: operation scheduling of a future space transportation system, and resource allocation in a space system with limited resources such as space station or space shuttle.

  19. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  20. Truancy, Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems in Secondary School Pupils in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounteney, J.; Haugland, S.; Skutle, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on a vulnerable group of pupils often missed by mainstream school surveys. It explores alcohol use and alcohol-related problems for a sample of truants of secondary school age, comparing behaviours with a school-based sample from the same geographical area. Analyses are based on a survey among truants (n = 107) and a school…

  1. Experiments driving theory: Gravitational wave detection and the two body problem in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Bala R.

    2016-05-01

    Over the last two decades, the search for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries by detectors like LIGO and Virgo has crucially required and consequently spurred tremendous progress in the two body problem in general relativity. A broad brush overview of these major developments and the current status of these significant results is presented.

  2. Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…

  3. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  4. Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems among Community College Students: Implications for Prevention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Felicia D.; Darkes, Jack; Del Boca, Frances K.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among students at traditional 4-year universities have been well documented. However, little is known about the frequency of their such behaviors and its consequences among community college students, who comprise roughly 44% of all undergraduate students in the United States. The present study examined…

  5. Linked Lives: Adult Children's Problems and Their Parents' Psychological and Relational Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined associations between adult children's cumulative problems and their parents' psychological and relational well-being, as well as whether such associations are similar for married and single parents. Regression models were estimated using data from 1,188 parents in the 1995 National Survey of Midlife in the United States whose…

  6. Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

  7. Is There a Causal Relation between Mathematical Creativity and Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480…

  8. Pre-Service Teachers' Level of Problem Solving and Its Relation with Creative Drama Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Suna

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks an answer to the question "Can Creative Drama programs be benefited from in developing the experiences of noticing educational and psychosocial problems and solving them in relation with the teaching profession?." The importance given to Creative Drama method in educational programs increases day by day. Drama education…

  9. How Are Traits Related to Problem Behavior in Preschoolers? Similarities and Contrasts between Temperament and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of empirical research relating temperament models and personality hinders conceptual integration and holds back research linking childhood traits to problem behavior or maladjustment. This study evaluates, within a sample of 443 preschoolers, the relationships between children's maladaptation and traits measured by three temperament…

  10. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, Age and Instrument Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…

  11. Motivating Learning Disabled Offenders with Alcohol-Related Problems: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Elizabeth; Hipkins, Jane

    2002-01-01

    A study aimed to apply motivational interviewing techniques in assisting seven individuals with mental retardation and alcohol-related problems through the stages of change. The group met for one hour over three sessions and staff training was provided. Results demonstrated increases in motivation, self-efficacy, and determination to change their…

  12. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  13. Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

  14. Multivariate Analyses of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenzel, L. Mickey

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines predictors of heavy drinking frequency and drinking-related problems among more than 600 college students. Controlling for high school drinking frequency, results of multiple regression analyses showed that more frequent heavy drinking was predicted by being male and risk factors of more frequent marijuana and tobacco…

  15. Dollars and Directives: Issues and Problems Related to Financial Support and Legal Authorizations of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, S. V.; And Others

    This monograph is concerned with the issues and problems raised by recent trends in state legislative activity related to community and junior colleges and in patterns of funding these institutions. The first of two parts discusses legislation directly or indirectly affecting policies for financing postsecondary education in general and community…

  16. Relation between Cyberbullying and Problem Solving: A Study on Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokler, Riza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cyberbullying living frequency, what the cyber environments in which cyberbullying is lived are, and the relation between "being victim of cyberbullying" and "being cyberbullying" status and problem solving skill of university students are analysed. This research is done by attendance of 460 students from five…

  17. Do Adults Use a Post-Formal "Theory of Relativity" to Solve Everyday Logical Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.

    A new concept, relativistic operations, seems to provide a link between Piagetian theory, information processing theory, logical thought in the new physics, and the nature of adults' problem solving in everyday social situations. Relativistic operations are logical, cognitive operations which can be used as a system to relate, order, and select as…

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  19. The Neural Basis of Insight Problem Solving: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Jiang; Li, Hong; Yang, Dong; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Ying; Wu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of successful insight problem solving (Chinese logogriphs) were studied in 18 healthy subjects using high-density event-related potentials (ERPs). A new experimental paradigm (learning-testing model) was adopted in order to make subjects find a solution on their own initiative rather than receive an answer…

  20. The Role of Substance Use Initiation in Adolescent Development of Subsequent Substance-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magid, Viktoriya; Moreland, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted on the role of substance use initiation in subsequent use and substance-related problems among adolescents. Specifically, we examine previous studies to identify whether age of onset predicts subsequent levels of misuse; we also posit reasons for this association that have been suggested within the literature. In…

  1. Job dissatisfaction as a contributor to stress-related mental health problems among Japanese civil servants.

    PubMed

    Tatsuse, Takashi; Sekine, Michikazu

    2013-01-01

    Although studies on the association of job dissatisfaction with mental health have been conducted in the past, few studies have dealt with the complicated links connecting job stress, job dissatisfaction, and stress-related illness. This study seeks to determine how job dissatisfaction is linked to common mental health issues. This study surveyed 3,172 civil servants (2,233 men and 939 women) in 1998, taking poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance as stress-related mental health problems. We examine how psychosocial risk factors at work and job dissatisfaction are associated independently with poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance after adjustment for other known risk factors, and how job dissatisfaction contributes to change in the degree of association between psychosocial risk factors at work and mental health problems. In general, psychosocial risk factors were independently associated with mental health problems. When adjusted for job dissatisfaction, not only was job satisfaction independently associated with mental health problems but it was also found that the association of psychosocial risk factors with mental health problems declined. Our results suggest that, although longitudinal research is necessary, attitudes toward satisfaction at work can potentially decrease the negative effects of psychosocial risk factors at work on mental health. PMID:23385430

  2. Solutions of the benchmark problems by the dispersion-relation-preserving scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Shen, H.; Kurbatskii, K. A.; Auriault, L.

    1995-01-01

    The 7-point stencil Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme of Tam and Webb is used to solve all the six categories of the CAA benchmark problems. The purpose is to show that the scheme is capable of solving linear, as well as nonlinear aeroacoustics problems accurately. Nonlinearities, inevitably, lead to the generation of spurious short wave length numerical waves. Often, these spurious waves would overwhelm the entire numerical solution. In this work, the spurious waves are removed by the addition of artificial selective damping terms to the discretized equations. Category 3 problems are for testing radiation and outflow boundary conditions. In solving these problems, the radiation and outflow boundary conditions of Tam and Webb are used. These conditions are derived from the asymptotic solutions of the linearized Euler equations. Category 4 problems involved solid walls. Here, the wall boundary conditions for high-order schemes of Tam and Dong are employed. These conditions require the use of one ghost value per boundary point per physical boundary condition. In the second problem of this category, the governing equations, when written in cylindrical coordinates, are singular along the axis of the radial coordinate. The proper boundary conditions at the axis are derived by applying the limiting process of r approaches 0 to the governing equations. The Category 5 problem deals with the numerical noise issue. In the present approach, the time-independent mean flow solution is computed first. Once the residual drops to the machine noise level, the incident sound wave is turned on gradually. The solution is marched in time until a time-periodic state is reached. No exact solution is known for the Category 6 problem. Because of this, the problem is formulated in two totally different ways, first as a scattering problem then as a direct simulation problem. There is good agreement between the two numerical solutions. This offers confidence in the computed results. Both

  3. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. PMID:25963556

  4. Development of adolescents' peer crowd identification in relation to changes in problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim H J; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2012-09-01

    This 5-wave longitudinal study, which included 1,313 Dutch adolescents, examined the development of peer crowd identification in relation to changes in problem behaviors. Adolescents from 2 age cohorts annually reported their identification with 7 peer crowds and their levels of internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Univariate latent growth curve analyses revealed declines (i.e., "Hip Hoppers" and "Metal Heads") or declines followed by stabilization (i.e., "Nonconformists") in identification with nonconventional crowds and increases (i.e., "Elites" and "Brains") or declines followed by stabilization (i.e., "Normals" and "Jocks") in identification with conventional crowds. Multivariate latent growth curve analyses indicated that stronger and more persistent identifications with nonconventional crowds were generally associated with more problem behaviors throughout adolescence. In contrast, stronger and more persistent identifications with conventional crowds were generally associated with fewer problem behaviors throughout adolescence with the notable exception of Brains, who showed a mixed pattern. Though characterized by fewer externalizing problems, this group did report more anxiety problems. These findings and their implications are discussed. PMID:22268603

  5. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children

    PubMed Central

    Cadwalladder, Jean Sébastien; Robert, Sarah; Dywer, John; Charpin, Denis André; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Frédéric; Raherison, Chantal; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Methods In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child’s behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems) were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the parents. Results ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)= 1.36-2.17), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood. Conclusion Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children. PMID:26244898

  6. Conduct Problems Moderate Self-Medication and Mood-Related Drinking Consequences in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Gould, Laura Feagans; Hersh, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We tested whether conduct problems moderate the relation between negative mood and drinking in adolescents as consistent with either a self-medication or a drinking consequences model. Method The sample included 75 rising ninth graders who completed a two-stage, multi-method, multi-reporter study. We used experience sampling to assess negative mood and drinking over 21 days and Hierarchical Linear Modeling to test our hypotheses. Results Counter to predictions, both self-medication and drinking consequence mechanisms were only evident in youth with fewer conduct problems. Conclusions Findings provide support for the importance of considering multiple mechanisms as underlying the relation between negative mood and drinking as pertaining to sub-populations of vulnerable youth. Implications for prevention and understanding negative mood-drinking relations in adolescents are discussed. PMID:18299772

  7. Association between work-related health problems and job insecurity in permanent and temporary employees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This research was conducted with an aim of determining the correlation between job insecurity and an employee’s work-related health problems among permanent and temporary workers. Methods Using the data from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006, a total of 7,071 workers, excluding employers and the self-employed, were analyzed. Work-related health problems were categorized as backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety or depression. Each problem was then analyzed for its relationship to job insecurity through logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 7,071 workers, 5,294 (74.9%) were permanent workers and 1,777 (25.1%) were temporary workers. For the permanent workers, presence of high or moderate job insecurity appeared more closely linked to backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, and depression compared to absence of job insecurity. However, for the temporary workers, only depression appeared to be associated with the presence of high job insecurity. Conclusion The study showed that the presence of job insecurity is correlated with work-related health problems. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in permanent than temporary workers. Additional research should investigate ways to effectively reduce job insecurity. PMID:24472497

  8. Psychopathic traits and maltreatment: Relations with aggression and mental health problems in detained boys.

    PubMed

    Vahl, Pauline; Colins, Olivier F; Lodewijks, Henny P B; Lindauer, Ramon; Markus, Monica T; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathic traits and a history of maltreatment are well-known risk factors for mental health problems and aggression. A better insight in the impact of such risk factors on juvenile delinquents is likely to help tailoring treatment. Therefore, this study aimed to examine mental health problems and aggression in detained delinquent youths with various levels of psychopathic traits and maltreatment. Standardized questionnaires were used to assign 439 detained male adolescents (N = 439; from 13 to 18years of age) to one of six mutually exclusive groups: adolescents with (1) low psychopathic traits without maltreatment; (2) low psychopathic traits and one type of maltreatment; (3) low psychopathic traits and multiple types of maltreatment; (4) high psychopathic traits without maltreatment; (5) high psychopathic traits and one type of maltreatment and finally (6) high psychopathic traits and multiple types of maltreatment. Next, groups were compared on mental health problems, mental disorders and reactive and proactive aggression. Findings indicated that compared to the low psychopathic traits groups, high psychopathic traits groups had markedly higher levels of externalizing mental health problems (such as attention deficit/hyperactivity, substance abuse, rule-breaking), proactive and reactive aggression, but not of internalizing mental health problems (anxiety and depression). Mental health problems in boys with a low level of psychopathic traits increased with the number of types of maltreatment in their history. In boys with a high level of psychopathic traits, group differences did not reach significance. Levels of proactive and reactive aggression increased with the number of types of maltreatment in boys with low levels of psychopathic traits, but not in those with high psychopathic traits. Thus, in detained adolescents both psychopathic traits and the number of maltreatment types are related to the severity of mental health problems and types of aggression

  9. Analysing the Relationship between the Problem-Solving-Related Beliefs, Competence and Teaching of Three Cypriot Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Xenofontos, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the problem-solving-related beliefs, competence and classroom practice of three Cypriot upper-primary teachers. Data derived from semi-structured interviews focused on teachers' beliefs about the nature of mathematical problems, problem-solving, and their competence as both problem-solvers and teachers of…

  10. Proposed declassification of disease categories related to sexual orientation in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11)

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Jack; Kismödi, Eszter; Giami, Alain; García-Moreno, Claudia; Atalla, Elham; Marais, Adele; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Reed, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization is developing the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), planned for publication in 2017. The Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health was charged with reviewing and making recommendations on disease categories related to sexuality in the chapter on mental and behavioural disorders in the 10th revision (ICD-10), published in 1990. This chapter includes categories for diagnoses based primarily on sexual orientation even though ICD-10 states that sexual orientation alone is not a disorder. This article reviews the scientific evidence and clinical rationale for continuing to include these categories in the ICD. A review of the evidence published since 1990 found little scientific interest in these categories. In addition, the Working Group found no evidence that they are clinically useful: they neither contribute to health service delivery or treatment selection nor provide essential information for public health surveillance. Moreover, use of these categories may create unnecessary harm by delaying accurate diagnosis and treatment. The Working Group recommends that these categories be deleted entirely from ICD-11. Health concerns related to sexual orientation can be better addressed using other ICD categories. PMID:25378758

  11. Proposed declassification of disease categories related to sexual orientation in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11).

