Cox, Rebecca D.
This article considers the risk of failing college and how the fear of failure shapes students' behavior. Drawing on a semester-long study of students and instructors in a community college English composition course, this analysis highlights the potential for students to undermine their own educational goals in the absence of active intervention…
This paper describes a self-study in which I, as a teacher educator, seek to understand how to respond effectively to my pre-service students' fears about learning and teaching primary mathematics. I studied my students' response to a new mathematics methods course that is tied to practicum. Results include the importance of listening closely to…
Labianca, Dominick A.
This article describes an approach to minimizing the "fear factor" in a chemistry course for the nonscience major, and also addresses relevant applications to other science courses, including biology, geology, and physics. The approach emphasizes forensic science and affords students the opportunity to hone their analytical skills in an…
Bledsoe, T. Scott; Baskin, Janice J.
Understanding fear, its causes, and its impact on students can be important for educators who seek ways to help students manage their fears. This paper explores common types of student fears such as performance-based anxiety, fear of failure, fear of being laughed at, and cultural components of fear that impact learning. The cognitive, emotional,…
Perrin, Jeffrey; O'Neil, Jennifer; Grimes, Ashley; Bryson, Laura
While previous research has examined the various relationships between fear and learning in K-12 academic settings, the relationship is surprisingly unexplored amongst law students. Using a descriptive qualitative approach, we examine the role fear plays in law students' learning experiences. Through a series of semi-structured interviews a few…
Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Bleuer, Jeanne C., Ed.
This document consists of two modules extracted from a six-module larger work. Module 1 presents six articles on the topic of "helping students to cope with fears and crises." Module 2 contains 17 articles on "programs and practices for helping students cope with fears and crises." Article titles and authors are as follows: (1)…
Alkhazaleh, Ziad M; Mahasneh, Ahmad M
Background Fear of failure (FoF) is the motivation to avoid failure in achievement tests, and involves cognitive, behavioral, and emotional experiences. Aims The primary purpose of this study was to determine the level of FoF among students at The Hashemite University, Jordan. We were also interested in identifying the difference in the level of FoF between the sexes, the academic level, and grade-point average (GPA). Method A total of 548 students participated in the study by completing the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory. Descriptive statistics (mean and SD), independent sample t-test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to analyze the data collected. Results The results indicated the overall mean FoF to be −0.34. There were also significant differences between male and female students’ level of fear in experiencing shame and embarrassment. Significant differences were found between the four academic level groups in the following fear categories: experiencing shame and embarrassment, important others losing interest, and fear of upsetting important others. The results also showed significant differences between the GPA level groups in the following fear categories: experiencing shame and embarrassment, diminishing of one’s self-esteem, having an uncertain future, fear of important others losing interest, and fear of upsetting important others. Conclusion FoF may be an important consideration when trying to understand student behavior in the university. Moreover, the level of FoF differs between sexes, academic levels, and GPA levels. PMID:27099537
Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick
Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…
Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin
A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform.
Contends that many violin and viola students develop preferences based on fear of using more difficult fingering techniques. Recommends that students be exposed to advanced techniques earlier in a matter-of-fact approach. Includes a list of four books recommended for further reading. (CFR)
Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda
Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…
"Coming out" remains a very major decision for a gay or lesbian medical student. Canadian students interviewed for this article say they have feared being ostracized by their peers or encountering bias among older faculty members. A recent survey by the US-based Gay and Lesbian Medical Association found that 59% of gay and lesbian physician and medical student respondents have experienced job-related discrimination because of their sexuality. However, other gay/lesbian physicians and students are finding that their coming out is being greeted with tolerance, acceptance and understanding. Images p973-a p973-b p975-a p976-a PMID:8837549
"Coming out" remains a very major decision for a gay or lesbian medical student. Canadian students interviewed for this article say they have feared being ostracized by their peers or encountering bias among older faculty members. A recent survey by the US-based Gay and Lesbian Medical Association found that 59% of gay and lesbian physician and medical student respondents have experienced job-related discrimination because of their sexuality. However, other gay/lesbian physicians and students are finding that their coming out is being greeted with tolerance, acceptance and understanding.
National security demands that "illegals" must be kept out of the country. Terrorists may be entering alongside Mexicans jumping immigration queues. So explain members of the self-appointed Minuteman Civil Defense Corps as they and 25 Vassar College students trudge a migrant trail across a parched, cactus-punctuated desert near Douglas,…
Higgins, Louise T.
To compare the culturally acquired aspects of fears in two different cultures, the author gave an augmented version of the I. M. Marks and A. M. Mathews Fear Scale (1979) to 50 female students in China and 49 female students in England. When the rank ordering of the fears measured in both groups was compared, the author found a high positive…
Caraway, Kirsten; Tucker, Carolyn M.; Reinke, Wendy M.; Hall, Charles
The present study examined the degree of association of three specific self-variables (self-efficacy, goal orientation, and fear of failure) with school engagement for high school students. The results and implications for intervention and future research are addressed. (Contains 30 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)
Van Dusen, Ben
Too often, physics students are beset by feelings of failure and isolation rather than experiencing the creative joys of discovery that physics has to offer. This dissertation research was founded on the desire of a teacher to make physics class exciting and motivating to his students. This work explores how various aspects of learning environments interact with student motivation. This work uses qualitative and quantitative methods to explore how students are motivated to engage in physics and how they feel about themselves while engaging in physics. The collection of four studies in this dissertation culminates in a sociocultural perspective on motivation and identity. This perspective uses two extremes of how students experience physics as a lens for understanding motivation: fear and self-preservation versus integrity and self-expression. Rather than viewing motivation as a property of the student, or viewing students as inherently interested or disinterested in physics, the theoretical perspective on motivation and identity helps examine features of the learning environments that determine how students' experience themselves through physics class. This perspective highlights the importance of feeling a sense of belonging in the context of physics and the power that teachers have in shaping students' motivation through the construction of their classroom learning environments. Findings demonstrate how different ways that students experience themselves in physics class impact their performance and interest in physics. This dissertation concludes with a set of design principles that can foster integration and integrity among students in physics learning environments.
Breast Neoplasms; Breast Cancer; Breast Carcinoma; Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Cancer of Breast; Mammary Neoplasm, Human; Human Mammary Carcinoma; Malignant Tumor of Breast; Mammary Cancer; Mammary Carcinoma; Anxiety; Fear; Neoplasm Remission, Spontaneous; Spontaneous Neoplasm Regression; Regression, Spontaneous Neoplasm; Remission, Spontaneous Neoplasm; Spontaneous Neoplasm Remission
Putwain, David W.; Symes, Wendy
Aim: This study examined whether teachers' use of fear appeals in the classroom, attempts to motivate students to perform well in high-stakes examinations by highlighting the educational, and/or occupational consequences of failure did indeed motivate students or whether it contributed to an increase in worry, anxiety, and fear of failure. Sample:…
Mondragón-Sánchez, Edna Johana; Cordero, Erika Alejandra Torre; Espinoza, María de Lourdes Morales; Landeros-Olvera, Erick Alberto
OBJECTIVE: to compare the level of fear of death in nursing students and professionals. METHOD: this was a comparative-transversal study examining 643 nursing students and professionals from a third-level institution. A random sampling method was employed, and the sample size was calculated by power analysis. The study was developed during three stages: the first stage consisted of the application of a pilot test, the second stage involved the recruitment of the participants, and the third stage measured the participants' responses on the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale. RESULTS: the average fear of death was moderate-high (-X=3.19±0.55), and the highest score was observed for the fear of the death of others (-X=3.52±0.20). Significant differences in the perceptions of fear of death were observed among the students of the first three years (p<.05). However, no significant differences were observed among the first- and fourth-year students and professionals (p>.05). CONCLUSIONS: it is possible that first-year students exhibit a reduced fear of death because they have not had the experience of hospital practice. Students in their second and third year may have a greater fear of death because they have cared for terminal patients. However, it appears that greater confidence is acquired over time, and thus fourth-year students and professionals exhibit less fear of death than second- and third-year students (p<.05). PMID:26039304
Holloway, John H.
Reviews studies on the plight and needs of homeless students. Includes reports on family mobility and school attendance, dysfunctional families, and school intervention strategies. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)
Shimoni, Rena; Barrington, Gail; Wilde, Russ; Henwood, Scott
Two interrelated studies were undertaken to assist Alberta post-secondary institutions with meeting challenges associated with providing services to diverse distributed students that are of similar quality to services provided to traditional classroom students. The first study identified and assessed best practices in distributed learning; the…
Sagar, Sam S; Boardley, Ian D; Kavussanu, Maria
BACKGROUND. The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex differences have not been considered in fear of failure research. AIMS. To examine whether (a) fear of failure and sport experience predict antisocial behaviour in the university and sport contexts in student athletes, and whether this prediction is the same in males and females; and (b) sex differences exist in antisocial behaviour and fear of failure. SAMPLE. British university student athletes (n= 176 male; n= 155 female; M(age) = 20.11 years). METHOD. Participants completed questionnaires assessing fear of failure, sport experience, and antisocial behaviour in both contexts. RESULTS. (a) Fear of failure and sport experience positively predicted antisocial behaviour in university and sport and the strength of these predictions did not differ between males and females; (b) females reported higher levels of fear of devaluing one's self-estimate than males whereas males reported higher levels of fear of important others losing interest than females. Males engaged more frequently than females in antisocial behaviour in both contexts. CONCLUSIONS. Fear of failure and sport experience may be important considerations when trying to understand antisocial behaviour in student athletes in education and sport; moreover, the potential effect of overall fear of failure and of sport experience on this frequency does not differ by sex. The findings make an important contribution to the fear of failure and morality literatures.
Winder, Roger; Kathpalia, Sujata S.; Koo, Swit Ling
The guiding principle behind university writing centres is to focus on the process of writing rather than the finished product, prioritising higher order concerns related to organisation and argumentation of texts rather than lower order concerns of grammar and punctuation. Using survey-based data, this paper examines students' concerns regarding…
This paper reflects on insights that emerged from the findings of a qualitative study conducted by the author in 2007 with third year management students from an Australian university on their perceptions in relation to business ethics. The findings revealed an attitude of cynicism with regard to the application of ethical principles beyond…
The USDA Delta Obesity Prevention Research Project seeks to identify and evaluate dietary and physical activity patterns in African American students to develop an educational intervention that is nutritionally adequate and culturally relevant for 18- to 24-year-old African-American university stude...
Cheng, Karen Kow Yip; Beigi, Amir Biglar
Inclusive education can help facilitate the inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream schools. Inclusive education has proven to be a key benefit for disabled children as an end in itself and as a means to an end of greater social acceptance of difference and disability. However there needs to be greater awareness-raising measures at…
Park, Heather L.; Attenweiler, William J.; Rieck, Stacey M.
This project concerned the creation of an inventory for college students of treatment fears and obstacles to seeking mental health services. Unlike previous research, undergraduate participants generated a pool of items to measure fears of and obstacles to seeking services. Subsequent rational and statistical refinement resulted in a 29-item scale…
This study examines the relationship between student perceptions of university police and fear of crime through the utilization of a rational choice perspective. Over the last three decades, a plethora of research has explored fear of crime and factors related to its occurrence. However, a thorough review of the literature revealed a limited…
Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria
Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…
Fear appeals are persuasive messages that emphasize harmful physical or social consequences of failing to comply with message recommendations. Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) emphasizes cognitive or rational reactions to fear appeals and identifies four message components which initiate corresponding cognitive mediating processes of appraising…
Winkel, S.; Sullivan, J.; Jones, S.; Sullivan, K.; Hyland, B.; Pencer, J.; Colton, A.
The Inreach program combines the Deep River Science Academy (DRSA) 'learning through research' approach with state of the art communication technology to bring scientific research to high school classrooms. The Inreach program follows the DRSA teaching model where a university student tutor works on a research project with scientific staff at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. Participating high school classes are located across Canada. The high school students learn about the ongoing research activities via weekly web conferences. In order to engage the students and encourage participation in the conferences, themed exercises linked to the research project are provided to the students. The DRSA's Inreach program uses a cost-effective internet technology to reach a wide audience, in an interactive setting, without anyone leaving their desks or offices. An example Inreach research project is presented here: an investigation of the potential of the Canadian supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) concept to burn transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) to reduce the impact of used nuclear fuel. During this project a university student worked with AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) researchers on technical aspects of the project, and high school students followed their progress and learned about the composition, hazards, and disposition options for used nuclear fuel. Previous projects included the effects of tritium on cellular viability and neutron diffraction measurement of residual stresses in automobile engines.
Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs
Presents a section of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's, "Atoms for Peace," 1953 address to the United Nations General Assembly. Suggests using the document for classroom discussions of nuclear proliferation, emphasizing that using primary sources develops research skills, activates classroom discussions, citizenship, and creative…
Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo
The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…
Putwain, David W; Symes, Wendy
AIM. This study examined whether teachers' use of fear appeals in the classroom, attempts to motivate students to perform well in high-stakes examinations by highlighting the educational, and/or occupational consequences of failure did indeed motivate students or whether it contributed to an increase in worry, anxiety, and fear of failure. SAMPLE. A total of 132 secondary school students. METHOD. Self-report data were collected for teachers' use of fear appeals, test anxiety, and achievement goals in the context of Mathematics at the end of Years 10 and 11, the final 2 years of compulsory schooling. RESULTS. The frequency with which teachers were reported to make fear appeals was unrelated to future test anxiety and achievement goals. When fear appeals were perceived to be threatening, however, they were related to an increase in the worry and tension components of test anxiety and increases in performance-avoidance and mastery-approach goals. CONCLUSION. Fear appeals appear to have competing positive and negative outcomes, resulting in both anxiety and a fear of failure, and a mastery-approach goal.
Long, Wesley; Millsap, C A
This replication extended R. A. Bouton et al.'s (1987) Fear of AIDS and Homophobia Scales to an ethnic sample of university students in an attempt to understand the relation between the expression of fear of HIV/AIDS and homophobia in ethnic groups. The results of the present study suggest that ethnic groups have a greater fear of HIV/AIDS, as they were more homophobic than the sample surveyed by R. A. Bouton et al. Although the correlation between fear of AIDS and homophobia was significant, results suggest the relation between them is weaker than it was 20 years prior to the present study. The ethnic populations represented in this study did not have greater fear of AIDS by gender. Considering ethnicity, female and male participants showed significant differences in homophobia. As in the original study, male participants were more homophobic than were female participants.
This article demonstrates, using conversation analysis, how students use address terms when reproaching the teacher. The data consist of videotaped lessons of Finnish as a second language in secondary school. The analyses show, first of all, that teacher-oriented address terms can be used separately as reproaches, in which case they are marked…
Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ellenburg, Jennifer S.; Acton, Olivia M.; Torrey, Gregory
This article discusses symptoms of students with Rett Syndrome, a disability in females characterized by the development of multiple specific deficits following a period of normal functioning after birth. Specific interventions for students with Rett syndrome are provided and address communication, stereotypic movements, self-injurious behaviors,…
Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann
One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…
Smidt, Esther; Bunk, Jennifer; Li, Rui; McAndrew, Ashley; Florence, Matthew
This quantitative study investigated student attitudes toward distance education at a midsized, mid-Atlantic state university in the United States. The research question was: Do feelings of excitement and fear moderate and/or mediate the relationship between online learning experiences and student opinions about the current state of online…
Rogerson, Christine; Scott, Elsje
This paper examines how students' experiences of learning to program are affected by feelings of fear, using a phenomenological approach to elicit rich descriptions of personal experiences from the narratives of final year undergraduate students. In the course of reviewing current work concerning learning or teaching programming, certain focal…
Li, Shu-Chu Sarrina
This study used Witte's extended parallel process model to examine the relationships between the use of fear appeals and college students' attitudes and behavioral intentions toward global warming. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was adopted. Three hundred forty-one college students from six communication courses at two universities…
Kenney, Dennis Jay; Watson, T. Steuart
Schools are the primary means by which society transmits skills, values, and concepts about self to youth. Without a safe and secure environment, it becomes virtually impossible for students to learn. This book reports on one project to change the atmosphere of fear in a high school. Eleventh grade students were taught the SARA (Scanning,…
Vidourek, Rebecca A; King, Keith A; Merianos, Ashley L
Bullying is a significant problem in U.S. schools. The purpose of the present study is to examine the impact student bullying has on avoidance behaviors and fear at school among youth nationwide. Data from the School Crime and Safety Survey was analyzed. Participants included 5,784 U.S. students in grades 5 through 12. Almost one-third of students reported being bullied in the past year. Females, junior high school students, and public school students were significantly more likely to report being bullied than their counterparts. Students who were bullied were significantly more likely than students who had not been bullied to report fear and avoidance. Prevention and intervention programs are needed to reduce bullying and negative consequences associated with the behavior.
Background Tobacco- and alcohol use are associated with psychological problems. Individuals with high dental fear also more often report other psychological problems than do those with lower level of dental fear. We evaluated the association between dental fear and tobacco- and alcohol use while controlling for age, gender, general mood and feelings in social situations. Methods The data (n = 8514) were collected from all universities in Finland with an electronic inquiry sent to all first-year university students. Dental fear was measured with the question: “How afraid are you of visiting a dentist?” with reply alternatives “Not at all”, “Somewhat” and “Very”. Regularity of tobacco use was determined with the question: “Do you smoke or use snuff?”, with reply alternatives “Not at all”, “Occasionally” and “Daily”. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used for determination of alcohol use; an AUDIT sum score of 8 or more indicated hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use. The statistical tests used were Chi-square tests and Multiple logistic regression analyses. Results When controlled for age, gender, alcohol use, general mood and feelings in social situations, those who used tobacco regularly were more likely to have high dental fear than were those who used tobacco occasionally or not at all. When controlled for age, gender, general mood and feelings in social situations, those with hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use were more likely to have high dental fear than were those with low-risk of alcohol use, the association between alcohol use and dental fear was not strong. When tobacco use was added into this model, alcohol use was no longer statistically significantly associated with dental fear. Conclusions The findings of this study support the suggestion that some people may have common vulnerability factors linked to tobacco use, alcohol use, and dental fear. PMID:25012119
Mohamed, Amin Marei Mosa
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a political culture of fear and power distance on student perceptions regarding the leader-member exchange theory (LMX) relationship with faculty, and their perceptions of nature of leadership in Libyan business schools. 650 Faculty members and students from business school in seven Libyan…
Keller, Cara M.
The purpose of this qualitative evaluative case study was to gain insight into how students perceived the efficacy of using games to address their science literacy concerns. Scientists in the United States are concerned with the lack of science literacy. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires proficiency in reading, mathematics, language arts, and science by the completion of the 2013--2014 school year. The high school participating in this study received substandard test scores on both the 2009 state graduation test and the science portion of the ACT test. The research question included understanding how students perceive the use of games in addressing their science literacy needs. The data from the student journals, field notes, and transcribed class discussions were analyzed using a 6 step method that included coding the data into main themes. The triangulated data were used to both gain insight into student perspective and inform game development. Constructivist theories formed the conceptual framework of the study. The findings of the study suggested that games may prove a valuable tool in science literacy attainment. The study indicated that games were perceived by the students to be effective tools in meeting their learning needs. Implications for positive social change included providing students, educators, and administrators with game resources that can be used to meet the science learning needs of struggling students, thereby improving science scores on high stakes tests.
Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Bonner, Jessica L.; Styron, Jennifer L.; Bridgeforth, James; Martin, Cecelia
The purpose of this study was to examine the preparation of teacher and principal candidates to address problems created in K-12 settings as a result of cyberbullying. Participants included teacher and principal preparation students. Findings indicated that respondents were familiar with the most common forms of cyberbullying and its impact on…
Keller, Cara M.
The purpose of this qualitative evaluative case study was to gain insight into how students perceived the efficacy of using games to address their science literacy concerns. Scientists in the United States are concerned with the lack of science literacy. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires proficiency in reading, mathematics, language…
Burcroff, Teri L.; Radogna, Daniel M.; Wright, Erika H.
This article describes how one inclusive middle school addressed needs of students with significant disabilities for functional community-referenced skills including clothing purchases, buying groceries, eating out, crossing the street, doing laundry, and using a microwave. Program development, program organization, and involvement of peers…
Shanley, Mary Kay; Johnston, Julia
There is this little secret college-bound and first-year college students outwardly deny: They are scared sick about going off to college. In the authors' interviews with 175 college students throughout the United States for "Survival Secrets of College Students" (Barron's, 2007) students talked--sometimes painfully--about what they wished they…
Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Fancovicova, Jana; Bahar, Mehmet
Human perceives invertebrates less positively than vertebrates because they are small and behaviourally and morphologically unfamiliar. This cross-cultural research focused on Slovakian (n=150) and Turkish (n=164) students' fear, disgust and perceived danger regarding 25 invertebrates [including 5 disease relevant adult insects, 5 ectoparasites, 5…
Putwain, David W.; Best, Natalie
Prior research has suggested that fear appeals used in the primary classroom prior to a test, messages emphasising the importance of the test and the consequences of failure, may have negative pupil outcomes by increasing anxiety and reducing test performance. This study aimed to examine whether this effect was stronger in those students who were…
Sacco, Vincent F.; Nakhaie, M. Reza
Data from the Canadian National Survey of Children and Youth are employed in order to investigate hypotheses regarding the relationships between students' social connections and their feelings of vulnerability to criminal danger. The analysis is preceded by a review of the research relating to school fear and social capital. Findings point to the…
Hagen, Brad; Awosoga, Oluwagbohunmi A; Kellett, Peter; Damgaard, Marie
This article describes the results of a qualitative research study evaluating nursing students' experiences of a mandatory course in applied statistics, and the perceived effectiveness of teaching methods implemented during the course. Fifteen nursing students in the third year of a four-year baccalaureate program in nursing participated in focus groups before and after taking the mandatory course in statistics. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis to reveal four major themes: (i) "one of those courses you throw out?," (ii) "numbers and terrifying equations," (iii) "first aid for statistics casualties," and (iv) "re-thinking curriculum." Overall, the data revealed that although nursing students initially enter statistics courses with considerable skepticism, fear, and anxiety, there are a number of concrete actions statistics instructors can take to reduce student fear and increase the perceived relevance of courses in statistics.
McCrocklin, Shannon; Link, Stephanie
Because many theorists propose a connection between accent and identity, some theorists have justifiably been concerned about the ethical ramifications of L2 pronunciation teaching. However, English-as-a-second-language (ESL) students often state a desire to sound like native speakers. With little research into ESL students' perceptions of links…
Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Arroyo-Sebastián, María del Ángel; Gómez-Pérez, Luis; Sepehri, Armina; Martínez-Pérez, Salvador; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco
The inconsistent use of hormonal contraceptive methods can result, during the first year of use, in one in twelve women still having an undesired pregnancy. This may lead to women experiencing fear of becoming pregnant (FBP). We have only found one study examining the proportion of FBP among women who used hormonal contraceptives. To gather further scientific evidence we undertook an observational, cross-sectional study involving 472 women at a Spanish university in 2005–2009. The inclusion criteria were having had vaginal intercourse with a man in the previous three months and usual use for contraception of a male condom or hormonal contraceptives, or no method of contraception. The outcome was FBP. The secondary variables were contraceptive method used (oral contraceptives; condom; none), desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, the sexual partner not always able to ejaculate, desire to increase the partner’s time before orgasm, age and being in a stable relationship. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the associated factors. Of the 472 women, 171 experienced FBP (36.2%). Factors significantly associated (p < 0.05) with this FBP were method of contraception (condom and none), desire to increase the partner’s ability to delay orgasm and higher frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner. There was a high proportion of FBP, depending on the use of efficient contraceptive methods. A possible solution to this problem may reside in educational programmes. Qualitative studies would be useful to design these programmes. PMID:26336643
Campbell-Stone, E. A.; Myers, J. D.
Exacting excellence equally from university students around the globe can be accomplished by providing all students with necessary background tools to achieve mastery of their courses, even if those tools are not part of normal content. As instructors we hope to see our students grasp the substance of our courses, make mental connections between course material and practical applications, and use this knowledge to make informed decisions as citizens. Yet many educators have found that students enter university-level introductory courses in mathematics, science and engineering without adequate academic preparation. As part of a FIPSE-funded project at the University of Wyoming, the instructors of the Physical Geology course have taken a new approach to tackling the problem of lack of scientific/mathematic skills in incoming students. Instead of assuming that students should already know or will learn these skills on their own, they assess students' needs and provide them the opportunity to master scientific literacies as they learn geologic content. In the introductory geology course, instructors identified two categories of literacies, or basic skills that are necessary for academic success and citizen participation. Fundamental literacies include performing simple quantitative calculations, making qualitative assessments, and reading and analyzing tables and graphs. Technical literacies are those specific to understanding geology, and comprise the ability to read maps, visualize changes through time, and conceptualize in three dimensions. Because these skills are most easily taught in lab, the in-house lab manual was rewritten to be both literacy- and content-based. Early labs include simple exercises addressing literacies in the context of geological science, and each subsequent lab repeats exposure to literacies, but at increasing levels of difficulty. Resources available to assist students with literacy mastery include individual instruction, a detailed
Mills, Daniel; Kennedy, Olivia
Despite having studied English for some 33 months, the students at the private junior high school in Japan described in this paper had never before been asked to write original compositions in the language. The researchers undertook a quasi-experimental pilot study in which the 156 (n= 156) participants were each asked to write four compositions,…
Smith, Trevor I.
As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the
Yavuz, Nilay; Welch, Eric W
Research has identified several factors that affect fear of crime in public space. However, the extent to which gender moderates the effectiveness of fear-reducing measures has received little attention. Using data from the Chicago Transit Authority Customer Satisfaction Survey of 2003, this study aims to understand whether train transit security practices and service attributes affect men and women differently. Findings indicate that, while the presence of video cameras has a lower effect on women's feelings of safety compared with men, frequent and on-time service matters more to male passengers. Additionally, experience with safety-related problems affects women significantly more than men. Conclusions discuss the implications of the study for theory and gender-specific policies to improve perceptions of transit safety.
Orr, Neil; Myers, Laura; Makhubele, Mzamani Benjamin; Matekane, Tselisehang; Delate, Richard; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Goldblatt, Brenda
Introduction: South African men are less likely to get tested for HIV than women and are more likely to commence antiretroviral treatment (ART) at later stages of disease, default on treatment, and to die from AIDS compared with women. The purpose of this study was to conduct formative research into the ideational and behavioral factors that enable or create obstacles to mens' uptake of HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and ART. The study consulted men with a goal of developing a communication campaign aimed at improving the uptake of HIV testing and ART initiation among men. Methods: Eleven focus groups and 9 in-depth interviews were conducted with 97 male participants in 6 priority districts in 4 South African provinces in rural, peri-urban, and urban localities. Results: Fears of compromised masculine pride and reputation, potential community rejection, and fear of loss of emotional control (“the stress of knowing”) dominated men's rationales for avoiding HIV testing and treatment initiation. Conclusions: A communication campaign was developed based on the findings. Creative treatments aimed at redefining a ‘strong’ man as someone who faces his fears and knows his HIV status. The resultant campaign concept was: “positive or negative—you are still the same person.” PMID:27930614
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.
This resource book was developed to provide information that state and local leaders can use to stimulate discussion of the problem of students at risk and support the planning of initiatives that address the problem. An overview defines students at risk, summarizes the content of the book, and lists recent reports and publications on the problem…
Rice, Valerie J; Vu, Tan; Butler, Jenny; Marra, Diane; Merullo, Donna; Banderet, Louis
During scholastic or physical performance testing, individuals who fear failure tend to focus on their fears instead of the task and often perform poorly. This study examined the relationship between fear-of-failure (FoF) and performance among 200~students (male=140, female =60) attending Health Care Specialist Advanced Individual Training (AIT) at Ft. Sam Houston. Performance measures included grade point average, pass/fail status, Army Physical Fitness Test scores, and number of musculoskeletal injuries. Pearson Product Moment Correlations revealed that Soldiers who scored higher on a FoF scale also had higher final grades (r=0.16, p=0.02, r
The present article attempts to pay attention to the ways in which a group of young Cypriot students engage in the construction of conventional notions of masculinities through the negation and the fear of homosexual desire. Drawing on interviews with 12 male and female university students, I argue that many young men go through complicated…
Liu, Liu; Lowe, Patricia A.
The current study examined the factor structure of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation-Straightforward Items (BFNE-S) and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation-Version 2 (BFNE-II) among 151 college students from the United States. Results indicated that the BFNE-S and the BFNE-II scores demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability.…
Wells, Marcia I.
In place of Tinto's model of student retention, an epidemiological approach is recommended for nursing education. It includes primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions for preventing student attrition. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)
Jones, Elizabeth A.; Borgers, Sherry
Examined fears of fifth grade students and ways in which their parents perceived the fears. Responses from 66 students and 47 parents suggest that children have more fears than parents think they have. Children reported concerns over accidents, nuclear war, and death, while parents expected children to have more fears about scary movies, the dark,…
Much research has been published that describes the misconceptions students have about gases; however, not much research has been published that suggests how to change these misconceptions. The action research presented in this article examined how using laboratories to contradict students' preconceived ideas would affect their learning. High…
Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh
Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug by Australian secondary school students yet there is scant research investigating school staff responses to student cannabis use. As such, this study surveyed 1,692 school staff who attended "Generation Next" seminars throughout Australia. The self-complete survey identified that the…
Fontana, Leonard; Johnson, Elease; Green, Peggy; Macia, Jose; Wright, Ted; Daniel, Yanick; Distefano Diaz, Mary F.; Obenauf, Steve
This article describes an interactive and collaborative strategic planning process by a community college in which student retention and success became a focus of a re-accreditation endeavor. The underlying assumption of this strategic planning effort was that engaging all groups that have a stake in student retention at the beginning of the…
Caltabiano, Leonard F.