    PubMed

    Cochran, Susan D; Drescher, Jack; Kismödi, Eszter; Giami, Alain; García-Moreno, Claudia; Atalla, Elham; Marais, Adele; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Reed, Geoffrey M

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization is developing the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), planned for publication in 2017. The Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health was charged with reviewing and making recommendations on disease categories related to sexuality in the chapter on mental and behavioural disorders in the 10th revision (ICD-10), published in 1990. This chapter includes categories for diagnoses based primarily on sexual orientation even though ICD-10 states that sexual orientation alone is not a disorder. This article reviews the scientific evidence and clinical rationale for continuing to include these categories in the ICD. A review of the evidence published since 1990 found little scientific interest in these categories. In addition, the Working Group found no evidence that they are clinically useful: they neither contribute to health service delivery or treatment selection nor provide essential information for public health surveillance. Moreover, use of these categories may create unnecessary harm by delaying accurate diagnosis and treatment. The Working Group recommends that these categories be deleted entirely from ICD-11. Health concerns related to sexual orientation can be better addressed using other ICD categories. PMID:25378758

  12. Teaching Problem Solving; the Effect of Algorithmic and Heuristic Problem Solving Training in Relation to Task Complexity and Relevant Aptitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, L.

    Sixty-four fifth and sixth-grade pupils were taught number series extrapolation by either an algorithm, fully prescribed problem-solving method or a heuristic, less prescribed method. The trained problems were within categories of two degrees of complexity. There were 16 subjects in each cell of the 2 by 2 design used. Aptitude Treatment…

  13. Problem drinking in relation to treatment outcome among opiate addicts in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Stenbacka, M; Beck, O; Leifman, A; Romelsjö, A; Helander, A

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed indicators of alcohol-related problems in opiate addicts before, during, and after leaving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), in relation to illicit drug use and retention in treatment. The study was based on 204 patients, admitted to MMT for the first time between 1 January 1995 and 31 July 2000, and followed until 31 December 2000. Three measures were used to indicate alcohol use and alcohol-related problems; records of hospital care with an alcohol-related diagnosis, any treatment with alcohol-sensitizing drugs (disulfiram or calcium carbimide) during MMT, and results of the 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ratio (5HTOL/5HIAA) in urine, a sensitive biomarker for recent drinking. Use of illicit drugs was determined by routine urine drug testing. About one third of the patients (n = 69) had a lifetime prevalence of hospital treatment for an alcohol-related diagnosis, 45 of whom had been hospitalized (mean 4.2 stays) prior to the start of MMT. There was a significant association (p<0.05) between the number of alcohol-related diagnoses prior to treatment and a positive 5HTOL/5HIAA test during MMT. The alcohol indicators first became positive on average 1.6 years after admission to treatment, compared with after about 4 months for illicit drugs. Use of cannabis or benzodiazepines was significantly associated with alcohol use. Female methadone patients with indications of alcohol-related problems relapsed more often into illicit drug use than did women without such indications (3.9 vs. 2.5 relapse periods/year; p<0.005), whereas no significant association was found for men. The results of the present study indicate that drinking problems among patients undergoing MMT is associated with an increased risk of relapse into illicit drug use and with discharge from treatment. Concurrent treatment of alcohol-related problems, including systematic monitoring of alcohol use, therefore should be recommended to reduce the risk for relapse

  14. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings.

    PubMed

    Hägerhed-Engman, Linda; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home environment with a focus on dampness problems and health was conducted in one county of Sweden (8,918 homes, response rate 79%). Building characteristics that were associated with one or more of the dampness indicators were for single-family houses, older houses, flat-roofed houses built in the 1960s and 1970s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with window-pane condensation, e.g. humid indoor air. PMID:19557598

  15. Daily mood and sleep: reciprocal relations and links with adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-02-01

    Children's sleep problems are common and associated with increased risk for adjustment problems. We examined daily links between children's sleep and mood, using a daily diary method and actigraphy. We also tested children's daily mood as a mediator of relations among sleep and children's broader internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A community sample of 142 children (mean age = 10.69 years; 57% girls; 69% European American, 31% African American) and their parents participated. For 1 week, children wore actigraphs and parents completed a daily telephone interview about their child's mood. Following the week of actigraphy, mothers and fathers reported on their child's adjustment. Multi-level models indicated within-person relations between children's mood and subsequent sleep fragmentation (indicated by increased activity) and sleep latency, and between-person relations between sleep latency and subsequent mood on the next day. Significant indirect effects were found such that a more negative daily mood (aggregated across diary days) mediated relations between poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Findings extend previous research by highlighting disruptions to children's daily mood as a potential mechanism linking sleep problems to children's mental health. PMID:25212526

  16. Differential relations between youth internalizing/externalizing problems and cortisol responses to performance vs. interpersonal stress.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents. Participants (n = 59) completed a set of performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) and/or interpersonal (peer rejection) tasks and gave nine saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol. Hierarchical linear models of cortisol response trajectories in relation to child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores revealed stressor- and sex-specific associations. Whereas internalizing problems related to earlier peaking, less dynamic cortisol responses to interpersonal stress (across males and females), externalizing problems related to lower, earlier peaking and less dynamic cortisol responses to performance stress for males only, and competence-related to later peaking cortisol responses to interpersonal stress for females only. Implications for understanding contextual stress profiles underlying different forms of psychopathology are discussed. PMID:27470923

  17. Relations between Parent Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Adolescent Problems in Substance-Abusing Families: Disaggregating the Effects of Parent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-01-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…

  18. Drug-related problems among medical ward patients in Jimma university specialized hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tigabu, Bereket Molla; Daba, Daniel; Habte, Belete

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The increasing number of available drugs and drug users, as well as more complex drug regimens led to more side effects and drug interactions and complicates follow-up. The objective of this study was to assess drug-related problems (DRPs) and associated factors in hospitalized patients. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study design was employed. The study was conducted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, located in the south west of Addis Ababa. All patients who were admitted to the medical ward from February 2011 to March 2011 were included in the study. Data on sociodemographic variables, past medical history, drug history, current diagnosis, current medications, vital signs, and relevant laboratory data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and data collection forms which were filling through patient interview and card review. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 for windows. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabs, Chi-square, and logistic regression were utilized. Findings: Out of 257 study participants, 189 (73.5%) had DRPs and a total of 316 DRPs were identified. From the six classes of DRPs studied, 103 (32.6%) cases related to untreated indication or need additional drug therapy, and 49 (15.5%) cases related to high medication dosage. Unnecessary drug therapy in 49 (15.5%) cases, low medication dosage in 44 (13.9%) cases, and ineffective drug therapy in 42 (13.3%) cases were the other classes of problems identified. Noncompliance in 31 (9.8%) cases was the least prevalent DRP. Independent factors which predicted the occurrence of DRPs in the study population were sex, age, polypharmacy, and clinically significant potential drug-drug interactions. The prevalence of DRPs was substantially high (73.5%). Conclusion: Drug-related problems are common among medical ward patients. Indication-related problems, untreated indication and unnecessary drug therapy were the most common types of DRPs among patients of our

  19. Vision-related problems among the workers engaged in jewellery manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Salve, Urmi Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    Background: American Optometric Association defines Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) as “complex of eye and vision problems related to near work which are experienced during or related to computer use.” This happens when visual demand of the tasks exceeds the visual ability of the users. Even though problems were initially attributed to computer-related activities subsequently similar problems are also reported while carrying any near point task. Jewellery manufacturing activities involves precision designs, setting the tiny metals and stones which requires high visual attention and mental concentration and are often near point task. It is therefore expected that the workers engaged in jewellery manufacturing may also experience symptoms like CVS. Aim: Keeping the above in mind, this study was taken up (1) To identify the prevalence of symptoms like CVS among the workers of the jewellery manufacturing and compare the same with the workers working at computer workstation and (2) To ascertain whether such symptoms have any permanent vision-related problems. Setting and Design: Case control study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Zaveri Bazaar region and at an IT-enabled organization in Mumbai. The study involved the identification of symptoms of CVS using a questionnaire of Eye Strain Journal, opthalmological check-ups and measurement of Spontaneous Eye Blink rate. The data obtained from the jewellery manufacturing was compared with the data of the subjects engaged in computer work and with the data available in the literature. Statistical Analysis: A comparative inferential statistics was used. Results and Conclusion: Results showed that visual demands of the task carried out in jewellery manufacturing were much higher than that of carried out in computer-related work. PMID:26023269

  20. A comparative study of the course-related family and financial problems of mature nursing students in Scotland and Australia.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Philip; Lauder, William; Steele, Rebekah; Cleary, Sonja; Bradshaw, Julie

    2004-07-01

    This study reports a comparative survey of mature students undertaking pre-registration undergraduate nursing education in Australia and Scotland. The study aimed to explore comparisons between the course-related and course-related financial difficulties faced by mature students in two very different educational and funding systems. Financial stress is a predictor of both physical and mental health problems. A similar pattern of course-related problems were reported by both Australian and Scottish students with the exception that Scottish students experienced more problems with childcare and caring for elderly relatives. Course-related problems may be inherent in the nature of undergraduate nursing education although the relatively time-intensive nature of Scottish curricula may explain the childcare and elderly relatives difference. Scottish students reported higher overall financial-related problems but Australian students reported more problems with funding placements. These findings have implications for both curriculum designers and policy makers. PMID:15245860

  1. Alcohol prevention strategies on college campuses and student alcohol abuse and related problems.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher L; Paschall, Mallie J; Gitelman, Amy M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey concerning their use of alcohol and related consequences. Colleges were most likely to prevent alcohol use in public places on campus and the delivery and use of kegs. Four alcohol prevention domains were inversely associated with at least one of five outcomes related to student alcohol abuse or related consequences, and the alcohol policy and enforcement domain was inversely associated with all outcomes. Colleges should pay particular attention to strategies related to policy and enforcement. PMID:21675327

  2. Creating a Cadre of Junior Investigators to Address the Challenges of Cancer-Related Health Disparities: Lessons Learned from the Community Networks Program

    PubMed Central

    Felder, Tisha M.; Brandt, Heather M.; Armstead, Cheryl; Cavicchia, Philip P.; Braun, Kathryn L.; Adams, Swann A.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Tanjasiri, Sora; Steck, Susan E.; Smith, Emily R.; Daguisé, Virginie G.; Hébert, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiatives such as the National Cancer Institute’s Community Networks Program (CNP) (2005–2010) often emphasize training of junior investigators from underrepresented backgrounds to address health disparities. From July to October 2010, a convenience sample of 80 participants from the 25 CNP national sites completed our 45-item, web-based survey on the training and mentoring of junior investigators. This study assessed the academic productivity and CBPR-related experiences of the CNP junior investigators (n=37). Those from underrepresented backgrounds reported giving more presentations in non-academic settings (9 vs. 4 in last 5 years, p=0.01), having more co-authored publications (8 vs. 3 in last 5 years, p=0.01), and spending more time on CBPR-related activities than their non-underrepresented counterparts. Regardless of background, junior investigators shared similar levels of satisfaction with their mentors and CBPR experiences. This study provides support for the success of the CNP’s training program, especially effort directed at underrepresented investigators. PMID:22528636

  3. Interactive and Indirect Effects of Anxiety and Negative Urgency on Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle R.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; DeMartini, Kelly; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although drinking for tension reduction has long been posited as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems, studies investigating anxiety in relation to risk for alcohol problems have returned inconsistent results, leading researchers to search for potential moderators. Negative urgency (the tendency to become behaviorally dysregulated when experiencing negative affect) is a potential moderator of theoretical interest because it may increase risk for alcohol problems among those high in negative affect. The present study tested a cross-sectional mediated moderation hypothesis whereby an interactive effect of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems is mediated through coping-related drinking motives. Method The study utilized baseline data from a hazardously drinking sample of young adults (N = 193) evaluated for participation in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone and motivational interviewing for drinking reduction. Results The direct effect of anxiety on physiological dependence symptoms was moderated by negative urgency such that the positive association between anxiety and physiological dependence symptoms became stronger as negative urgency increased. Indirect effects of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems (operating through coping motives) were also observed. Conclusions Although results of the current cross-sectional study require replication using longitudinal data, the findings suggest that the simultaneous presence of anxiety and negative urgency may be an important indicator of risk for AUDs via both direct interactive effects and indirect additive effects operating through coping motives. These findings have potentially important implications for prevention/intervention efforts for individuals who become disinhibited in the context of negative emotional states. PMID:26031346

  4. Investigating grade nine textbook problems for characteristics related to mathematical literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiepour Gatabi, Abolfazl; Stacey, Kaye; Gooya, Zahra

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a content analysis of the new Iranian Grade 9 mathematics textbook and two Australian Year 9 mathematics textbooks, examining the extent to which the problems show characteristics associated in the literature with promoting mathematical literacy. The new Iranian book was produced to meet a range of needs including several well aligned with mathematical literacy for all students. Australia was selected as the comparison country because of its relatively high international achievement in mathematical literacy. Three comparable chapters in each book were analysed for these characteristics. When considering the percentages of problems showing each characteristic, there was considerable similarity between the textbooks. However, the Australian mathematics textbooks contain many more problems than the Iranian textbook and each chapter includes problems in a diverse range of contexts and the mathematical tasks range from simple applications of formulas to real world modelling although of a constrained nature. With many fewer problems, the Iranian textbook has considerably less diversity of context and very little opportunity for students to engage in mathematical modelling, the key process of mathematical literacy.

  5. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems. PMID:23318940

  6. Gender Differences in 16-Year Trends in Assault- and Police-Related Problems Due to Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Christine; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the frequency and predictors of physical assault and having trouble with the police due to drinking over 16 years among women and men who, at baseline, were untreated for their alcohol use disorder. Predictors examined were the personal characteristics of impulsivity, self-efficacy, and problem-solving and emotional-discharge coping, as well as outpatient treatment and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation. Women and men were similar on rates of perpetrating assault due to drinking, but men were more likely to have had trouble with the police due to drinking. Respondents who, at baseline, were more impulsive and relied more on emotional discharge coping, and less on problem-solving coping, assaulted others more frequently during the first year of follow-up. Similarly, less problem-solving coping at baseline was related to having had trouble with the police more often at one and 16 years due to drinking. The association between impulsivity and more frequent assault was stronger for women, whereas associations of self-efficacy and problem-solving coping with less frequent assault and police trouble were stronger for men. Participation in AA was also associated with a lower likelihood of having trouble with the police at one year, especially for men. Interventions aimed at decreasing impulsivity and emotional discharge coping, and bolstering self-efficacy and problem-solving coping, during substance abuse treatment, and encouragement to become involved in AA, may be helpful in reducing assaultive and other illegal behaviors. PMID:19446963

  7. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  8. A study of medication-related problems in stroke patients: A need for pharmaceutical care

    PubMed Central

    Kanagala, Viswa Srujani; Anusha, Annapareddy; Rao, Bhukya Srinivasa; Challa, Siva Reddy; Nalla, Krishna Sri; Gadde, Raja Sree

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study was aimed to assess the incidence and characteristics of drug-related problems (DRPs). Methods: A prospective, observational study was conducted among 133 patients with stroke disease who were aged 18 years or older and admitted to the general medicine ward. During the 6 months study period, the incidence of DRPs was identified using the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Foundation classification system, version 6.2. Findings: A total of 133 patients were screened for DRPs. Among them, 120 patients have at least one DRP. A total of 254 DRPs were identified (on average, 2.015 DRPs per each patient case). Conclusion: Increasing the evidence of the incidence of medication-related problems in tertiary care hospitals indicates the need for the establishment of a clinical pharmacist in hospital settings. PMID:27512717

  9. Development and application of unique natural solvents for treating paraffin and asphaltene related problems

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.R.; Cotney, C.R.

    1996-09-01

    Paraffin and asphaltene related problems including solid deposits, stabilization of emulsions and sludge production continue to plaque the oil and gas industry. Condensates and refined aromatic solvents are popular treatments for dissolving and/or controlling paraffin and asphaltene related problems. These treating fluids are typically used as a quick fix with little regard for formation damage consequences and long term effectiveness. Testing, blending and refining of unique condensate feedstocks has resulted in unique natural multi-component hydrocarbon solvents. These unique solvents will dissolve a broad carbon number spectrum of organic deposits and keep them in solution under extreme conditions. These natural solvents maximize solvency, demulsifying properties and natural wettibility tendencies without the addition of chemical additives. Those natural solvents offer economic alternatives and enhancement to common treatment practices including condensate treatments, hot oiling, chemical treatments, stimulation and production treatments.

  10. Simulator test to study hot-flow problems related to a gas cooled reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, J. W.; Freeman, M. P.; Doak, K. W.; Thorpe, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    An advance study of materials, fuel injection, and hot flow problems related to the gas core nuclear rocket is reported. The first task was to test a previously constructed induction heated plasma GCNR simulator above 300 kW. A number of tests are reported operating in the range of 300 kW at 10,000 cps. A second simulator was designed but not constructed for cold-hot visualization studies using louvered walls. A third task was a paper investigation of practical uranium feed systems, including a detailed discussion of related problems. The last assignment resulted in two designs for plasma nozzle test devices that could be operated at 200 atm on hydrogen.

  11. Application of the method of integral relations to unsteady fluid flow problems with shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadia, A. R.; Payne, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    A mixed method using both the method of integral relations and the finite difference technique is developed for the solution of unsteady flow problems. The integral relations method is based upon a chosen interpolating function dependent only on the time domain. The resulting local semidiscrete finite element equations obtained are assembled into a global form. The spatial derivatives at the nodes are replaced by finite difference operators and the discretized nonlinear algebraic system is solved by an iterative scheme. Solutions are obtained for the one-dimensional gasdynamics equation, the one-dimensional wave equation and Burger's model of turbulence. Agreement with other numerical and analytical solutions is excellent for the gasdynamics problem and satisfactory for the Burger equation in cases of small viscous effects.

  12. Problems related to the integration of fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannister, J. A.; Adlakha, V.; Triyedi, K.; Alspaugh, T. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Problems related to the design of the hardware for an integrated aircraft electronic system are considered. Taxonomies of concurrent systems are reviewed and a new taxonomy is proposed. An informal methodology intended to identify feasible regions of the taxonomic design space is described. Specific tools are recommended for use in the methodology. Based on the methodology, a preliminary strawman integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic system is proposed. Next, problems related to the programming and control of inegrated aircraft electronic systems are discussed. Issues of system resource management, including the scheduling and allocation of real time periodic tasks in a multiprocessor environment, are treated in detail. The role of software design in integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

  13. The influence of mental health problems on AIDS-related risk behaviors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Stiffman, A R; Doré, P; Earls, F; Cunningham, R

    1992-05-01

    This paper explores how symptoms of mental health problems influence acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related risk behaviors, and how changes in those symptoms relate to risk behaviors engaged in by young adults. Repeated interviews with 602 youths since 1984 provide a history of change in behaviors. Mental health symptoms during adolescence (alcohol/drug [r = .28]; conduct disorder [r = .27]; depression [r = .16]; suicide [r = .14]; anxiety [r = .16]; and posttraumatic stress [r = .09]) are associated with higher numbers of risk behaviors (specifically, prostitution, use of intravenous drugs, and choice of a high-risk sex partner) during young adulthood. Changes in mental health symptoms between adolescence and young adulthood are related to the number of risk behaviors engaged in by young adulthood (total number of symptoms [B = .10], alcohol/drug abuse or dependence [B = .34], depression [B = .20], suicidality [B = .35], anxiety [B = .13], and posttraumatic stress [B = .14]). Changes in symptoms of mental health problems are associated specifically with those risk behaviors that are initiated primarily in young adulthood: intravenous drug use, prostitution, and choice of risky partners. The findings show that prevention and treatment of mental health problems are important components of preventive interventions for human immunodeficiency virus infection in high-risk teens and young adults. PMID:1583474

  14. Drug history taking and the identification of drug related problems in an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Akwagyriam, I; Goodyer, L I; Harding, L; Khakoo, S; Millington, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of drug related problems that fail to be noted on casualty cards in patients subsequently admitted, and to compare medication histories as recorded by accident and emergency (A&E) senior house officers (SHOs) and a pharmacist. METHODS--An initial retrospective survey of 1459 acute inpatient admissions through A&E over a three month period was followed by a prospective study of 33 elderly patients. RESULTS--In the retrospective survey, 52 medication related problems were confirmed after examination of the medical records, of which only 16 were identified in A&E. In the prospective study, 125 currently prescribed items were identified by the pharmacist compared to 77 by A&E SHOs; 66% of the missed information was clinically relevant. Of 17 previous adverse drug reactions identified by the pharmacist only six were also recorded by the A&E officer. Only four over the counter medicines were identified by the A&E SHOs compared to 30 by the pharmacist. CONCLUSIONS--More accurate recording of drug history on casualty cards should be undertaken, particularly in respect of over the counter medication and the identification of drug related problems. PMID:8733649

  15. Problems underlying the use of referential integrity mechanisms in relational database management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, V.M.

    1990-12-01

    Referential integrity is used in relational data-bases for expressing existence dependencies between tuples. Relational database management systems (RDBMS) provide diverse referential integrity capabilities. Thus, is some RDBMSs referential integrity constraints can be specified non-procedurally (declaratively), while in other RDBMSs they must be specified procedurally. Moreover, some RDBMSs restrict the class of allowed referential integrity constraints. We examine in this paper the main problems underlying the use of referential integrity mechanisms in three representative RDBMSs, DB2, SYBASE, and INGRES. 11 refs.

  16. Drinking norms and alcohol-related problems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Linsky, A S; Colby, J P; Straus, M A

    1986-09-01

    One of Bales's three related hypotheses concerning how cultures or social structures influence the level of alcoholism in a population--that culturally determined attitudes toward drinking and intoxication determine whether alcohol will be used to relieve the stress generated in a society--is examined in the first systematic test of that hypothesis based on American data. A proscriptive norm index was computed for each of the 50 states based on percentage population residing in legally dry areas, the degree of legal restrictions on the sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages and the percentage population of Mormons and Fundamentalists. The most proscriptive states are located in the southern region of the United States. Proscriptive norms are significantly correlated with all of the indicators of alcohol-related problems studied. Most of the correlations remain significant when five other variables are controlled. Proscriptive norms are negatively correlated with the indicators of heavy drinking, but positively correlated with the "social disruptiveness" of alcohol (arrest data). Thus driving while intoxicated and other alcohol-related arrests do not appear to arise as a response to the total amount of drinking. Instead, such alcohol-related problems appear to be a response to the strong cultural disapproval of drinking, with the proscriptively oriented states experiencing the highest rates of disruptive behaviors related to alcohol. The findings are consistent with a social control explanation for this link. PMID:3762162

  17. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  18. Motivational pathways from reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity to gambling frequency and gambling-related problems.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Quilty, Lena C; Hendershot, Christian S; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-12-01

    Motives for gambling have been shown to have an important role in gambling behavior, consistent with the literature on motives for substance use. While studies have demonstrated that traits related to sensitivity to reward (SR) and sensitivity to punishment (SP) are predictive of substance use motives, little research has examined the role of these traits in gambling motives. This study investigated motivational pathways from SR and SP to gambling frequency and gambling problems via specific gambling motives, while also taking into account history of substance use disorder (SUD). A community sample of gamblers (N = 248) completed self-report questionnaires assessing SR, SP, gambling frequency, gambling-related problems, and motives for gambling (social, negative affect, and enhancement/winning motives). Lifetime SUD was also assessed with a structured clinical interview. The results of a path analysis showed that SR was uniquely associated with all 3 types of gambling motives, whereas SP and SUD were associated with negative affect and enhancement/winning motives but not social motives. Also, both negative affect and enhancement/winning motives were associated with gambling problems, but only enhancement/winning motives were significantly related to gambling frequency. Analyses of indirect associations revealed significant indirect associations from SR, SP, and SUD to gambling frequency mediated through enhancement/winning motives and to gambling problems mediated through both negative affect and enhancement/winning motives. The findings highlight the importance of SR and SP as independent predictors of gambling motives and suggest that specific motivational pathways underlie their associations with gambling outcomes. PMID:25915690

  19. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  20. Socio-Demographic and Practice-Oriented Factors Related to Proficiency in Problem Solving: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…

  1. Drug related problems in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertension: a cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with hypertension are at increased risk for experiencing drug-related problems (DRPs) since they often receive multiple medications and have multiple comorbidities. To date, there is a lack of studies conducted in T2DM patients with hypertension. This study aims to analyze the DRPs and identify factors affecting the DRPs in this patient population. Method This retrospective study involved T2DM patients with hypertension and was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from January 2009 to December 2011. The assessment of DRPs was based on the Pharmaceutical Network Care Europe (PCNE) tool version 5.01. Results Two hundred patients with a total of 387 DRPs were identified. Among these patients, 90.5% had at least one DRP, averaging 1.9 ± 1.2 problems per patient. The most common DRPs encountered were insufficient awareness of health and diseases (26%), drug choice problems (23%), dosing problems (16%) and drug interactions (16%). The most implicated drugs were aspirin, clopidogrel, simvastatin, amlodipine and metformin. The six domains of DRPs found to have statistically significant associations were renal impairment, polypharmacy, cardiovascular disease, elderly status, and duration of hospital stay. Conclusions Early identification of the types and patterns of DRPs and the factors associated to them may enhance the prevention and management of DRPs in T2DM patients with hypertension. PMID:23289895

  2. Dystrophic changes in masticatory muscles related chewing problems and malocclusions in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    van den Engel-Hoek, L; de Groot, I J M; Sie, L T; van Bruggen, H W; de Groot, S A F; Erasmus, C E; van Alfen, N

    2016-06-01

    Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) worsens with age, with increasingly effortful mastication. The aims of this study were to describe mastication problems in consecutive stages in a group of patients with DMD and to determine related pathophysiological aspects of masticatory muscle structure, tongue thickness, bite force and dental characteristics. Data from 72 patients with DMD (4.3 to 28.0 years), divided into four clinical stages, were collected in a cross sectional study. Problems with mastication and the need for food adaptations, in combination with increased echogenicity of the masseter muscle, were already found in the early stages of the disease. A high percentage of open bites and cross bites were found, especially in the later stages. Tongue hypertrophy also increased over time. Increased dysfunction, reflected by increasingly abnormal echogenicity, of the masseter muscle and reduced occlusal contacts (anterior and posterior open bites) were mainly responsible for the hampered chewing. In all, this study shows the increasing involvement of various elements of the masticatory system in progressive Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To prevent choking and also nutritional deficiency, early detection of chewing problems by asking about feeding and mastication problems, as well as asking about food adaptations made, is essential and can lead to timely intervention. PMID:27132120

  3. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. PMID:25307601

  4. Motivators for seeking gambling-related treatment among Ontario problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Suurvali, Helen; Hodgins, David C; Toneatto, Tony; Cunningham, John A

    2012-06-01

    A random digit dialing telephone survey was used to interview 8,467 adults in Ontario, Canada. The NODS-CLiP was used to identify a representative sample of 730 gamblers (54.3% male, mean age 45.3 years) with possible past year gambling problems in order to explore factors that might affect disordered gamblers' motivators for seeking gambling-related help. A final sample of 526 gamblers provided useable data on possible reasons for and barriers to seeking help, awareness of services, self-perception of gambling problems and experience with help-seeking. Financial and relationship issues were the most frequently volunteered motivators. However, over two-thirds of the respondents could not think of a reason for seeking help. Gamblers who had self-admitted or more severe problems, who knew how to get help, who were employed and had more education, and who identified possible barriers to seeking help were more likely to suggest motivators, especially financial ones. More research is recommended on gamblers' trajectory towards recognition of a gambling problem, the process of overcoming specific barriers to treatment, and the role of social advantage (e.g., education and employment), in order to devise educational campaigns that will encourage earlier help-seeking among disordered gamblers. PMID:21932112

  5. Family Functioning, Substance Use and Related Problem Behaviors: Hispanic vs. Anglo Runaway Youths

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Vasquez, Christina; Bittinger, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Runaway youths represent a neglected clinical group, and few studies have examined ethnicity differences within this population. Substance use, family functioning and related problem behaviors were examined in a sample of Hispanic and Anglo runaway youths with substance abuse diagnoses (N = 145). Youths, aged 12–17, were recruited from two urban, southwestern runaway shelters. Within single-parent families, Anglo youths reported more marijuana use, and, regardless of family constitution, reported more tobacco use than did Hispanic youths. Overall, Anglo youths reported more externalizing problems and more conflict tactics used in resolving disagreements with their primary caretaker while Hispanic youths reported higher depression and familism scores. Given the differences found between Hispanic and Anglo youths, the findings argue that culturally sensitive interventions for runaway youths and families are warranted. PMID:18795144

  6. Obesity and weight-related medical problems of incarcerated persons with and without mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Fabrikant, Nicole; Schumann, Brooke E