This study examined the effectiveness of a Verbal Query Intervention (VQI) procedure in decreasing motor and vocal stereotypy in four elementary students with autism. The VQI procedure involved the presentation of behavior-related questions that the students were required to respond to in an appropriate fashion. An ABC multiple-baseline across…
Potter, Cathy; Scheuer, Mary Ann
As schools around the country implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), teachers and school librarians are looking for ways to incorporate more engaging nonfiction reading. The quantity of informational texts students will be required to read will increase drastically, and students will be asked to apply higher-level thinking skills to…
Fear of success in a group of high school students (N=127) was studied, with research findings supporting the following generalizations: (1) high school students with an intermediate level of self-esteem have greater fear of success than those with high and low levels of self-esteem; (2) high school students with BSRI (Bem Sex Role Inventory)…
Hassani, Sahar; Kelly, Erin H; Smith, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sara; Sozzer, Fatima H; Atchley, Paul; Sullivan, Elroy; Larson, Dean; Vogel, Lawrence C
Based on the National Highway Traffic Safety Association's (NHTSA) Report, fatalities due to distracted driving are on the rise and the highest proportion of fatalities by age group is the 20-29 year old category. To date little has been done to educate college students about the dangers of distracted driving and engage these students in promoting a safe driving culture. Intervening among college students has the potential for making real-time behavior change, can foster a lifetime of safe driving habits among these students, and can help contribute to a culture of safe driving that can be created and sustained through positive messages from peers. The goals of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate a distracted driving presentation for college students to change knowledge, attitude and behavior on distracted driving. A 30-min, multi-media presentation on distracted driving was presented to 19 colleges and universities, totaling 444 college students (mean age 23.7±7.0 years of age, 61% females, 39% males). Students completed three surveys: prior to the workshop (interview 1), immediately after the workshop (interview 2), and 3 months following the workshop (interview 3). We assessed changes between interview 1 and interview 2 and found 15 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions significantly improved after the course. In addition, we assessed changes from interviews 1 and 3, and found 11 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions maintained their significance. Responses to behavior related questions at three months were also compared to baseline, and significant improvements were found for 12 of the 14 questions. While this study was successful in improving the short-term attitude-knowledge and behaviors on distracted driving, work is needed to sustain (and evaluate) long-term effects.
De Castella, Krista; Byrne, Don; Covington, Martin
A classic distinction in the literature on achievement and motivation is between fear of failure and success orientations. From the perspective of self-worth theory, these motives are not bipolar constructs but dimensions that interact in ways that make some students particularly vulnerable to underachievement and disengagement from school. The…
Fowler, Henry H.
Collapsing the Fear of Mathematics: A Study of the Effects of Navajo Culture on Navajo Student Performance in Mathematics by Henry H Fowler Abstract American schools are in a state of "mediocrity" because of the low expectations in math (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983; No Child Left Behind Act of 2001; Duncan,…
Houtsonen, Jarmo; Kylmä, Jari; Korhonen, Teija; Välimäki, Maritta; Suominen, Tarja
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are often subject to blame, fear and avoidance, particularly if they are perceived as personally responsible for their infection due to their risky behaviour or life style choices. Some people however, react to PLWHA with sympathy and a willingness to care. This paper explores how university students (n = 282)…
Britt, Rebecca K; Britt, Brian C; Anderson, Jennifer
The current study used the theory of planned behavior to examine rural college students' attitudes, normative beliefs, and perceived behavioral control regarding intent to register as organ donors. This effort is done in light of a need to increase intervention efforts among college students, particularly those in rural areas where these undertakings may need to be tailored in grassroots approaches. The study made use of perceived behavioral control as a moderator and found partial support for the model. Findings offer results that scholars, practitioners, and educators can utilize for interventions.
Carter, Steven J.; Henrichsen, Lynn E.
Reticence frequently prevents adult ESL learners from learning as much as they otherwise might. The nature of second-language learning requires frequent performance that may challenge students' self-concepts, leading to reticence and self-consciousness. To reduce or prevent this problem, teachers must employ appropriate pedagogical and classroom…
Health and educational leaders are sounding the alarm about the unhealthy condition of many students in America's K-12 schools. Each day, new scientific studies confirm that "The majority of American youth are sedentary and do not eat well. Sixteen percent of school-aged children and adolescents--or nine million--are overweight, a figure that has…
Pang, Valerie Ooka; Madueno, Marcelina; Atlas, Miriam; Stratton, Tamiko; Oliger, Jennifer; Page, Cindy
Presidents George W. Bush and Bill Clinton declared natural disasters somewhere in the United States on average of about one per week between 1998 and 2005. Despite this frequency, most citizens are unprepared when a natural disaster occurs in their city or neighborhood. In particular, teachers and students can become paralyzed by the overwhelming…
Aaron, Ronald M.
Surveyed student affairs officers (n=175) from four-year colleges and community colleges to determine extent to which institutions have developed programs to ensure academic integrity. Results indicated almost all institutions possessed printed codes of academic integrity and procedural guidelines. Four-year colleges were significantly more likely…
Cooper, Jay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.; Eckerle, Kayle; Martin, Kyle
This article explores existing literature on perceived skill deficiencies among entry-level student affairs practitioners. Through a review of recent literature, seven perceived skill deficiencies were identified, including budgeting and financial management, strategic planning, research and assessment, legal knowledge and standards, supervision,…
Derrington, Mary Lynne; Larsen, Donald
Educational administration instructors seek methods that will engage students' interest in the subject matter and also link educational theory to realities experienced on the job. An equally important goal and a most important lesson to impart to aspiring education administrators are the competencies exhibited in ISLLC Standard 5, act with…
McClenney, Byron N.
This chapter describes a movement to significantly increase student attainment in community and technical colleges. The observations of Leadership Coaches in Achieving the Dream, developed over a nine-year period of involvement, provide insight into the leadership required to transform institutional culture.
This article examines the use and choice of address pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish students in various situations. The study is based on a questionnaire on address usage distributed to university students in the city of Vaasa in Finland. The aim of the study is to investigate potential differences between the use of T and V in Finnish…
Frenn, Marilyn; Malin, Shelly; Bansal, Naveen; Delgado, Mary; Greer, Yvonne; Havice, Michael; Ho, Mary; Schweizer, Heidi
Those with low income, especially women of African American and Hispanic heritage have the greatest risk of inactivity and obesity. A 4-session (Internet and video) intervention with healthy snack and gym labs was tested in 2 (gym lab in 1) urban low-middle-income middle schools to improve low fat diet and moderate and vigorous physical activity.1 The gym lab was particularly beneficial (p =.002). Fat in diet decreased with each Internet session in which students participated. Percentage of fat in food was reduced significantly p =.018 for Black, White, and Black/Native American girls in the intervention group. Interventions delivered through Internet and video may enable reduction of health disparities in students by encouraging those most at risk to consume 30% or less calories from fat and to engage in moderate and vigorous physical activity.
Fear Memory in High and Low Fear Mice” Period of Award 01AUG2011-31JUL2013 Applicant Organization Henry M. Jackson Foundation Address of...1. REPORT DATE 18 NOV 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 01 AUG 2011 - 31 JUL 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Encoding of Fear Memory ...neurobiological illness and improve quality of life for nurses and patients. 15. SUBJECT TERMS fear memory , PTSD, high fear, neurobiological illness, fit
Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.
Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…
Sockman, Beth Rajan; Sutton, Rhonda; Herrmann, Michele
This study determined the usefulness of digital comic creation with 77 graduate students in a teacher technology course. Students completed an assigned reading and created digital comics that addressed technology integration concerns in the schools and society. Using practical action research, 77 student-created comics were analyzed. The findings…
Goodman, Kathleen M.; Mueller, John A.
In this chapter, the authors introduce the topic of atheist students to the field of student affairs. The authors provide definitions of relevant terms related to the perspectives and principles of atheists. Then, they briefly address the demographics of atheism and focus on atheist student experiences on college campuses. The authors conclude…
Ivory, Brian T.
Due to the invisible nature of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) undergraduate population, it is difficult for student affairs professionals at community colleges to identify and address the needs of sexual minority students on campus. Given the lack of literature regarding LGBTQ students at community colleges, student…
Musetto, Andrew P.
Agoraphobia is a complex phobia in which individuals react with intense anxiety to certain stress situations. Basically, agoraphobics live in fear of becoming afraid. Describes the psychotherapeutic treatment that helps agoraphobics to become more self-sufficient and to face their fears by understanding themselves better. (CS)
Caro-Bruce, Emily; Schoenfeld, Elizabeth; Nothnagle, Melissa; Taylor, Julie
Medical school curricula frequently contain gaps in the areas of abortion and sexual health. A group of first- and second-year medical students at the authors' institution organized a collaborative, multidisciplinary elective course to address such omissions in the preclinical curriculum. This paper describes the process of creating and implementing the elective. Medical students identified curricular gaps in the areas of abortion, sexual assault, lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender health, and HIV counseling. Clinical faculty and community-based professionals were invited to address these topics in a weekly lecture series organized by students. The course also included a half-day experience shadowing at a local abortion clinic. Collaboration with several student groups helped broaden student interest in and increase financial support for the elective. Some 37% of all first- and second-year students enrolled in the elective and received institutional credit for the course. Written and verbal evaluations confirmed student satisfaction with the lectures and the clinical experience. Dynamic and well-prepared speakers who presented interesting medical content received the highest ratings from students. Student leaders identified several challenges in implementing the elective. Ultimately the elective proved to be a successful collaboration among students, faculty, and healthcare providers, and resulted in permanent changes in the standard medical school curriculum. Challenges for student-initiated electives include difficulty in finding administrative support, securing funding and ensuring sustainability. This paper aims to make this process accessible and applicable to other students and faculty interested in addressing curricular gaps at their respective medical schools.
Although Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a relatively simple medical problem, it is complicated by fear, ignorance, and uncertainty. Many colleges have a much bigger problem with fear than with the virus itself. Information dissemination through college AIDS-education programs is a major challenge. (MSE)
Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal
Background: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on…
Jaspersohn, Robert P.
In this dissertation we discuss a common first-year STEM curriculum pathway for undergraduate students majoring in science, math, or engineering, and a modification to this curriculum pathway that has been implemented, based on students' needs prior to enrollment. The intent is increasing student retention and success in the university and in STEM. The effects of the modification on student success, progression, retention and persistence are assessed, specifically. Second year retention in the university for the students who went through the modification has increased by 5%. Alternate non-traditional pathways within the first year physics laboratory experience can be introduced to address student needs.
Alston, Curtis E.
This study addressed the problem within the U.S. public school system to sustainably meet the academic and social needs of its African American male students. The administrative team of the elementary school in this study desired an evaluation of a school-based male mentoring program that was designed to address these needs. The program, Gentlemen…
As the population of international--and particularly Chinese--students grows in US academic institutions, it is critical that writing center tutors be able to address these students' needs. However, whereas writing tutors at the author's institution are often taught to be indirect and focus on higher order concerns, such strategies are not always…
Turtura, Jessica E.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Boyd, R. Justin
Multitier prevention systems consist of a continuum of interventions to address the needs of all students. Within such systems, Tier I supports are in place for all students and are designed to enhance prosocial (social behavior interventions) and academic (instructional interventions) skills. Tier II interventions supplement the Tier I…
National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, 2015
As colleges strive to improve student success and completion, helping students delay pregnancy and parenting (or having additional children) means one less factor that can interfere with their college education. However, pregnancy planning and prevention is not something most colleges address, especially at the community college level. There are…
Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Lopez, Adriana L.; Slagle, Clark P.
Background: Student substance abuse is a serious concern for middle school personnel. School counselors are most likely to deliver mental health services, including substance abuse, in school settings. However, limited research is available on the perceived competence of middle school counselors for addressing student substance abuse concerns. The…
Ronen, M.; Eliahu, M.
Simulation-based activities provide students with an opportunity to compare their physical intuition with the behaviour of the model and can sometimes offer unique advantages over other methods. This article presents various approaches to the development of qualitative simulation- based activities and describes how these activities can be addressed to students' common difficulties in basic electricity.
Kupper, Lisa, Ed.
This annotated bibliography lists print and nonprint resources on educating students with disabilities, with special emphasis on inclusive settings. Most of the resources listed discuss a variety of disabilities, with chapters on how to address the unique needs of students with each of the disabilities. Information provided for the 33 print…
Eisen, Arri; Kushner, Howard; McLeod, Mark; Queen, Edward; Gordon, Jonathan; Ford, John L.
The authors present an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to address the problem of increasing student mental health issues on college campuses. The model uses addiction and depression as lenses into the problem and links residence life and academic and community internship experiences. The project has a positive impact on student attitudes…
Here I present my work identifying and addressing student difficulties with several materials science and physics topics. In the first part of this thesis, I present my work identifying student difficulties and misconceptions about the directional relationships between net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension. This is accomplished…
Piquette, Jeff S.; Heikkinen, Henry W.
This study explores general-chemistry instructors' awareness of and ability to identify and address common student learning obstacles in chemical equilibrium. Reported instructor strategies directed at remediating student alternate conceptions were investigated and compared with successful, literature-based conceptual change methods. Fifty-two…
Wilson, Judy C.
College student persistence has been a concern of researchers and practitioners since the early 1960s. Traditional models have addressed the need for students to be integrated into the academic and social domains of the college campus. Recently, critical theorists and researchers have been questioning the relevance of the traditional models for…
Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.
A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…
Morrison, Stephaney; Bryan, Julia
Caribbean students are among the distinct immigrant groups in U.S. public schools with particular needs to be addressed by school counselors. This article discusses the challenges Caribbean immigrant students face that create obstacles to their academic and personal/social success. Guidelines for school counselors are outlined, which can be used…
Children represent the future and thus by providing them with effective environmental educational experiences, educators may be taking a critical step in preventing "the probable serious environmental problems in the future" (Gokhan, 2010, p. 56). The Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE) is an excellent example of one such education program. MWEEs aim to educate and enhance the students' relationship with the Chesapeake Bay Watershed through an integration of classroom activities and fieldwork. As environmental educators and role models, field interpreters are a major component and significant influence on the local MWEE programs, however their perspective as to how they have impacted the programs has yet to be examined. Through a qualitative analysis and specific focus on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement, the researcher intended to address this void. The focus of the study was to examine how the local MWEE field interpreters understood and addressed student engagement in a field setting. This was measured via data collected from observations of and semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with each field interpreter involved with the local MWEE programs. Data analysis uncovered that field interpreters demonstrated a strong awareness of student engagement. Furthermore, they defined, recognized, and addressed student engagement within the constructs of the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Ultimately, the individual experiences of each MWEE field interpreter provides insight into the phenomenon, however further research is required to strengthen the awareness of how, if at all, their perspectives of student engagement directly impact student outcomes.
Middle year students often do not see the mathematics in the real world whereas the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics aims for students to be "confident and creative users and communicators of mathematics" (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA] 2012). Using authentic and real mathematics tasks can address this situation. This paper is an account of how, working within a Knowledge Producing Schools' framework, a group of middle year students addressed a real community issue, the problem of the lack of a teenage safe space using mathematics and technology. Data were collected for this case study via journal observations and reflections, semi-structured interviews, samples of the students' work and videos of students working. The data were analysed by identifying the mathematics the students used determining the function and location of the space and focused on problem negotiation, formulation and solving through the statistical investigation cycle. The paper will identify the mathematics and statistics these students used as they addressed a real problem in their local community.
Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vervliet, Bram; Iberico, Carlos; Baeyens, Frank; Van den Bergh, Omer; Hermans, Dirk
In a treatment-analogue experiment, extinction of fear of spiders was investigated in a group of spider-anxious students. Two groups were created: in the single extinction group the extinction trials consisted of repeated presentations of a videotaped spider in one specific location of a house, whereas in the multiple extinction group the trials consisted of videotapes of the same spider in three different locations of a house. Also a control group was included that was exposed to videotapes of the location but without the spider. As reflected in skin conductance responses and self-report data, fear of spiders was significantly reduced in the two extinction groups compared to the control group. Moreover, when the extinction groups were confronted with the videotape of the spider in a new location, the single extinction group did not show generalisation of extinction, whereas the multiple extinction group did. These results corroborate the existing evidence for context dependence of extinction of fear and provide new evidence that the use of multiple contexts during extinction might improve the generalisability of extinction in humans. Implications for exposure therapy are discussed.
The Millikan oil drop experiment has been characterized as one of the ‘most beautiful’ physics experiments of all time and, certainly, as one of the most frustrating of all the exercises in the undergraduate physics laboratory. A literature review reveals that work done on addressing student difficulties in performing the oil drop experiment has, to date, not achieved a significant measure of success. The historical background of the oil drop experiment is well established in the literature from the perspective of historians of science, but not so from the perspective of teachers and students of science. A summary of historical details surrounding the original experiment suitable for use in revising the instructional approach is presented. Both Millikan and his graduate student, Fletcher, are featured with the view to emphasizing details that humanize the protagonists and that are likely to raise student interest. The issue of the necessary reliance on presuppositions in doing speculative research is raised, both from the historical account and from the insights of university physics students who heard the historical account and performed the experiment. Difficulties current students have in performing the experiment are discussed from the perspective of Hodson (Stud Sci Educ 22:85-142, 1993) framework and the students’ own observations. Last, further historical materials are outlined that may be used to encourage student insight into the fundamental nature of electricity. It is proposed that these aspects are essential as a basis for identifying and addressing student difficulties with the Millikan oil drop experiment.
The reliability and validity of the Social Avoidance and Distress (SAD) and Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) scales developed by D. Watson and R. Friend (1969) were tested for their use with university students in Thailand. Thai translations of both tests were administered to 176 university students on two occasions, with a month between…
Research has widely demonstrated that an incremental theory of intelligence is beneficial for students in achievement settings. The present study examined whether this theory can help students with high gelotophobia (i.e., the fear of being laughed at) confront challenges and clarified possible underlying processes. Theories of intelligence…
Junghans-Rutelonis, Ashley N.; Suorsa, Kristina I.; Tackett, Alayna P.; Burkley, Edward; Chaney, John M.; Mullins, Larry L.
Objective: The current study investigated the mediating role of fear of negative evaluation on the relationship between self-focused attention and self-esteem among college students with and without asthma. Participants: Young adults with (n = 148) and without (n = 530) childhood-onset asthma were recruited from a college student population.…
Caleon, Imelda; Subramaniam, R.
The effectiveness of a refutational text in addressing the alternative conceptions held by secondary school students on the topic of wave propagation in an elastic medium was explored in this study. The refutational text, which was 816 words long and featured the particle-spring model, was found to be more effective in promoting conceptual change…
Bostic, Jonathan David; Sondergeld, Toni A.
This article describes the development of a problem-solving instrument intended for classroom use that addresses the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. In this study, 137 students completed the assessment, and their responses were analyzed. Evidence for validity was collected and examined using the current standards for educational and…
Paxson, Sarah A.
Adolescent suicide devastates family, friends, and the larger community of the deceased. This dissertation seeks to explore the impact of peer death by suicide on students in the school system, and the policies that schools have put in place to address these effects. This work will critically evaluate current suicide bereavement interventions, and…
O'Connor-Merrigan, Mary L.
The continued prevalence of mental health conditions and substance abuse among students enrolled in institutions of higher education is a significant and progressing concern, with marked impact on retention, academic success, graduation rate, and alarming personal consequences. Yet, many institutions struggle with successfully addressing these…
Ding, Meixia; Li, Xiaobao
This study explores, from both constructivist and cognitive perspectives, teacher guidance in student-centered classrooms when addressing a common learning difficulty with equivalent fractions--lines or pieces--based on number line models. Findings from three contrasting cases reveal differences in teachers' facilitating and direct guidance…
The Millikan oil drop experiment has been characterized as one of the "most beautiful" physics experiments of all time and, certainly, as one of the most frustrating of all the exercises in the undergraduate physics laboratory. A literature review reveals that work done on addressing student difficulties in performing the oil drop experiment has,…
Wolf, James T.
Guidelines based on the American School Counselor Association's ethical codes and various social studies teaching techniques are presented for school counselors to use as they address the spiritual concerns of students. The role of the First Amendment in "spiritual" counseling in public schools and various multicultural considerations…
As yet little research into the perspectives of Chinese students studying in mainland China's Higher Education Institutions has been undertaken. This paper explores the issue of students' support needs and presents the findings of a study carried out in 2005-2007 at a public university in North East China. The Action Research method used…
Eisenhamer, B.; McCallister, J. D.; Knisely, L.
A typical astronomy question an educator may ask their students is "What is a black hole?" Many times, students' responses sound more like an episode of Star Trek than an understanding about the universe and how it works: responses such as "Black holes are worm holes in space" or "A black hole is a huge vacuum in space, sucking everything in". These are all common astronomy misconceptions about black holes. A misconception is defined as a preconceived notion of how the world, or in the case of astronomy - the universe, works. Misconceptions may originate for a variety of reasons, from miscommunication, to oversimplification, to misrepresentation via the media or pop culture. Students who latch on to an astronomy misconception may have difficulty learning new information that is built upon the existing misconception. Additionally, educators who are not able to identify and address misconceptions can create learning barriers that may resonate throughout a students' life. This poster will introduce some of the extensive research that has gone into determining typical student misconceptions about astronomy, ways to identify them, and how students develop them. The poster will also explain why teachers need to be aware of ideas and concepts students may harbor as well as how misconceptions can be remedied.
Encandela, John; Gibson, Crystal; Angoff, Nancy; Leydon, Gary; Green, Michael
Introduction Medical students may experience test anxiety associated with ‘high stakes’ exams, such as Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination. Methods We collected qualitative responses about test anxiety at three points in time from 93 second-year medical students engaged in studying for and taking Step 1. Results Causes of test anxiety as reported by students were related to negative self-talk during preparation for the exam. Effects of anxiety had to do with emotional well-being, cognitive functioning, and physical well-being. Strategies included socializing with others and a variety of cognitive and physical approaches. Comparison of individuals’ strategies with causes and effects showed some congruence, but substantial incongruence between the types of strategies chosen and the reported causes and effects of test anxiety. Discussion Students’ adoption of a ‘menu’ of strategies rather than one or two carefully selected strategies suggest inefficiencies that might be addressed by interventions, such as advisor-directed conversations with students and incorporating student self-assessment and strategies for managing anxiety within courses on test-taking. Such interventions are in need of further study. An annotated list of evidence-based strategies would be helpful to students and educators. Most important, test anxiety should be viewed by medical educators as a ‘real’ experience, and students would benefit from educator support. PMID:25128804
Richards, A. L.; Ross, A. L.
Eight years ago, several students at NASA Langley Research Center launched the DEVELOP Program. DEVELOP is now at six NASA centers and is a program element of the NASA Applied Sciences Human Capital Development Program that extends the use of Earth observation sources to address Earth science issues in local communities. Students in the program strengthen their leadership and academic skills by analyzing scientific data, experimenting with novel technology, and engaging in cooperative interactions. Graduate, undergraduate and high school students from across the United States collaborate to integrate NASA space-based Earth observation sources and partner agencies' science data, models and decision support tools. Information from these collaborations result in rapid prototype projects addressing local policy and environmental issues. Following a rigorous 10-week term, DEVELOP students present visual products demonstrating the application of NASA scientific information to community leaders at scientific and public policy forums such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), and the Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB). Submission of written products to peer-reviewed scientific publications and other public databases is also done. Student experiences and interactions working with NASA data, advanced technological programs and community leaders have, and continue to prove, beneficial to student professional development. DEVELOP's human capital development focus affords students real world experience, making them a valuable asset to the scientific and global community and to the continuation of a scientifically aware society. NASA's DEVELOP Program is more than scientific exploration and valuable results; DEVELOP fosters human capital development by bridging the gap between NASA science research and federal, state, local and tribal resource managers.
Smith, Ann Marie; Lennon, Sean
This qualitative study explores pre-service teachers' perceptions of teaching critical literacy through discussions of controversial issues. Personality questionnaires were given to six classes of pre-student teachers over three semesters in order to gauge interest in teaching methods that incorporate inquiry learning and critical literacy. The…
Haynes, Norris M
Children in today's society face many stresses from a variety of sources that have a major impact on thier psychosocial adjustment and academic performance in school. These stressful events and thier consequences on the quality of life and academic success are particularly significant among low-income and ethnic minority students in American society. Many schools have adopted strategies to help students who are impacted by stressful life events to deal affectively with their problems in an attempt to reduce school failure and school dropout rates among these students. Most notable among these strategies are school-based mental health programs including the establishment of school-based mental health teams which seek to proactively address individual student concerns while improving the general climate of schools. The evidence seems to support the claim that these school-based services have a positive impact on students' social and emotional well-being as well as on their academic achievements. However, with more careful monitoring and much more consistent support from administrators and policy makers, these school-based approaches can more fully realize their potential to enhance the quality of life and to positively impact the future of many poor and ethnic minority students.
Stanley, Mary Jo; Rojas, Deb
Schools of nursing are challenged to find clinical placements in public health settings. Use of simulation can address situations unique to public health, with attention to specific concerns, such as environmental health. Environmental health is an integral part of public health nursing and is a standard of professional practice. Current simulations focus on acute care situations, offering limited scenarios with a public health perspective and excluding environmental health. This study's simulation scenario was created to enhance nursing students' understanding of public health concepts within an environmental health context. Outcomes from the simulation include the need for integration of environmental issues in public health teaching. Students stated that this scenario provided a broader understanding of the environmental influences that can affect the client's and family's health. This scenario fills a void in simulation content, while providing an interactive teaching and learning strategy to help students to apply knowledge to practice.
Houseal, A.; Gallagher, R.; Fuhrmann, B.; Sanford, R.
The literature outlines many challenges faced by Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships (STSPs) including cultural differences between the scientific research and education communities. For example, shared vocabulary terms with dissimilar definitions can create communication problems. Other issues include accuracy in data collection, meeting the needs of a very diverse group of partners, connecting students with research science in a meaningful way, and maintaining the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain these partnerships. Additionally, evidence, other than anecdotal, of the success of these partnerships is limited, especially as school year and research cycles are often on different schedules or have very different goals. Students, Teachers, and Rangers & Research Scientists: Investigating Systems at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park (STaRRS) was an STSP developed to address some of these challenges, model some solutions within an STSP, and identify some possible outcomes for participating teachers and their students. Three strategies used to address some of these challenges that will be discussed briefly in this presentation include: (a) embedding the STSP in an already existing National Park Service environmental education program; (b) development of three types of research activities connecting teachers, students, and scientists to the research, and (c) a professional development (PD) model that included all partners in an on-going year-long process. Results from an accompanying research study will also be presented. Using a pretest-intervention-posttest design, this study revealed significant changes in attitude regarding science and scientists of participating STaRRS teachers. Student data gathered using a quasi-experimental pretest-intervention-posttest treatment and comparison group design also demonstrated significant changes in their attitudes and gains in earth science content knowledge.
Bachman, Ronet; Randolph, Antonia; Brown, Bethany L.
This article uses the School Crime Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey to investigate the factors related to White and African American students' perceived levels of fear of harm, while at school and while commuting to and from school. Of particular interest were the effects of school security measures, including metal detectors,…
Florescu, Mihaela Hrisa; Pop-Pacurar, Irina
The aim of this paper is to identify the students' and faculty members' perspective on teaching communication aspects and dynamics, and also to predict pattern changes that may improve communication effectiveness at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Particularly, we were interested to find out to what extent the "fear of giving the wrong…
Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T.; Lee, Christine M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William
The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut’s efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort. PMID:17616260
Kaffenberger, Carol J.; O'Rorke-Trigiani, Judith
Given that 20% of students experience mental health issues that interfere with school performance and most of these students will turn first to their school for help, school counselors need to consider how they can best serve this population. This article describes how school counselors can address the mental health needs of students by providing…
Goeppinger, Jean; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Weaver, Wanda; Campbell, Lenora; Roland, E Joyce
In order to decrease health disparities, nursing needs to promote opportunities for minority nursing students to incorporate the conduct, as well as the utilization, of research into their professional careers. This article describes a model program to facilitate minority research career development, the Research Enrichment and Apprenticeship Program (REAP). REAP was developed and implemented by a federally funded partnership between 2 historically Black universities and a research-intensive university. Fifty-five (N = 55) baccalaureate and master's nursing students and 35 faculty members from the 3 schools participated in an intensive research mentorship program guided by learner-centered pedagogical approaches that culminated in the public presentation of students' research projects at a scientific poster session. Student, faculty, and institutional achievements, as well as challenges, were identified and addressed as the partnership evolved. Recognizing and building upon the strengths of both minority-serving and research-intensive institutions allowed the development of an exemplar program. While process measures provided many indicators of success, long-term evaluation of research career-related outcomes are needed.
von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Schultz, Brandon K.; Draughn, Jeremy D.