    2012-07-01

    This study examined weight and weight-related medical conditions of soon-to-be released inmates with and without a mental disorder. The sample included 4,204 males and females aged 18 or older residing in 11 state prisons. Three quarters or more of the inmates were overweight or obese. Mental health status was not found to be a significant factor in the presence or absence of overweight or obesity. Male inmates with mental disorders had higher rates of breathing, walking, and intense pain problems compared to those without mental disorders. Obese male inmates with schizophrenia or bipolar were more likely than those without a mental disorder to report medication treatment for diabetes, cardiovascular problems, arthritis, and intense pain. Evidence-based interventions are needed to monitor weight and obesity during incarceration and to teach weight management skills as part of an integrated psychiatric and medical program. PMID:22569903

  7. Does Helping Keep Teens Protected? Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations Between Prosocial Behavior and Problem Behavior.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carlo, Gustavo; Nielson, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined bidirectional, longitudinal links between prosocial and problem behavior. Participants (N = 500) were recruited from a Northwestern city in the United States and assessed for 3 consecutive years from 2009 to 2011 (M(age) of youth at Time 1 = 13.32, SD = 1.05; 52% girls; 67% European American, 33% single-parent families). Results suggested that effects of earlier prosocial behavior toward family and strangers were predictive of fewer problem behaviors 2 years later, while results for prosocial behavior toward friends were more mixed. Results also suggested depression predicted lower prosocial behavior toward family members and anxiety predicted higher prosocial behavior toward friends. Findings show a complex pattern of relations that demonstrate the need to consider targets of helping. PMID:26511897

  8. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  9. Very-Brief, Web-Based Interventions for Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Problems among College Students: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Perez, Elliottnell; Nogueira, Christine; DeMartini, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students’ stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students’ patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and the methods of multiple trials raised concerns about potential bias that may have influenced study results. By contrast, this review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol-­related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a) focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b) multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very-brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers) these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very-brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very-brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very-brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy, and potential public health benefit. PMID:26441690

  10. Very-Brief, Web-Based Interventions for Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Problems among College Students: A Review.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Perez, Elliottnell; Nogueira, Christine; DeMartini, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students' stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students' patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and the methods of multiple trials raised concerns about potential bias that may have influenced study results. By contrast, this review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol--related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a) focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b) multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very-brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers) these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very-brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very-brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very-brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy, and potential public health benefit. PMID:26441690

  11. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  12. Stochastic Parameter Resonance of Road-Vehicle Systems and Related Bifurcation Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedig, Walter V.

    The paper investigates stochastic dynamics of road-vehicle systems and related bifurcation problems. The ride on rough roads generates vertical car vibrations whose root-mean-squares are resonant for critical car speeds and vanish when the car velocity is increasing, infinitely. These investigations are extended to wheel suspensions with progressive spring characteristics. For weak but still positive damping, the car vibrations become unstable when the velocity reaches the parameter resonance near twice the critical speed bifurcating into stochastic chaos of larger non-stationary car vibrations.

  13. Is there a causal relation between mathematical creativity and mathematical problem-solving performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480 eighth-grade students were analysed using a cross-lagged panel correlation (CLPC) design. CLPC attempts to rule out plausible alternative explanation of a causal effect. The result suggests that significant predominant causal relationship was found between MC and MP. It indicates that MP was found to be a cause of MC than the converse.

  14. Computer Use and Vision-Related Problems Among University Students In Ajman, United Arab Emirate

    PubMed Central

    Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The extensive use of computers as medium of teaching and learning in universities necessitates introspection into the extent of computer related health disorders among student population. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of computer usage and related visual problems, among University students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of Science and Technology were recruited into this study. Demographic characteristics, pattern of usage of computers and associated visual symptoms were recorded in a validated self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the observed differences between the variables. The level of statistical significance was at P < 0.05. The crude odds ratio (OR) was determined using simple binary logistic regression and adjusted OR was calculated using the multiple logistic regression. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 (3.2) years. The analysis of racial data reveals that 50% (236/471) students were from Middle East, 32% (151/471) from other parts of Asia, 11% (52/471) from Africa, 4% (19/471) from America and 3% (14/471) from Europe. The most common visual problems reported among computer users were headache - 53.3% (251/471), burning sensation in the eyes - 54.8% (258/471) and tired eyes - 48% (226/471). Female students were found to be at a higher risk. Nearly 72% of students reported frequent interruption of computer work. Headache caused interruption of work in 43.85% (110/168) of the students while tired eyes caused interruption of work in 43.5% (98/168) of the students. When the screen was viewed at distance more than 50 cm, the prevalence of headaches decreased by 38% (50-100 cm – OR: 0.62, 95% of the confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.92). Prevalence of tired eyes increased by 89% when screen filters were not used (OR: 1.894, 95% CI: 1

  15. Drug-related problems (DRPs) identified from geriatric medication safety review clinics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ding-Cheng; Chen, Jen-Hau; Kuo, Hsu-Ko; We, Chiung-Jung; Lu, I-Shu; Chiu, Lee-Shu; Wu, Shwu-Chong

    2012-01-01

    Drug-related problems (DRPs) were identified from baseline data of 193 Medication Safety Review Clinic (MSRC) patients. MSRCs enroll older adults (≥ 65 years) with either (1) prescriptions of ≥ 8 chronic medications (drugs prescribed for ≥ 28 days) or (2) a visit to ≥ 3 different physicians at the two participating hospitals in Taipei, Taiwan from August to October 2007. The Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) Classification Version 5.01 was used to report DRPs. Mean age was 76.2 ± 6.2 years and 53% of participants were male. Participants had, on average, 9.0 ± 2.6 chronic conditions and took 8.9 ± 3.1 chronic medications and 1.7 ± 1.8 dietary supplements. Eighty-seven percent had at least one DRP. Being older, having orthostatic hypotension and taking more chronic medications were associated with higher likelihood of having at least one DRP. For the 1713 medications and 331 diet supplements reviewed, 427 DRPs were found, 490 causes (1.1 ± 0.4 per problem) identified and 1067 interventions proposed (2.5 ± 0.6 per problem). The most common DRP category was "drug not taken/administered" (35%), and the most common offending drug category was cardiovascular agents (33%). Prevalence of DRPs was high among geriatric outpatients prescribed multiple medications. Careful medication review is needed in routine clinical practice to improve prescription quality. PMID:21353318

  16. Usage of Underground Space for 3D Cadastre Purposes and Related Problems in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cevdet C.

    2008-01-01

    Modern cities have been trying to meet their needs for space by using not only surface structures but also by considering subsurface space use. It is also anticipated that without planning of underground spaces for supporting surface city life in the years and generations to come, there will be serious and unavoidable problems with growing populations. The current Turkish cadastral system, including land right registrations, has been trying to meet users' needs in all aspects since 1924. Today Turkey's national cadastre services are carried out by the General Directorate of Land Titles and Cadastre (TKGM). The Cadastre Law, Number 3402, was approved in 1985 to eliminate problems by gathering all existing cadastral regulations under one law and also to produce 3D cadastral bases to include underground spaces and determine their legal status in Turkey. Although the mandate for 3D cadastre works is described and explained by the laws, until now the bases have been created in 2D and the reality is that legal gaps and deficiencies presently exist in them. In this study, the usage of underground spaces for the current cadastral system in Turkey was briefly evaluated, the concept of 3D cadastral data is examined and the need for using subsurface and 3D cadastre in addition to the traditional 2D register system, related problems and registration are mentioned with specific examples, but without focusing on a specific model.

  17. Alcohol-related problems: a critical review of the literature and directions in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Arthur, D

    1998-08-01

    It is generally accepted the around 2-5% of the adult population show major signs of alcohol dependence, that alcohol-related harm is experienced by up to 20% of the population, and that approximately 60% drink at risk-free levels. Further prevalence studies show that there are high numbers of problem drinkers who attend general hospital services for reasons other than their alcohol consumption. Nurses are in constant contact with patients who may have an early problem with alcohol but who are admitted for other reasons, and they are in a prime position to comprehensively assess patients (including alcohol screening), develop rapport and provide 'counselling'. Also, university nursing education is propelling nurses toward adoption of independent discipline focused models of care which are increasingly becoming independent of the medical model. Recent trends in the management of problem drinkers suggest that controlled drinking approaches may well offer treatment options to nurses that the traditional abstinence approaches did not. This paper presents a brief overview of the notion of controlled drinking, then critically reviews the nursing research studies and the descriptive literature providing direction for nursing education. Some recent clinical initiatives are discussed which highlight the flaws existing in nursing education, including lack of sufficient curriculum hours and the need for better designed education models and strategies. PMID:9847741

  18. Overview of the 1995 NATO ARW on nuclear submarine decommissioning and related problems

    SciTech Connect

    LeSage, L.G.

    1997-10-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning and Related Problems was held in Moscow June 19--22, 1995. It was preceded by a visit to the Zvezdotchka Shipyard at Severodvinsk, a repair and maintenance yard for Russian nuclear submarines, for a subgroup of the workshop attendees. Most of the material in this paper is drawn directly form the workshop proceedings. Slightly less than 500 nuclear ships and submarines (the vast majority are submarines) have been constructed by the countries with nuclear navies. This includes approximately 250 by Russia, 195 by the United States, 23 by the United Kingdom, 11 by France and 6 by China. By the year 2000 it is expected that approximately one-half of these nuclear vessels will be removed from service and in various states of decommissioning. A newspaper account in June 1997 indicated that 156 Russian nuclear submarines had been removed from service. In August 1996 it was reported that 55 reactor compartment sections from US nuclear submarines were already in long-term storage at Hanford. Overall the dismantlement of nuclear submarines and the processing, storage and disposal of nuclear fuel, activated components and section of the hulls, and the liquid and solid radioactive and hazardous wastes is an enormous problem. This problem has been exacerbated by the accelerated decommissioning schedule associated with treaty obligations.

  19. Geometric problem solving related to differences in sex and mathematical interests.

    PubMed

    Luchins, A S; Luchins, E H

    1979-06-01

    Sex differences in Einstellung Effects were confounded by attitudinal factors. Hypothesizing that this was the case for spatial visualization and restructurization, we compared male and female college students' solutions of three elementary geometric problems. Used by Max Wertheimer to study productive thinking, they call for a Gestalt, spatial approach. In group administration to 86 calculus students, males did somewhat better than females, but the reverse held in classes where most women majored in mathematics. Individual administration to 200 Ss, balanced for sex and major, showed that female mathematics majors had more solutions than other females: e.g., 51 percent more compared to 26 percent sex differences. Four hints were available for restructuring each problem. The percentage needing all four hints was highest for male nonmathematics major and next highest for female mathematics majors (e.g., 75 and 23 percent, respectively). Embarrassment at needing hints in such "easy problems" and ego-involvement were factors. Thus, sex differences were less pronounced than differences related to mathematical abilities and interests and to task-and ego-concerns. PMID:469505

  20. Identification and characterization of students' attitudes toward technology as related to environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lubbers, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Viewing the role of technology as either the cause of or solution to environmental problems may be unrealistic, and such extreme attitudes may inhibit the resolution of environmental problems. Courses that present a particular orientation toward the role of technology may encourage these extreme attitudes. Identifying attitudes of students enrolled in such courses and designing instruction to foster specific attitudes can lead to a more rational and objective attitude toward technology as related to environmental problems. The Scientific-Environmental-Technological (SET) literacy model was suggested as an appropriate framework for presenting the role of technology to students. A 34 item Likert scale was developed to measure attitudes as defined by two constructs: PRO-technology and ANTI-technology. Students enrolled in three courses (E200, Environment and People, K201, The Computer in Business, E100, Freshman Engineering Lectures), were asked to respond to the survey at the beginning and end of the fall, 1980 semester. The findings indicate that the survey was useful in identifying and characterizing attitudes of certain populations. The differences between the E200 and E100 students indicate that instruction that recognizes and examines the full range of perspectives on the impact of technology should be provided for these students.

  1. Tic-related school problems: impact on functioning, accommodations, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Packer, Leslie E

    2005-11-01

    Children with Tourette's syndrome (TS) are statistically overrepresented in special education classes; however, the extent to which tics contribute to such placement is unclear. In this article, the results of a survey of parents or guardians of 71 children and adolescents with TS are described within the broader context of discussing the impact of tics and educational practices. One half of the respondents reported moderate to significant tic-related academic impact, and 48% reported moderate to significant tic-related peer problems. Peer education and in-school counseling were generally not offered nor provided. In the minority of cases where behavioral interventions for tics were reported, contingent aversive consequences were reported to be ineffective or counterproductive, while positive reinforcement for modifying tics reportedly produced some successful results. The identification of research-validated academic accommodations and increased involvement of school psychologists are suggested as necessary and potentially helpful supports for students with TS and their teachers. PMID:16204421

  2. Automation of reverse engineering process in aircraft modeling and related optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, W.; Swetits, J.