Educational accountability policies have led to a growth in the use of high-stakes examinations for a number of important educational decisions, including the evaluation of teacher effectiveness. As such, educators are under increasing pressure to raise student test performance. In an attempt to prepare students for a high-stakes exam, teachers…
Hernandez, Susana; Hernandez, Ignacio, Jr.; Gadson, Rebecca; Huftalin, Deneece; Ortiz, Anna M.; White, Mistalene Calleroz; Yocum-Gaffney, DeAnn
The previous chapters have highlighted the financial, academic, emotional, and career challenges undocumented students face in pursuit of their higher education goals. However, an analysis of these issues cannot begin to convey the tremendous stress and anxiety these students endure every day as a result of their illegal status. This chapter…
Chamberlain, Suzanne; Daly, Anthony Leslie; Spalding, Victoria
This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that explored students' experiences of test anxiety when taking A-level examinations. Four focus groups were convened with a sample of 19 participants in the south of England to explore the triggers of test anxiety and the perceived need for interventions to assist high test-anxious students cope…
This article presents an activity that makes use of a questionnaire similar to a Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) which elicit students' responses about their previous speaking experiences, their own definitions of anxiety and its causes, and their plans for future careers. This activity is aimed at helping students overcome…
Ham, Lindsay S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Olthuis, Janine V.; Casner, Hilary G.; Bui, Ngoc
Objective: The authors examined the association between social anxiety and drinking game (DG) involvement as well as the moderating role of social anxiety-relevant alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE) in social anxiety and DG involvement among college students. Participants: Participants were 715 students (74.8% women, M[subscript age] = 19.46, SD =…
Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C
Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general.
Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Carter, Jacqueline C
The present study examined the relative contributions of self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, and self-esteem in eating disorder pathology. One-hundred and fifty-five female undergraduate students and 97 females entering eating disorder treatment completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Fears of Compassion Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. T-tests revealed that the patient group had lower mean self-compassion and higher mean fear of self-compassion than the student group. When controlling for self-esteem, high fear of self-compassion emerged as the strongest predictor of eating disorder pathology in the patient group, whereas low self-compassion was the strongest predictor in the student group. These preliminary results suggest that targeting fear of self-compassion may be important when intervening with individuals suffering from an eating disorder, whereas building self-compassion may be a valuable approach for eating disorder prevention.
Brown, Ben; Benedict, Wm. Reed
This article presents data obtained from a survey of high school students in Brownsville, Texas. Almost half of the students reported having seen other students carry knives at school, roughly 1 in 10 reported having seen other students carry guns at school, and more than 1 in 5 reported being fearful of weapon-associated victimization at school.…
Kenney, Dennis Jay; Watson, T. Steuart
Describes a component of one North Carolina school district's plan for improving the high school environment by integrating community-policing strategies and problem-solving techniques for reducing school crime, delinquency, and disorder. By using teacher/student working groups, the school reports declines in the incidence of school crime and…
The purpose of this personal narrative is to retrospectively analyze the actions and reactions of a young, female, white teacher who was faced with the reality of the dichotomy of race and power in a large school system. When an African American male student brings a gun to school, the teacher's personal assumptions come to the forefront, bringing…
Burt, Rosie; Mills, Janet
The attitudes and experiences of 13 music students entering a conservatoire were tracked before their entry and throughout their first term at college. Aspirations and apprehensions towards the musical, academic and social aspects of college life were collected in addition to career aims, and the data analysed qualitatively to produce emergent…
Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Crane, Amy L.; Locke, Benjamin D.
Violent behavior on college campuses has been a long-standing problem that has received increased attention due to recent shootings. At present, the factors that predict college students' violent behavior are not well understood. To increase knowledge in this area, two studies were conducted that examined the prevalence and predictors of college…
Ryan, Stu; Ormond, Tom; Imwold, Charles; Rotunda, Rob J
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of teacher feedback delivered via a public address system on the off-task behavior of elementary-school physical education students. A multiple baseline design across three classes was used in this investigation. Results indicated a consistent decline in off-task behavior when the public address feedback system was used. PMID:12365746
Results from previous research studies suggest that inclusive settings benefit all learners. However, general education teachers often do not have built in supports within the classroom to meet the needs of students with disabilities. Implementing a sensory diet curriculum (SDC) is one instructional practice that addresses needs of students with…
Swoszowski, N. C.; Jolivette, K.; Frederick, L. D.
Check-In/Check-Out is a secondary tier positive behavior support program in which an adult mentor is paired with a student to address problem behavior and support appropriate behavior. This case study extended the implementation of the Check-In/Check-Out strategy to a residential facility for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The…
Lindley, Jennifer; McCall, Louise; Abu-Arab, Adela
This study was conducted to identify key issues for students in an undergraduate medical course with cross border delivery and the impact of these issues on the students' ability to learn. Data relating to the student experience and perceived student needs were collected from transnational students and teaching staff from Australia and Malaysia.…
Gore, Jonathan S.; Thomas, Jessica; Jones, Stevy; Mahoney, Lauren; Dukes, Kristina; Treadway, Jodi
Fear of academic success is ultimately a fear of social exclusion. Therefore, various forms of social inclusion may alleviate this fear. Three studies tested the hypothesis that social inclusion variables negatively predict fear of success. In Study 1, middle and high school students (n = 129) completed surveys of parental involvement, parental…
Reports on the use of participant modeling in a study of 56 college-level students to reduce fear of laboratory rats. Discovers that even mild exposure reduced fear significantly. Finds that women were more fearful initially but that their fear reduction was equal to that of men. (CFR)
Penman, Joy; Thalluri, Jyothi
The technological advancements for teaching and learning sciences for health science students are embedded in the Thalluri-Penman Good Practice Model, which aims to improve the learning experiences of science students and increase student retention and success rates. The model also links students from urban and rural areas, studying both on-and…
Abel, Nicholas R.; Oliver, Brandie M.; Keller, Thomas J.; McAulay, Andrew; Piatek, Lisa
This study evaluated relationships between a school counselor's implementation of the Student Success Skills (SSS) program with 203 students in grades K-3 and teacher ratings of student competency on five learning behaviors from the ASCA Mindsets & Behaviors for Student Success (American School Counselor Association, 2014). Using a paired…
Allan, Elizabeth G.
This article identifies the strategies used by architecture professors and their undergraduate students to mitigate common issues that students raise about group work. Based on participant-observation, interviews with students and faculty, and analysis of instructional materials and student work, this IRB-approved ethnographic case study…
... a strong swimmer might have a fear of deep water. In this case, the fear is helpful because it cautions the person to stay safe. Someone could overcome this fear by learning how to swim safely. A fear can be ...
Newsom, H. E.; Sorge, C.; Hagerty, J. J.
Assessment of our educational outreach program shows that students and their parents are excited about space science, but stereotypes about science and scientists drastically effect student attitudes about science and pursuing a technical career.
This article highlights student co-regulation of teaching practices as a way of exploring how L2 students' language and pedagogical needs can be met in university support classes. Integration rather than assimilation--or adapting to the needs of the students rather than leaving students to face the exigencies of the new learning environment…
Xu, Yonghong Jade
Guided by well-established theories on student retention, a survey was developed and implemented to collect data about the college experience of STEM students at a four-year research university. Analysis of the survey data confirms ten constructs that captured different aspects of students' academic and social experiences. Among them, academic…
Pottick, Kathleen J.; Giordano, Stephanie; Chirico, Danielle E.
Concerns about the cost of higher education and student loan debt have resulted in increasing efforts by policymakers and university administrators to find alternative ways to support the financing of higher education for students. The authors present a case study of a student-led philanthropy campaign to generate funding for social work student…
Montgomery, Janet; Martinson, Amy
Physical skills, such as fine and gross motor skills, are necessary for students to play musical instruments. Cognitive skills are necessary for students to comprehend music concepts. Emotional and social skills are necessary for students to participate in musical ensembles and general music classes. Attention to these extramusical goals in music…
Adelman, Howard S.; Taylor, Linda
Barriers to learning and teaching interfere with students' ability to participate effectively and benefit fully from classroom instruction and other educational activities. For school improvement efforts to succeed in ways that truly improve student achievement and student test scores, systemic changes must be made in how schools provide learning…
Reynolds, Amy L.; Altabef, David
Helping skills are increasingly viewed as essential competencies for student affairs practitioners. The purpose of this study was to examine the helping competencies covered in student affairs professional preparation programs. The authors examined 16 syllabi of helping-skills courses in student affairs programs and compared this analysis to…
In a diverse, interconnected, and results-oriented world, students need to be confident and well-prepared public speakers. However, many students entering public speaking classrooms feel anxious and dread having to perform publicly (Bodie, 2010). Students' sense of Communication Apprehension (CA) is likely to increase for any of several…
Harbour, Kristin E.; Karp, Karen S.; Lingo, Amy S.
One area of algebraic thinking essential for students' success is a relational understanding of the equal sign. Research has indicated a positive correlation between students' relational understanding of the equal sign and their equation-solving performance, suggesting that students' early conception of the equal sign may affect their learning and…
Penson, Richard T; Partridge, Rosamund A; Shah, Muhammad A; Giansiracusa, David; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J
Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient and support to caregivers and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. For many, cancer is synonymous with death. Fearing death is a rational response. For too long, medicine has ignored this primeval fear. Increasingly, clinicians recognize and address end-of-life issues, facing patients' and our own emotional vulnerabilities in order to connect and explore problems and fears. Listening and learning from the patient guides us as we acknowledge much of the mystery that still surrounds the dying process. Rarely is there a simple or right answer. An empathetic response to suffering patients is the best support. Support is vital in fostering the adjustment of patients. A silent presence may prove more helpful than well-meant counsel for many patients. Through an examination of eight caregiver narratives of their patients' experiences, the role of the health care provider in the dying process, particularly in regard to challenging fear, is reviewed.
Lanou, Aaron; Hough, Lauren; Powell, Elizabeth
Students on the autism spectrum present with difficulties in a variety of areas, including social understanding, emotional regulation, academics, and behavior. Professionals working in the field of autism must identify and address these areas of need given each individual child's specific cognitive profiles. In this article the authors highlight…
Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2006
America's leaders are increasingly concerned about U.S. competitiveness in a rapidly globalizing world. In response, during the 2006 State of the Union Address, President Bush introduced the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) to promote policy that bolsters student achievement in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and…
Several barriers can hinder the diagnosis of ADHD in college students, especially those with unrecognized symptoms, dysfunctional behavior, or psychiatric conditions. One specific barrier includes the misuse of prescription stimulants among college students, perhaps to improve academic performance or to self-treat undiagnosed ADHD symptoms. Because of the dangers, both medical and legal, that nonmedical stimulant use can cause, clinicians must recognize these undiagnosed students and initiate proper treatment. By establishing a therapeutic relationship with students, clinicians can provide education, monitoring, and treatment options that will help minimize misuse of prescriptions while giving students the support they need to successfully complete college.
Benton, Thomas H.
Teachers are all, in varying degrees, personally vulnerable for three reasons: (1) it is their job to demand difficult tasks of people and judge the results in ways that can have consequences for their future; (2) they cannot pursue disciplinary action within a college unless they are willing to accept the possibility of personal retaliation by…
Schwartz, David M
Assistive technologies provide significant capabilities for improving student achievement. Improved accessibility, cost, and diversity of applications make integration of technology a powerful tool to compensate for executive function weaknesses and deficits and their impact on student performance, learning, and achievement. These tools can be used to compensate for decreased working memory, poor time management, poor planning and organization, poor initiation, and decreased memory. Assistive technology provides mechanisms to assist students with diverse strengths and weaknesses in mastering core curricular concepts.
Fertman, Carl I.; Tarasevich, Susan L.
Conversations with school superintendents, board members, principals, teachers, counselors, and nurses about their students' social and emotional health show how actively they are working to help students confront difficult issues. Topping the list of issues are drug and alcohol use and abuse, depression, and violence among students. Equally…
Tucker, Constance R.; Choby, Beth A.; Moore, Andrew; Parker, Robert Scott; Zambetti, Benjamin R.; Naids, Sarah; Scott, Jillian; Loome, Jennifer; Gaffney, Sierra
Background Objective-structured teaching encounters (OSTEs) are used across many disciplines to assess teaching ability. The OSTE detailed in this paper assesses 191 fourth-year medical students’ (M4) ability to identify and address lapses in professionalism based on Association of American Medical Colleges’ professionalism competencies. The research questions addressed areHow frequently do M4s address professionalism lapses observed during an OSTE?What factors influence whether M4s provide feedback when they observe professionalism lapses in an OSTE? Methods Standardized patients (SPs) and standardized learners (SLs) were recruited and trained to participate in a standardized encounter with specific cognitive, social, and behavioral errors, including professionalism lapses. M4s viewed this encounter and then offered feedback to the SL, while remotely observed by faculty. Post-encounter, the SL and faculty completed identical checklists to assess both teaching readiness and ability to address professionalism concerns. Results An analysis of frequencies showed that six of the Association of American Medical Colleges’ nine professional competencies were addressed in the checklist and/or discussed in the focus group. Analysis of transcribed debriefing sessions confirmed that M4s did not consistently address professionalism lapses by their peers. Conclusions In focus groups, M4s indicated that, while they noticed professionalism issues, they were uncomfortable discussing them with the SLs. Findings of the current study suggest how medical educators might support learners’ ability to address lapses in professionalism as well as topics for future research. PMID:27814779
The College Ambition Program (CAP) is designed to encourage low-income and minority students to enroll in college. The following analysis presents updated results from my AERA presidential talk in 2014. Results indicate that CAP, which is a schoolwide intervention, increased college attendance for low-income and minority students in seven…
Mays, Nicole M.; Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer; Jolivette, Kristine
This article outlines a three-step process to help teachers determine whether or not the function of a student's stereotypical behavior is sensory-based and if so, how to select and monitor an appropriate sensory intervention to promote instructional engagement. In particular, characteristics of students who are seeking to gain sensory input in…
In this paper Nancy Fraser's conceptual tools are drawn on to theorise issues of justice in a culturally diverse primary school in Australia where approximately 30% of the student population are immigrant/refugees. The paper examines justice issues of cultural recognition in relation to refugee student identity, behaviour and assessment. Drawing…
Summative student evaluation of teaching (SET) is a contentious process, but given the increasing emphasis on quality and accountability, as well as national and international calls for centralised student feedback systems, is likely to become an inevitable aspect of teaching. This research aimed to clarify academics' attitudes to SET in a large…
Swank, Jacqueline M.; Swank, David E.
School counselors have the challenging task of implementing a comprehensive, developmental school counseling program to serve a large number of students. We present the creative use of a garden program to promote the development of students through the integration of the natural environment. Additionally, we describe activities and metaphors…
Hong, Ee Rea; Neely, Leslie; Lund, Emily M.
Bullying or any aggressive behavior of a more powerful person or group toward a less powerful person is a widespread problem in the U.S. educational system. While bullying is a significant problem for all students, students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a particularly high incidence rate of becoming victims of bullying. The social…
Shaffer, Leigh S.
Academic advisors likely will encounter financially at-risk (FAR) students who jeopardize their chances of completing a college education and compromise their economic futures by accruing burdensome debt. Students may use loans and credit cards to pay for the necessities of a college education, but many also generate personal debt by financing…
Thiel, Teresa; Peterman, Shahla; Brown, Monica
College students' success in a course depends on many factors, including their ability and previous knowledge of the subject, the effectiveness of the instruction, and their motivation to work hard enough to succeed. Introductory courses, including many that satisfy general-education requirements, often pose a particular problem for students who…
Pelton, Tim; Pelton, Leslee Francis; Sanseverino, Mary
This project began in response to a perceived need to assess students' perceptions with respect to the emerging use of audience response systems (clickers) in several mid- to large-size undergraduate courses at the University of Victoria. We developed and validated a "Clicker Use Survey" to gather students' opinions with respect to…
Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T. P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.
Objective: Over the past 2 decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on…
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Salvatore, Anthony C.; Casa, Douglas J.
Context: Educational training programs both impart knowledge and allow students to practice skills to gain clinical competence. Objective: Understand the educational training provided to athletic training students regarding sudden death in sport beyond exertional heat stroke. Design: An exploratory, qualitative study using telephone interviews and…
Starakis, Ioannis; Halkia, Krystallia
In this paper, primary school students' and pre-service teachers' ideas of seasonal change are investigated. The research was carried out in nine primary schools in Athens and in the Primary Education Department of the University of Athens. Written reports were used for gathering data while students also had the opportunity to support their…
This study investigated the identification and subsequent development or modification of students´ ideas about scientific phenomena by teaching by concept cartoons© method. We found out ideas of students of the fourth grade of primary school by conceptual tasks which were parts of quasi-experiment (pretest and posttest design). For triangulation…
Hushman, Glenn; Hushman, Carolyn; Carbonneau, Kira
The current educational reform movement in the United States is focused on measuring the effectiveness of teachers. One component of teacher effectiveness is student achievement. The effectiveness of using PE Metrics as a measure of student achievement in a physical activity setting with a low socioeconomic, culturally diverse population was…
If educators are to support the learning of students who have traditionally struggled for success in school, administrators and teachers must understand the difference between equity and equality and engage in classroom practices that support the former. In simple terms, "equality" reflects the idea that every student should get the same…
Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Doug
The Common Core State Standards provide teachers with a framework of necessary mathematics skills across grades K-12, which vary considerably from previous mathematics standards. In this article, we discuss concerns about the implications of the Common Core for students with mathematics difficulties (MD), given that students with MD, by…
Background: College students may fail to practice information literacy skills because they are unaware of their skill level or are not concerned with the risks. Purpose: In order to develop an effective message that motivates college students to learn online health information literacy skills, a better understanding of perceptions about such…
Kerr, Sara C.; Walz, Kenneth A.
There is a misconception among undergraduate students that global warming is caused by holes in the ozone layer. In this study, we evaluated the presence of this and other misconceptions surrounding atmospheric chemistry that are responsible for the entanglement of the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole in students' conceptual frameworks. We…
Nadirova, Anna; Burger, John Michael
This study contributes to applied and theoretical research for schools and districts by helping inform programs and policies directed at school improvement, raising student achievement, and high school completion. The paper features recent results of ongoing research on student orientation to school that was assessed via a multidimensional Student…
Mobley, Steve D., Jr.; Johnson, Jennifer M.
This chapter highlights some of the extant literature on LGBT students at HBCUs and discusses some of the challenges they encounter at these institutions. Furthermore, it offers recommendations to help HBCUs be more intentional about creating a more affirming and inclusive campus environment for LGBT students.
Library anxiety is a concept which has been recognised in academic library circles since the early 1990s. It can result in students actively avoiding the library for the duration of their studies. Madeleine Still is Trust Librarian at North Tees & Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust and while studying for an MSc, recognised that some student nurses were exhibiting signs of library anxiety. She decided to make it the focus of her MSc dissertation, and this article discusses her research project as well as highlighting the measures she has taken to address the issues she uncovered. Madeleine graduated in July 2013 with an MSc in Information & Library Studies from Robert Gordon University.
Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per-Einar; Moltu, Christian; Dundas, Ingrid
The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative-reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes) were found: (1) finding an inner source of calm, (2) sharing a human struggle, (3) staying focused in learning situations, (4) moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5) feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research.
Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per-Einar; Moltu, Christian; Dundas, Ingrid
The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative–reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes) were found: (1) finding an inner source of calm, (2) sharing a human struggle, (3) staying focused in learning situations, (4) moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5) feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research. PMID:26297629
Hubble, Judy Hafley
A study explored the nature of intake procedures of Texas adult education programs. Research on barriers to attendance and strategies for retention were reviewed, and the current use of intake procedures to identify and address barriers to attendance was summarized through a survey of 374 Literacy, Even Start Family Literacy, Adult Basic Education…
Vessey, Judith A; O'Neill, Katherine M
Students with disabilities are more likely to be chronically teased or bullied and develop related psychosocial problems. Proactive interventions help these youths develop coping skills and become more resilient in handling such situations. The specific aims of this study were to (a) identify children with disabilities, who are at risk for being chronically teased or bullied and (b) intervene using a web-based program to build resiliency for managing teasing and bullying situations. Using materials from the U.S. Health Services Resources Administration's Stop Bullying Now campaign, 11 school nurses conducted a 12-session, biweekly support/discussion group intervention for 65 students with disabilities. Results indicated that after participating in serial brief interventions using a school nurse-led support group model, students reported being significantly less bothered by teasing and possessed significantly improved self-concepts, thus becoming more resilient in managing teasing and bullying situations. This study was conducted by MASNRN: the Massachusetts School Nurse Research Network.
Budd, Geraldine M; Wolf, Andrea; Haas, Richard Eric
Primary care is a growing area, and nurse practitioners (NPs) hold promise for meeting the need for additional providers. This article reports on the future plans of more than 300 primary care NP students in family, adult, and adult gerontology programs. The sample was obtained through NP faculty, and data were collected via an online survey. Results indicated that although these students chose primary care, only 48% anticipated working in primary care; 26% planned to practice in rural areas, and 16% planned to work in an inner city. Reasons cited as important for pursuing a primary care position included the long-term patient relationship, faculty and preceptor mentors from the NP program, and clinical experiences as a student. Implications include providing more intensive faculty mentoring to increase the number of individuals seeking primary care positions after graduation and help with future career planning to meet personal career and nursing profession needs.
Saawarn, Swati; Jain, Megha; Saawarn, Nisheeth; Ashok, Sahana; Ashok, KP; Jain, Manish; Pardhe, Nilesh
Introduction The present scenario of Oral Pathology and Oral Histology as a subject is alarming. In spite of so many advancements in terms of books, internet and conferences there are still lacunae between the understanding and interest for the subjects in the students. It can be partly due to the fact that the students perceive it as a non-clinical subject having a lesser scope for practice. Aim The present study was aimed at evaluating the students approach towards oral pathology department and the subject. The purpose of the study was to analyze practical hurdles encountered by students and to find out solutions to overcome them. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional questionnaire based study was done with BDS students of People’s Dental Academy, Bhopal, India, to gauge the understanding of their knowledge in the subject of Oral Pathology and Oral Histology. Questionnaire comprised of 28 multiple choice questions under five parameters. The data recorded was subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test. Results We found that study samples were efficient enough in terms of following instructions related to their day to day training. Although they were content with light microscope, they thought that some more interactive sessions could be beneficial for them in Oral Pathology. Conclusion Through our study we found out that the students are well oriented on the whole about Oral Pathology. They certainly encounter difficulties which are easy to handle if proper measures are taken. We through our study would like the readers to be aware of the changing trends in teaching and to incorporate them routinely. PMID:28050505
Fogel, Joshua; Chawla, Gurasees S
Risk perception and psychological concerns are relevant for understanding how people view Lyme disease. This study investigates the four separate outcomes of susceptibility, likelihood to be diagnosed, worry, and fear for contracting Lyme disease. University students (n=713) were surveyed about demographics, perceived health, Lyme disease knowledge, Lyme disease preventive behaviors, Lyme disease history, and Lyme disease miscellaneous variables. We found that women were associated with increased susceptibility and fear. Asian/Asian-American race/ethnicity was associated with increased worry and fear. Perceived good health was associated with increased likelihood to be diagnosed, worry, and fear. Correct knowledge was associated with increased susceptibility and likelihood to be diagnosed. Those who typically spend a lot of time outdoors were associated with increased susceptibility, likelihood to be diagnosed, worry, and fear. In conclusion, healthcare providers and public health campaigns should address susceptibility, likelihood to be diagnosed, worry, and fear about Lyme disease, and should particularly target women and Asians/Asian-Americans to address any possible misconceptions and/or offer effective coping strategies.
Millar, Dorothy Squatrito
As students who have intellectual disability reach or have reached the age of majority, concerns regarding their competence to make informed decisions are often raised, as is the issue of adult guardianship. Guardianship refers to when a judge appoints an adult to be the guardian of another adult (ward) who has been determined to be unable to care…
Zhang, Dorothy; Spencer, Vicky G.
Autism is a developmental disability that has gained increasing attention during the past several decades in China. The two case studies presented in this article examined the perspectives of two school leaders on educating students with autism in China. Two school principals, one from a public school and one from a private school, were…
Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel
This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…
Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro
In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…
Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy
In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life…
Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh
The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…
Root, Jenny R.; Knight, Victoria F.; Mims, Pamela J.
Instruction in academic core content provides students with moderate to severe disabilities a full educational opportunity that promotes current and future options in the community and can complement acquisition of daily living skills. However, high school teachers face many challenges in balancing instructional priorities given the mission to…
Rosvall, Per-Åke; Öhrn, Elisabet
In this article, we use ethnographic data to explore school-based perceptions of racism. We draw on the findings of a one-year study conducted in two upper secondary classes in a Swedish school. The starting point of the analysis was student discussions of racism in the school and the surrounding neighbourhood, which prompted an examination of…
Ha, Sangwoo; Lee, Gyoungho; Kalman, Calvin S.
Hermeneutics is useful in science and science education by emphasizing the process of understanding. The purpose of this study was to construct a workshop based upon hermeneutical principles and to interpret students' learning in the workshop through a hermeneutical perspective. When considering the history of Newtonian mechanics, it could be…
Vessey, Judith A.; O'Neill, Katherine M.
Students with disabilities are more likely to be chronically teased or bullied and develop related psychosocial problems. Proactive interventions help these youths develop coping skills and become more resilient in handling such situations. The specific aims of this study were to (a) identify children with disabilities, who are at risk for being…
Quinn, Mary Magee; Gable, Robert A.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Nelson, C. Michael; Howell, Kenneth W.
This paper provides guidelines for conducting a functional behavioral assessment and developing positive behavior intervention plans with students who have behavior disorders or other disabilities in the context of requirements of the 1997 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). After an introduction, rights and…
Mazerolle, Stephanie; Yeargin, Susan
Context: A thorough knowledge of anatomy is needed in four of the six domains of athletic training: prevention, injury/condition recognition, immediate care, and treatment/rehabilitation. Students with a solid foundation can achieve competency in these specific domains. Objective: To provide educators with pedagogical tools to promote a deeper…
It is well documented, that Indigenous students, compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts, attend school less frequently, and are more likely to develop anti-schooling attitudes leading to their early exit from school (Hayes et al., 2009; Gray & Partington, 2003; Hunter & Schwad, 2003). Although research does suggest that there has…
Marino, Tracey L.
The existence of an achievement gap in the academic performance among various subgroups of students is a well-documented phenomenon in American public education (Blackford & Khojasteh, 2013; "Education Week," 2004; Hayes & Grether, 1969; Hernandez, 2011; National Center for Educational Statistics, 2015). This is certainly the…
Span, Sherry A.
One method frequently employed as an intervention to reduce anti-gay bias is a lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) speaker panel. These speakers share brief biographical sketches about their coming out experiences and then answer questions. A pretest/posttest control group design examined the impact of LGB speaker panels on university students'…
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of instruction in information problem solving within the world wide web (the web) environment. The participants were 20 seventh and eighth grade students with a learning disability (LD) in reading. An experimental pretest-posttest control group method was used to investigate the…
The selection and use of instructional materials to develop technical writing skills in limited-English-proficient foreign students are discussed. Focus is on the influence of cultural differences in second language learning and the need for instructional materials that accommodate these differences. The first section examines American…
Franquiz, Maria E.; Salazar, Maria del Carmen
The purpose of this paper is to present an argument for understanding the factors that support or constrain the development of Chicana/o students' academic identities and consequently, their academic resiliency in high school. The article draws on a larger study investigating ways that schooling structures and teacher mind-sets can sustain…
Hightower, Helen C.
This study examined whether the phenomenon of "parental over-involvement" occurred in the Virginia Community College System. Concern has been expressed in the popular and academic literature in recent years over the increased level of parental involvement at four year institutions whose student bodies consist almost exclusively of…
Fitzpatrick, Anne R.
Examined in this study were the effects of reducing anchor test length on student proficiency rates for 12 multiple-choice tests administered in an annual, large-scale, high-stakes assessment. The anchor tests contained 15 items, 10 items, or five items. Five content representative samples of items were drawn at each anchor test length from a…
van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina M.