    1994-01-01

    During the year of 1994, the engineering problems in aircraft modeling were studied. The initial concern was to obtain a surface model with desirable geometric characteristics. Much of the effort during the first half of the year was to find an efficient way of solving a computationally difficult optimization model. Since the smoothing technique in the proposal 'Surface Modeling and Optimization Studies of Aerodynamic Configurations' requires solutions of a sequence of large-scale quadratic programming problems, it is important to design algorithms that can solve each quadratic program in a few interactions. This research led to three papers by Dr. W. Li, which were submitted to SIAM Journal on Optimization and Mathematical Programming. Two of these papers have been accepted for publication. Even though significant progress has been made during this phase of research and computation times was reduced from 30 min. to 2 min. for a sample problem, it was not good enough for on-line processing of digitized data points. After discussion with Dr. Robert E. Smith Jr., it was decided not to enforce shape constraints in order in order to simplify the model. As a consequence, P. Dierckx's nonparametric spline fitting approach was adopted, where one has only one control parameter for the fitting process - the error tolerance. At the same time the surface modeling software developed by Imageware was tested. Research indicated a substantially improved fitting of digitalized data points can be achieved if a proper parameterization of the spline surface is chosen. A winning strategy is to incorporate Dierckx's surface fitting with a natural parameterization for aircraft parts. The report consists of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of reverse engineering related to aircraft modeling and some preliminary findings of the effort in the second half of the year. Chapters 2-4 are the research results by Dr. W. Li on penalty functions and conjugate gradient methods for

  3. Broad Social Motives, Alcohol Use, and Related Problems: Mechanisms of Risk From High School through College

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Broad social motives (not specific to alcohol use) have been established as an important predictor of alcohol use and problems among college students, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms through which such motives operate. Thus, the current study examined broad social motives prior to college entry as a predictor of college drinking/problems and sought to identify potential mechanisms through which they are associated with increased risk. Participants comprised a sample of 2,245 incoming college students (59.9% women) transitioning from high school through the college years. The first web-based survey was completed during the summer prior to matriculation with participants reporting on their behavior during the spring of high school senior year. Additional surveys were administered each academic semester through the fall of the fourth year. High school social motives were examined as a predictor of changes in alcohol use/problems from high school through senior year, with changes in descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies from high school to sophomore year examined as possible mediators of these relations. Descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies were robust mediators of broad social motives for both alcohol use and problems. Although there were a few differences by race/ethnicity in the alcohol use model, the mechanisms through which broad social motives operated were largely invariant across groups. These findings shed light on important mechanisms that can be targeted in prevention programs, particularly those that target groups who are likely to be high in broad social motives (e.g., fraternity/sorority members). PMID:21126828

  4. Help-seeking for alcohol-related problems in college students: correlates and preferred resources.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R

    2010-12-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students' history of help-seeking for alcohol problems, as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants completed measures related to their drinking and their use (both past use and likelihood of future use) of 14 different alcohol help-seeking options. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that students preferred informal help-seeking (e.g., talking to friends and family) over formal (e.g., talking with a counselor or medical provider) and anonymous resources (e.g., internet- or computer-based programs). Higher self-ideal discrepancy, greater depressive symptoms, and more alcohol-related consequences were positively associated with actual past help-seeking. Alcohol-related problems and normative discrepancy were negatively associated with hypothetical likelihood of utilizing all three help-seeking resources. These results suggest that heavy drinking college students prefer low-threshold intervention options including peer, family, computerized, and brief motivational interventions. Only 36 participants (18.3% of the sample) reported that they had utilized any of the help-seeking options queried, suggesting that campus prevention efforts should include both promoting low-threshold interventions and attempting to increase the salience of alcohol-related risk and the potential utility of changing drinking patterns. PMID:21198220

  5. Help-Seeking for Alcohol-Related Problems in College Students: Correlates and Preferred Resources

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Pederson, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students’ history of help-seeking for alcohol problems as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants completed measures related to their drinking and their use (both past use and likelihood of future use) of 14 different alcohol help-seeking options. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that students preferred informal help-seeking (e.g., talking to friends and family) over formal (e.g., talking with a counselor or medical provider) and anonymous resources (e.g., internet- or computer-based programs). Higher self-ideal discrepancy, greater depressive symptoms, and more alcohol-related consequences were positively associated with actual past help-seeking. Alcohol-related problems and normative discrepancy were negatively associated with hypothetical likelihood of utilizing all three help-seeking resources. These results suggest that heavy drinking college students prefer low-threshold intervention options including peer, family, computerized, and brief motivational interventions. Only 36 participants (18.3% of the sample) reported that they had utilized any of the help-seeking options queried, suggesting that campus prevention efforts should include both promoting low-threshold interventions and attempting to increase the salience of alcohol-related risk and the potential utility of changing drinking patterns. PMID:21198220

  6. Alcohol-Related Problems in High-Risk Groups. EURO Reports and Studies 109. Report on a WHO Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Martin, Ed.

    Alcohol consumption has risen dramatically in many countries since the Second World War. Accompanying this rise has been a rise in alcohol-related problems, including liver cirrhosis mortality, alcohol dependence, and alcohol-related crimes and accidents. Alcohol misuse presents huge health, social, and legal problems throughout most of Europe and…

  7. Alcohol-Related Problems and Risk of Suicide among College Students: The Mediating Roles of Belongingness and Burdensomeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship among alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide proneness in undergraduate college students (N = 996) was examined. As hypothesized, alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness were all significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness.…

  8. Microbial symbionts: a resource for the management of insect‐related problems

    PubMed Central

    Crotti, Elena; Balloi, Annalisa; Hamdi, Chadlia; Sansonno, Luigi; Marzorati, Massimo; Gonella, Elena; Favia, Guido; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Summary Microorganisms establish with their animal hosts close interactions. They are involved in many aspects of the host life, physiology and evolution, including nutrition, reproduction, immune homeostasis, defence and speciation. Thus, the manipulation and the exploitation the microbiota could result in important practical applications for the development of strategies for the management of insect‐related problems. This approach, defined as ‘Microbial Resource Management’ (MRM), has been applied successfully in various environments and ecosystems, as wastewater treatments, prebiotics in humans, anaerobic digestion and so on. MRM foresees the proper management of the microbial resource present in a given ecosystem in order to solve practical problems through the use of microorganisms. In this review we present an interesting field for application for MRM concept, i.e. the microbial communities associated with arthropods and nematodes. Several examples related to this field of applications are presented. Insect microbiota can be manipulated: (i) to control insect pests for agriculture; (ii) to control pathogens transmitted by insects to humans, animals and plants; (iii) to protect beneficial insects from diseases and stresses. Besides, we prospect further studies aimed to verify, improve and apply MRM by using the insect–symbiont ecosystem as a model. PMID:22103294

  9. Oropharyngeal 24-Hour pH Monitoring in Children With Airway-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mesallam, Tamer A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diagnosis and clinical presentation of pediatric laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is still controversial. The aims of this work were to study the possibility of performing 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring for children in the outpatient clinic setup and to explore the results of this test in correlation to airway-related problems. Methods In this descriptive qualitative study, 26 children suffering from airway-related problems were included. Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring was performed for all subjects in the outpatient clinic setting. The distribution of airway diagnoses among the study group was studied versus the results of the pH monitoring. Results There were 16 males and 10 females participated in the study with a mean age of 6.88 (SD, ±5.77) years. Thirty-five percent of the patients were under the age of 3 years (range, 11 months to 3 years). Eight-five percent of the patients tolerated the pH probe insertion and completed 24-hour of pH recording. Laryngomalacia and subglottic stenosis (SGS) were more frequently reported in the positive LPR patients (77%). Conclusion Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring can be conducted for children in the outpatient setup even in young age children below 3 years old. Among the positive LPR group, SGS and laryngomalacia were the most commonly reported airway findings. PMID:27090271

  10. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  11. Distress Tolerance Among Students Referred for Treatment Following Violation of Campus Cannabis Use Policy: Relations to Use, Problems, and Motivation.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Jeffries, Emily R; Terlecki, Meredith A; Ecker, Anthony H

    2016-09-01

    Students referred to treatment after violating campus drug policies represent a high-risk group. Identification of factors related to these students' cannabis use could inform prevention and treatment efforts. Distress tolerance (DT) is negatively related to substance-related behaviors and may be related to high-risk cannabis use vulnerability factors that can impact treatment outcome. Thus, the current study tested whether DT was related to cannabis use frequency, cannabis-related problems, and motivation to change cannabis use among 88 students referred for treatment after violating campus cannabis policies. DT was robustly, negatively related to cannabis use and related problems. DT was also significantly, negatively correlated with coping, conformity, and expansion motives. DT was directly and indirectly related to cannabis problems via coping (not conformity or expansion) motives. Motives did not mediate the relation of DT to cannabis use frequency. DT may be an important target in treatment with students who violate campus cannabis policies. PMID:26467215

  12. [Patients' rights of the deceased and related problems in Hungarian law].

    PubMed

    Kereszty, Eva Margit

    2012-03-01

    In the Hungarian law, non-burial interventions on cadavers are regulated only by the health law and, therefore, other scientific examinations are theoretically not allowed. Only the international ethical code of museums is used in certain cases. Numerous cultures consider this practice as the mutilation of the cadaver. Beyond this and the criminal forms of mutilation, the medical interventions (trial and training) are also appropriate to hurt the dignity of the dead. As a counterweight, the consent of the patient or his/her relatives is needed for post-mortem interventions. This study presents the Hungarian legislation in which the deceased is a 'patient', and the special enforcement of patients' rights takes place in relation to the body. The relatives have many rights concerning autopsy, and the anatomy institutes are also regulated. The presumption of opting-out is used for organ harvesting; objection is accepted only from the patient. Medical data of the deceased are strictly protected, but there are no obstacles to the interests of the relatives. Graduate and postgraduate medical education pays only little attention to these issues, and the legislation is not in line with the present expectations and possibilities, so that it would be advisable to reconsider the full spectrum of the problem. PMID:22348848

  13. A Comprehensive Longitudinal Test of the Acquired Preparedness Model for Alcohol Use and Related Problems*

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: According to the acquired preparedness model (APM), personality traits related to disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking) may influence the learning process, contributing to individual differences in cognitions (e.g., expectations about outcomes) that may contribute to engagement in and consequences of risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Although there is strong support for the APM, longitudinal studies have involved short-term follow-ups, and the relevance of the APM for alcohol-related consequences has not been clearly established. Method: Participants were 2,245 (59.9% female) incoming freshmen who completed the first of eight web-based surveys during the summer before college matriculation. Structural equation modeling was used to test a comprehensive longitudinal APM for both alcohol use and related consequences. Multigroup models were used to examine measurement and structural invariance by gender. Results: Positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies during freshman year of college partially mediated the relation between senior year of high school disinhibition and both alcohol use and related problems during the fourth year of college, and multigroup models suggested that the relationships proposed in the APM operated similarly for women and men. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the temporal relations proposed in the APM across a longer period (4 years) than in previous studies among a large sample of ethnically diverse students. Further, the results are the first to validate the APM with respect to drinking consequences while controlling for levels of alcohol use. The results lend support for brief interventions targeting positive alcohol expectancies, particularly for individuals high in trait disinhibition. PMID:21683042

  14. Transport and its energy-related air pollution problems in Bangkok

    SciTech Connect

    Boontherawara, N.; Panich, S.; Phiu-Nual, K.

    1995-12-31

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is a major pollutant, followed by carbon monoxide and lead, as the ambient levels of these pollutants all exceed international standards such as those laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to meet these standards, it is necessary to reduce the emissions of these pollutants by 84.9%, 47.3%, and 13.0% respectively. Ambient air quality in Bangkok will continue to deteriorate to an unacceptable level by the year 2000, if no action is taken over and above implementation of already approved projects (including mass transit projects). Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions could be reduced by 28 and 22% respectively, with the implementation of Reasonable Technology Measures used to control vehicle emissions alone. These measures include inspection and maintenance programs. Their success is dependent on effective quality control and on the application of stringent standards. However, these measures would have little impact in reducing the emissions of SPM. It can therefore be concluded that Reasonable Technology Measures will be insufficient to address Bangkok`s air pollution problems, without complementary measures to reduce traffic congestion. Implementation of the traffic measures outlined under the Demand-Management Policy Scenario alone will reduce CO and HC emissions by up to 45%. These measures serve to reduce traffic congestion and increase the average travel speed. However, in order to improve air quality to internationally acceptable levels, traffic measures must be implemented in conjunction with the Reasonable Technology Scenario. This will provide an additional reduction of CO and HC emissions by 45%.

  15. Learning to Relate Qualitative and Quantitative Problem Representations in a Model-Based Setting for Collaborative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploetzner, Rolf; Fehse, Eric; Kneser, Cornelia; Spada, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Investigates how 10th-grade students acquire, extend, and successively relate knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects of classical mechanics. Analysis of the multicomponent tests revealed that qualitative, as well as quantitative, knowledge can be taught successfully using concept maps. (Author/CCM)

  16. The Teaching of Elementary Problem Solving in Engineering and Related Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubkin, James L., Ed.

    This monograph presents 13 papers dealing with various aspects of elementary problem solving. They are: (1) "Training for Effective Problem Solving" (Gary A. Davis); (2) "Patterns of Problem Solving--A Campus-Wide Course at UCLA" (Moshe F. Rubinstein, L. Robin Keller, Edward A. Kazmarek); (3) "A Taxonomy of Problem-Solving Activities and Its…

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: On local and global aspects of the Cauchy problem in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klainerman, Sergiu; Nicolò, Francesco

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we review some of the recent mathematical progress concerning the initial value problem formulation of general relativity. It is not our intention, however, to give an exhaustive presentation of all recent results on this topic, but rather to discuss some of the most promising mathematical techniques, which have been advanced in connection with the general Cauchy problem, in the absence of any special symmetries. Moreover, for the sake of simplicity and coherence, we restrict ourselves to the Einstein vacuum equations in the asymptotically flat regime. Our main goal is to discuss the main mathematical methods behind the various local existence and uniqueness results, as well as those used in the proof of global nonlinear stability of the Minkowski space. We also present an outline of a somewhat different and more transparent approach obtained by the authors in collaboration with Christodoulou. This relies, instead of the maximal foliation used by Christodoulou and Klainerman, on a double-null foliation. The new approach is fully adapted to domains of dependence and thus allows one to provide, directly, without having to rely on interior estimates, a proof of stability of `null infinity' for large asymptotically flat initial data sets.

  18. Dynamical Scaling Relations and the Angular Momentum Problem in the FIRE Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Denise; Hopkins, Philip F.; Quataert, Eliot; Keres, Dusan; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre

    2015-01-01

    Simulations are an extremely important tool with which to study galaxy formation and evolution. However, even state-of-the-art simulations still fail to accurately predict important galaxy properties such as star formation rates and dynamical scaling relations. One possible explanation is the inadequacy of sub-grid models to capture the range of stellar feedback mechanisms which operate below the resolution limit of simulations. FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments) is a set of high-resolution cosmological galaxy simulations run using the code GIZMO. It includes more realistic models for various types of feedback including radiation pressure, supernovae, stellar winds, and photoionization and photoelectric heating. Recent FIRE results have demonstrated good agreement with the observed stellar mass-halo mass relation as well as more realistic star formation histories than previous simulations. We investigate the effects of FIRE's improved feedback prescriptions on the simulation "angular momentum problem," i.e., whether FIRE can reproduce observed scaling relations between galaxy stellar mass and rotational/dispersion velocities.