Inclusive education in the Dutch education system has achieved new meaning in the last decade or so. Until 1998, the Netherlands recognized 19 types of special education. Then, two Educational Acts were passed, in 1998 and 2003, that decreased the types of special education by including measures to enhance inclusion of students with special…
Afful, Joseph Benjamin Archibald
In the last two decades, scholars in discourse studies and sociolinguistics have shown considerable interest in how identity is encoded in discourses across various facets of life such as academia, home, politics and workplace. By adopting an ethnographic-style approach, this study shows how students in a Ghanaian university construct their…
This paper provides easy-to-understand guidelines for citing online information in student bibliographies. Citation structure and examples are provided for each type of Internet source. Guidelines are included for the following Internet sources: electronic mail; Gopher; File Transfer Protocol (FTP); Telnet; World Wide Web; Usenet Newsgroups;…
Social justice mathematics educators explicitly aim to develop students' sociopolitical consciousness in addition to teaching mathematics content (Gutiérrez 2013; Gutstein 2006). Sociopolitical consciousness refers to Paulo Freire's (1970) concept of "conscientização," or learning to perceive social, political, and economic…
89% of colleges and universities in the United States offer online courses and of those institutions 58% offer degree programs that are completely online (Parker, Lenhart & Moore, 2011).Providing online student services is an important component of these distance programs and is often required by accrediting bodies. Health and wellness…
Wei, Jia; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Yadan; Xue, Song; Zhang, Jinfu
Background The 12-item brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE) is one of the most widely used instruments to assess fear of negative evaluation. Recent evidence strongly supports the version composed of 8 straightforward items (BFNE-S), which possessesstronger psychometric properties. The purpose of the current study is to examine the psychometric prop-erties of the Chinese versions of the BFNE and BFNE-S for middle school students. Methodology A total of 1009 middle school students were recruited in this study. The BFNE, the BFNE-S, the Friedman-Bendas Text Anxiety Scale (FBTAS), and the Social Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to 497 participants, and 52 participants were re-tested after four weeks. The BFNE, the BFNE-S, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) wereadministered to 492 participants. The BFNE and BFNE-S significantly cor-related with all the scales, supporting their convergent, divergent and concurrent validity. Principal Findings The Cronbach's alpha of the BFNE (BFNE-S) was 0.864 (0.867) with 497 par-ticipants and 0.886 (0.844) with 492 participants, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.791 (0.855) (ICC). Although the EFA identified a two-factor solution in which the 8 straightfor-ward items loaded on one factor and the 4 reversed items loaded on the other, the CFA, using a random intercept model to control the wording effect, supported a unidimensional factor struc-ture of the BFNE. Both EFA and CFA supported the unidimensional assumption of the BFNE-S. The correlations of the BFNE and BFNE-S were 0.929 and 0.952 in two samples. Conclusions The Chinese versions of the BFNE and BFNE-S demonstrate adequate psychometric properties for assessing fear of negative evaluation. The results support their use among the Chinese middle school students. Considering its greater parsimony and excellent reliability and validity, the BFNE-S is a better tool. PMID
Littlefield, Christine; Fleming, Stephen
Examined fear of death in 87 students who viewed films designed to manipulate anxiety. Results showed high scores on the Templer fear of death scale correlated with longer response latencies to death than neutral words on the word association test, indicating a positive association between direct and indirect measures. (JAC)
Robinson, Edward H.; And Others
How fears, phobias, anxiety and stress develop in elementary school students and how these students can be assisted in coping with fears and stress are discussed in this book. Part 1, "Discussion and Activities," contains six sections. Section 1 presents an overview of fears, and stress in children. Section 2 presents 12 fear-specific activities…
Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro
In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article proposes an interactive teaching sequence introducing the topic of electromagnetic induction. The sequence has been designed based on contributions from physics education research. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between experimental findings (macroscopic level) and theoretical interpretation (microscopic level). An example of the activities that have been designed will also be presented, describing the implementation context and the corresponding findings. Since implementing the sequence, a considerable number of students have a more satisfactory grasp of the electromagnetic induction explicative model. However, difficulties are manifested in aspects that require a multilevel explanation, referring to deep structures where the system description is better defined.
Chambless, Dianne L.
The fear of fear present in agoraphobics can be broken down into a fear of the body sensations associated with the panic attacks that plague agoraphobics and maladaptive thoughts about the possible consequences of panic. In a retrospective examination of clinical files, 32 agoraphobic patients were compared to 36 patients with simple social…
Cutler, Janis L; Harding, Kelli J; Mozian, Sharon A; Wright, Leslie L; Pica, Adrienne G; Masters, Scott R; Graham, Mark J
People with mental illness around the world continue to suffer from stigmatization and limited care. Previous studies utilizing self-report questionnaires indicate that many medical students regard clinical work with psychiatric patients as unappealing, while the professionalism literature has documented a general decline in students' capacity for empathy over the course of medical school. Through in-depth interviews, this study attempts to better understand the formation of medical students' perceptions of psychiatry and the implications of that process for a more general understanding of the impact of emotionally-laden experiences on medical students' capacity for empathy. Forty-seven fourth-year medical students who had expressed interest or performed well in psychiatry were asked a series of questions to elicit their perceptions of the field of psychiatry. Interview transcripts were systematically coded using content analysis and principles of grounded theory. Stigma, stereotypes, and stressfully intense emotional reactions seemed to adversely affect the students' expected satisfaction from and willingness to care for the mentally ill, despite enjoying psychiatry's intellectual content and the opportunity to develop in-depth relationships with patients. Teaching faculty need to directly address the stigma and stereotypes that surround mental illness and actively help medical students cope with the stress that they report experiencing during their psychiatry clerkship in order to improve the recognition and treatment of psychiatric illness by newly graduating physicians. More generally, the relationships that we identify among stress, stigmatization, and stereotyping along an empathic spectrum suggest that increased attention should be paid to the stress that empathy can entail. This perspective may allow for the creation of similarly targeted interventions throughout the medical school curriculum to counteract the decline in empathy, the so-called "hardening of
Ziguras, Christopher; Gribble, Cate
For several decades, Singapore has experienced a high rate of outbound degree mobility with around 1 in 10 higher education students currently studying outside the country according to UNESCO figures. Singapore's successful economic development strategy, which has seen it become a key Asian hub for knowledge-intensive industries for…
Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy
In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life balance would be more difficult to achieve in a STEM research path than in other professions they were considering. Their views of STEM research being less family-friendly were more pronounced on issues of parental leaves and caring for children than finding a spouse/partner and landing two jobs in the same locality. To provide role models of work-life balance in STEM professions, we convened panels of dual-career couples who described how they worked together to raise their children while advancing their scientific careers. Our selection of panelists and topics of discussion were based on findings of social science research on work-life balance. On a survey with the same questions administered afterward, the changes in paired responses of male and female students with respect to all four issues showed a significant shift toward thinking that a research-based STEM career would be no more difficult than other careers they were considering.
Levine, Arthur; Cureton, Jeanette S.
This book reports on several studies of the attitudes of college students in the 1990s, tracing the differences which have developed in the last decade. A representative sample of 9,100 undergraduates was surveyed in 1993, and interviews and small focus groups were conducted with student body presidents, student newspaper editors, and student…
Randall, C L; McNeil, D W; Shaffer, J R; Crout, R J; Weyant, R J; Marazita, M L
Fear of pain is experienced in acute and chronic pain populations, as well as in the general population, and it affects numerous aspects of the orofacial pain experience, including pain intensity, pain-related disability, and pain behavior (e.g., avoidance). A related but separate construct-dental fear-is also experienced in the general population, and it influences dental treatment-seeking behavior and oral and systemic health. Minimal work has addressed the role of genetics in the etiologies of fear of pain and dental fear. Limited available data suggest that variants of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene may predict greater levels of dental fear. The MC1R gene also may be etiologically important for fear of pain. This study aimed to replicate the finding that MC1R variant status predicts dental fear and to determine, for the first time, whether MC1R variant status predicts fear of pain. Participants were 817 Caucasian participants (62.5% female; mean ± SD age: 34.7 ± 8.7 y) taking part in a cross-sectional project that identified determinants of oral diseases at the community, family, and individual levels. Participants were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms on MC1R and completed self-report measures of fear of pain and dental fear. Presence of MC1R variant alleles predicted higher levels of dental fear and fear of pain. Importantly, fear of pain mediated the relation between MC1R variant status and dental fear (B = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.281 to 3.056). MC1R variants may influence orofacial pain perception and, in turn, predispose individuals to develop fears about pain. Such fears influence the pain experience and associated pain behaviors, as well as fears about dental treatment. This study provides support for genetic contributions to the development/maintenance of fear of pain and dental fear, and it offers directions for future research to identify potential targets for intervention in the treatment of fear of pain and dental
Outlines components of fear in outdoor adventure activities. Reports ratings by 311 Outward Bound students of 23 common fears in the outdoors. Discusses techniques of fear reduction therapy: systematic desensitization, flooding, modeling of coping methods by instructors, and rehearsal of adaptive behaviors. Contains 16 references. (SV)
Pailhez, Guillem; Rosado, Silvia; Bulbena Cabré, Andrea; Bulbena, Antonio
Our purpose was to evaluate joint hypermobility, an inherited disorder of the connective tissue significantly associated with anxiety disorders, in a sample of nonclinical students in relation to the frequency of severe fears and consumption of chocolate, coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol. One hundred fifty students completed the Hakim and Grahame Simple Questionnaire to detect hypermobility and the self-administered modified Wolpe Fear Scale (100 items). Severe fears and daily consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, coffee, and chocolate were compared with the hypermobility scores. We found significant differences when comparing severe fears between the groups with and without hypermobility (7.6 vs. 11; p = 0.001), reinforcing the hypothesis that the intensity of fears is greater in subjects with hypermobility. Only the frequency of chocolate intake was significantly higher among subjects with hypermobility (31.2% vs. 51.2%; p = 0.038) and may correspond to attempts of self-treatment of the collagen condition.
Robinson, C. Sean
Although there is a significant body of research on the process of undergraduate education and retention, much less research exists as it relates to the doctoral experience, which is intended to be transformational in nature. At each stage of the process students are presented with a unique set of challenges and experiences that must be negotiated and mastered. However, we know very little about entering students' expectations, beliefs, goals, and identities, and how these may or may not change over time within a doctoral program. Utilizing a framework built upon socialization theory and cognitive-ecological theory, this dissertation examines the expectations that incoming doctoral students have about their programs as well as the actual experiences that these students have during their first year. Interviews were conducted with twelve students from the departments of Botany, Chemistry, and Physics prior to matriculation into their respective doctoral programs. These initial interviews provided information about students' expectations. Interviews were then conducted approximately every six to eight weeks to assess students' perceptions about their actual experiences throughout their first year. The findings of this study showed that new doctoral students tend to have uninformed and naive expectations about their programs. In addition, many of the specific policies or procedures necessary for navigation through a doctoral program were unknown to the students. While few differences existed in terms of students' expectations based on gender or discipline, there were significant differences in how international students described their expectations compared to American students. The two primary differences between American and international students revolved around the role of faculty members and the language barrier. It is clear that the first year of doctoral study is indeed a year of transition. The nature and clarity of the expectations associated with the role of
Shaffer, Barbara; Duckitt, John
Most theories addressing the topic have proposed that threat and fear underlie right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and many empirical findings have been consistent with this proposition. Important questions, however, remain unanswered, such as whether RWA is associated with fear and threat in general or only specific kinds of fear and threat. Theories of RWA generate markedly different predictions on this issue, particularly with respect to social or personal fears, and whether the association would also hold for the closely related construct of social dominance orientation (SDO). We investigated the issue by asking 463 undergraduate students to rate their feelings of fear, concern, and anxiety to a comprehensive 93-item list of potential fears and threats, which were formulated as either personal or social. Exploratory factors analysis identified five distinct fear-threat factors: harm to self, child, or country; personal and relationship failures; environmental and economic fears; political and personal uncertainties; and threats to ingroup. All the fear-threat factors were correlated with RWA, with the strongest correlations being for threats to ingroup, and with stronger effects for social than for personal fears. None of the fear factors correlated with SDO. These relationships were not affected by controlling for social desirability or emotional stability (EMS). When the intercorrelations between fear factors and EMS were controlled using ridge regression, only threats to ingroup predicted RWA. Structural equation modeling indicated good fit for a model in which low levels of EMS had a significant path to threats to ingroup, which in turn had a significant path to RWA, and EMS having a significant though weak indirect (fully mediated) inverse effect on RWA. Implications of these findings for theories of authoritarianism and future research are discussed.
Glenn, Catherine R.; Lieberman, Lynne; Hajcak, Greg
The potency of an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) can impact the degree of fear learning. One of the most common and effective UCSs is an electric shock, which is inappropriate for certain populations (e.g., children). To address this need, a novel fear learning paradigm was recently developed that uses a fearful female face and scream as the UCS. The present study directly compared the efficacy of the screaming female UCS and a traditional shock UCS in two fear learning paradigms. Thirty-six young adults completed two fear learning tasks and a measure of trait anxiety; fear learning was indexed with fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and self-reported fear ratings. Results indicated comparable FPS across the two tasks. However, larger overall startle responses were exhibited in the shock task, and participants rated the shock UCS and overall task as more aversive than the screaming female. In addition, trait anxiety was only related to FPS in the fear learning task that employed a shock as the UCS. Taken together, results indicate that, although both UCS paradigms can be used for fear conditioning (i.e., to produce differences between CS+ and CS−), the shock UCS paradigm is more aversive and potentially more sensitive to individual differences in anxiety. PMID:23007035
Benzley, Steven E
This paper presents an academic project that addresses the issue of international corruption in the engineering and construction industry, in a manner that effectively incorporates several learning experiences. The major objectives of the project are to provide the students a learning activity that will 1) make a meaningful contribution within the disciplines being studied; 2) teach by experience a significant principle that can be valuable in numerous situations during an individual's career, and 3) engage the minds, experiences, and enthusiasm of the participants in a real ethical challenge that is prevalent in all of their chosen professional fields. The paper describes the full details of the project, the actual implementation of it during Winter Semester 2005, the experiences gained during the initial trial, and the modifications and improvements incorporated for future implementation.
Karairmak, Ozlem; Aydin, GuL
In this study, the authors investigated the fears of earthquake victim and nonvictim elementary school students and the effectiveness of an activity-based cognitive fear reduction (ABCF) procedure developed by the authors. To measure fear, the authors collected data from 266 participants using a modified version of the Fear Survey Schedule for…
Burnham, Joy J.
This study was prompted by the continual exposure of youth to disasters (e.g., 9/11, Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, school violence) and the call for revisions in fear assessments to reflect contemporary fears. Fears of 1,033 students in Grades 2-12 were examined using the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (J. J. Burnham, 2005). Results…
Philippoff, Joanna; Baumgartner, Erin
The scientific value of citizen-science programs is limited when the data gathered are inconsistent, erroneous, or otherwise unusable. Long-term monitoring studies, such as Our Project In Hawai'i's Intertidal (OPIHI), have clear and consistent procedures and are thus a good model for evaluating the quality of participant data. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinds of errors made by student researchers during OPIHI data collection and factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of these errors. Twenty-four different types of errors were grouped into four broad error categories: missing data, sloppiness, methodological errors, and misidentification errors. "Sloppiness" was the most prevalent error type. Error rates decreased with field trip experience and student age. We suggest strategies to reduce data collection errors applicable to many types of citizen-science projects including emphasizing neat data collection, explicitly addressing and discussing the problems of falsifying data, emphasizing the importance of using standard scientific vocabulary, and giving participants multiple opportunities to practice to build their data collection techniques and skills.
Jones, S. Everett; Brener, Nancy D.; Bergren, Martha Dewey
Supportive school policies and well-prepared school nurses can best address the needs of students with chronic health conditions. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine whether districts with policies requiring that schools provide health services to students with chronic…
Waltz, Freddie C.; Beeman, Carl E.
To address the issues of student recruitment and retention in Florida, a three-year research study was conducted. The three phases of the study sought the following: (1) to describe barriers to recruitment and retention of disadvantaged, unemployed, underemployed, out-of-school youth as perceived by students, teachers, counselors, and…
Kabapinar, Filiz; Leach, John; Scott, Phil
This paper reports upon a study addressing teaching and learning about solubility to Turkish first-year secondary school students (age 14-15). The principal aim of the research was to investigate the impact on students' understanding of solubility, of introducing a simple particle model of matter. A teaching intervention to fit within the existing…
College Board, New York, NY.
Four speakers addressed the College Board National Forum on "Reaching Each Student" in the Fall of 1990 in Boston, Massachusetts. John F. Akers, Chairman of the Board at International Business Machines in his speech "Reaching Each Student: A Business Perspective" challenged the College Board to work with American business to…
Fear is powerful and pervasive in English schools and central to many education discourses. However, it has received very little "focussed" attention in the education literature, despite the increasing interest afforded to it in other disciplines. Understanding how fear works is extremely important as fear and wellbeing are inextricably…
Putwain, Dave; Symes, Wendy
This study examines whether students' perception of classroom fear appeals concerning a forthcoming high-stakes examination are associated with facilitating or debilitating performance outcomes. Self-report data were collected for perceived fear appeals, test anxiety and achievement goals from a sample of 273 students in their final year of…
Hayes, E R; Carter, S V; Carroll, M C; Morin, K H
Improvement of the health of the nation demands that we prepare nurses to deliver care to those within our urban settings. Yet students frequently are uncomfortable visiting clients in urban settings. Our initial efforts were to refine the Environmental Comfort Scale (Carter, Carroll, & Hayes, 1994), an instrument developed to measure comfort levels in various urban scenarios. This article reports the results of this instrument refinement as well as the inductive process leading to the initial conceptualization of a model that addresses threats to safety. These threats, in turn, generate fear of nursing in community-based settings. The study participants were 120 volunteer junior students in a baccalaureate nursing program. The Environmental Comfort Scale II was administered to students at the beginning of an orientation session prior to their initial clinical nursing course. The instrument consisted of 15 items: 3 demographic items, 11 items asking students to rate their level of comfort and of fear in relation to various urban situations, and 1 open-ended question. Analysis of data led to conceptualization of two factors that could influence comfort levels in the urban environment. The first factor was personal-emotional (affective) and the second factor was cognitive (objective). The interaction and interdependency of these two factors led to the creation of a model.
This chapter describes fears that may lead to faculty resistance to civic engagement and suggests approaches to conquering these fears in order to further develop the civic capacities of our students and institutions.
Coe, Jason B; Weijs, Cynthia A; Muise, Amy; Christofides, Emily; Desmarais, Serge
Social media is an increasingly common form of communication, with Facebook being the preferred social-networking site among post-secondary students. Numerous studies suggest post-secondary students practice high self-disclosure on Facebook. Research evaluating veterinary students' use of social media found a notable proportion of student-posted content deemed inappropriate. Lack of discretion in posting content can have significant repercussions for aspiring veterinary professionals, their college of study, and the veterinary profession they represent. Veterinarians-in-training at three veterinary colleges across Canada were surveyed to explore their use of and attitude toward the social networking site, Facebook. Students were invited to complete an online survey with questions relating to their knowledge of privacy in relation to using Facebook, their views on the acceptability of posting certain types of information, and their level of professional accountability online. Linear regression modeling was used to further examine factors related to veterinary students' disclosure of personal information on Facebook. Need for popularity (p<.01) and awareness of consequences (p<.001) were found to be positively and negatively associated, respectively, with students' personal disclosure of information on Facebook. Understanding veterinary students' use of and attitudes toward social media, such as Facebook, reveals a need, and provides a basis, for developing educational programs to address online professionalism. Educators and administrators at veterinary schools may use this information to assist in developing veterinary curricula that addresses the escalating issue of online professionalism.
This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.
Hartley, Michael T.
This study examined the assessment of resilience in undergraduate college students. Multigroup comparisons of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003) were performed on general population students and students recruited from campus mental health offices offering college counseling, psychiatric-support, and…
Mandel, Eliana; Osana, Helena P.; Venkatesh, Vivek
This study evaluated the effects of Adapted Reciprocal Teaching (ART) on the receptive and expressive flight-word vocabulary of 1st-grade students. During ART, classroom interactions produced narrative contexts within which students assumed responsibility for applying new flight words in personally meaningful ways. Students in the control group…
This research study sought to identify the successful strategies used by teachers in high performing, high poverty schools to address the needs of economically disadvantaged students. The study examined teacher perceptions, motivation factors, and instructional strategies as they relate to the improvement of the academic progress of economically…
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
This catalogue has been created as part of the UCLA Center for Mental Health in Schools' effort to compile and disseminate a set of resources useful to addressing barriers to student learning. This resource packet categorizes and provides contact information on organizations focusing on children's mental health, education and schools, school-based…
Opigo, Grace Bomo
The actions of antisocial student organizations or "cults" have become problematic for students, educators, parents, and the general public in Nigeria. Many university communities have erupted with violence due to these organizations. This survey design study addressed safety concerns, levels of fear, experiences, and perceptions of…
... With Fear of Recurrence Request Permissions Coping With Fear of Recurrence Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... affects your life. Tips for coping with the fear of recurrence Living with uncertainty is never easy. ...
For years, mainstream thinking about math anxiety assumed that people fear math because they are bad at it. However, a growing body of research shows a much more complicated relationship between math ability and anxiety. It is true that people who fear math have a tendency to avoid math-related classes, which decreases their math competence.…
Each of us has felt afraid, and we can all recognize fear in many animal species. Yet there is no consensus in the scientific study of fear. Some argue that “fear” is a psychological construct rather than discoverable through scientific investigation. Others argue that the term “fear” cannot properly be applied to animals because we cannot know whether they feel afraid. Studies in rodents show that there are highly specific brain circuits for fear, whereas findings from human neuroimaging seem to make the opposite claim. Here I review the field and urge three approaches that could reconcile the debates. For one, we need a broadly comparative approach that would identify core components of fear conserved across phylogeny. This also pushes us towards the second point of emphasis: an ecological theory of fear that is essentially functional. Finally, we should aim even to incorporate the conscious experience of being afraid, reinvigorating the study of feelings across species. PMID:23347946
Miller, Rowland S.
Interpersonal attraction appears to increase under aversive conditions. Two distinct theories suggest that attraction results from either misattribution or fear reduction. To investigate the effects of misattribution and fear reduction on attraction, 36 male college students were ostensibly exposed to an electromagnetic field while an attractive…
Feinstein, Justin S; Adolphs, Ralph; Damasio, Antonio; Tranel, Daniel
Although clinical observations suggest that humans with amygdala damage have abnormal fear reactions and a reduced experience of fear, these impressions have not been systematically investigated. To address this gap, we conducted a new study in a rare human patient, SM, who has focal bilateral amygdala lesions. To provoke fear in SM, we exposed her to live snakes and spiders, took her on a tour of a haunted house, and showed her emotionally evocative films. On no occasion did SM exhibit fear, and she never endorsed feeling more than minimal levels of fear. Likewise, across a large battery of self-report questionnaires, 3 months of real-life experience sampling, and a life history replete with traumatic events, SM repeatedly demonstrated an absence of overt fear manifestations and an overall impoverished experience of fear. Despite her lack of fear, SM is able to exhibit other basic emotions and experience the respective feelings. The findings support the conclusion that the human amygdala plays a pivotal role in triggering a state of fear and that the absence of such a state precludes the experience of fear itself.
Oliver, Rhonda; Grote, Ellen; Rochecouste, Judith; Exell, Mike
Vocational Education and Training (VET) in high schools has had positive effects on the retention of Indigenous students, providing important pathways into further education and the workforce. However, low-level literacy (and numeracy) skills can make successful completion difficult, especially for students who speak Standard Australian English as…
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
This report describes the discussion and outcomes of a series of regional meetings on barriers to student learning that brought together leaders representing national, state, and local agencies. The report discusses the lack of an explicit policy framework for comprehensive integrated approaches to student learning. Factors that get in the way of…
Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Short, Maureen; Bullock, Lyndal M.
As the US student population continues to become increasingly diverse, educators have encountered difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine disability indicators. This concern is clearly evident in assisting students from diverse backgrounds who demonstrate chronic challenging behaviours. Past practices (e.g.…
Demers, Jacques; French, Deanne C.; Moore, Dennis
In pilot study, special education teachers were exposed to experiences designed to enhance their skills in adapting substance abuse prevention activities and materials for their students. Although pilot students noted an increase in their teachers' emphasis on substance abuse prevention and their criterion-related attitudes/behaviors improved…
Getzel, Elizabeth Evans
This article explores the key characteristics of postsecondary education programs that help youth and young adults with disabilities persist and remain in college. Student support factors include services that develop stronger self-determination skills, teach and support young adults' self-management skills, expose students to assistive…
Sarsar, Nasreddine Mohamed
Students in UAE Model Schools exhibit poor writing skills. Samples of some of the essays they came up with bear clear evidence of the problems they have with writing in particular and place them at an increased risk for literacy failure. The data I gathered by means of questionnaires and interviews with teachers and students alike suggest that the…
Cutler, Janis L.; Harding, Kelli J.; Mozian, Sharon A.; Wright, Leslie L.; Pica, Adrienne G.; Masters, Scott R.; Graham, Mark J.
People with mental illness around the world continue to suffer from stigmatization and limited care. Previous studies utilizing self-report questionnaires indicate that many medical students regard clinical work with psychiatric patients as unappealing, while the professionalism literature has documented a general decline in students' capacity for…
The paper takes a critical look at the different metrics that could be used to measure First Nations student success. The paper concludes that more than one metric is needed given the holistic worldview of First Nations Aboriginal people. A framework undergirding First Nations student success is presented and discussed.
Adelman, Howard S.; Taylor, Linda
Every teacher knows about barriers to learning and teaching that interferes with student progress and academic achievement. These barriers to learning can hamper a student's ability to participate effectively and benefit fully from classroom instruction and other educational activities. For school improvement efforts to succeed in ways that truly…
Tate, Kevin A.; Williams, Cyrus, III; Harden, Dia
First-generation college students face a variety of academic and personal challenges, including survivor guilt (Piorkowski, 1983). Survivor guilt for these students involves negative emotions related to leaving family and friends "behind" in difficult contexts and lived experiences. This article provides (a) an overview of first-generation college…
Lange, R; Houran, J
Based on an extended process model derived from attribution theory, we hypothesized that pervasive and persistent delusions of the paranormal are characterized by the existence of a positive (self-reinforcing), rather than a negative (self-correcting), feedback loop involving paranormal beliefs, fears, and experiences, as moderated by gender and tolerance of ambiguity. A cross-cultural sample of "international" students who reported poltergeist-like experiences showing high fear of the paranormal was identified. As in earlier research, path analysis showed statistically significant and positive effects of belief on experience and/or fear on belief. However, paranormal experience now had a positive effect on fear as well. Thus, as predicted, increased fear removes the option of neutralizing ambiguous events by labeling them as "paranormal." Although female subjects showed significantly greater fear of the paranormal than male subjects, there is no evidence that the nature of the delusional process is gender specific.
Background An innovative approach to learning public health by using feature-length commercial movies was piloted in the fourth year of a medical degree. We aimed to explore how students responded to this approach and the relative effectiveness of two promotional strategies. Firstly we placed DVDs of 15 movies (with public health-related content) in the medical school library. Then alternating groups of students (total n = 82 students) were exposed to either a brief promotional intervention or a more intensive intervention involving a class presentation. The response rates were 99% at baseline and 85% at follow-up. Findings The level and strength of support for using movies in public health training increased after exposure to the public health module with significantly more students "strongly agreeing". Student behaviour, in terms of movies viewed or accessed from the library, also suggested student interest. While there were no statistically significant differences in median viewing or library access rates between the two intervention groups, the distribution of viewing patterns was shifted favourably. Those exposed to the more intensive intervention (class presentation) were significantly more likely to have reported watching at least one movie (97% vs. 81%; p = 0.033) or to having accessed at least one movie from the library (100% vs. 70%, p = 0.0001). Conclusions This pilot study found that the students had very positive attitudes towards viewing public health-related commercial movies. Movie access rates from the library were also favourable. PMID:21473773
Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology
Introduction Breaking bad news may be affected not only by insufficient knowledge of a physician, but also by his attitude, religious beliefs, fears, lack of experience, etc. This survey was aimed to test the relation between physicians’ fear of own death and philosophy of life and their inclination to break bad news. Material and methods One hundred seventy students of the last year of medical faculty filled in a 4-item questionnaire created by the authors. The participants were asked on their opinion on whether to inform patients on upcoming death, as well as fear of their own death and willingness to receive bad news. The last question was aimed to distinguish the respondents based on their determination in philosophy of life. Results Ninety-three percent of respondents think that patients should be informed about unfavorable prognosis but only 86% would like to be informed about their own upcoming death. There is a negative correlation between determination of philosophy of life and fear of own death (p = 0.024), but no correlation between fear of own death and the degree of religiousness (Fisher’s accurate p = 0.18). Persons determined to receive information on their own upcoming death are more prone to inform patients about their upcoming death (ρ = 0.31; p < 0.0001). Conclusions Personal fear of own death and low level of determination of philosophy of life may restrain medical professionals from breaking bad news to patients. Not only knowledge of the principles, but also personal attitude should be addressed in the curriculum of physician-patient communication education. PMID:23515271
Lillyman, Sue; Gutteridge, Robin; Berridge, Pat
This paper evaluates the use of storyboarding within a classroom setting as a means of addressing end of life issues and engaging second year student nurses in creative, critical thinking and deeper reflection on practice. Storyboarding is a process that was developed to encourage learners to use the creative right brain and the critical left brain to formulate ideas in front of a group and then to look at those ideas critically (Lottier, 1986). The session was evaluated using a questionnaire and group discussion to elicit perceived learning from students. The activity was to create the storyboards in small groups, then review the content generated by discussion with the whole group. Main themes identified by the students included breaking bad news, dealing with cardiac arrest situation, coping with families following bereavement and the dying patient. Evaluation of the teaching session suggested that students found storyboarding helped to identify cultural aspects and feelings related to the dying patient. Students valued sharing with each other and the opportunity to have their experiences heard. It was noted that although this method provided as valuable learning experience for the student it is staff and time intensive and attention is required to establish a climate of trust and safety. The risk of exposing unexpected emotions within individual students appears no greater than with other approaches to teaching about loss, death and dying.