  19. Optimization of solving the boundary-value problems related to physical geodesy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macák, Marek; Mikula, Karol

    2016-04-01

    Our aim is to present different approaches for optimization of solving the boundary-value problem related to physical geodesy in spatial domain. In physical geodesy, efficient numerical methods like the finite element method, boundary element method or finite volume method represent alternatives to classical approaches (e.g. the spherical harmonics). They lead to a solution of the linear system and in this context, we focus on three tasks. First task is to choose the fastest solver with respect to the number of iteration and computational time. The second one is to use parallel techniques (MPI or OpenMP) and the third one is to implement advance method like Multigrid and Domain decomposition. All presented examples deal with the gravity field modelling.

  20. Periodic Sturm-Liouville problems related to two Riccati equations of constant coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Khmelnytskaya, K.V.; Rosu, H.C. Gonzalez, A.

    2010-03-15

    We consider two closely related Riccati equations of constant parameters whose particular solutions are used to construct the corresponding class of supersymmetrically coupled second-order differential equations. We solve analytically these parametric periodic problems along the whole real axis. Next, the analytically solved model is used as a case study for a powerful numerical approach that is employed here for the first time in the investigation of the energy band structure of periodic not necessarily regular potentials. The approach is based on the well-known self-matching procedure of James (1949) and implements the spectral parameter power series solutions introduced by Kravchenko (2008). We obtain additionally an efficient series representation of the Hill discriminant based on Kravchenko's series.

  1. Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption among Youth in Jujuy Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia P; Nah, Gregory; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems among youth in Jujuy, Argentina. Material and Methods A survey was conducted in 2005 with a representative sample of 9th grade youth (12 to 17 years old) including sociodemographic and consumption data, and the AUDIT-C test. Results Nine percent of girls and 11% of boys reported hazardous drinking; 12% of girls and 19% of boys reported dependence symptoms. The odds ratio for dependence symptoms (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) and for hazardous drinking (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) was significantly lower for girls compared with boys. Older age, working, and attending night school were risk factors for hazardous drinking, dependence symptoms, and harmful drinking. Conclusions A significant proportion of youth reported problematic patterns of alcohol drinking, highlighting the need to implement prevention and treatment interventions tailored to the adolescent population. PMID:18670721

  2. Services for prisoners with alcohol-related problems: a survey of U.K. prisons.

    PubMed

    McMurran, M; Baldwin, S

    1989-09-01

    Offenders have been identified as heavy drinkers who admit to a relationship between drinking and offending. Many prisoners express a desire to reduce their alcohol consumption. The extent of alcohol interventions in U.K. prisons was unknown and so a postal survey was conducted to gather basic information about current work. Of all responding establishments, 91% claimed to provide services for prisoners with alcohol-related problems and 58% gave details of these services. Services are provided mainly by probation officers/social workers, prison officers and Alcoholics Anonymous. Group and individual interventions are described. Service development has been haphazard, lacking central co-ordination. A case is made for appointment of a central facilitator responsible for staff training, establishing a communications network, encouraging new interventions to match clients' needs, encouraging closer links with community workers and guiding evaluative research. PMID:2790268

  3. Perception of risk for Domoic Acid related health problems: A Cross-cultural study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sparkle M.; Grattan, Lynn M.; Toben, Alexandra C.; Ausherman, Christina; Trainer, Vera; Tracy, Kate; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Risk perception is a complex process that refers to the way people approach, think about and interpret risks in their environment. An important element of risk perception is that it is culturally situated. Since HAB’s can present a health risk in many places around the world, looking at cultural parameters for understanding and interpreting risks are important. This study examined how two different groups of people perceive the potential health risks of low level exposure to domoic acid (DA) through razor clam consumption. The risk perceptions of Washington State, USA coastal dwelling Native American nations (NA) were compared to that of a community sample of recreational razor clam harvesters (CRH). Overall, the findings support the hypothesis that cultural and community specific contexts impact the perception of risk of a DA related illness. Specifically, the NA sample was distinguished by worrying more about ocean pollution, attributing DA risks to climate change, expressing concerns about the potential impact of DA on future generations, and feeling better informed than the CRH group. The CRH group were more likely to attribute the DA problem to anthropogenic or industrial causes; and view the risk of health problems as lower than that associated with smoking, high cholesterol, anxiety or depression, alcoholism, high blood pressure or obesity. The CRH group was also more likely to turn to the media for DA related information. Both groups trust the decisions of state and tribe health and natural resources officials and demonstrated a complex pattern of findings that involved gender. It was recommended that risk communication and outreach activities are designed to take into consideration factors that specifically apply to each cultural community.

  4. Detecting alcohol-related problems in developing countries: A comparison of two screening measures in India

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Madhabika B.; Bond, Jason C.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Patel, Vikram; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is inadequate recognition of alcohol misuse as a public health issue in India. Information on screening measures is critical for prevention and early intervention efforts. This study critically evaluated the full and shorter versions of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF as screening measures for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in a community sample of male drinkers in Goa, India. Methods Data from male drinking respondents in a population study on alcohol use patterns and sexual risk behaviors in randomly selected rural and urban areas of North Goa are reported. Overall, 39% (n=743) of the 1899 screened men, age 18 to 49, reported consuming alcohol in the last 12 months. These current drinkers were administered the screening measures as part of detailed interviews on drinking patterns and AUD symptoms. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted for each combination of screening measure and criterion (alcohol dependence or any AUD). Reliability and correlations among the 4 measures were also examined. Results All four measures performed well with area under the curves (AUCs) of at least .79. The full screeners that included both drinking patterns and problem items (the AUDIT and the RAP4-QF) performed better than their shorter versions (the AUDIT-C and the RAPS4) in detecting AUDs. Performance of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF improved with lowered and raised thresholds, respectively, and alternate cut-off scores are suggested. Scores on the full measures were significantly correlated (.80). Reliability estimates for the AUDIT measures were higher than those for the RAPS4 measures. Conclusions All measures were efficient at detecting AUDs. When screening for alcohol-related problems among males in the general population in India, cut-off scores for screeners may need to be adjusted. Selecting an appropriate screening measure and cut-off score necessitates careful consideration of the screening context and resources available to confirm alcohol-related

  5. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  6. Involvement in Intimate Partner Psychological Abuse and Suicide Proneness in College Women: Alcohol Related Problems as a Potential Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations among involvement in intimate partner psychological abuse, alcohol-related problems, and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college women (N = 709). Results revealed that, as expected, being involved in a psychologically abusive relationship was significantly and positively correlated with alcohol-related problems and alcohol-related problems were significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness. Additionally, the intimate partner psychological abuse involvement-suicide proneness link was significantly mediated by alcohol-related problems. Implications are offered for the improved identification and treatment of young women at risk for suicidal and health-diminishing behaviors. PMID:20544000

  7. Engineering-Based Problem Solving Strategies in AP Calculus: An Investigation into High School Student Performance on Related Rate Free-Response Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thieken, John

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance with AP style Related Rate questions and changes in conceptions, beliefs, and influences. The research design followed a treatment-control multiple…

  8. Informational needs and related problems of family caregivers of heart failure patients: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Masoud; Etemadifar, Shahram; Shahriari, Mohsen; Farsani, Alireza Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heart failure is incurable disease and patients often have an ongoing decline once diagnosed. The symptoms of heart failure may impair the ability of patient to perform activities of daily living. As heart failure progresses, patients normally increase their reliance on family caregivers. Aims: This paper explored the informational needs and related problems of family caregivers of heart failure patients as a part of the findings of a study exploring experiences of family caregivers in the caregiving situation. Setting and Design: Using a qualitative design, 19 family caregivers from three educational hospitals in Isfahan, Iran, were recruited. Materials and Methods: Participants were selected by purposive sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed concurrently. Results: Four major themes were emerged from the analysis of the transcripts: “Lack of care-related knowledge”, “Inaccessibility to responsible source of information”, “Lack of guidance from healthcare team” and “caring with ambiguity due to unpredictable nature of the disease”. Caregivers believed that they did not have the basic knowledge related to disease and medication administration. They received little guidance and support from the health care team on the caregiving roles. They experienced high level of ambiguity and stress in caregiving tasks due to lack of care-related knowledge and unpredictable nature of disease. Conclusion: The care, which was performed by the caregivers of HF patients, is beyond of their knowledge, capabilities, and resources. Nurses and other healthcare providers can use the findings of this study to develop effective educational and supportive programs to facilitate these needs. PMID:25540786

  9. [Population problems in the areas where the relatives of overseas Chinese reside].

    PubMed

    Lan, Y

    1983-11-29

    In the areas where relatives of overseas Chinese (huaqiao) reside, the population density is normally high. For example, in Jinjiang county of Fujian Province, where there is such population, the population density is six times that of Fujian Province in general. The main reason for this situation is that the local economy has improved greatly since 1949 and the living standard in the local area has been elevated as a result of improved medical care and a sharply reduced death rate. Financial resources sent back by the overseas Chinese to their relatives at home have also contributed to the local economic development. The traditional belief favoring more children to carry on the family line is still popular among the general public. All these factors have contributed to a rapid population growth, and the problem of over-population is becoming increasingly serious. At the present time, an understanding has to be reached that population control is in the best interest of both the local people and their relatives overseas. In addition to a control of the population growth, the quality of the population should also be improved. Some advantageous conditions in the areas inhabited by the relatives of overseas Chinese are helpful to reach the goal of family planning: (1) More advanced development in business and industry, (2) more schools established with financial support sent in from overseas, and (3) a general higher cultural and educational level of the local people. Because of these conditions, population control should be achieved more easily than in other places. PMID:12159377

  10. Adolescents' Viewing of Suicide-Related Web Content and Psychological Problems: Differentiating the Roles of Cyberbullying Involvement.

    PubMed

    Görzig, Anke

    2016-08-01

    Possible links of cyberbullying with suicide and psychological problems have recently received considerable attention. Suicide-related behaviors have also been linked with viewing of associated web content. Studies on traditional bullying indicate that the roles of bullying involvement (bullies, victims, and bully-victims) matter in terms of associations with specific suicide-related behaviors and psychological problems. Yet, related research in the area of cyberbullying is lacking. The current study investigates the association of cyberbullying roles with viewing of specific suicide-related web content and psychological problems. Data from N = 19,406 (50 percent girls) 11-16-year-olds (M = 13.54, SD = 1.68) of a representative sample of Internet-using children in Europe were analyzed. Self-reports were obtained for cyberbullying role, viewing of web content related to self-harm, and suicide, as well as the emotional, peer, and conduct problem subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with those not involved in cyberbullying, viewing of web content related to suicide was higher for cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, but not for cyberbullies. Viewing of web content related to self-harm was higher for all cyberbullying roles, especially for cyberbully-victims. Rates of emotional problems were higher among cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, rates of peer problems were higher for cybervictims, and rates of conduct problems were higher for all cyberbullying roles. Moreover, the links between cyberbullying role and viewing of suicide-related web content were independent of psychological problems. The results can be useful to more precisely target efforts toward the specific problems of each cyberbullying role. The outcomes on viewing of web content also indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on Internet platforms. PMID:27448043

  11. An Action Resarch Proposal: Identifying and Addressing Problems Related to RACC's Writing Laboratory. Title III Curriculum Enrichment Activity: Faculty Development Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Annette; Jacobson, Karen H.

    An action research project was undertaken to understand how the Writing Laboratory at Reading Area Community College (RACC) defines and accomplishes its work, what faculty and students expect of the lab, and how they make use of it. The investigation sought to foster discussion and reflection on the appropriate role and staffing of a college…

  12. Melatonin and sleep-related problems in children with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Elkhayat, Hamed A; Hassanein, Sahar M; Tomoum, Hoda Y; Abd-Elhamid, Iman A; Asaad, Tarek; Elwakkad, Amany S

    2010-04-01

    Children with epilepsy have high rates of sleep problems. Melatonin has been advocated in treatment of sleep disorders, and its beneficial effect has been confirmed in insomnia. The aim of this study was to assess melatonin levels in children with intractable epilepsy and its relation to pattern of sleep and characteristics of seizure disorder, as well as the effect of melatonin therapy on those parameters. The study was conducted on 23 children with intractable epilepsy and 14 children with controlled seizures. Patients were evaluated by psychometric sleep assessment and assay of diurnal and nocturnal melatonin levels. Children with intractable epilepsy received oral melatonin before bedtime. They were reassessed after 3 months. Children with intractable epilepsy had higher scores for each category of sleep walking, forcible teeth grinding, and sleep apnea. At the end of therapeutic trial, patients with intractable epilepsy exhibited significant improvement in bedtime resistance, sleep duration, sleep latency, frequent nocturnal arousals, sleep walking, excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal enuresis, forcible teeth grinding, sleep apnea, and Epworth sleepiness scores. There was also significant reduction in seizure severity. Thus, use of melatonin in patients with intractable seizures was associated with improvement of both many sleep-related phenomena and the severity of seizures. PMID:20304327

  13. Frequency and Clinical Correlates of Sleep-Related Problems Among Anxious Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Joshua M; Arnold, Elysse B; Keene, Amanda C; Collier, Amanda B; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are common and problematic among anxious youth but have not been investigated in anxious youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 102 youth (ages 7-16 years) with ASD and comorbid anxiety. Youth and their primary caregiver were administered the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale. Parents completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children-Parent (MASC-P) Report, Social Responsiveness Scale, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A measure of SRPs was created from items from the CBCL and MASC-P. Results suggest SRPs were relatively common among youth with ASD and comorbid anxiety. The number of SRPs endorsed directly associated with parent ratings of social deficits, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and anxiety symptoms, as well as with clinician-rated anxiety symptoms. Parent-rated internalizing symptoms predicted frequency of SRPs over and above social deficits, externalizing symptoms, and parent- and clinician-rated anxiety symptoms. A subset of 40 participants who completed family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) experienced reduced SRPs following treatment. Implications, study limitations, and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:25239284