Putwain, David W.; Roberts, Christine M.
Previous research has examined the use of classroom fear and efficacy appeals from a student perspective, but little is known about teachers' views towards fear and efficacy appeals. In this preliminary study, we conducted a survey of 234 secondary school teachers. Results showed that teachers held mixed views towards the use of fear appeals and…
Wallace, Lisa Hutchinson; May, David C.
While scores of researchers have examined the antecedents of fear of criminal victimization among adults, research examining the correlates of such fear among adolescents, particularly in the school setting, is limited. Using data from 2,136 public school students from a rural Southern state, we examine the association between fear of criminal…
Crease, Robert P.
In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.
Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor
The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…
Reinfried, S.; Tempelmann, S.; Aeschbacher, U.
"Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Everyday ideas or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect one people's understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that preconceived notions about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary school level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the nature of everyday ideas about freshwater springs among 81 13-yr-old Swiss students, and (2) to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' everyday ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The results indicate that half of the students have some basic hydrological knowledge. However, several preconceived notions that can significantly impede the understanding of hydrological concepts have been found. A common preconception concerns the idea that solid rocks cannot be permeable and that large underground cavities constitute a necessary precondition for the formation of springs. While these ideas may well be true for karst springs they inhibit the understanding of the concept of other spring types due to their plausibility and intelligibility. We therefore chose the concept of the hillslope spring to construct an instructional tool that takes into account the findings of the psychology of learning aimed at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of springs.
Feron, Frans; Rots – de Vries, Carin; van de Goor, Ien
Background Reducing school absenteeism benefits the health and educational opportunities of young people. The Dutch intervention Medical Advice for Sick-reported Students (abbreviated as MASS) was developed to address school absenteeism due to sickness reporting, also called medical absenteeism. This study is part of a research project on the effectiveness of MASS and explores factors that influence the implementation and dissemination of the intervention, from schools’ perspectives. The research questions include reasons schools have to implement MASS, their experiences in the implementation of MASS and their views on what is needed to ensure sustainable implementation. Methods A qualitative research method was used. Semi-structured interviews were held with nine principals and eight special education needs coordinators, working in nine secondary schools that apply MASS. Inductive content analysis was carried out. Findings The main reasons for schools to address medical absenteeism were their concerns about students’ well-being and future prospects and their wish to share these concerns with students’ parents. Participants also mentioned the wish to raise the threshold for reporting sick. According to the participants, MASS makes it easier for teachers to enter into conversation with students and their parents about medical absence. MASS prevents damage to the relationship with parents and medical problems being missed. In implementing MASS the main obstacles are teachers’ dialogue about medical absence with students and their parents, teachers’ follow-up of the feedback of the youth health care physicians (YHCPs), and correct registration. The participants were convinced that MASS also improves collaboration with parents regarding the optimization of care for students. Conclusions MASS allows schools to identify students at risk of dropout at an early stage and to optimise guidance of these students. The intervention matches schools’ need to address
Effects of a didactic and guided-imagery intervention regarding horrendous death by nuclear war upon fear of death, health locus of control, and social responsibility in health education college students
This investigation studied the effects of a videotaped lecture explaining horrendous death theory, with a guided imagery component describing horrendous death of a beloved other, upon action toward anti-nuclearism and three individual difference variables. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a videotaped lecture on college students' fear of death, health locus of control, and social responsibility. A second purpose was to determine whether participants who viewed the videotape were likely to sign a petition against nuclear war, in support of the Physicians for Social Responsibility's position against nuclearism. One hundred fifty-two (152) college students participated in this study; approximately 55% were female and 50% were seniors. No significant differences were found regarding individual difference variables, except concerning fear of death of self between death education and non-death education experimental groups. Although an interaction effect was found, the hypothesis that experimental groups would be more likely to sign the petition against nuclear was not confirmed.
Placencia, María Elena; Fuentes Rodríguez, Catalina; Palma-Fahey, María
Nominal and pronominal address forms, which play a central role in the construction of interpersonal relations (cf. Bargiela et al. 2002; Clyne et al. 2009), have been the focus of attention in different linguistics subfields for several decades now. Less attention, however, has been paid to these forms from a variational pragmatics (Schneider and…
Huijding, Jorg; de Jong, Peter J
This study examined the predictive power of automatically activated spider-related affective associations for automatic and controllable fear responses. The Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST; De Houwer, 2003) was used to indirectly assess automatic spider fear-related associations. The EAST and the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ) were used to predict fear responses in 48 female students from Maastricht University with varying levels of spider fear. Results showed that: (i) the EAST best predicted automatic fear responses, whereas (ii) the FSQ best predicted strategic avoidance behavior. These results suggest that indirect measures of automatic associations may have specific predictive power for automatic fear responses.
Ivanjek, L.; Shaffer, P. S.; McDermott, L. C.; Planinic, M.; Veza, D.
This is the second of two closely related articles (Paper I and Paper II) that together illustrate how research in physics education has helped guide the design of instruction that has proved effective in improving student understanding of atomic spectroscopy. Most of the more than 1000 students who participated in this four-year investigation were science majors enrolled in the introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, WA, USA. The others included graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants at UW and physics majors in introductory and advanced physics courses at the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. About half of the latter group were preservice high school physics teachers. Paper I describes how several conceptual and reasoning difficulties were identified among university students as they tried to relate a discrete line spectrum to the energy levels of atoms in a light source. This second article (Paper II) illustrates how findings from this research informed the development of a tutorial that led to improvement in student understanding of atomic emission spectra.
Bidell, Markus P.
Clinical training and counselor competency are essential for ethical practice when working with multiethnic, lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), and transgender clients. In this study, the author examined how multicultural courses related to students' (N = 286) LGB and multicultural competencies. Self-reported multicultural and LGB competencies…
Kirstein, Kurt D.
The strategies used by practicing adult basic education (ABE) teachers to retain students with poor self-esteem were examined through an Internet survey that was sent to 115 ABE instructors at community colleges in Washington. The survey, which contained questions about the prevalence of poor self-esteem among ABE dropouts, specific behaviors…
Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Gwynne, Julia; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Fatani, Serah
Consistent school attendance is a key foundation of student learning. While missing one or two school days each year is not likely to have serious consequences, chronic absenteeism (missing 10% or more of enrolled school days) can seriously undermine the learning process (Allensworth & Easton, 2007). Given national efforts to increase the…
Quinn, Mary Magee; Gable, Robert A.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Nelson, C. Michael; Howell, Kenneth W.
This paper provides guidelines for conducting a functional behavioral assessment and developing positive behavior intervention plans with students who have behavior disorders or other disabilities in the context of requirements of the 1997 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). After an introduction, rights and…
Leroy, Zanie C.; Wallin, Robin; Lee, Sarah
Children and adolescents in the United States spend many hours in school. Students with chronic health conditions (CHCs) may face lower academic achievement, increased disability, fewer job opportunities, and limited community interactions as they enter adulthood. School health services provide safe and effective management of CHCs, often for…
Addington, Lynn A.
Civic knowledge and participation are low among all students, but this pattern is even more pronounced for those who are poor, belong to a racial or ethnic minority group, or reside in a disadvantaged community. One remedy for this resulting "civic empowerment gap" is a call for teaching more effective civics classes in urban public…
Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia; Simpson, Cynthia; Gaus, Mark D.
The rate of bullying among individuals with disabilities is alarming. Because of the social and motor deficiencies that individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS) often display, they are frequently targets of bullying. The physical education setting often consists of a larger number of students than the typical academic instructional setting. This…
Diverse learning needs are students' learning needs in areas such as language, learning styles, background, disabilities, technology skills, motivation, engagement, and access. Teacher candidates must be aware of and plan to meet these needs. The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) provides guidelines that can increase the level of student…
Pickel, Jessica; Bragg, Debra D.
At a time when the nation is focusing so much attention on college completion, what do we know about how students are completing their community college programs? Does the open-access mission of community colleges translate into equitable outcomes? Pathways to Results (PTR) engages practitioners in using data to close equity gaps for student…
Clark, Cynthia M; Werth, Loredana; Ahten, Sara
Online learning has created another potential avenue for incivility. Cyber-bullying, a form of incivility that occurs in an electronic environment, includes posting rumors or misinformation, gossiping, or publishing materials that defame and humiliate others. This is the first of 2 articles detailing a study to empirically measure nursing faculty and student perceptions of incivility in an online learning environment (OLE). In this article, the authors discuss the quantitative results including the types and frequency of uncivil behaviors and the extent to which they are perceived to be a problem in online courses. Part 2 in the September/October issue will describe challenges and advantages of the OLE, discuss specific ways to foster civility, and present strategies to promote student success and retention.
resources) into one accessible gateway. This single destination will serve as the central community resource that will enable the work- force, DAU...toward increasingly feature-rich and complex handsets —fea- ture-rich but less functional. Then came the iPhone. Function finally met form. It was...acquisition re- sources. Final Thoughts The intent is to field the Student Information System in 2012 in time for the 2013 registration cycle . Its success
Fletcher, Geoff; Levin, Doug; Lipper, Katherine; Leichty, Reg
This is a time of rapid technological advancement, with innovations in education holding great promise for improving teaching and learning, particularly for students with unique needs. High-quality digital educational materials, tools, and resources offer students relevant, up-to-date, and innovative ways to acquire knowledge and skills. Created…
Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.
Reyns, Bradford W.; Englebrecht, Christine M.
The crime of stalking has received much research attention, yet there are still important questions to be explored surrounding this behavior. One such question relates to definitions of stalking, including the requirement that victims must express fear to qualify as victims of stalking. The current study addresses this issue by exploring the…
Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2013
This dialogue, extracted from a conversation among some members of the Equity Special Issue Editorial Panel, concerns racism in mathematics education. It raises issues about the use of various terms; about fields of research outside of mathematics education; and about the kinds of racialization processes that occur for students, teachers, and…
Tselfes, Vasilis; Paroussi, Antigoni
There is, in Greece, an ongoing attempt to breach the boundaries established between the different teaching-learning subjects of compulsory education. In this context, we are interested in exploring to what degree the teaching and learning of ideas from the sciences’ “internal life” (Hacking, in: Pickering (ed) Science as practice and culture, 1992) benefits from creatively coming into contact with theatrical education as part of the corresponding curriculum subject. To this end, 57 students of the Early Childhood Education Department of the University of Athens were called to study extracts from Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican, to focus on a subject that the Dialogue’s “interlocutors” forcefully disagree about and to theatrically represent (using shadow theatre techniques) what they considered as being the central idea of this clash of opinions. The results indicate that this attempt leads to a satisfactory understanding of ideas relating to the content and methodology of the natural sciences. At the same time, theatrical education avails itself of the representation of scientific ideas and avoids the clichés and hackneyed techniques that the (often) simplistic choices available in the educational context of early childhood education tend towards. The basic reasons for both facets of this success are: (a) Genuine scientific texts force the students to approach them with seriousness, and all the more so if these recount the manner in which scientific ideas are produced and are embedded in the historical and social context of the age that created them; (b) The theatrical framework, which essentially guides the students’ activities, allows (if not obliges) them to approach scientific issues creatively; in other words, it allows them to create something related to science and recognize it as theirs; and, (c) Both the narrative texts describing processes of “science making” (Bruner, J Sci Educ
Browne, Graeme; Cashin, Andrew; Graham, Iain; Shaw, Warren
The population of mental health nurses is ageing and in the next few years we can expect many to retire. This paper makes an argument for the employment of undergraduate nursing students as Assistants in Nursing (AINs) in mental health settings as a strategy to encourage them to consider a career in mental health nursing. Skill mix in nursing has been debated since at least the 1980s. It appears that the use of AINs in general nursing is established and will continue. The research suggests that with the right skill mix, nursing outcomes and safety are not compromised. It seems inevitable that assistants in nursing will increasingly be part of the mental health nursing workforce; it is timely for mental health nurses to lead these changes so nursing care and the future mental health nursing workforce stay in control of nursing.
This paper analyses the experience of one individual in the development and delivery of an innovative, undergraduate leadership development module. The module is accessed by practising health care professionals in Malaysia as part of a top-up Honours Degree and is delivered solely using a virtual learning environment (VLE), in this case Blackboard. The aim of this analysis is to contribute to the current body of knowledge regarding the use of VLE technology to facilitate learning at a distance. Of particular relevance is the paper's focus on: the drivers for e-learning; widening participation and increasing access; the experience of designing and delivering learning of relevance for this contemporary student population and evaluating the VLE experience/module. The development and delivery of this module is one result of a rapidly growing area of education. As a novice teacher in her first year in the higher education sector, this experience was a significant and stimulating challenge for a number of reasons and these are explored in greater depth. This is achieved by means of personal reflection using the phases of module development and delivery as a focus.
Future physicians say they view acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) as an unfortunate reality that must be addressed, but with great care. The epidemic has not changed medical students' specialties. Fear of contagion, lack of a cure, unpleasant symptoms, and the youth of many victims are difficult realities for students. (MSE)
Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…
Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.
This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…
Background/Context: Ensuring a safe learning environment for every student at school is a major responsibility of educators, school administrators, and policy makers in our society. Students' fear associated with school violence affects their school attendance, learning motivation, and academic achievement. Although predictors of adults' fear of…
Joshi, P. S.
From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: email@example.com 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This
Bauer, Elizabeth P
This review describes the latest developments in our understanding of how the serotonergic system modulates Pavlovian fear conditioning, fear expression and fear extinction. These different phases of classical fear conditioning involve coordinated interactions between the extended amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortices. Here, I first define the different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. The serotonergic system can be manipulated by administering serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and these can have significant effects on emotional learning and memory. Moreover, variations in serotonergic genes can influence fear conditioning and extinction processes, and can underlie differential responses to pharmacological manipulations. This research has considerable translational significance as imbalances in the serotonergic system have been linked to anxiety and depression, while abnormalities in the mechanisms of conditioned fear contribute to anxiety disorders.
Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; An, Yuanyuan
Middle school students (N = 1435) were assessed 18 months after the Wenchuan earthquake using measures of trauma exposure, fear, resilience, and depression, to examine the effects of fear and resilience on the relationship between trauma exposure and depression. Fear mediated the relationship between trauma exposure and depression, whereas resilience moderated the relationship between fear and depression. These findings suggest that trauma exposure has a direct positive impact on depression, but also indirectly affects depression through fear. Moreover, fear positively predicted depression under conditions of low resilience, whereas this effect was not significant when resilience was high. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for adolescents after trauma. PMID:28082947
Undergraduate students need to gain more exposure to communicating, assessing, and planning appropriate care and evaluating outcomes of care with diverse critically ill geriatric patients. This project developed teaching strategies that facilitated additional opportunities for gaining these valuable learning experiences for students. Nurse educators can use the Guidelines for Caring for Diverse Critically Ill Older Adults, the case study and simulation examples, and topical outline to assist them in teaching critical care students and nurses about diverse critically ill older adults.
Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the
In the aftermath of the school shootings in Newtown, Connecticut this past December, people experienced the world around them as less safe--understandably so. In response to such a tragic event, there is a degree of fear instilled in all people that for many was at its peak in the New Year as they prepared to send their children back to school.…
The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates
Maren, Stephen; Holmes, Andrew
Stress has a critical role in the development and expression of many psychiatric disorders, and is a defining feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress also limits the efficacy of behavioral therapies aimed at limiting pathological fear, such as exposure therapy. Here we examine emerging evidence that stress impairs recovery from trauma by impairing fear extinction, a form of learning thought to underlie the suppression of trauma-related fear memories. We describe the major structural and functional abnormalities in brain regions that are particularly vulnerable to stress, including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus, which may underlie stress-induced impairments in extinction. We also discuss some of the stress-induced neurochemical and molecular alterations in these brain regions that are associated with extinction deficits, and the potential for targeting these changes to prevent or reverse impaired extinction. A better understanding of the neurobiological basis of stress effects on extinction promises to yield novel approaches to improving therapeutic outcomes for PTSD and other anxiety and trauma-related disorders. PMID:26105142
Costanzi, Marco; Saraulli, Daniele; Cannas, Sara; D'Alessandro, Francesca; Florenzano, Fulvio; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Cestari, Vincenzo
Fear allows organisms to cope with dangerous situations and remembering these situations has an adaptive role preserving individuals from injury and death. However, recalling traumatic memories can induce re-experiencing the trauma, thus resulting in a maladaptive fear. A failure to properly regulate fear responses has been associated with anxiety disorders, like Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Thus, re-establishing the capability to regulate fear has an important role for its adaptive and clinical relevance. Strategies aimed at erasing fear memories have been proposed, although there are limits about their efficiency in treating anxiety disorders. To re-establish fear regulation, here we propose a new approach, based on the re-evaluation of the aversive value of traumatic experience. Mice were submitted to a contextual-fear-conditioning paradigm in which a neutral context was paired with an intense electric footshock. Three weeks after acquisition, conditioned mice were treated with a less intense footshock (pain threshold). The effectiveness of this procedure in reducing fear expression was assessed in terms of behavioral outcomes related to PTSD (e.g., hyper-reactivity to a neutral tone, anxiety levels in a plus maze task, social avoidance, and learning deficits in a spatial water maze) and of amygdala activity by evaluating c-fos expression. Furthermore, a possible role of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) in mediating the behavioral effects induced by the re-evaluation procedure was investigated. We observed that this treatment: (i) significantly mitigates the abnormal behavioral outcomes induced by trauma; (ii) persistently attenuates fear expression without erasing contextual memory; (iii) prevents fear reinstatement; (iv) reduces amygdala activity; and (v) requires an intact lOFC to be effective. These results suggest that an effective strategy to treat pathological anxiety should address cognitive re-evaluation of the traumatic experience mediated
Hills, Laura Sachs
Every medical practice must work with at least some patients who are fearful or anxious. This article explores the seven most common root causes of patient fear and anxiety and offers practical suggestions for avoiding or minimizing these fears. It addresses, in particular, the patient's fear of the unknown, of being humiliated, of reenacting a medical legend or horror story, and of being vulnerable and helpless. It also explores the patient's fear of high medical fees or being unable to pay, a poor or disappointing clinical outcome, and being in a hospital-like environment. The author suggests that the medica lpractice staff may wish to seek training in fear control and includes practical how-to strategies for minimizing fear when working with children.
representation of the mole. Most of you, I presume, are neo-Pythagoreans, and consequently believe that a new definition and, maybe, a new realization of the unit of mass will be based on a number of atoms of silicon, a view which will certainly lead you to cross swords with the "electrical party". The importance of NA is also linked to the considerable and far-reaching return in other scientific and industrial fields. Finally, let me add that, ethically, the work of many persons all over the world and the money and energy they spend in order to add a decimal figure, may be an example of commitment to be given to our students. Last but not least, my warm thanks to the Director of the Istituto di Metrologia "G Colonnetti", where the experiment has been in progress since 1971, and to all the researchers involved in this work. I do hope that the National Council of Research will continue to support this important project. While wishing you a pleasant stay in Turin, I express the hope that our meeting will prove a fruitful opportunity for discussion and exchange of views.
Goode, Travis D.; Maren, Stephen
Whereas fear memories are rapidly acquired and enduring over time, extinction memories are slow to form and are susceptible to disruption. Consequently, behavioral therapies that involve extinction learning (e.g., exposure therapy) often produce only temporary suppression of fear and anxiety. This review focuses on the factors that are known to influence the relapse of extinguished fear. Several phenomena associated with the return of fear after extinction are discussed, including renewal, spontaneous recovery, reacquisition, and reinstatement. Additionally, this review describes recent work, which has focused on the role of psychological stress in the relapse of extinguished fear. Recent developments in behavioral and pharmacological research are examined in light of treatment of pathological fear in humans. PMID:25225304
LeDoux, Joseph E.
The brain mechanisms of fear have been studied extensively using Pavlovian fear conditioning, a procedure that allows exploration of how the brain learns about and later detects and responds to threats. However, mechanisms that detect and respond to threats are not the same as those that give rise to conscious fear. This is an important distinction because symptoms based on conscious and nonconscious processes may be vulnerable to different predisposing factors and may also be treatable with different approaches in people who suffer from uncontrolled fear or anxiety. A conception of so-called fear conditioning in terms of circuits that operate nonconsciously, but that indirectly contribute to conscious fear, is proposed as way forward. PMID:24501122
Herry, Cyril; Ferraguti, Francesco; Singewald, Nicolas; Letzkus, Johannes J; Ehrlich, Ingrid; Lüthi, Andreas
Fear extinction is a form of inhibitory learning that allows for the adaptive control of conditioned fear responses. Although fear extinction is an active learning process that eventually leads to the formation of a consolidated extinction memory, it is a fragile behavioural state. Fear responses can recover spontaneously or subsequent to environmental influences, such as context changes or stress. Understanding the neuronal substrates of fear extinction is of tremendous clinical relevance, as extinction is the cornerstone of psychological therapy of several anxiety disorders and because the relapse of maladaptative fear and anxiety is a major clinical problem. Recent research has begun to shed light on the molecular and cellular processes underlying fear extinction. In particular, the acquisition, consolidation and expression of extinction memories are thought to be mediated by highly specific neuronal circuits embedded in a large-scale brain network including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and brain stem. Moreover, recent findings indicate that the neuronal circuitry of extinction is developmentally regulated. Here, we review emerging concepts of the neuronal circuitry of fear extinction, and highlight novel findings suggesting that the fragile phenomenon of extinction can be converted into a permanent erasure of fear memories. Finally, we discuss how research on genetic animal models of impaired extinction can further our understanding of the molecular and genetic bases of human anxiety disorders.
Golkar, Armita; Bellander, Martin; Olsson, Andreas; Öhman, Arne
Recent advances in the field of fear learning have demonstrated that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training can prevent the return of extinguished fear by disrupting the process of reconsolidation. These findings have however proven hard to replicate in humans. Given the significant implications of preventing the return of fear, the purpose of the present study was to further study the putative effects of disrupting reconsolidation. In two experiments, we assessed whether extinction training initiated within the reconsolidation time window could abolish the return of fear using fear-relevant (Experiment 1) or fear-irrelevant (Experiment 2) conditioned stimuli (CS). In both experiments, participants went through conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement testing on three consecutive days, with one of two reinforced CS being reactivated 10 min prior to extinction. We found that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training did not prevent the return of extinguished fear responding using either fear-relevant or fear-irrelevant CSs. Our findings point to the need to further study the specific parameters that enable disruption of reconsolidation. PMID:23181015
Martin, Thomas E.
What should parents do when they detect indications of more predators nearby that might eat their babies? This scenario is commonly faced by parents in the wild, and the consequences are important. The number of offspring that organisms produce has a major influence on fitness and, when averaged across a population, affects whether this population will increase or decrease. Offspring production thus has critical implications for evolution via fitness, and ecology and conservation via demography. On page 1398 of this issue, Zanette et al. (1) show that the fear of predation can, by itself, strongly affect the number of offspring produced over an annual cycle by song sparrows (see the figure).
Callender, Claire; Jackson, Jonathan
The new student funding regime introduced by the 2004 Higher Education Act in England is predicated on the accumulation of student debt. Variable tuition fees, repaid by student loans, will increase average student loan debt on graduation. This article examines how fear of debt and financial constraints affect prospective students' choices of…
English, Andrea; Stengel, Barbara
Fear is not the first feature of educational experience associated with the best-known progressive educational theorists--Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, and Paolo Freire. But each of these important thinkers did, in fact, have something substantive to say about how fear functions in the processes of learning and growth. Andrea English and…
This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford’s Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of ‘blast’ exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian ‘nerve’ emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations. PMID:23626409
Ruff, Sarah E.; Boes, Susan R.
Low math achievement is a recurring weakness in many students. Math anxiety is a persistent and significant theme to math avoidance and low achievement. Causes for math anxiety include social, cognitive, and academic factors. Interventions to reduce math anxiety are limited as they exclude the expert skills of professional school counselors to…
Buss, Kristin A.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Goldsmith, H. Hill
The putative association between fear-related behaviors and peripheral sympathetic and neuroendocrine reactivity has not been replicated consistently. This inconsistency was addressed in a reexamination of the characterization of children with extreme fearful reactions by focusing on the match between distress behaviors and the eliciting context.…
Furini, Cristiane; Myskiw, Jociane; Izquierdo, Ivan
Recent work on the extinction of fear-motivated learning places emphasis on its putative circuitry and on its modulation. Extinction is the learned inhibition of retrieval of previously acquired responses. Fear extinction is used as a major component of exposure therapy in the treatment of fear memories such as those of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is initiated and maintained by interactions between the hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which involve feedback regulation of the latter by the other two areas. Fear extinction depends on NMDA receptor activation. It is positively modulated by d-serine acting on the glycine site of NMDA receptors and blocked by AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphono propionate) in the three structures. In addition, histamine acting on H2 receptors and endocannabinoids acting on CB1 receptors in the three brain areas mentioned, and muscarinic cholinergic fibers from the medial septum to hippocampal CA1 positively modulate fear extinction. Importantly, fear extinction can be made state-dependent on circulating epinephrine, which may play a role in situations of stress. Exposure to a novel experience can strongly enhance the consolidation of fear extinction through a synaptic tagging and capture mechanism; this may be useful in the therapy of states caused by fear memory like PTSD.
A cohort of nurses and midwives completed a Hoste Grid (semantic differential scale) before and after a course on management of care delivery. Precourse positive expectations were shaken but not destroyed by the experience. Ways to address student fears and improve the evaluation process were identified. (SK)
Arnett, Amy; Van Horn, Doug
Many undergraduate students admit to having a fear of math courses. To address this issue, the authors created a learning community that teaches math content in the context of science. This paper outlines the positive learning and dispositional results of freshman enrolled in this unique interdisciplinary course. (Contains 5 tables.)
Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas
Social fear learning offers an efficient way to transmit information about potential threats; little is known, however, about the learning processes that counteract the social transmission of fear. In three separate experiments, we found that safety information transmitted from another individual (i.e., demonstrator) during preexposure prevented subsequent observational fear learning (Experiments 1-3), and this effect was maintained in a new context involving direct threat confrontation (Experiment 3). This protection from observational fear learning was specific to conditions in which information about both safety and danger was transmitted from the same demonstrator (Experiments 2-3) and was unaffected by increasing the number of the safety demonstrators (Experiment 3). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that observational preexposure can limit social transmission of fear. Future research is needed to better understand the conditions under which such effects generalize across individual demonstrators. (PsycINFO Database Record
Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office Of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part VI--Addressing Professional Preparation for Serving Students with Disabilities in Extracurricular Athletic Programs
Silliman-French, Lisa; French, Ron
One of the major components in the development of quality extracurricular athletic (ECA) programs that involves the infusion of students who have been classified as educationally disabled is the preparation of effective, high-quality physical educators who will assume coaching positions (U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2012). These coaches…
Moore, R; Birn, H
Odontophobia is a rather unique phobia with special psychosomatic components that impact on the dental health of odontophobic persons. It also has psychosocial components largely as a result of destruction of the teeth and subsequent embarrassment that can affect a person and cause a vicious cycle of dental fear. The phenomenon is facilitated by misunderstandings and myths generated by both patients and dentists. The most common reasons given in the literature for such strong fears of dental treatment are: 1) bad experiences in childhood for 85% of cases, 2) feeling of powerlessness and lack of control over personal emotional reactions and over the social situation in the dental chair, 3) social learning processes in which the image of the dentist is cast in a negative light by the mass media or by the person's relatives or friends and 4) that the person has other psychologic problems (in 20% of cases), such as serious phobias and/or neuroses. A strategy of researching and thus tackling the problem is presented which focuses on three essential targets that require studying and change: 1) the community at large and their image of the dentist, 2) the patient role and 3) the dentist role. Various model projects are presented along with their diagnostic systems. These are seen to focus in varying degrees on different elements of the target groups that effect the dentist-patient relationship but the need to come out into the community and make the social environment right for these patients is an important factor in all strategies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Whitley, Diana; Bystritsky, Alexander; Telch, Michael J.
In this investigation, the authors examined the effect of attributional processes concerning medication taking on return of fear following exposure-based treatment. Participants (87% undergraduate students and 13% community volunteers) displaying marked claustrophobic fear (N = 95) were randomly allocated to a waitlist condition, a psychological…
Li, Huijun; Morris, Richard J
The purpose of the present study was to examine self-reported fears and related anxieties in children and adolescents (7-18 years of age) having learning disabilities (LD) or mild mental retardation (MIMR), and whether these fears and related anxieties differ based on gender and age. Students responded to two well validated instruments, The…
Putwain, David; Remedios, Richard
Prior to high-stakes exams, teachers use persuasive messages that highlight to students the possible consequences of failure. Such messages are known as fear appeals. This study examined whether fear appeals relate to self- and non-self-determined motivation and academic performance. Data were collected in 3 waves. Self-report data pertaining to…
Jorgensen, Lisa J.; Ellis, Gary D.; Ruddell, Edward
This research examined the effect of concealment (environmental cues), presence or absence of people recreating (social cues), and gender on individuals' fear of crime in a community park setting. Using a 7-point single-item indicator, 732 participants from two samples (540 park visitors and 192 college students) rated their estimates of fear of…
Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances
The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…
Power, Trinda L.; Smith, Steven M.