  14. Utility of a Brief Screening Tool for Medication-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Margie E.; Pater, Karen S.; Frail, Caitlin K.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Doebbeling, Brad N.; Smith, Randall B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication therapy management (MTM) services position pharmacists to prevent, detect, and resolve medication-related problems (MRPs.) However, selecting patients for MTM who are most at risk for MRPs is a challenge. Using self-administered scales that are practical for use in clinical practice are one approach. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the psychometric properties of a brief self-administered scale as a screening tool for MRPs. Methods This was a non-randomized study utilizing questionnaires administered cross-sectionally. In Phase 1, patients (n=394) at community pharmacies and outpatient clinics completed 78 items, provided to the study team by item authors, assessing perceived MRPs. These data were used to select items for further investigation as a brief, self-administered scale, and estimate the reliability and construct validity of the resulting instrument. In Phase 2, a convenience sample of patients (n=200) at community pharmacies completed a nine-item, self-administered scale. After completion, they were engaged in a comprehensive medication review by their pharmacist who was blinded to questionnaire responses. The main outcome measure for estimating the criterion-related validity of the scale was the number of pharmacist-identified medication-related problems (MRPs.) Item statistics were computed as well as bivariate associations between scale scores and other variables with MRPs. A multivariate model was constructed to examine the influence of scale scores on MRPs after controlling for other significant variables. Results Higher scores on the questionnaire were positively correlated with more pharmacist-identified MRPs (r = 0.24; p= 0.001) and scores remained as a significant predictor (p= 0.031) when controlling for other relevant variables in a multivariate regression model (R2= 0.21; p < 0.001.) Conclusions Patient responses on the scale may have a modest role in predicting MRPs. The use of self

  15. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    PubMed

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors. PMID:21988480

  16. Dyadic Flexibility in Early Parent-Child Interactions: Relations with Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negativity and Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Albrecht, Erin C.; Kemp, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Lower levels of parent-child affective flexibility indicate risk for children's problem outcomes. This short-term longitudinal study examined whether maternal depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of dyadic affective flexibility and positive affective content in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5?years…

  17. Relations between Parenting and Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behaviour in Early Adolescence: Child Behaviour as Moderator and Predictor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we investigated relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour during early adolescence. First, we examined parenting effects on problem behaviour, including child behaviour as a moderator. Second, we examined child behaviour as predictor of parenting, also including moderator effects.…

  18. The Longitudinal Relation between Childhood Autistic Traits and Psychosexual Problems in Early Adolescence: The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general…

  19. Behaviour Problems, Maternal Internalising Symptoms and Family Relations in Families of Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. K.; Seltzer, M. M.; Greenberg, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have linked the behaviour problems of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) to maternal well-being, but less is known about how behaviour problems relate to important family factors such as marital satisfaction and family cohesion. Methods: Married mothers of 115 adolescents and adults with FXS completed questionnaires and…

  20. Relations between Behavior Problems in Classroom Social and Learning Situations and Peer Social Competence in Head Start and Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Dominguez, Ximena; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The relations between early emotional and behavioral problems in classroom situations and peer social competence were examined for a representative sample of urban Head Start children. Behavior problems were assessed within the context of routine peer, teacher, and structured learning classroom situations early in the preschool year. Two path…

  1. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  2. PTSD Symptom Severities, Interpersonal Traumas, and Benzodiazepines Are Associated with Substance-Related Problems in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guina, Jeffrey; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Goldberg, Adam J.; Farnsworth, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma is commonly associated with substance-related problems, yet associations between specific substances and specific posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSSs) are understudied. We hypothesized that substance-related problems are associated with PTSS severities, interpersonal traumas, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma histories (n = 472), we used logistic regression to examine substance-related problems in general (primary, confirmatory analysis), as well as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems specifically (secondary, exploratory analyses) in relation to demographics, trauma type, PTSSs, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, several factors were significantly associated with substance-related problems, particularly benzodiazepines (AOR = 2.78; 1.99 for alcohol, 2.42 for tobacco, 8.02 for illicit drugs), DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis (AOR = 1.92; 2.38 for alcohol, 2.00 for tobacco, 2.14 for illicit drugs), most PTSSs (especially negative beliefs, recklessness, and avoidance), and interpersonal traumas (e.g., assaults and child abuse). Conclusion: In this clinical sample, there were consistent and strong associations between several trauma-related variables and substance-related problems, consistent with our hypotheses. We discuss possible explanations and implications of these findings, which we hope will stimulate further research, and improve screening and treatment. PMID:27517964

  3. Green's functions for dislocations in bonded strips and related crack problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, R.; Luo, H. A.

    1990-01-01

    Green's functions are derived for the plane elastostatics problem of a dislocation in a bimaterial strip. Using these fundamental solutions as kernels, various problems involving cracks in a bimaterial strip are analyzed using singular integral equations. For each problem considered, stress intensity factors are calculated for several combinations of the parameters which describe loading, geometry and material mismatch.

  4. Green's functions for dislocations in bonded strips and related crack problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, R.; Luo, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    Green's functions are derived for the plane elastostatics problem of a dislocation in a bimaterial strip. Using these fundamental solutions as kernels, various problems involving cracks in a bimaterial strip are analyzed using singular integral equations. For each problem considered, stress intensity factors are calculated for several combinations of the parameters which describe loading, geometry and material mismatch.

  5. On the Spontaneous Discovery of a Mathematical Relation during Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, James A.; Bangert, Ashley S.

    2004-01-01

    People spontaneously discover new representations during problem solving. Discovery of a mathematical representation is of special interest, because it shows that the underlying structure of the problem has been extracted. In the current study, participants solved gear-system problems as part of a game. Although none of the participants initially…

  6. Word Problem Solving Tasks in Textbooks and Their Relation to Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Yan Ping

    2007-01-01

    The author examined the potential influence of learning opportunities provided in 1 U.S. and 1 Chinese mathematics textbook series on students' problem-solving performance. Also, the author studied learning opportunities provided in the textbooks by analyzing word problem distribution across various problem types, as well as the potential…

  7. Adopted Children's Problem Behavior Is Significantly Related to Their Ego Resiliency, Ego Control, and Sociometric Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffer, Femmie; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Many studies have documented that adopted children are at higher risk for behavior problems, but less is known about the correlates of their problem behavior. Method: The correlates of parent-reported and teacher-reported problem behavior in 7-year-old internationally adopted children (N = 176) were investigated by examining these…

  8. Entropy stability theory for difference approximations of nonlinear conservation laws and related time-dependent problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadmor, Eitan

    We study the entropy stability of difference approximations to nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws, and related time-dependent problems governed by additional dissipative and dispersive forcing terms. We employ a comparison principle as the main tool for entropy stability analysis, comparing the entropy production of a given scheme against properly chosen entropy-conservative schemes.To this end, we introduce general families of entropy-conservative schemes, interesting in their own right. The present treatment of such schemes extends our earlier recipe for construction of entropy-conservative schemes, introduced in Tadmor (1987b). The new families of entropy-conservative schemes offer two main advantages, namely, (i) their numerical fluxes admit an explicit, closed-form expression, and (ii) by a proper choice of their path of integration in phase space, we can distinguish between different families of waves within the same computational cell; in particular, entropy stability can be enforced on rarefactions while keeping the sharp resolution of shock discontinuities.A comparison with the numerical viscosities associated with entropy-conservative schemes provides a useful framework for the construction and analysis of entropy-stable schemes. We employ this framework for a detailed study of entropy stability for a host of first- and second-order accurate schemes. The comparison approach yields a precise characterization of the entropy stability of semi-discrete schemes for both scalar problems and systems of equations.We extend these results to fully discrete schemes. Here, spatial entropy dissipation is balanced by the entropy production due to time discretization with a suffciently small time-step, satisfying a suitable CFL condition. Finally, we revisit the question of entropy stability for fully discrete schemes using a different approach based on homotopy arguments. We prove entropy stability under optimal CFL conditions.

  9. Control methods for mitigating biomass ash-related problems in fluidized beds.

    PubMed

    Vamvuka, D; Zografos, D; Alevizos, G

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment of biomass combustion technologies in the Cretan energy system will play an important role and will contribute to the local development. The main biomass fuels of Crete are the agricultural residues olive kernel and olive tree wood. Future applications of these biofuels may create, among others, operational problems related to ash effects. In this regard, the thermal behavior of the ashes during lab-scale fluidized bed combustion tests was examined, in terms of slagging/fouling and agglomeration of bed material. Control methodologies for mitigating ash problems were applied, such as leaching the raw fuels with water and using different mineral additives during combustion. The ashes and the bed material were characterized in terms of mineralogical, chemical and morphological analyses and the slagging/fouling and agglomeration propensities were determined. The results showed that fly ashes were rich in Ca, Si and Fe minerals and contained substantial amounts of alkali, falling within the range of "certain or probable slagging/fouling". Leaching of the raw fuels with water resulted in a significant reduction of the problematic elements K, Na, Cl and S in the fly ashes. The use of fuel additives decreased the concentrations of alkali and iron minerals in the fly ashes. With clay additives calcium compounds were enriched in the bottom ash, while with carbonate additives they were enriched in the fly ash. Fuel additives or water leaching reduced the slagging/fouling potential due to alkali. Under the conditions of the combustion tests, no signs of ash deposition or bed agglomeration were noticed. PMID:17826986

  10. Environmental pollutions associated to conflicts in Iraq and related health problems.

    PubMed

    Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-06-01

    Several wars and a 13-year embargo as well as several years of civil war with the recent war on terrorism have cumulatively damaged Iraq's land, air, water, and health infrastructure. The sand particles in Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military actions that disassemble the desert sands and turn it into light dust. This dust reaches cities as dust storms that effect most Iraqi cities. The presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the Iraqi food chain is documented by measuring the uranium in animals organs in different Iraqi cities with the highest concentration in the south of Iraq. One of the major sites of pollution in Iraq is the Al-twaitha nuclear research site. The nuclear research reactors were destroyed in the 1991 Gulf War. Barrels containing radioactive materials and sources were stolen from the site in the 2003 war. This resulted in considerable radioactive pollution at the site and in its surrounding areas. Soil sample have been found to be contaminated by Cs-137and Co-60. Cancer and birth defects are most associated with the environmental pollution caused by the conflicts. All studies related to this by Iraqi researchers are discussed in this review. From studying the Iraqi scientific publications, we can conclude that Basrah, Baghdad, Faluja, Mosul and Thi-Qar are the most effected cities in Iraq. This review concludes that the presence of a heavily contaminated environment with war related pollutants in most of the Iraqi cities needs much attention and huge effort to reduce the related health problems. PMID:26512425

  11. Diabetic foot-related problems: improving outcomes in the dialysis population using a foot assessment screening tri-algorithm (FAST).

    PubMed

    Crozier, Louise

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine the effect of diabetic foot checks on patient awareness, satisfaction, and outcomes. An algorithm was developed based on evidence-based practice, best practice guidelines, and current literature that can be used by nurses and medical staff in the management of foot-related problems in patients with diabetes on dialysis. An educational resource guide was also developed for use when education is required for foot-related problems. PMID:25244893

  12. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  13. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  14. Stress and coping mediate relationships between contingent and global self-esteem and alcohol-related problems among college drinkers.

    PubMed

    Tomaka, Joe; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that contingent self-esteem would be positively associated with alcohol-related problems and that global self-esteem would be negatively associated with such problems. It also examined the hypothesis that high stress and maladaptive coping would mediate these relationships. A sample of college students (n = 399) who were predominantly Hispanic (89%) completed measures of global and contingent self-esteem; stress and coping; and alcohol-related problems. Correlational and latent variable analyses indicated that contingent self-esteem positively related to alcohol-related problems, with maladaptive coping mediating this relationship. In contrast, global self-esteem negatively related to such problems, a relationship that was also mediated by maladaptive coping and stress. Overall, the results highlight the potentially harmful consequences of contingent self-worth and the adaptive nature of non-contingent self-esteem. They also demonstrate the important role that coping plays in mediating self-esteem's associations with alcohol-related problems. PMID:22930540

  15. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 13, Number 2. Spring 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Concern about responding to behavior problems and promoting social and emotional learning are related and are embedded into the arenas we frame to encompass the content of student/learning supports. How these concerns are addressed is critical to the type of school and classroom climate that emerges and to student engagement and re-engagement in…

  16. The Relation of Parental Guilt Induction to Child Internalizing Problems When a Caregiver Has a History of Depression.

    PubMed

    Rakow, Aaron; Forehand, Rex; McKee, Laura; Coffelt, Nicole; Champion, Jennifer; Fear, Jessica; Compas, Bruce

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parental guilt induction and child internalizing problems in families where a caregiver had experienced depression. A total of 107 families, including 146 children (age 9-15), participated. Child-reported parental guilt induction, as well as three more traditionally studied parenting behaviors (warmth/involvement, monitoring, and discipline), were assessed, as was parent-report of child internalizing problem behavior. Linear Mixed Models Analysis indicated parental guilt induction was positively related to child internalizing problems in the context of the remaining three parenting behaviors. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention parenting programs are considered. PMID:20090863

  17. The Relation of Parental Guilt Induction to Child Internalizing Problems When a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rakow, Aaron; McKee, Laura; Coffelt, Nicole; Champion, Jennifer; Fear, Jessica; Compas, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parental guilt induction and child internalizing problems in families where a caregiver had experienced depression. A total of 107 families, including 146 children (age 9–15), participated. Child-reported parental guilt induction, as well as three more traditionally studied parenting behaviors (warmth/involvement, monitoring, and discipline), were assessed, as was parent-report of child internalizing problem behavior. Linear Mixed Models Analysis indicated parental guilt induction was positively related to child internalizing problems in the context of the remaining three parenting behaviors. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention parenting programs are considered. PMID:20090863

  18. It takes more than one for parenting: How do maternal temperament and child's conduct problems relate to maternal parenting behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how individual differences in maternal temperament and child problem behaviors correlate with observed maternal positivity and negativity toward the child. The sample consisted of 153 mothers of 3-to-7 year old children. Mothers reported their own temperament (surgency, orienting sensitivity, effortful control and negative affect) and their children's problem behaviors. Maternal behavior was videotaped in a set of structured interaction tasks with the child during a lab visit. Results indicated that children's problem behaviors were related to less maternal positivity and more negativity. In addition, observed maternal negativity was associated with less maternal effortful control and more negative affect. In contrast, maternal temperament was unrelated to observed maternal positivity toward the child. Furthermore, maternal temperament was related to mothers' positivity and negativity but only for children high in problem behaviors. The findings implicate that child problem behaviors may interact with maternal temperament in explaining variance in caregiving positivity and negativity. PMID:25089066