This research was undertaken to explore gender, religiosity, perceived time-left-to-live and the interactions between these variables as predictors of fear of death in 144 Atlantic Canadian students using the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS). Predictions about cause, age, marital status, and place of death were also derived from the…
Bath, Debra M.
Individuals' death anxiety or fear of death has been extensively investigated, and there are numerous conceptualizations used in the literature, including a distinction between the dimensions of death and dying of self, and death and dying of others. This article addresses a gap in the literature and re-examines the relationship between these two…
Bovill, C.; Cook-Sather, A.; Felten, P.; Millard, L.; Moore-Cherry, N.
Against a backdrop of rising interest in students becoming partners in learning and teaching in higher education, this paper begins by exploring the relationships between student engagement, co-creation and student-staff partnership before providing a typology of the roles students can assume in working collaboratively with staff. Acknowledging…
Symes, Wendy; Putwain, David W.; Remedios, Richard
Prior to high stakes examinations, teachers may engage in instructional practices to encourage their students to prepare well for their exams, including the use of "fear appeals". The current study examined whether academic buoyancy played a role in student appraisals of fear appeals as threatening or challenging. High school students…
... AGENCY No FEAR Act Notice AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal... and Federal Employee Antidiscrimination and Retaliation Act of 2002, which is now known as the No FEAR Act (No FEAR Act), (Pub. L. 107-174). One purpose of the No FEAR Act is to require that...
Tippey, Jacalyn G.; Burnham, Joy J.
Few studies have considered the fears of gifted children. Using the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; Burnham, 1995), a modified version of the Australian Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II (Gullone & King, 1992, 1993), this study focused on the fears of 287 gifted children ages 7-10. This study is a first step in…
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Aggarwal, Richa; Baker, Courtney; Mathapati, Santosh; Molitoris, Sarah; Mayes, Rebecca D.
Unusual fears have long been recognized as common in autism, but little research exists. In our sample of 1033 children with autism, unusual fears were reported by parents of 421 (41%) of the children, representing 92 different fears. Many additional children had common childhood fears (e.g., dogs, bugs, and the dark). More than half of children…
de Groot, Jasper H B; Semin, Gün R; Smeets, Monique A M
Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued here was therefore: How significant is an olfactory fear signal in the broader context of audiovisual input that either confirms or contradicts olfactory information? To test this, we manipulated olfactory (fear, no fear) and audiovisual (fear, no fear) information and demonstrated that olfactory fear signals were as potent as audiovisual fear signals in eliciting a fearful facial expression. Irrespective of confirmatory or contradictory audiovisual information, olfactory fear signals produced by senders induced fear in receivers outside of conscious access. These findings run counter to traditional views that emotions are communicated exclusively via visual and linguistic channels.
Duvarci, Sevil; Pare, Denis
We review recent work on the role of intrinsic amygdala networks in the regulation of classically conditioned defensive behaviors, commonly known as conditioned fear. These new developments highlight how conditioned fear depends on far more complex networks than initially envisioned. Indeed, multiple parallel inhibitory and excitatory circuits are differentially recruited during the expression versus extinction of conditioned fear. Moreover, shifts between expression and extinction circuits involve coordinated interactions with different regions of the medial prefrontal cortex. However, key areas of uncertainty remain, particularly with respect to the connectivity of the different cell types. Filling these gaps in our knowledge is important because much evidence indicates that human anxiety disorders results from an abnormal regulation of the networks supporting fear learning. PMID:24908482
Academics in Iran have been left in a state of fear following the murder in Tehran last November of nuclear physicist Majid Shahriari and the attempted assassination of another nuclear researcher, Fereydoon Abbasi.
... for several minutes or longer. These are called panic attacks . Panic attacks are characterized by a fear of disaster or ... also have a strong physical reaction during a panic attack. It may feel like having a heart attack. ...
Susskind, Joshua M; Lee, Daniel H; Cusi, Andrée; Feiman, Roman; Grabski, Wojtek; Anderson, Adam K
It has been proposed that facial expression production originates in sensory regulation. Here we demonstrate that facial expressions of fear are configured to enhance sensory acquisition. A statistical model of expression appearance revealed that fear and disgust expressions have opposite shape and surface reflectance features. We hypothesized that this reflects a fundamental antagonism serving to augment versus diminish sensory exposure. In keeping with this hypothesis, when subjects posed expressions of fear, they had a subjectively larger visual field, faster eye movements during target localization and an increase in nasal volume and air velocity during inspiration. The opposite pattern was found for disgust. Fear may therefore work to enhance perception, whereas disgust dampens it. These convergent results provide support for the Darwinian hypothesis that facial expressions are not arbitrary configurations for social communication, but rather, expressions may have originated in altering the sensory interface with the physical world.
The popularity of horror fiction among adolescents is discussed in terms of the use of grammar for social interaction, personal development, and emotional therapy during a developmental stage characterized by fear and emotional upheaval. (MSE)
Fisher, Marie B.
For students with Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities (EBD), negative student outcomes are the poorest across disability categories, including high rates of school dropouts, unemployment and incarcerations. Mathematically, students with EBD receiving instruction in special education settings experience practices not consistent with recommendations…
Yang, Dai Fei; Catterall, Janice; Davis, Janelle
This paper reports on a project that investigated the first year, online experiences of vocational education and training (VET) pathway students studying at university. It was found that, although some students embraced online learning, more than twenty percent of new VET students suffered from high levels of anxiety and frustration when learning…
The recent growth in the racial and cultural heterogeneity of college students in the United States has increased the demand for higher educational policies that will accommodate the needs of an increasingly diverse collective student body (Kao & Thompson, 2003). Traditionally, underrepresented minority students (i.e., African American,…
Beckers, Tom; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Boddez, Yannick; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel
Fear conditioning is one of the prime paradigms of behavioural neuroscience and a source of tremendous insight in the fundamentals of learning and memory and the psychology and neurobiology of emotion. It is also widely regarded as a model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders in a diathesis-stress model of psychopathology. Starting from the apparent paradox between the adaptive nature of fear conditioning and the dysfunctional nature of pathological anxiety, we present a critique of the human fear conditioning paradigm as an experimental model for psychopathology. We discuss the potential benefits of expanding the human fear conditioning paradigm by (1) including action tendencies as an important index of fear and (2) paying more attention to "weak" (i.e., ambiguous) rather than "strong" fear learning situations (Lissek et al., 2006), such as contained in selective learning procedures. We present preliminary data that illustrate these ideas and discuss the importance of response systems divergence in understanding individual differences in vulnerability for the development of pathological anxiety.
Development and Dissemination of a Multimedia Instructional Package for Use in Preservice and Inservice Training To Address Selection of Appropriate Literacy Media for Students with Visual Impairments. Project LMA Final Report.
Koenig, Alan J.
This report discusses the outcomes of a project that addressed the need for comprehensive and sequential instructional materials to teach preservice and inservice teachers strategies for selecting appropriate literacy media for students with visual impairments. In this three-year project, called Project LMA (Learning Media Assessment),…
Kim, Hyung-Su; Cho, Hye-Yeon; Augustine, George J; Han, Jin-Hee
Evidence from rodent and human studies has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, specifically the infralimbic cortex (IL), as a critical brain structure in the extinction of conditioned fear. However, how IL activity controls fear expression at the time of extinction memory retrieval is unclear and controversial. To address this issue, we used optogenetics to precisely manipulate the activity of genetically targeted cells and to examine the real-time contribution of IL activity to expression of auditory-conditioned fear extinction in mice. We found that inactivation of IL, but not prelimbic cortex, impaired extinction retrieval. Conversely, photostimulation of IL excitatory neurons robustly enhanced the inhibition of fear expression after extinction, but not before extinction. Moreover, this effect was specific to the conditioned stimulus (CS): IL activity had no effect on expression of fear in response to the conditioned context after auditory fear extinction. Thus, in contrast to the expectation from a generally held view, artificial activation of IL produced no significant effect on expression of non-extinguished conditioned fear. Therefore, our data provide compelling evidence that IL activity is critical for expression of fear extinction and establish a causal role for IL activity in controlling fear expression in a CS-specific manner after extinction.
Norton, Peter J.; Weeks, Justin W.
Established and emerging cognitive models of social anxiety have provided researchers and clinicians with a solid foundation for understanding and treating this phenomenon. Much of the support for these models, however, has been derived from predominantly Caucasian samples. While the evidence supports the concept of socio-evaluative fears as being universal, ethnic/cultural influences can dramatically alter the cognitive profile of the fears. The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-ethnic equivalence of the bivalent fear of evaluation model of social anxiety among an ethnically diverse sample of 799 undergraduate students from the United States. A series of confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit for each of the ethnic groups examined, and that holding factor loadings and latent variances and covariances equivalent did not alter model fit significantly. PMID:19560315
North, Max M; Schoeneman, Curt M; Mathis, James R
The major goal of this research case study was to investigate the effectiveness of Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT) in the treatment of the fear of public speaking. A twenty-eight-year-old Caucasian male was selected from questionnaires distributed to a class of undergraduate students enrolled at Kennesaw State University. Two assessment measures were used in this study. The first measure used was the Attitude Towards Public Speaking (ATPS) Questionnaire. The second measure used was the eleven-point Subjective Units of Disturbance (SUD) scale. These measurements assessed the anxiety, avoidance, attitudes and disturbance associated with the subject's fear of public speaking before and after each VRT treatment session. This case study of public speaking fear indicates that VRT may be used as an effective treatment method for reducing self-reported anxiety.
This paper is based on the Bruce Burns Memorial Trust Lecture, Terrorism and Mental Health, presented in October 2005, in Birmingham. In addition to written sources, it is informed by the author's experience and contact with military and police experts in this arena over 28 years as a member of the British Army. The diagnosis and treatment of post traumatic mental disorders are not addressed in this paper. The author explores the general phenomenon of terrorism, in an endeavour to inform understanding of terrorist acts. He stresses the need for contextualisation of acts of terror, their perpetrators, their effects on populations and individuals, and attention to the psychology of groups. The author aims to invite and inform further thought and debate on the subject by raising a wide range of issues which do not sit comfortably within a strict psychiatric, research-based paradigm. The author covers a brief history of terrorism; organisational requirements of terror groups and the process of recruiting personnel to them; the means, motives and opportunities terrorists exploit in their work; the need for communication with terror groups; sacrificial death; governmental responses to terrorist acts and fear and mental health. The author proposes that terrorist organisations perform some of the functions of a family; that acts of terror are 'propaganda by deed'; that terrorism, or more precisely the media's treatment of it, breeds 'formless fears' which may directly lead to the development of fear-based symptoms and illness within societies. He notes that terrorism is an enterprise from which many players ('experts', media, politicians, etc.) benefit; that terrorism has its shadow in counter-terrorism, which may range from benign to malignant and that psychiatry could, in this context, acknowledge its bias towards individual psychologies and rectify its lack of understanding of groups and the behaviours of individuals within them.
Amadi, Ugwechi; Lim, Seh Hong; Liu, Elizabeth; Baratta, Michael V; Goosens, Ki A
Despite the ubiquitous use of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model for fear learning, the highly predictable conditions used in the laboratory do not resemble real-world conditions, in which dangerous situations can lead to unpleasant outcomes in unpredictable ways. In the current experiments, we varied the timing of aversive events after predictive cues in rodents and discovered that temporal ambiguity of aversive events greatly enhances fear. During fear conditioning with unpredictably timed aversive events, pharmacological inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or optogenetic silencing of cornu ammonis 1 cells during aversive negative prediction errors prevented this enhancement of fear without affecting fear learning for predictable events. Dorsal hippocampal inactivation also prevented ambiguity-related enhancement of fear during auditory fear conditioning under a partial-reinforcement schedule. These results reveal that information about the timing and occurrence of aversive events is rapidly acquired and that unexpectedly timed or omitted aversive events generate hippocampal signals to enhance fear learning.
Burkhardt, Käthe; Loxton, Helene; Kagee, Ashraf; Ollendick, Thomas H
The Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (Ollendick, 1983) is an 80-item self-report instrument that has been used internationally to asses the number of fears and general level of fearfulness among children. Despite its widespread use, this instrument has not been adapted to the South African context. The present study addressed this gap by means of a 2-phase investigation aimed at developing a South African version of the instrument. In Phase 1, semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 children (7 to 13 years of age). Qualitative data obtained from these interviews were used to construct additional items for inclusion in the South African Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised. The modified scale, consisting of 97 items, was then administered to a sample of 646 children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. Further psychometric considerations resulted in the final version of the scale consisting of 74 items with high internal consistency (α=.97). The factor structure was explored by means of principal component analysis with varimax rotation and a 5-factor solution was found to provide the best conceptual fit. The factors identified were as follows: Fear of Death and Danger; Fear of the Unknown; Fear of Small Animals and Minor Threats to Self; Large Animal Fears; and Situational Fears. Differences between the South African version and the original Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised are noted and implications for the study of fear in South Africa and other countries are discussed.
Young scholars readily encounter creative characters in both literature and in life who stimulate questioning, problem solving, communicating, and pursuing interests and personal growth. By fueling students' creativity, school librarians demonstrate respect for the unique individuals they are now and honor them for the people they are…
Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín; Vianna, Mónica M R; Bevilaqua, Lía R M
A conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a fearsome unconditioned stimulus (US) generates learned fear. Acquired fear is at the root of a variety of mental disorders, among which phobias, generalized anxiety, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and some forms of depression. The simplest way to inhibit learned fear is to extinguish it, which is usually done by repeatedly presenting the CS alone, so that a new association, CS-"no US", will eventually overcome the previously acquired CS-US association. Extinction was first described by Pavlov as a form of "internal inhibition" and was recommended by Freud and Ferenczi in the 1920s (who called it "habituation") as the treatment of choice for phobic disorders. It is used with success till this day, often in association with anxiolytic drugs. Extinction has since then been applied, also successfully and also often in association with anxiolytics, to the treatment of panic, generalized anxiety disorders and, more recently, PTSD. Extinction of learned fear involves gene expression, protein synthesis, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and signaling pathways in the hippocampus and the amygdala at the time of the first CS-no US association. It can be enhanced by increasing the exposure to the "no US" component at the time of behavioral testing, to the point of causing the complete uninstallment of the original fear response. Some theorists have recently proposed that reiteration of the CS alone may induce a reconsolidation of the learned behavior instead of its extinction. Reconsolidation would preserve the original memory from the labilization induced by its retrieval. If true, this would of course be disastrous for the psychotherapy of fear-motivated disorders. Here we show that neither the CS nor retrieval cause anything remotely like reconsolidation, but just extinction. In fact, our findings indicate that the reconsolidation hypothesis is essentially incorrect, at least for the form of contextual fear most
Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Mitroff, Stephen R; LaBar, Kevin S
The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two experimental groups underwent discriminative fear conditioning between a face stimulus of 55% fear intensity (conditioned stimulus, CS+), reinforced with an electric shock, and a second stimulus that was unreinforced (CS-). In Experiment 1 the CS- was a relatively neutral face stimulus, while in Experiment 2 the CS- was the most fear-intense stimulus. Before and following fear conditioning, skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded to different morph values along the neutral-to-fear dimension. Both experimental groups showed gradients of generalization following fear conditioning that increased with the fear intensity of the stimulus. In Experiment 1 a peak shift in SCRs extended to the most fear-intense stimulus. In contrast, generalization to the most fear-intense stimulus was reduced in Experiment 2, suggesting that discriminative fear learning procedures can attenuate fear generalization. Together, the findings indicate that fear generalization is broadly tuned and sensitive to the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli, but that fear generalization can come under stimulus control. These results reveal a novel form of fear generalization in humans that is not merely based on physical similarity to a conditioned exemplar, and may have implications for understanding generalization processes in anxiety disorders characterized by heightened sensitivity to nonthreatening stimuli.
Kopp, Bruno; Schlimm, Mike; Hermann, Christiane
Discriminative fear learning and fear generalization were examined in animal-fearful individuals and in control participants. Electrical shocks were administered contingent upon discriminative pictures of spiders or snakes, respectively, in a generalization-after-discrimination paradigm. Neither discriminative fear learning nor extinction was affected by the individual fear status of the animal categories. Novel feared stimuli, which resembled discriminative stimuli, were treated as more shock predictive than novel non-feared stimuli during generalization testing. Neither preparedness theory nor selective sensitization theory was capable to account for these observations. The findings are commensurable with the hypothesis that phobic fear interferes with the retrieval of memory traces.
Hellman, Kevin; Abel, Ted
To understand the role that sleep may play in memory storage, the authors investigated how fear conditioning affects sleep–wake states by performing electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic recordings of C57BL/6J mice receiving fear conditioning, exposure to conditioning stimuli, or immediate shock treatment. This experimental design allowed us to examine the effects of associative learning, presentation of the conditioning stimuli, and presentation of the unconditioned stimuli on sleep–wake states. During the 24 hr after training, fear-conditioned mice had approximately 1 hr more of nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep and less wakefulness than mice receiving exposure to conditioning stimuli or immediate shock treatment. Mice receiving conditioning stimuli had more delta power during NREM sleep, whereas mice receiving fear conditioning had less theta power during rapid-eye-movement sleep. These results demonstrate that a single trial of fear conditioning alters sleep–wake states and EEG oscillations over a 24-hr period, supporting the idea that sleep is modified by experience and that such changes in sleep–wake states and EEG oscillations may play a role in memory consolidation. PMID:17469920
Adolph, Karen E.; Kretch, Kari S.; LoBue, Vanessa
Based largely on the famous “visual cliff” paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion—the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible. PMID:25267874
Adolph, Karen E; Kretch, Kari S; LoBue, Vanessa
Based largely on the famous "visual cliff" paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion-the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible.
Guardino, Caroline; Cannon, Joanna E
Students who are deaf with a disability or disabilities (DWD) constitute nearly half of the population of K-12 learners who are deaf or hard of hearing. However, there is a dearth of information on theory, research, and practice related to these learners. The authors present an overview of (a) how the field of education of students who are D/deaf and hard of hearing might refer to this unique population in a way that represents the learner, not the disability; (b) the demographic data that further define these learners; (c) a theoretical framework within which to guide research and practice; (d) prevalence and frequency of the existing research; and (e) the practices and resources available to guide practitioners and the parents of students who are DWD. Questions are posed to the field on how to continue to improve the theory, research, and pedagogy used with these students.
Clarke, Lee; Chess, Caron
Attributions of panic are almost exclusively directed at members of the general public. Here, we inquire into the relationships between elites and panic. We review current research and theorizing about panic, including problems of identifying when it has occurred. We propose three relationships: elites fearing panic, elites causing panic and…
Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick
This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…
Pierce, Jennifer; Schmidt, Carissa; Stoddard, Sarah
This study explores the impact of a feared delinquent possible self on the relationship between exposure to negative peer behaviors and violent and non-violent self-reported delinquency. Previous research strongly supports that deviant peers influence adolescents’ delinquent behavior. Yet, few studies have explored intrapersonal factors that may moderate this influence. Possible selves include what one hopes, expects and fears becoming and are believed to motivate behavior. Thus, it was hypothesized that adolescents who were exposed to deviant peers and also feared engaging in delinquency would be more likely to self-report delinquency. Seventh grade students (n = 176) identified feared possible selves in the future, their exposure to negative peer behavior and self-reported violent and non-violent delinquent behavior. Findings suggest that exposure to negative peer behavior is associated with self-reported delinquent behavior. For violent behavior, possessing a feared delinquent possible self moderates this relationship. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25460676
... being rejected can fail to learn important social skills, causing social isolation. Many adults are tormented by fears that stem from childhood experiences. An adult's fear of public speaking may be the result of embarrassment in front ...
Mastroleo, Nadine R; Oakley, William C; Eaton, Erica M; Borsari, Brian
Little is known about the way in which mandated and heavy-drinking voluntary students comparatively respond to peer-led brief motivational interventions (BMIs) and the mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Research suggests that mandated students may be more defensive due to their involvement in treatment against their will and this defensiveness, in turn, may relate to treatment outcome. Furthermore, it is not clear how mandated and heavy-drinking voluntary students perceived satisfaction with peer-led BMIs relates to treatment outcomes. Using data from two separate randomized controlled trials, heavy drinking college students (heavy-drinking voluntary, n = 156; mandated, n = 82) completed a peer-led brief motivational intervention (BMI). Both mandated and heavy-drinking volunteer students significantly reduced drinking behaviors at 3-month follow-up, reported high levels of post-intervention session satisfaction, yet no effects for mediation or moderation were found. Findings offer continued support for using peer counselors to deliver BMIs; however, results regarding the mechanisms of change were in contrast to previous findings. Implications for treatment and future areas of research are discussed.
Is a painful experience less bad for you if you will not remember it? Do you have less reason to fear it? These questions bear on how we think about medical procedures and surgeries that use an anesthesia regimen that leaves patients conscious - and potentially in pain - but results in complete 'drug-induced amnesia' after the fact. I argue that drug-induced amnesia does not render a painful medical procedure a less fitting object of fear, and thus the prospect of amnesia does not give patients a reason not to fear it. I expose three mistakes in reasoning that might explain our tendency to view pain or discomfort as less fearful in virtue of expected amnesia: a mistaken view of personal identity; a mistaken view of the target of anticipation; and a mistaken method of incorporating past evidence into calculations about future experiences. Ultimately my argument has implications for whether particular procedures are justified and how medical professionals should speak with anxious patients about the prospect of drug-induced amnesia.
Davis, Michael; Myers, Karyn M.; Ressler, Kerry J.
Fear extinction is defined as a decline in conditioned fear responses (CRs) following nonreinforced exposure to a feared conditioned stimulus (CS). Behavioral evidence indicates that extinction is a form of inhibitory learning: Extinguished fear responses reappear with the passage of time (spontaneous recovery), a shift of context (renewal), and…
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area...
Berant, Ety; Pizem, Noam
This study addresses the contribution of attachment orientations of ultra-orthodox volunteer rescuers involved in terror events to their posttraumatic symptoms, distress, and fear of death. The authors compared 53 ultra-orthodox rescuers operating in a terror-stricken area in Israel to 36 ultra-orthodox men unexposed to terror. Rescuers displayed lower distress than controls but were not significantly different in fear of death or posttraumatic symptoms. Attachment anxiety was found to be a risk factor by contributing uniquely to posttraumatic symptoms, distress, and fear of death, and as a debilitating factor among rescuers.
Putwain, David; Remedios, Richard; Symes, Wendy
Fear appeals are messages that focus on avoiding the negative consequences of failure. They are often used by teachers as a motivational tactic prior to high-stakes examinations. In this study, we examined whether 566 secondary school students, from 26 different classes, approaching high-stakes examinations appraised fear appeals as threatening or…
Robinson, Edward H.; Rotter, Joseph C.; Robinson, Sandra L.; Fey, Mary Ann; Vogel, Joanne E.
This book explains how fears, anxiety, and stress develop in children, and how they can learn to successfully cope with these factors. It offers specific activities designed to assist in coping with a particular aspect of fear or stress. Part I, "Overview of Fears and Stress," contains activities to complement the various curricular…
... COMMISSION No Fear Act AGENCY: American Battle Monuments Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The American... FEAR Act), as implemented by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) regulations at 5 CFR part 724... Retaliation Act of 2002,'' which is now known as the No FEAR Act. See Public Law 107-174, codified at 5...
... No FEAR Act Notice Summary: 5 CFR part 724.202 requires that each Federal agency provide notice to... notice in the Federal Register. No FEAR Act Notice On May 15, 2002, Congress enacted the Notification and Federal Employee Antidiscrimination and Retaliation Act of 2002, which is now known as the No FEAR...
... TRANSPARENCY BOARD No FEAR Act Notice AGENCY: Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board. ACTION: Notice... and Retaliation Act (No FEAR Act or Act), as implemented by Office of Personnel Management (OPM... No FEAR Act. See Public Law 107-174, codified at 5 U.S.C. 2301 note. One purpose of the Act is...
... FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION No FEAR Act Notice AGENCY: Special Inspector General for Afghanistan... Reconstruction's (SIGAR) ``No FEAR Act Notice'' Federal Register publication obligations, as required by the... FEAR) Act and by the Office of Personnel Management implementing regulations at 5 CFR 724.202, to...
Burnham, Joy J.; Hooper, Lisa M.
Two months after 9/11, the fears of children and adolescents in Grades 2-12 were examined utilizing the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children and Adolescents (FSSC-AM). Fear intensity scores and age and gender differences are reported. Terrorist-related content on the FSSC-AM (e.g., terrorist attacks, our country being invading by enemies)…
Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay
Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)
Draper, Thomas W.; James, Rebecca Smoak
Using longitudinal data gathered between 1966 and 1981, parent-reported fears of 49 university preschool children were examined with particular attention given to age changes and sex differences. Categories of types of fears reported by Jersild and Holmes (1933) determined a substantial increase in preschool children's fears of the dark, being…
Putwain, David; Remedios, Richard
Prior to high-stakes exams, teachers use persuasive messages that highlight to students the possible consequences of failure. Such messages are known as fear appeals. This study examined whether fear appeals relate to self- and non-self-determined motivation and academic performance. Data were collected in 3 waves. Self-report data pertaining to perceived fear appeals were collected in the first wave, self-report data pertaining to self-determined motivation were collected in the second wave, and exam scores were collected in the third wave. An increased frequency of fear appeals and the appraisal of fear appeals as threatening predicted lower self-determined motivation but were largely unrelated to non-self-determined motivation. An increased frequency of fear appeals and the appraisal of fear appeals as threatening predicted lower examination performance that was partly mediated by lower self-determined motivation. These findings support a position derived from self-worth theory that the negative consequences of fear appeals arise from their focus on avoiding failure rather than their focus on extrinsic consequences. We suggest that teachers and instructors need to be aware how seemingly motivational statements can unwittingly promote lower self-determined motivation.
Fovet, Frederic; Mole, Heather
Confronted by the increasingly changing and varied nature of disabilities in higher education (Bowe, 2000; McGuire & Scott, 2002), disability service providers across North America are progressively moving away from targeted remedial assistance focusing on the disabilities of students to a less frontline role involving the sensitization of…
Yoo, S-W; Bae, M; Tovar-Y-Romo, L B; Haughey, N J
Rodent models of auditory fear conditioning are often used to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating fear- and anxiety-related behaviors. Conditioning and extinction memories are influenced by contextual cues, and the reinstatement of conditioned fear occurs when the conditioning stimulus is presented in a context different from the extinction context. Although it has been proposed that internal state is a feature of context that could influence extinction, contributions of interoception to conditioning have not been experimentally addressed. Here we use ethanol (EtOH) to show that interoceptive cues are encoded through the hippocampus by mechanisms that involve increased phosphorylation of GluR1 on serine 845, and biophysical alterations in neuronal membranes that facilitate stabilization of surface-located calcium-permeable n-2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR) into membrane microdomains. Conflicting interoceptive cues during extinction and fear relapse testing resulted in a failure to consolidate extinction that was reversed by the administration of AMPAR antagonists immediately following the retrieval cue.
Laxmi, T Rao; Stork, Oliver; Pape, Hans-Christian
Mice are favourite subjects in molecular and genetic memory research and frequently studied with classical fear conditioning paradigms that use an auditory cue (conditioned stimulus, CS(+)) to predict an aversive, unconditioned stimulus (US). Yet the conditions that control fear memory specificity and generalisation and their behavioural expression in such conditioned mice have not been analysed systematically. In the current study we addressed these issues in the most widely used mouse strain of behavioural genetics, C57Bl/6. In keeping with findings in other species we demonstrate the dependence of fear memory generalisation on training intensity (i.e. both US intensity and the number of CS(+) and US applied) after both excitatory (explicitly paired presentation of CS(+) and US) and inhibitory training (explicitly unpaired presentation of CS(+) and US). Furthermore, inhibitory overtraining was associated with changes of uncued anxiety-like behaviour in a light/dark exploration test, indicative of an emotional sensitisation reaction as consequence of a lack of US predictability. Together our results describe the qualitatively and quantitatively different increases of defensive behaviour in response to conditioned stimuli of different salience and identify training conditions that lead to fear memory generalisation and emotional sensitisation in C57Bl/6 inbred mice.
Nickless, Lesley J
The increase in patient acuity in primary and secondary settings is continuing, with a corresponding increase in the need for technological competence in these areas. Evidence, however, both nationally and internationally, suggests that these expectations are not being met. This paper offers a review of the literature on acute care, with a specific focus on pre-registration nursing students and the development of acute care skills. Three themes are discussed: factors contributing to the acute care skills deficit, the knowledge and skills required to work in acute care and strategies used to support the acquisition of acute care skills. In response to the review, and based upon the evidence-based solutions identified, the clinical skills team at Bournemouth University designed and developed two teaching sessions, using simulation and role play to support the acquisition of acute care skills in pre-registration students. Student evaluations identify that their knowledge, competence and confidence in this area have increased following the teaching sessions, although caution remains regarding transferability of these skills into the practice environment.