  19. The relations of temperament reactivity and effortful control to children's adjustment problems in China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Lengua, Liliana J; Wang, Yun

    2009-05-01

    The relations of parents' and teachers' reports of temperament anger-irritability, positive emotionality, and effortful control (attention focusing and inhibitory control) to children's externalizing and internalizing problems were examined in Chinese (N = 382) and U.S. (N = 322) samples of school-age children. Results suggested that in both cultures, low effortful control and high anger-irritability were associated with high externalizing problems, although the relations were stronger in the Chinese sample than in the U.S. sample. Low positive emotionality was associated with high internalizing problems in both cultures. However, high positive emotionality was associated with noncomorbid externalizing problems (teachers' reports) in the Chinese sample but not in the U.S. sample. These findings suggest that there are considerable cross-cultural similarities in the temperament-adjustment associations, although some cross-cultural differences might exist. Implications of the findings for the detection and intervention of adjustment problems in Chinese children are discussed. PMID:19413428

  20. Identification of drug-related problems of elderly patients discharged from hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Abeer; Mast, M Ruth; Nijpels, Giel; Elders, Petra JM; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug-related problems (DRP) following hospital discharge are common among elderly patients using multiple drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of DRP in these patients using a specific tool for the identification of DRP by community pharmacists. Methods An observational study involving 340 patients aged over 60 years using at least five prescription drugs and discharged from hospital. The occurrence of DRP was assessed by means of an identification tool specifically developed for use by community pharmacists, including a semistructured patient interview and a checklist of common DRP. Results In total, 992 potential DRP were observed in the 340 patients (mean 2.9 ± 1.7). No drug prescribed but clear indication, an unnecessarily long duration of treatment, dose too low, and incorrect drug selection were the DRP most commonly observed. Ten percent of DRP occurring in 71 patients were drug–drug interactions. The number of DRP was related to the number of drugs prescribed. Frequently occurring DRP found using the patient interview were fear of side effects and no or insufficient knowledge of drug use. Medication of patients discharged from the pulmonary department and of those with type 2 diabetes was particularly associated with occurrence of DRP. Conclusion Following hospital discharge, DRP occur frequently among elderly patients using five or more drugs for the treatment of chronic disease. The number of DRP increased with the number of drugs used. An important task for community pharmacists is to identify, resolve, and prevent the occurrence of DRP among this patient group. Since DRP are associated with an increased risk of hospital readmissions, morbidity, and mortality, it is very important to develop intervention strategies to resolve and prevent DRP. PMID:24523581

  1. Speed and Complexity Characterize Attention Problems in Children with Localization-Related Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Madison; Terwilliger, Virginia; Scheller, Alexandra; Sepeta, Leigh; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Gaillard, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Children with epilepsy (EPI) have a higher rate of ADHD (28–70%) than typically developing (TD) children (5–10%); however, attention is multidimensional. Thus, we aimed to characterize the profile of attention difficulties in children with epilepsy. Methods Seventy-five children with localization-related epilepsy ages 6–16 and 75 age-matched controls were evaluated using multimodal, multidimensional measures of attention including direct performance and parent ratings of attention as well as intelligence testing. We assessed group differences across attention measures, determined if parent rating predicted performance on attention measures, and examined if epilepsy characteristics were associated with attention skills. Results The EPI group performed worse than the TD group on timed and complex attention aspects of attention (p<.05), while performance on simple visual and simple auditory attention tasks was comparable. Children with EPI were 12 times as likely as TD children to have clinically elevated symptoms of inattention as rated by parents, but ratings were a weak predictor of attention performance. Earlier age of onset was associated with slower motor speed (p<.01), but no other epilepsy-related clinical characteristics were associated with attention skills. Significance This study clarifies the nature of the attention problems in pediatric epilepsy, which may be under recognized. Children with EPI had difficulty with complex attention and rapid response, not simple attention. As such, they may not exhibit difficulty until later in primary school when demands increase. Parent report with standard ADHD screening tools may underdetect these higher order attention difficulties. Thus, monitoring through direct neuropsychological performance is recommended. PMID:25940056

  2. Revisiting Data Related to the Age of Onset and Developmental Course of Female Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Children who exhibit persistently elevated levels of conduct problems (CP) from early childhood, so called “early-starters,” are known to be at increased risk for continued CP throughout middle childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Theoretical and empirical work has focused on this subgroup of children characterized by similar risk factors, an early age of onset, and a persistent developmental course of CP. However, females were historically neglected from this literature. Although research on female CP has increased, conclusions drawn from limited prior work continue to predominate. The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the updated literature to determine the percentage of females who show the early-starter CP pattern relative to two other trajectories often theorized to be more characteristic of females: early-starting desisting and adolescent onset CP. The findings suggest that a subgroup of females exhibits an early-starting and persistent CP pattern, while a separate group of females demonstrates an onset of CP in adolescence. In addition, although it has been argued that females with childhood CP are not likely to show CP into adolescence and adulthood, evidence for early-starting desisting CP was inconsistent. The results are discussed with respect to implications for developmental taxonomy theory and future basic research in the area of CP development, as well as intervention efforts. PMID:23076722

  3. Party package travel: alcohol use and related problems in a holiday resort: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien; Schliewe, Sanna; Reinholdt, Tine

    2008-01-01

    Background People travelling abroad tend to increase their use of alcohol and other drugs. In the present study we describe organized party activities in connection with young tourists' drinking, and the differences between young people travelling with and without organized party activities. Methods We conducted ethnographic observations and a cross-sectional survey in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria. Results The behaviour of the guides from two travel agencies strongly promoted heavy drinking, but discouraged illicit drug use. Even after controlling for several potential confounders, young people who travelled with such "party package travel agencies" were more likely to drink 12 or more units when going out. In univariate analyses, they were also more likely to get into fights, but were not more likely to seek medical assistance or medical assistance for an accident or an alcohol-related problem. After controlling for confounders, the association between type of travel agency and getting into fights was no longer significant. Short-term consequences of drinking in the holiday resort did not differ between party package travellers and ordinary package travellers. Conclusion There may be a small impact of party package travels on young people's drinking. Strategies could be developed used to minimise the harm associated with both party package travel and other kinds of travel where heavy substance use is likely to occur. PMID:18840273

  4. Collision Index and Stability of Elliptic Relative Equilibria in Planar {n} -body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xijun; Ou, Yuwei

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that a planar central configuration of the {n} -body problem gives rise to solutions where each particle moves on a specific Keplerian orbit while the totality of the particles move on a homographic motion. When the eccentricity {e} of the Keplerian orbit belongs in {[0,1)} , following Meyer and Schmidt, we call such solutions elliptic relative equilibria (shortly, ERE). In order to study the linear stability of ERE in the near-collision case, namely when {1-e} is small enough, we introduce the collision index for planar central configurations. The collision index is a Maslov-type index for heteroclinic orbits and orbits parametrised by half-lines that, according to the definition given by Hu and Portaluri (An index theory for unbounded motions of Hamiltonian systems, Hu and Portaluri (2015, preprint)), we shall refer to as half-clinic orbits and whose definition in this context, is essentially based on a blow up technique in the case {e=1} . We get the fundamental properties of collision index and approximation theorems. As applications, we give some new hyperbolic criteria and prove that, generically, the ERE of minimal central configurations are hyperbolic in the near-collision case, and we give a detailed analysis of Euler collinear orbits in the near-collision case.

  5. Midwives' Experiences in Providing Care and Counselling to Women with Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Isman, Elisabeth; Mahmoud Warsame, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to elucidate midwives experiences in providing care and counselling to women with FGM related problems. Setting. The study was conducted at a maternity clinic in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Method. A qualitative, inductive study were performed with eight midwives living in Somaliland. The interviews had semi-structured questions. Content analysis was used for the analysis. Findings. The main findings of the present study were how midwives are challenged by culture and religion when providing FGM counselling. The most prominent challenge is the perception that FGM is an important part of the culture and from this point of view the midwives work is apprehended as interfering and subverting the Somali culture. Having personal experience of FGM emerged as a benefit when counselling women. Conclusion. There is a contradiction between the professional actions of performing FGM despite a personal belief against FGM. Midwives as a professional group could be important agents of change and further research is needed about the midwives role in this process. PMID:24163698

  6. Reliability of screening tests for health-related problems among low-income elderly.

    PubMed

    Lino, Valéria Teresa Saraiva; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Camacho, Luiz Antônio Bastos; Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro

    2014-12-01

    Screening tests for health problems can identify elderly people who should undergo the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, enabling the planning of actions to prevent disability. The aim of this study was to analyze the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of self-assessment questions (SAQ) and performance tests (PT) recommended in Brazil, in a sample of low-income elderly people, through an exploratory study performed with 165 elderly assessed by two professionals on different days. IRR was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables and the kappa statistic for categorical ones. The IRR for the PT (muscle strength, mobility body mass index, vision) was excellent and presented ICC values greater than 0.75. By contrast, the IRR for SAQ (urinary incontinence, self-perceived health and hearing impairment) was intermediate. Only the fall-related item presented a good IRR. In this study single SAQ had poor reliability when compared to PT, suggesting the necessity of revision of subjective self-assessment items with low reproducibility before implementation. PMID:26247997

  7. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alcohol use, and perhaps more importantly, had a direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Further, unplanned drinking partially mediated the effects of negative urgency on alcohol-related problems. In study 2, we examined whether unplanned drinking accounts for unique variance in alcohol-related outcomes when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. With a sample of 170 college students, we replicated the findings of Study 1 in that the Unplanned Drinking Scale had a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for alcohol use; further, this effect was maintained when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. Limitations include the modest sample sizes and the cross-sectional design. Future directions for testing the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior are proposed. PMID:23276312

  8. Relations of parenting and temperament to Chinese children's experience of negative life events, coping efficacy, and externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and temperament-externalizing relations. Parents reported on their own parenting. Parents and teachers rated temperament. Children reported on negative life events and coping efficacy. Parents, teachers, children, or peers rated children's externalizing problems. Authoritative and authoritarian parenting and anger/frustration uniquely predicted externalizing problems. The relation between authoritarian parenting and externalizing was mediated by children's coping efficacy and negative school events. The results suggest there is some cross-cultural universality in the developmental pathways for externalizing problems. PMID:18489409

  9. Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children’s Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2009-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children’s externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. Children’s experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting and temperament-externalizing relations. Parents reported on their own parenting. Parents and teachers rated temperament. Children reported on negative life events and coping efficacy. Parents, teachers, children, or peers rated children’s externalizing problems. Authoritative and authoritarian parenting and anger/frustration uniquely predicted externalizing problems. The relation between authoritarian parenting and externalizing was mediated by children’s coping efficacy and negative school events. The results suggest there is some cross-cultural universality in the developmental pathways for externalizing problems. PMID:18489409

  10. Prevalence of excessive or problem drinkers among patients attending somatic outpatient clinics: a study of alcohol related medical care.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, J; Magnusson, P H

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of alcohol related morbidity was studied among 2038 patients attending somatic outpatient clinics. A further 76 patients had refused the study, giving an overall drop out rate of 3.6%. Several methods were combined so as to detect as many patients with problem drinking as possible. According to the criteria and definitions employed 17% of men (confidence interval 15% to 19%) and 4% of women (confidence interval 3% to 5%) were excessive consumers of alcohol or problem drinkers. The highest proportion of such patients--that is, 17%--was noted in the emergency rooms (27% of men, 8% of women). At other clinics the proportions varied from 11% to 17% of men and from 2% to 4% of women. The strongest relations between overconsumption of alcohol and consultation at the clinic were among patients attending the medical outpatient clinic and the emergency rooms; in 86% (confidence interval 75% to 97%) and 88% (confidence interval 81% to 95%) of problem drinkers attending these clinics, respectively, alcohol was related to the consultation. Consultations were related to alcohol in 82% of women with excessive or problem drinking and 73% of men defined in this way. There was a tendency to a higher proportion of men with excessive or problem drinking in the age group 40-49 years. These findings show that among patients classified as excessive or problem drinkers attending somatic outpatient clinics there was a close relation between alcohol consumption and utilisation of medical resources, especially in women. PMID:3117173

  11. A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations between Shyness, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Traylor, Zachary K.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over two years. Methods First-year college student drinkers (N=818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every six months over a two year period. Results Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. PMID:26207856

  12. The green eyed monster in the bottle: Relationship contingent self-esteem, romantic jealousy, and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. PMID:26046402

  13. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as if ... related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  14. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  15. Anxiety, Fears, Phobias, and Related Problems: Intervention and Resources for School Aged Youth. An Introductory Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This introductory packet provides an introduction to anxiety problems, framing the discussion within the classification scheme developed by the American Pediatric Association. The variations in degree of problem are discussed with respect to interventions that range from environmental accommodations to behavioral strategies to medication. The…

  16. The Relative Value of Reading Ability and IQ as Predictors of Teacher-Reported Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Warren R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of data obtained from 779 New Zealand children showed that family adversity and preschool-age intelligence quotient predicted problem behavior during the first year at school, but reading scores accounted for a larger proportion of the variance in later behavior problem scores than did school-age intelligence quotients. (Author/JDD)

  17. Affect and Mood Problems Related to School Aged Youth. An Introductory Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This introductory packet provides an introduction to affect and mood problems, framing the discussion within the classification scheme developed by the American Pediatric Association. Included is information on the symptoms and severity of a variety of affect and mood problems, as well as information on interventions ranging from environmental…

  18. Problem Behavior and Heart Rate Reactivity in Adopted Adolescents: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…

  19. Space Mathematics, A Resource for Teachers Outlining Supplementary Space-Related Problems in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Thomas D.; And Others

    This compilation of 138 problems illustrating applications of high school mathematics to various aspects of space science is intended as a resource from which the teacher may select questions to supplement his regular course. None of the problems require a knowledge of calculus or physics, and solutions are presented along with the problem…

  20. Gender Differences in the Relation between Mothering Behaviors and Child-Behavior Problems among Hispanic Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Mills, Britain

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of an examination of gender differences in behavior problems and a prediction of their changes from 2.5 to 3.5 years from mothering qualities among 209 low-income Hispanic children. Externalizing behaviors declined over this time somewhat more for girls than for boys. Fewer externalizing behavior problems at age 3.5 were…