Hong, Ingie; Kang, Taewook; Yun, Ki Na; Yoo, YongCheol; Park, Sungmo; Kim, Jihye; An, Bobae; Song, Sukwoon; Lee, Sukwon; Kim, Jeongyeon; Song, Beomjong; Kwon, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Young Mok; Choi, Sukwoo
Auditory fear conditioning is a well-characterized rodent learning model where a neutral auditory cue is paired with an aversive outcome to induce associative fear memory. The storage of long-term auditory fear memory requires long-term potentiation (LTP) in the lateral amygdala and de novo protein synthesis. Although many studies focused on individual proteins have shown their contribution to LTP and fear conditioning, non-biased genome-wide studies have only recently been possible with microarrays, which nevertheless fall short of measuring changes at the level of proteins. Here we employed quantitative proteomics to examine the expression of hundreds of proteins in the lateral amygdala in response to auditory fear conditioning. We found that various proteins previously implicated in LTP, learning and axon/dendrite growth were regulated by fear conditioning. A substantial number of proteins that were regulated by fear conditioning have not yet been studied specifically in learning or synaptic plasticity.
Elliot, Andrew J; Thrash, Todd M
The intergenerational transmission of fear of failure was examined in two studies with undergraduates and their parents. Parent-undergraduate concordance in fear of failure was documented for mothers and fathers, controlling for parents' and undergraduate's impression management and self-deceptive enhancement response tendencies. Love withdrawal was validated as a mediator of parent-undergraduate concordance in fear of failure for mothers but not for fathers. Mothers' and fathers' fear of failure was also a positive predictor of undergraduate's adoption of performance-avoidance goals in the classroom, and undergraduate's fear of failure was shown to mediate this relationship. Fathers' fear of failure was also a negative predictor of undergraduate's mastery goal adoption, and this relationship was likewise mediated by undergraduate's fear of failure. The results are discussed in terms of the reorienting of positive, appetitive achievement motivation toward negative, aversive achievement motivation.
Mosig, Carina; Merz, Christian J; Mohr, Cornelia; Adolph, Dirk; Wolf, Oliver T; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen; Zlomuzica, Armin
Avoidance is considered as a central hallmark of all anxiety disorders. The acquisition and expression of avoidance, which leads to the maintenance and exacerbation of pathological fear is closely linked to Pavlovian and operant conditioning processes. Changes in conditionability might represent a key feature of all anxiety disorders but the exact nature of these alterations might vary across different disorders. To date, no information is available on specific changes in conditionability for disorder-irrelevant stimuli in specific phobia (SP). The first aim of this study was to investigate changes in fear acquisition and extinction in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful participants by using the de novo fear conditioning paradigm. Secondly, we aimed to determine whether differences in the magnitude of context-dependent fear retrieval exist between spider-fearful and non-fearful individuals. Our findings point to an enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful individuals at both the physiological and subjective level. The enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals was neither mediated by increased state anxiety, depression, nor stress tension. Spider-fearful individuals displayed no changes in extinction learning and/or fear retrieval. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for context-dependent modulation of fear retrieval in either group. Here, we provide first evidence that spider-fearful individuals show an enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant (de novo) stimuli. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of fear acquisition and expression for the development and maintenance of maladaptive responses in the course of SP.
Sevenster, Dieuwke; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel
Ample evidence suggests that consolidated memories, upon their retrieval, enter a labile state, in which they might be susceptible to change. It has been proposed that memory labilization allows for the integration of relevant information in the established memory trace (memory updating). Memory labilization and reconsolidation do not necessarily occur when a memory is being reactivated, but only when there is something to be learned during memory retrieval (prediction error). Thus, updating of a fear memory trace should not occur under retrieval conditions in which the outcome is fully predictable (no prediction error). Here, we addressed this issue, using a human differential fear conditioning procedure, by eliminating the very possibility of reinforcement of the reminder cue. A previously established fear memory (picture-shock pairings) was reactivated with shock-electrodes attached (Propranolol group, n=18) or unattached (Propranolol No-Shock Expectation group, n=19). We additionally tested a placebo-control group with the shock-electrodes attached (Placebo group, n=18). Reconsolidation was not triggered when nothing could be learned during the reminder trial, as noradrenergic blockade did not affect expression of the fear memory 24h later in the Propranolol No-Shock Expectation group. Only when the outcome of the retrieval cue was not fully predictable, propranolol, contrary to placebo, reduced the startle fear response and prevented the return of fear (reinstatement) the following day. In line with previous studies, skin conductance response and shock expectancies were not affected by propranolol. Remarkably, a double dissociation emerged between the emotional (startle response) and more cognitive expression (expectancies, SCR) of the fear memory. Our findings have important implications for reconsolidation blockade as treatment strategy for emotional disorders. First, fear reducing procedures that target the emotional component of fear memory do not
Because of a terrorist incident against Bangkok's Relief Center for HIV/AIDS Carriers, it is feared that a rising intolerance is occurring in Thailand. Such fears are damaging efforts to help those with HIV/AIDS. Misconceptions about the nature of HIV/AIDS continue to dominate Thai society. The Thai government is particularly worried that an overemphasis on HIV/AIDS will hurt tourism. According to the Population and Community Development Association, Thai people are infected with HIV at the rate of 500 per day and treatment costs may exceed $170 million a year by the year 2000. Unfortunately, the lack of nongovernmental institutions (other than Buddhist monasteries) and the lack of positive response from other Thai social institutions is driving relatives and friends to take care of the afflicted, and the terrorist attack shows that many Thai people are still unprepared for the challenge.
The overwhelming majority of fear appeal research came from the between-individuals approach and yielded consistent evidence for a linear fear-persuasion relationship. A recent review suggested that the within-individuals approach might be more appropriate. Studies that measured fear at multiple time points have consistently revealed a curvilinear association between fear and persuasion predicted by the drive model. A Web-based experiment (N = 454) using tobacco warning labels was conducted to replicate the inverted-U shape curvilinear relationship between fear and persuasion, and to revisit the role of fear in fear appeal theories. Results showed that the inverted-U fear curve positively predicted persuasion and reduced maladaptive responses, and that the linear trajectory of fear positively predicted maladaptive responses and failure of persuasion.
Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.
The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two experimental groups underwent discriminative fear conditioning between a face stimulus of 55% fear intensity (conditioned stimulus, CS+), reinforced with an electric shock, and a second stimulus that was unreinforced (CS−). In Experiment 1 the CS− was a relatively neutral face stimulus, while in Experiment 2 the CS− was the most fear-intense stimulus. Before and following fear conditioning, skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded to different morph values along the neutral-to-fear dimension. Both experimental groups showed gradients of generalization following fear conditioning that increased with the fear intensity of the stimulus. In Experiment 1 a peak shift in SCRs extended to the most fear-intense stimulus. In contrast, generalization to the most fear-intense stimulus was reduced in Experiment 2, suggesting that discriminative fear learning procedures can attenuate fear generalization. Together, the findings indicate that fear generalization is broadly tuned and sensitive to the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli, but that fear generalization can come under stimulus control. These results reveal a novel form of fear generalization in humans that is not merely based on physical similarity to a conditioned exemplar, and may have implications for understanding generalization processes in anxiety disorders characterized by heightened sensitivity to nonthreatening stimuli. PMID:19553384
Knight, Kim H.; Elfenbein, Morton H.
Compared death anxiety and fear of death levels expressed by 29 college students who had completed death and dying course with comparison group of 74 students. Found that those enrolled in thanatology class reported significantly higher death anxiety at end of semester. Results suggest different effect that thanatology course can have on…
Teachers' observations, students' experiences, and the review of related literature indicate that language anxiety is a significant factor adversely affecting the language learning process. Thus, this study aims to investigate the sources and levels of fear of negative evaluation as well as language anxiety among Turkish students as EFL learners,…
Algie, Jennifer; Rossiter, John R
This research studies fear patterns within fear appeal anti-speeding television commercials. A pattern of fear is the sequence of fear arousal and fear reduction, if any, that is felt by the viewing audience when exposed to a fear appeal advertisement. Many road safety advertisers use fear appeals, such as "shock" advertising, that result in fear arousal, leaving the viewer feeling extremely tense. The moment-to-moment reactions of young drivers to 12 road safety commercials are gauged using a dynamic, temporal measure of fear. The fear patterns generated from each ad are analyzed and a new perspective on creating fear appeal road safety advertisements, with an emphasis on fear-relief, fear-partial relief, and fear-only patterns, is discussed.
Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L
The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed.
Pappens, Meike; Schroijen, Mathias; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse
Fear reduction obtained during a fear extinction procedure can generalize from the extinction stimulus to other perceptually similar stimuli. Perceptual generalization of fear extinction typically follows a perceptual gradient, with increasing levels of fear reduction the more a stimulus resembles the extinction stimulus. The current study aimed to investigate whether perceptual generalization of fear extinction can be observed also after a retention interval of 24h. Fear was acquired to three geometrical figures of different sizes (CS(+), CS1(+) and CS2(+)) by consistently pairing them with a short-lasting suffocation experience (US). Three other geometrical figures that were never followed by the US served as control stimuli (CS(-), CS1(-), CS2(-)). Next, only the CS(+) was extinguished by presenting it in the absence of the US. One day later, fear responses to all stimuli were assessed without any US-presentation. Outcome measures included startle blink EMG, skin conductance, US expectancy, respiratory rate and tidal volume. On day 2 spontaneous recovery of fear was observed in US expectancy and tidal volume, but not in the other outcomes. Evidence for the retention of fear extinction generalization was present in US expectancy and skin conductance, but a perceptual gradient in the retention of generalized fear extinction could not be observed.
Soravia, Leila M; Heinrichs, Markus; Aerni, Amanda; Maroni, Caroline; Schelling, Gustav; Ehlert, Ulrike; Roozendaal, Benno; de Quervain, Dominique J-F
Phobias are characterized by excessive fear, cued by the presence or anticipation of a fearful situation. Whereas it is well established that glucocorticoids are released in fearful situations, it is not known whether these hormones, in turn, modulate perceived fear. As extensive evidence indicates that elevated glucocorticoid levels impair the retrieval of emotionally arousing information, they might also inhibit retrieval of fear memory associated with phobia and, thereby, reduce phobic fear. Here, we investigated whether acutely administrated glucocorticoids reduced phobic fear in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 40 subjects with social phobia and 20 subjects with spider phobia. In the social phobia study, cortisone (25 mg) administered orally 1 h before a socio-evaluative stressor significantly reduced self-reported fear during the anticipation, exposure, and recovery phase of the stressor. Moreover, the stress-induced release of cortisol in placebo-treated subjects correlated negatively with fear ratings, suggesting that endogenously released cortisol in the context of a phobic situation buffers fear symptoms. In the spider phobia study, repeated oral administration of cortisol (10 mg), but not placebo, 1 h before exposure to a spider photograph induced a progressive reduction of stimulus-induced fear. This effect was maintained when subjects were exposed to the stimulus again 2 days after the last cortisol administration, suggesting that cortisol may also have facilitated the extinction of phobic fear. Cortisol treatment did not reduce general, phobia-unrelated anxiety. In conclusion, the present findings in two distinct types of phobias indicate that glucocorticoid administration reduces phobic fear.
Kuriyama, Kenichi; Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Kim, Yoshiharu
Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppression of aversive memory impaired retention of event memory. However, although the remembered fear was more reduced in sleep-deprived than sleep-control subjects, suppressed fear increased, and seemed to abandon the sleep-dependent plasticity of fear. Active memory suppression, which provides a psychological model for Freud's ego defense mechanism, enhances fear and casts doubt on the potential of acute insomnia as a prophylactic measure against PTSD. Our findings bring into question the role of sleep in aversive-memory consolidation in clinical PTSD pathophysiology.
Kuriyama, Kenichi; Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Kim, Yoshiharu
Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppression of aversive memory impaired retention of event memory. However, although the remembered fear was more reduced in sleep-deprived than sleep-control subjects, suppressed fear increased, and seemed to abandon the sleep-dependent plasticity of fear. Active memory suppression, which provides a psychological model for Freud's ego defense mechanism, enhances fear and casts doubt on the potential of acute insomnia as a prophylactic measure against PTSD. Our findings bring into question the role of sleep in aversive-memory consolidation in clinical PTSD pathophysiology. PMID:23863955
Ahmed, Ola; Lovibond, Peter F
Generalization of conditioned fear has been implicated in the maintenance and proliferation of fear in anxiety disorders. The role of cognitive processes in generalization of conditioning is an important yet understudied issue. Vervliet et al. (2010) tested generalization of fear to a visual stimulus of a particular color and shape paired with electric shock. Test stimuli shared either the color or shape of the CS+. Prior to conditioning, participants were instructed that either color or shape would be predictive of shock. Generalization was stronger to the stimulus containing the instructed feature, suggesting that instructions impacted generalization of fear. However, the result may also reflect the impact of instructions on attention and learning during the conditioning phase. In the present study, the instructional manipulation was given after the conditioning phase to control for any impact of instructions on learning. A similar result to that reported by Vervliet et al. was observed. On self-reported expectancy of shock, generalization was greater to the test stimulus that included the instructed stimulus feature. The same pattern was observed on skin conductance, although it did not reach statistical significance. The findings indicate that explicitly instructed information affected generalization of conditioned fear independently of any impact on learning, pointing to the role of cognitive processes in human fear generalization. They also support the utility of cognitive therapy approaches, which are employed after fear has already developed, in addressing clinical overgeneralization.
Rabinak, Christine A; Phan, K Luan
Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress (PTSD), panic, and phobic disorders, can be conceptualized as a failure to inhibit inappropriate fear responses. A common, effective treatment strategy involves repeated presentations to the feared cue without any danger (extinction). However, extinction learning has a number of important limitations, and enhancing its effects, generalizability and durability via cognitive enhancers may improve its therapeutic impact. In this review we focus specifically on the role of the cannabinoid system in fear extinction learning and its retention. We address the following questions: What are the neural circuits mediating fear extinction?; Can we make fear extinction more effective?; Can cannabinoids facilitate fear extinction in humans?; How might the cannabinoid system effect fear extinction? Collectively, translational evidence suggest that enhancing cannabinoid transmission may facilitate extinction learning and its recall, and that the cannabinoid system is a potential pharmacological target for improving the active learning that occurs during exposure-based behavioral treatments prompting future research in terms of mechanisms research, novel treatment approaches ('cognitive enhancers'), and pharmacotherapeutic drug discovery.
Simons, Laura E; Smith, Allison; Kaczynski, Karen; Basch, Molly
Fear and avoidance have been consistently associated with poor pain-related outcomes in children. In the context of the pediatric pain experience, parent distress and behaviors can be highly influential. This study validated the Parent Fear of Pain Questionnaire (PFOPQ) to assess a parent's fears and avoidance behaviors associated with their child's pain. Using the PFOPQ in conjunction with measures of parent and child pain-related variables, we tested the interpersonal fear-avoidance model (IFAM). The sample comprised 321 parents and their child with chronic or new-onset pain who presented to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain clinic. An exploratory factor analysis yielded a 4-factor structure for the PFOPQ consisting of Fear of Pain, Fear of Movement, Fear of School, and Avoidance. As hypothesized, Fear of Pain was most closely related to parent pain catastrophizing and child fear of pain, whereas Avoidance was most closely related to parent protective behaviors and child avoidance of activities. In testing the IFAM, parent behavior contributed directly and indirectly to child avoidance, whereas parent fear and catastrophizing contributed indirectly to child avoidance through parent behavior and child fear and catastrophizing, in turn, influencing child functional disability levels. This study provides the first measure of parent pain-related fears and avoidance behaviors and evaluates the theorized IFAM. These results underscore the important influence of parents on child pain-related outcomes and put forth a psychometrically sound measure to assess parent fear and avoidance in the context of their child's pain.
Nemeth, Banne; Scheres, Luuk J J; Lijfering, Willem M
Objective To assess whether, as has been hypothesised since medieval times, acute fear can curdle blood. Design Crossover trial. Setting Main meeting room of Leiden University’s Department of Clinical Epidemiology, the Netherlands, converted to a makeshift cinema. Participants 24 healthy volunteers aged ≤30 years recruited among students, alumni, and employees of the Leiden University Medical Center: 14 were assigned to watch a frightening (horror) movie followed by a non-threatening (educational) movie and 10 to watch the movies in reverse order. The movies were viewed more than a week apart at the same time of day and both lasted approximately 90 minutes. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measures were markers, or “fear factors” of coagulation activity: blood coagulant factor VIII, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragments 1+2. The secondary outcome was participant reported fear experienced during each movie using a visual analogue fear scale. Results All participants completed the study. The horror movie was perceived to be more frightening than the educational movie on a visual analogue fear scale (mean difference 5.4, 95% confidence interval 4.7 to 6.1). The difference in factor VIII levels before and after watching the movies was higher for the horror movie than for the educational movie (mean difference of differences 11.1 IU/dL (111 IU/L), 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 21.0 IU/dL). The effect of either movie on levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, D-dimer, and prothrombin fragments 1+2 did not differ. Conclusion Frightening (in this case, horror) movies are associated with an increase of blood coagulant factor VIII without actual thrombin formation in young and healthy adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02601053. PMID:26673787
Unfortunately, many students with limited dance experience are afraid to venture into exploration for fear they will "do it wrong." Others fear negative criticism. For these, and a myriad of other reasons, many dancers (not to mention physical education students) avoid improvisation and choreography when, in fact, they should embrace such…
Brill-Maoz, Naama; Maroun, Mouna
This study addressed the question of whether extinction in pairs would have a beneficial effect on extinction of fear conditioning. To that end, we established an experimental setting for extinction in which we trained animals to extinguish contextual fear memory in pairs. Taking advantage of the role of oxytocin (OT) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the mediation of memory extinction and social interaction, we also sought to study its role in social interaction-induced effects on extinction. Our results clearly show that the social presence of another animal in the extinction context facilitates extinction, and that this facilitation is mediated through mPFC-OT. Our results suggest that social interaction may be a positive regulator of fear inhibition, implying that social interaction may be an easy, accessible therapeutic tool for the treatment of fear-associated disorders.
Do Monte, Fabricio H.; Quirk, Gregory J.; Li, Bo; Penzo, Mario A.
Fear conditioning researches have led to a comprehensive picture of the neuronal circuit underlying the formation of fear memories. In contrast, knowledge about the retrieval of fear memories is much more limited. This disparity may stem from the fact that fear memories are not rigid, but reorganize over time. To bring clarity and raise awareness on the time-dependent dynamics of retrieval circuits, we review current evidence on the neuronal circuitry participating in fear memory retrieval at both early and late time points after conditioning. We focus on the temporal recruitment of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and its BDNFergic efferents to the central nucleus of the amygdala, for the retrieval and maintenance of fear memories. Finally, we speculate as to why retrieval circuits change across time, and the functional benefits of recruiting structures such as the paraventricular nucleus into the retrieval circuit. PMID:27217148
Salend, Spencer J.
Research suggests that between 25% to 40% of students experience test anxiety, with students with disabilities and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds having higher prevalence rates. Since test anxiety impacts student well-being and the validity of the important educational decisions based on testing data, this article…
Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Prince, Steven E.; Murty, Vishnu P.; Kragel, Philip A.; LaBar, Kevin S.
While much research has elucidated the neurobiology of fear learning, the neural systems supporting the generalization of learned fear are unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show that regions involved in the acquisition of fear support the generalization of fear to stimuli that are similar to a learned threat, but vary in fear intensity value. Behaviorally, subjects retrospectively misidentified a learned threat as a more intense stimulus and expressed greater skin conductance responses (SCR) to generalized stimuli of high intensity. Brain activity related to intensity-based fear generalization was observed in the striatum, insula, thalamus/periacqueductal gray, and subgenual cingulate cortex. The psychophysiological expression of generalized fear correlated with amygdala activity, and connectivity between the amygdala and extrastriate visual cortex was correlated with individual differences in trait anxiety. These findings reveal the brain regions and functional networks involved in flexibly responding to stimuli that resemble a learned threat. These regions may comprise an intensity-based fear generalization circuit that underlies retrospective biases in threat value estimation and overgeneralization of fear in anxiety disorders. PMID:21256233
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Background Previous work demonstrated that individuals with higher levels of attachment anxiety are prone to increased binge eating (Alexander & Siegel, 2013). Given that our society rejects obese individuals and individuals with higher levels of attachment anxiety tend to be highly sensitive to rejection (Downey & Feldman, 1996), it follows that those with increased attachment anxiety may be especially fearful of becoming fat. Methods Undergraduate psychology students (n = 148) completed surveys measuring attachment, binge eating, and fear of becoming fat. Results The data demonstrate that attachment anxiety is positively associated with a fear of becoming fat (β = .30, p < .001) and binge eating mediates this relationship. In other words, binge eating underlies the fear of becoming fat. Discussion These findings contribute to a more refined understanding of binge eating which may create pathways for professionals to develop targeted interventions. PMID:28286709
Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.
The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two…
Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D.; Molina, Victor A.
The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to…
Davies, Michael H.
The Children's Fear Expression and Research Survey (Children's F.E.A.R.S.) is a new self-report measure of fear suitable for children in grades two through six. The survey is designed to meet current psychometric standards and to be useful in both clinical and research settings. Originally 200 test items were drawn from existing measures; from the…
Baker, Kathryn D.; Richardson, Rick
Fear inhibition is markedly impaired in adolescent rodents and humans. The present experiments investigated whether this impairment is critically determined by the animal's age at the time of fear learning or their age at fear extinction. Male rats (n = 170) were tested for extinction retention after conditioning and extinction at different ages.…
Norrholm, Seth D.; Jovanovic, Tanja; Vervliet, Bram; Myers, Karyn M.; Davis, Michael; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Duncan, Erica J.
The purpose of this study was to analyze fear extinction and reinstatement in humans using fear-potentiated startle. Participants were fear conditioned using a simple discrimination procedure with colored lights as the conditioned stimuli (CSs) and an airblast to the throat as the unconditioned stimulus (US). Participants were extinguished 24 h…
Burnham, Joy J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Giesen, Judy
Fears profiles among children and adolescents were explored using the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-American version (FSSC-AM; J.J. Burnham, 1995, 2005). Eight cluster profiles were identified via multistage Euclidean grouping and supported by homogeneity coefficients and replication. Four clusters reflected overall level of fears (i.e., very…
Buckley, Ralf C.
People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyze human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use eight high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced, assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during or after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterward. The emotionless state
Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Pinard, Courtney R.; Camp, Marguerite C.; Feyder, Michael; Sah, Anupam; Bergstrom, Hadley; Graybeal, Carolyn; Liu, Yan; Schlüter, Oliver; Grant, Seth G.N.; Singewald, Nicolas; Xu, Weifeng; Holmes, Andrew
Traumatic fear memories are highly durable but also dynamic, undergoing repeated reactivation and rehearsal over time. While overly persistent fear memories underlie anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, the key neural and molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory durability remain unclear. Post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein regulating glutamate receptor anchoring, synaptic stability and certain types of memory. Employing a loss-of-function mutant mouse lacking the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95GK), we analyzed the contribution of PSD-95 to fear memory formation and retrieval, and sought to identify the neural basis of PSD-95-mediated memory maintenance using ex vivo immediate-early gene mapping, in vivo neuronal recordings and viral-mediated knockdown approaches. We show that PSD-95 is dispensable for the formation and expression of recent fear memories, but essential for the formation of precise and flexible fear memories and for the maintenance of memories at remote time points. The failure of PSD-95GK mice to retrieve remote cued fear memories was associated with hypoactivation of the infralimbic cortex (IL) (not anterior cingulate (ACC) or prelimbic cortex), reduced IL single-unit firing and bursting, and attenuated IL gamma and theta oscillations. Adeno-associated PSD-95 virus-mediated knockdown in the IL, not ACC, was sufficient to impair recent fear extinction and remote fear memory, and remodel IL dendritic spines. Collectively, these data identify PSD-95 in the IL as a critical mechanism supporting the durability of fear memories over time. These preclinical findings have implications for developing novel approaches to treating trauma-based anxiety disorders that target the weakening of overly persistent fear memories. PMID:25510511
Fitzgerald, P J; Pinard, C R; Camp, M C; Feyder, M; Sah, A; Bergstrom, H C; Graybeal, C; Liu, Y; Schlüter, O M; Grant, S G; Singewald, N; Xu, W; Holmes, A
Traumatic fear memories are highly durable but also dynamic, undergoing repeated reactivation and rehearsal over time. Although overly persistent fear memories underlie anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, the key neural and molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory durability remain unclear. Postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein regulating glutamate receptor anchoring, synaptic stability and certain types of memory. Using a loss-of-function mutant mouse lacking the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95(GK)), we analyzed the contribution of PSD-95 to fear memory formation and retrieval, and sought to identify the neural basis of PSD-95-mediated memory maintenance using ex vivo immediate-early gene mapping, in vivo neuronal recordings and viral-mediated knockdown (KD) approaches. We show that PSD-95 is dispensable for the formation and expression of recent fear memories, but essential for the formation of precise and flexible fear memories and for the maintenance of memories at remote time points. The failure of PSD-95(GK) mice to retrieve remote cued fear memory was associated with hypoactivation of the infralimbic (IL) cortex (but not the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) or prelimbic cortex), reduced IL single-unit firing and bursting, and attenuated IL gamma and theta oscillations. Adeno-associated virus-mediated PSD-95 KD in the IL, but not the ACC, was sufficient to impair recent fear extinction and remote fear memory, and remodel IL dendritic spines. Collectively, these data identify PSD-95 in the IL as a critical mechanism supporting the durability of fear memories over time. These preclinical findings have implications for developing novel approaches to treating trauma-based anxiety disorders that target the weakening of overly persistent fear memories.
The importance of recognizing the culture of deaf people is often overlooked when addressing issues of student diversity in the schools. Including the culture of deaf students can add vitality and energy to the educational environment, providing an alternative and unique perspective. This paper describes deafness, explains deaf culture, and…
Schiller, Daniela; Levy, Ifat; Niv, Yael; LeDoux, Joseph E; Phelps, Elizabeth A
Fear learning is a rapid and persistent process that promotes defense against threats and reduces the need to relearn about danger. However, it is also important to flexibly readjust fear behavior when circumstances change. Indeed, a failure to adjust to changing conditions may contribute to anxiety disorders. A central, yet neglected aspect of fear modulation is the ability to flexibly shift fear responses from one stimulus to another if a once-threatening stimulus becomes safe or a once-safe stimulus becomes threatening. In these situations, the inhibition of fear and the development of fear reactions co-occur but are directed at different targets, requiring accurate responding under continuous stress. To date, research on fear modulation has focused mainly on the shift from fear to safety by using paradigms such as extinction, resulting in a reduction of fear. The aim of the present study was to track the dynamic shifts from fear to safety and from safety to fear when these transitions occur simultaneously. We used functional neuroimaging in conjunction with a fear-conditioning reversal paradigm. Our results reveal a unique dissociation within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between a safe stimulus that previously predicted danger and a "naive" safe stimulus. We show that amygdala and striatal responses tracked the fear-predictive stimuli, flexibly flipping their responses from one predictive stimulus to another. Moreover, prediction errors associated with reversal learning correlated with striatal activation. These results elucidate how fear is readjusted to appropriately track environmental changes, and the brain mechanisms underlying the flexible control of fear.
Fear inhibition learning induces plasticity and remodeling of circuits within the amygdala. Most studies examine these changes in nondiscriminative fear conditioning paradigms. Using a discriminative fear, safety, and reward conditioning task, Sangha et al. (2013) have previously reported several neural microcircuits within the basal amygdala (BA) which discriminate among these cues, including a subpopulation of neurons responding selectively to a safety cue and not a fear cue. Here, the hypothesis that these “safety” neurons isolated during discriminative conditioning are biased to become fear cue responsive as a result of extinction, when fear behavior diminishes, was tested. Although 41% of “safety” neurons became fear cue responsive as a result of extinction, the data revealed that there was no bias for these neurons to become preferentially responsive during fear extinction compared to the other identified subgroups. In addition to the plasticity seen in the “safety” neurons, 44% of neurons unresponsive to either the fear cue or safety cue during discriminative conditioning became fear cue responsive during extinction. Together these emergent responses to the fear cue as a result of extinction support the hypothesis that new learning underlies extinction. In contrast, 47% of neurons responsive to the fear cue during discriminative conditioning became unresponsive to the fear cue during extinction. These findings are consistent with a suppression of neural responding mediated by inhibitory learning, or, potentially, by direct unlearning. Together, the data support extinction as an active process involving both gains and losses of responses to the fear cue and suggests the final output of the integrated BA circuit in influencing fear behavior is a balance of excitation and inhibition, and perhaps reversal of learning-induced changes. PMID:26733838
Hegoburu, Chloe; Sevelinges, Yannick; Thevenet, Marc; Gervais, Remi; Parrot, Sandrine; Mouly, Anne-Marie
Although the amygdala seems to be essential to the formation and storage of fear memories, it might store only some aspects of the aversive event and facilitate the storage of more specific sensory aspects in cortical areas. We addressed the time course of amygdala and cortical activation in the context of odor fear conditioning in rats. Using…
Norrholm, Seth D; Anderson, Kemp M; Olin, Ilana W; Jovanovic, Tanja; Kwon, Cliffe; Warren, Victor T; McCarthy, Alexander; Bosshardt, Lauren; Sabree, Justin; Duncan, Erica J; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Bradley, Bekh
Fear conditioning methodologies have often been employed as testable models for assessing learned fear responses in individuals with anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and specific phobia. One frequently used paradigm is measurement of the acoustic startle reflex under conditions that mimic anxiogenic and fear-related conditions. For example, fear-potentiated startle is the relative increase in the frequency or magnitude of the acoustic startle reflex in the presence of a previously neutral cue (e.g., colored shape; termed the conditioned stimulus or CS+) that has been repeatedly paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (e.g., airblast to the larynx). Our group has recently used fear-potentiated startle paradigms to demonstrate impaired fear extinction in civilian and combat populations with PTSD. In the current study, we examined the use of either auditory or visual CSs in a fear extinction protocol that we have validated and applied to human clinical conditions. This represents an important translational bridge in that numerous animal studies of fear extinction, upon which much of the human work is based, have employed the use of auditory CSs as opposed to visual CSs. Participants in both the auditory and visual groups displayed robust fear-potentiated startle to the CS+, clear discrimination between the reinforced CS+ and non-reinforced CS-, significant extinction to the previously reinforced CS+, and marked spontaneous recovery. We discuss the current results as they relate to future investigations of PTSD-related impairments in fear processing in populations with diverse medical and psychiatric histories.
Deckner, C. William; Rogers, Ronald W.
It is hypothesized that the drug, epinephrine, used in conjunction with a fear arousing film on the consquences of smoking would be more effective than either alone in increasing fear and negative attitudes toward smoking and, resultantly, in reducing cigarette consumption. The experimenters assigned 119 subjects to the four cells of a 2x2…
Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew
Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show…
Hoelter, Jon W.
Presents a multidimensional conception of fear of death and provides subscales for measuring suggested dimensions (fear of the dying process, of the dead, of being destroyed, for significant others, of the unknown, of conscious death, for body after death, and of premature death). Evidence for construct validity is provided. (Author/BEF)
Schroijen, Mathias; Pappens, Meike; Schruers, Koen; Van den Bergh, Omer; Vervliet, Bram; Van Diest, Ilse
Interoceptive fear conditioning (IFC), fear generalization and a lack of safety learning have all been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of panic disorder, but have never been examined in a single paradigm. The present study aims to investigate whether healthy participants (N=43) can learn both fear and safety to an interoceptive sensation, and whether such learning generalizes to other, similar sensations. Two intensities of inspiratory breathing impairment (induced by two pressure threshold loads of 6 and 25 cm H2O) served as interoceptive conditional stimuli (CSs) in a differential conditioning paradigm. An inspiratory occlusion was used as the unconditioned stimulus (US). Generalization was tested 24h after conditioning, using four generalization stimuli with intensities in-between CS+ and CS- (GSs: 8-10.5-14-18.5 cm H2O). Measures included US-expectancy, startle blink EMG responses, electrodermal activity and respiration. Perceptual discrimination of interoceptive CSs and GSs was explored with a discrimination task prior to acquisition and after generalization. Results indicate that differential fear learning was established for US-expectancy ratings. The group with a low intensity CS+ and a high intensity CS- showed the typical pattern of differential fear responding and a similarity-based generalization gradient. In contrast, the high intensity CS+ and low intensity CS- group showed impaired differential learning and complete generalization of fear. Our findings suggest that interoceptive fear learning and generalization are modulated by stimulus intensity and that the occurrence of discriminatory learning is closely related to fear generalization.
Carlson, Erik A.
This dissertation examines the development of the Old English vocabulary for fear under the influence of the Latinate discourse of Christian doctrine. The first chapter arranges the Old English words for fear into etymologically organized families and describes their incidence and usage across attested corpus of Old English, using the Dictionary…
Hartley, Catherine A; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A
Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were randomly assigned to an escapable stressor condition, a yoked inescapable stressor condition, or a control condition involving no stress exposure. One week later, all participants underwent fear conditioning, fear extinction, and a test of extinction retrieval the following day. Participants exposed to inescapable stress showed impaired fear extinction learning and increased fear expression the following day. In contrast, escapable stress improved fear extinction and prevented the spontaneous recovery of fear. Consistent with the bidirectional controllability effects previously reported in animal models, these results suggest that one's degree of control over aversive experiences may be an important factor influencing the development of psychological resilience or vulnerability in humans.
Stienen, Bernard M. C.; de Gelder, Beatrice
Background: Social interaction depends on a multitude of signals carrying information about the emotional state of others. But the relative importance of facial and bodily signals is still poorly understood. Past research has focused on the perception of facial expressions while perception of whole body signals has only been studied recently. In order to better understand the relative contribution of affective signals from the face only or from the whole body we performed two experiments using binocular rivalry. This method seems to be perfectly suitable to contrast two classes of stimuli to test our processing sensitivity to either stimulus and to address the question how emotion modulates this sensitivity. Method: In the first experiment we directly contrasted fearful, angry, and neutral bodies and faces. We always presented bodies in one eye and faces in the other simultaneously for 60 s and asked participants to report what they perceived. In the second experiment we focused specifically on the role of fearful expressions of faces and bodies. Results: Taken together the two experiments show that there is no clear bias toward either the face or body when the expression of the body and face are neutral or angry. However, the perceptual dominance in favor of either the face of the body is a function of the stimulus class expressing fear. PMID:22125517
Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel
Disrupting the process of memory reconsolidation may point to a novel therapeutic strategy for the permanent reduction of fear in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. However both in animal and human studies the retrieval cue typically involves a re-exposure to the original fear-conditioned stimulus (CS). A relevant question is whether abstract cues not directly associated with the threat event also trigger reconsolidation, given that anxiety disorders often result from vicarious or unobtrusive learning for which no explicit memory exists. Insofar as the fear memory involves a flexible representation of the original learning experience, we hypothesized that the process of memory reconsolidation may also be triggered by abstract cues. We addressed this hypothesis by using a differential human fear-conditioning procedure in two distinct fear-learning groups. We predicted that if fear learning involves discrimination on basis of perceptual cues within one semantic category (i.e., the perceptual-learning group, n = 15), the subsequent ambiguity of the abstract retrieval cue would not trigger memory reconsolidation. In contrast, if fear learning involves discriminating between two semantic categories (i.e., categorical-learning group, n = 15), an abstract retrieval cue would unequivocally reactivate the fear memory and might subsequently trigger memory reconsolidation. Here we show that memory reconsolidation may indeed be triggered by another cue than the one that was present during the original learning occasion, but this effect depends on the learning history. Evidence for fear memory reconsolidation was inferred from the fear-erasing effect of one pill of propranolol (40 mg) systemically administered upon exposure to the abstract retrieval cue. Our finding that reconsolidation of a specific fear association does not require exposure to the original retrieval cue supports the feasibility of reconsolidation-based interventions for emotional disorders.
Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel
Disrupting the process of memory reconsolidation may point to a novel therapeutic strategy for the permanent reduction of fear in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. However both in animal and human studies the retrieval cue typically involves a re-exposure to the original fear-conditioned stimulus (CS). A relevant question is whether abstract cues not directly associated with the threat event also trigger reconsolidation, given that anxiety disorders often result from vicarious or unobtrusive learning for which no explicit memory exists. Insofar as the fear memory involves a flexible representation of the original learning experience, we hypothesized that the process of memory reconsolidation may also be triggered by abstract cues. We addressed this hypothesis by using a differential human fear-conditioning procedure in two distinct fear-learning groups. We predicted that if fear learning involves discrimination on basis of perceptual cues within one semantic category (i.e., the perceptual-learning group, n = 15), the subsequent ambiguity of the abstract retrieval cue would not trigger memory reconsolidation. In contrast, if fear learning involves discriminating between two semantic categories (i.e., categorical-learning group, n = 15), an abstract retrieval cue would unequivocally reactivate the fear memory and might subsequently trigger memory reconsolidation. Here we show that memory reconsolidation may indeed be triggered by another cue than the one that was present during the original learning occasion, but this effect depends on the learning history. Evidence for fear memory reconsolidation was inferred from the fear-erasing effect of one pill of propranolol (40 mg) systemically administered upon exposure to the abstract retrieval cue. Our finding that reconsolidation of a specific fear association does not require exposure to the original retrieval cue supports the feasibility of reconsolidation-based interventions for emotional disorders. PMID
Tian, S; Gao, J; Han, L; Fu, J; Li, C; Li, Z
Clinical observations have shown a link for the high comorbid rate between smoking and psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders. However, little is known about the neural mechanism underlying the progression from nicotine dependence to an anxiety disorder. A deficit in fear extinction in general is considered to contribute to anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of chronic nicotine on fear extinction in rats. Rats were administrated s.c. nicotine twice per day for 14 days. Two weeks after the last injection rats received a cued or contextual fear conditioning session. Twenty-four hours and 48 h after conditioning, rats received an extinction training session and an extinction test session, respectively. Percent freezing was assessed during all phases of training. In the cued task, prior chronic nicotine did not affect the acquisition of fear response or the within-session fear extinction, but impaired the between-session fear extinction. In the contextual task, the same nicotine treatment schedule did not affect the acquisition of fear response or the within- and between-session fear extinction, but enhanced the retention of fear conditioning. This prior chronic nicotine-induced deficit in cued fear extinction and/or enhanced fear to context may be one of the critical components that contribute to the progression from nicotine dependence to an anxiety disorder.
Michalowski, Jaroslaw M; Weymar, Mathias; Hamm, Alfons O
In the present study we investigated long-term memory for unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures in 15 spider-fearful and 15 non-fearful control individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. During the initial (incidental) encoding, pictures were passively viewed in three separate blocks and were subsequently rated for valence and arousal. A recognition memory task was performed one week later in which old and new unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures were presented. Replicating previous results, we found enhanced memory performance and higher confidence ratings for unpleasant when compared to neutral materials in both animal fearful individuals and controls. When compared to controls high animal fearful individuals also showed a tendency towards better memory accuracy and significantly higher confidence during recognition of spider pictures, suggesting that memory of objects prompting specific fear is also facilitated in fearful individuals. In line, spider-fearful but not control participants responded with larger ERP positivity for correctly recognized old when compared to correctly rejected new spider pictures, thus showing the same effects in the neural signature of emotional memory for feared objects that were already discovered for other emotional materials. The increased fear memory for phobic materials observed in the present study in spider-fearful individuals might result in an enhanced fear response and reinforce negative beliefs aggravating anxiety symptomatology and hindering recovery.
Chadee, Derek; Ng Ying, Nikita K; Chadee, Mary; Heath, Linda
Prior research on fear of crime has focused less on psychological causes than on sociological and demographic factors. This study, however, introduces time perspective (TP) as an important psychological variable in the understanding of fear of crime. Specifically, the article assesses the relationship between TP as a stable personality factor and the mediation of risk and general fear on fear of crime levels. Data were collected using the survey method from a sample of 375 respondents utilizing the following scales: Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) consisting of five TP subscales, Ferraro's perceived risk of victimization and fear of crime scales, and a general (non-crime) fear scale measuring pragmatic and abstract fear. Path analysis shows no significant direct relationships between the five TP subscales and fear of crime. However, indirect effects are observed for Past Negative TP and Present Fatalistic TP, with general fear (pragmatic and abstract) and risk of victimization mediating the relationship, and pragmatic fear having the greatest significant effect size. Results are discussed in the context of risk and general fear sensitivity and construal level theory. We conclude with recommendations for future research.
Young Children Living in Risky Circumstances. Addressing the Needs of At Risk Students during the Early Learning Years. Technical Team Report. Submitted to the Commission for Students At Risk of School Failure.
Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.
This report addresses the conditions of at-risk children and builds a case for changing the odds so that they favor such children. The introduction summarizes nearly a decade of education reform efforts related to disadvantaged youth. It underscores the need to intervene early. Four subsequent sections: (1) describe the developmental…
Schiele, Miriam A; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen; Pauli, Paul
Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues.
Coolidge, Trilby; Chambers, Mark A; Garcia, Laura J; Heaton, Lisa J; Coldwell, Susan E
Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS), as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS). Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability), and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations) for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish versions of the DFS and NS
Hoff, David J.
State and local officials are slowly untangling complicated webs of accountability, testing, and graduation policies, hoping to give thousands of students displaced by Hurricane Katrina a better handle on their academic standing. While officials in Texas, Tennessee, and Alabama offered some guidance to such students, school leaders in…
Haaker, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Schümann, Dirk; Bunzeck, Nico; Peters, Jan; Sommer, Tobias; Kalisch, Raffael
The odds-ratio of smoking is elevated in populations with neuropsychiatric diseases, in particular in the highly prevalent diagnoses of post-traumatic stress and anxiety disorders. Yet, the association between smoking and a key dimensional phenotype of these disorders-maladaptive deficits in fear learning and fear inhibition-is unclear. We therefore investigated acquisition and memory of fear and fear inhibition in healthy smoking and non-smoking participants (N=349, 22% smokers). We employed a well validated paradigm of context-dependent fear and safety learning (day 1) including a memory retrieval on day 2. During fear learning, a geometrical shape was associated with an aversive electrical stimulation (classical fear conditioning, in danger context) and fear responses were extinguished within another context (extinction learning, in safe context). On day 2, the conditioned stimuli were presented again in both contexts, without any aversive stimulation. Autonomic physiological measurements of skin conductance responses as well as subjective evaluations of fear and expectancy of the aversive stimulation were acquired. We found that impairment of fear inhibition (extinction) in the safe context during learning (day 1) was associated with the amount of pack-years in smokers. During retrieval of fear memories (day 2), smokers showed an impairment of contextual (safety context-related) fear inhibition as compared with non-smokers. These effects were found in physiological as well as subjective measures of fear. We provide initial evidence that smokers as compared with non-smokers show an impairment of fear inhibition. We propose that smokers have a deficit in integrating contextual signs of safety, which is a hallmark of post-traumatic stress and anxiety disorders.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 15 February 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.17.
Anastasio, Thomas J.
Fear conditioning, in which a cue is conditioned to elicit a fear response, and extinction, in which a previously conditioned cue no longer elicits a fear response, depend on neural plasticity occurring within the amygdala. Projection neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) learn to respond to the cue during fear conditioning, and they mediate fear responding by transferring cue signals to the output stage of the amygdala. Some BLA projection neurons retain their cue responses after extinction. Recent work shows that activation of the endocannabinoid system is necessary for extinction, and it leads to long-term depression (LTD) of the GABAergic synapses that inhibitory interneurons make onto BLA projection neurons. Such GABAergic LTD would enhance the responses of the BLA projection neurons that mediate fear responding, so it would seem to oppose, rather than promote, extinction. To address this paradox, a computational analysis of two well-known conceptual models of amygdaloid plasticity was undertaken. The analysis employed exhaustive state-space search conducted within a declarative programming environment. The analysis reveals that GABAergic LTD actually increases the number of synaptic strength configurations that achieve extinction while preserving the cue responses of some BLA projection neurons in both models. The results suggest that GABAergic LTD helps the amygdala retain cue memory during extinction even as the amygdala learns to suppress the previously conditioned response. The analysis also reveals which features of both models are essential for their ability to achieve extinction with some cue memory preservation, and suggests experimental tests of those features. PMID:23761759
Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.
Bosch, Daniel; Asede, Douglas; Ehrlich, Ingrid
Optogenetic approaches are now widely used to study the function of neural populations and circuits by combining targeted expression of light-activated proteins and subsequent manipulation of neural activity by light. Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are light-gated cation-channels and when fused to a fluorescent protein their expression allows for visualization and concurrent activation of specific cell types and their axonal projections in defined areas of the brain. Via stereotactic injection of viral vectors, ChR fusion proteins can be constitutively or conditionally expressed in specific cells of a defined brain region, and their axonal projections can subsequently be studied anatomically and functionally via ex vivo optogenetic activation in brain slices. This is of particular importance when aiming to understand synaptic properties of connections that could not be addressed with conventional electrical stimulation approaches, or in identifying novel afferent and efferent connectivity that was previously poorly understood. Here, a few examples illustrate how this technique can be applied to investigate these questions to elucidating fear-related circuits in the amygdala. The amygdala is a key region for acquisition and expression of fear, and storage of fear and emotional memories. Many lines of evidence suggest that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) participates in different aspects of fear acquisition and extinction, but its precise connectivity with the amygdala is just starting to be understood. First, it is shown how ex vivo optogenetic activation can be used to study aspects of synaptic communication between mPFC afferents and target cells in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Furthermore, it is illustrated how this ex vivo optogenetic approach can be applied to assess novel connectivity patterns using a group of GABAergic neurons in the amygdala, the paracapsular intercalated cell cluster (mpITC), as an example.
Campbell, Andrew J; Cumming, Steven R; Hughes, Ian
The Internet has often been argued to have adverse psychological consequences, such as depression or anxiety symptoms, among "over-users." The present study offers an alternative understanding, suggesting the Internet may be used as a forum for expanding social networks and consequently enhancing the chance of meaningful relationships, self-confidence, social abilities, and social support. An online sample of 188 people was recruited over the Internet, while paper and pencil tests were administered to an offline sample group of 27 undergraduate university students, who were regular Internet users. Subjects completed the Zung Depression Scale (ZDS), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire?Revised Short Scale (EPQ-R Short), Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) scale, Internet Use Questionnaire (IUQ), and an Internet Effects Questionnaire (IEQ). Results suggested that there was no relationship between time spent online and depression, anxiety, or social fearfulness. Those who primarily used the Internet for online chat believed that the Internet is psychologically beneficial to them, but also believed that frequent Internet users are lonely and that the Internet can be addictive. It is argued that "chat" users who are socially fearful may be using the Internet as a form of low-risk social approach and an opportunity to rehearse social behavior and communication skills, which, may help them improve interaction with offline, face-to-face, social environments.
A collaborative clinical and population-based curriculum for medical students to address primary care needs of the homeless in New York City shelters : Teaching homeless healthcare to medical students.
Asgary, Ramin; Naderi, Ramesh; Gaughran, Margaret; Sckell, Blanca
Background Millions of Americans experience homelessness annually. Medical providers do not receive adequate training in primary care of the homeless.Methods Starting in 2012, a comprehensive curriculum was offered to medical students during their family medicine or ambulatory clerkship, covering clinical, social and advocacy, population-based, and policy aspects. Students were taught to: elicit specific social history, explore health expectations, and assess barriers to healthcare; evaluate clinical conditions specific to the homeless and develop plans for care tailored toward patients' medical and social needs; collaborate with shelter staff and community organizations to improve disease management and engage in advocacy efforts. A mixed methods design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, attitudes, and skills including pre- and post-curriculum surveys, debriefing sessions, and observed clinical skills.Results The mean age of the students (n = 30) was 26.5 years; 55 % were female. The overall scores improved significantly in knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy domains using paired t‑test (p < 0.01). Specific skills in evaluating mental health, substance abuse, and risky behaviours improved significantly (p < 0.05). In evaluation of communication skills, the majority were rated as having 'outstanding rapport with patients.'Conclusions Comprehensive and ongoing clinical component in shelter clinics, complementary teaching, experienced faculty, and working relationship and collaboration with community organizations were key elements.
Current State and Local Initiatives To Support Student Learning: Early Childhood Programs and Innovative Programs To Better Address the Needs of Youth. Selected Presentations from an "Ensuring Student Success through Collaboration Network" Conference (Louisville, Kentucky, September 12-15, 1999).
The Ensuring Student Success Through Collaboration Network, administered by the Council of Chief State School Officers, is comprised of teams of state and local leaders from Arkansas, California, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, Oregon, and Washington and works to connect education improvement efforts with other human service reforms, economic…
Li, Yuzhe; Nakae, Ken; Ishii, Shin; Naoki, Honda
Uncertainty of fear conditioning is crucial for the acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Fear memory acquired through partial pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) is more resistant to extinction than that acquired through full pairings; this effect is known as the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE). Although the PREE has been explained by psychological theories, the neural mechanisms underlying the PREE remain largely unclear. Here, we developed a neural circuit model based on three distinct types of neurons (fear, persistent and extinction neurons) in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the model, the fear, persistent and extinction neurons encode predictions of net severity, of unconditioned stimulus (US) intensity, and of net safety, respectively. Our simulation successfully reproduces the PREE. We revealed that unpredictability of the US during extinction was represented by the combined responses of the three types of neurons, which are critical for the PREE. In addition, we extended the model to include amygdala subregions and the mPFC to address a recent finding that the ventral mPFC (vmPFC) is required for consolidating extinction memory but not for memory retrieval. Furthermore, model simulations led us to propose a novel procedure to enhance extinction learning through re-conditioning with a stronger US; strengthened fear memory up-regulates the extinction neuron, which, in turn, further inhibits the fear neuron during re-extinction. Thus, our models increased the understanding of the functional roles of the amygdala and vmPFC in the processing of uncertainty in fear conditioning and extinction. PMID:27617747
Beeman, Christopher L.; Bauer, Philip S.; Pierson, Jamie L.; Quinn, Jennifer J.
Previous work has shown that damage to the dorsal hippocampus (DH) occurring at recent, but not remote, timepoints following acquisition produces a deficit in trace conditioned fear memory expression. The opposite pattern has been observed with lesions to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The present studies address: (1) whether these lesion…
Conroy, David E.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Kaye, Miranda P.
Fear of failure (FF) energizes individuals to avoid failure because of the learned aversive consequences of failing (e.g., shame). Although FF is socialized in childhood, little is known about the meaning of scores from FF measures used with children and adolescents. This study addresses that void by establishing a preliminary nomological network…
Fox, Christopher; Asquith, Nicole L
Fear of crime (FoC) has dominated the political landscape over the last 20 years, with many crime policy developments during this period linked not to actual experiences of violence but to the fear of victimization. Fear of crime studies, in most cases, are conducted with populations that have only a passing, mediated knowledge of crime victimization. The research discussed in this article, in contrast, considers the impact of FoC with a highly victimized community, and establishes psychometric testing to validate an instrument to measure the impact of that fear (Fear of Heterosexism Scale [FoHS]). If FoC is related to experiences of crime as the existing research suggests, then victims of heterosexist prejudice, discrimination, and/or violence would be more likely to fear such incidents in the future. It was also predicted that participants who concealed their sexual and/or gender identity and had lower levels of social connectedness would experience higher levels of fear. The findings highlight the importance of contextual factors in FoH, and identify the critical roles that disclosure and social connectedness play in ameliorating the damaging effects of heterosexist victimization.
Besnard, Antoine; Sahay, Amar
The generalization of fear is an adaptive, behavioral, and physiological response to the likelihood of threat in the environment. In contrast, the overgeneralization of fear, a cardinal feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), manifests as inappropriate, uncontrollable expression of fear in neutral and safe environments. Overgeneralization of fear stems from impaired discrimination of safe from aversive environments or discernment of unlikely threats from those that are highly probable. In addition, the time-dependent erosion of episodic details of traumatic memories might contribute to their generalization. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the overgeneralization of fear will guide development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat PTSD. Here, we conceptualize generalization of fear in terms of resolution of interference between similar memories. We propose a role for a fundamental encoding mechanism, pattern separation, in the dentate gyrus (DG)–CA3 circuit in resolving interference between ambiguous or uncertain threats and in preserving episodic content of remote aversive memories in hippocampal–cortical networks. We invoke cellular-, circuit-, and systems-based mechanisms by which adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) modulate pattern separation to influence resolution of interference and maintain precision of remote aversive memories. We discuss evidence for how these mechanisms are affected by stress, a risk factor for PTSD, to increase memory interference and decrease precision. Using this scaffold we ideate strategies to curb overgeneralization of fear in PTSD. PMID:26068726
Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Zhuravka, Irina; Poulos, Andrew M.; Shobe, Justin; Merjanian, Michael; Huang, Jeannie; Wolvek, David; O’Neill, Pia-Kelsey; Fanselow, Michael S.
Extinction is the primary mode for the treatment of anxiety disorders. However, extinction memories are prone to relapse. For example, fear is likely to return when a prolonged time period intervenes between extinction and a subsequent encounter with the fear-provoking stimulus (spontaneous recovery). Therefore there is considerable interest in the development of procedures that strengthen extinction and to prevent such recovery of fear. We contrasted two procedures in rats that have been reported to cause such deepened extinction. One where extinction begins before the initial consolidation of fear memory begins (immediate extinction) and another where extinction begins after a brief exposure to the consolidated fear stimulus. The latter is thought to open a period of memory vulnerability similar to that which occurs during initial consolidation (reconsolidation update). We also included a standard extinction treatment and a control procedure that reversed the brief exposure and extinction phases. Spontaneous recovery was only found with the standard extinction treatment. In a separate experiment we tested fear shortly after extinction (i.e., within 6 h). All extinction procedures, except reconsolidation update reduced fear at this short-term test. The findings suggest that strengthened extinction can result from alteration in both retrieval and consolidation processes. PMID:27242459
Tobias, Randolf; Turner, Thomas M.
Describes Network in the Schools (NIS), a project to enhance teens' academic achievement and self-esteem, which uses small group classroom discussions regarding self-affirmation, social concerns, self-improvement, and reflection, and meetings for group sharing and self-expression. Presents findings that the program results in enhanced parent…
Stuart, Elizabeth Moores
First-generation students enroll in college expecting to be the first in their families to obtain a bachelor's degree, yet historically; the number of these students who graduate with four-year degrees is much lower than their non first-generation peers (Nunez & Cuccara-Alamin; Choy, 2001; Glenn, 2008). Limited research exists on the…
Madeloni, Barbara; Hoogstraten, Rachel
In the spring of 2012 students at the University of Massachusetts Amherst School of Education received national attention when they refused to participate in the field test of a teacher performance assessment being run by Pearson Incorporated and Stanford University. Students, led by their professor, demanded they be given informed consent about…
Sederberg, Laura J.
Suggests 10 steps to alleviate faculty's fears of incorporating online learning: make e-learning as easy as possible, let faculty learn at their own pace, focus faculty training efforts, provide handy reference material, clearly state expectations, provide mentors, empower faculty, enlist students, evaluate training sessions, and let sleeping dogs…
Sideridis, Georgios D.; Kafetsios, Konstantinos
The purpose of the present studies was to test the hypothesis that students' perceptions of parental bonding may be predictive of how individuals approach achievement situations. It was hypothesized that reports of parental overprotection would be predictive of elevated fears and subsequent stress and low achievement compared to perceived parental…
Bartels, Jared M.; Herman, William E.
Research suggests that students who fear failure are likely to utilize cognitive strategies such as self-handicapping that serve to perpetuate failure. Such devastating motivational dispositions clearly limit academic success. The present study examined negative emotional responses to scenarios involving academic failure among a sample of…
While a thematic approach to teaching is not a novel idea, the specific needs of the developmental writer and a diverse student body can find the continuity of a theme especially beneficial, and the theme of fear has proven particularly successful. The typical developmental composition course at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University includes a…
Ricketts, Melissa L.
Since the 1990s, schools have focused their attention on policies designed to improve school safety. Most researches on school violence policies have concentrated on the needs of students and administrators. This study investigated the impact of school violence policies on K-12 teachers' fear. Using self-report data from 447 K-12 teachers from a…
Over the last decade, school rampage shootings have taken multiple lives and caused widespread fear throughout the United States. During this same period, there have also been dozens of averted incidents where student plots to kill multiple peers and faculty members came to the attention of authorities and thus were thwarted. This dissertation…
Wagener, Alexandra L.; Zettle, Robert D.
The relative impact of control-, acceptance-, and information-based approaches in targeting a midlevel fear of spiders among college students was evaluated. Participants listened to a brief protocol presenting one of the three approaches before completing the Perceived-Threat Behavioral Approach Test (PT-BAT; Cochrane, Barnes-Holmes, &…
Hetz, Patricia R.; Dawson, Christi L.; Cullen, Theresa A.
Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) is a social construct that examines whether students are concerned that they are missing out on experiences that others are having, and we examined this relation to their concerns over missing activities in their home culture. This mixed-methods pilot study sought to determine how social media affects the study abroad…
Durm, M W; Glaze, P E
For 55 students (13 men, 42 women) there was a significant inverse correlation for scores on the Self-acceptance Scale and scores on the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, thereby giving credence to the construct validity of both scales, that is, the more one accepts oneself, the less negative evaluation there is of oneself.
Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bulten, Berend H; Brazil, Inti A
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by interpersonal manipulation and callousness, and reckless and impulsive antisocial behavior. It is often seen as a disorder in which profound emotional disturbances lead to antisocial behavior. A lack of fear in particular has been proposed as an etiologically salient factor. In this review, we employ a conceptual model in which fear is parsed into separate subcomponents. Important historical conceptualizations of psychopathy, the neuroscientific and empirical evidence for fear deficits in psychopathy are compared against this model. The empirical evidence is also subjected to a meta-analysis. We conclude that most studies have used the term "fear" generically, amassing different methods and levels of measurement under the umbrella term "fear." Unlike earlier claims that psychopathy is related to general fearlessness, we show there is evidence that psychopathic individuals have deficits in threat detection and responsivity, but that the evidence for reduced subjective experience of fear in psychopathy is far less compelling. (PsycINFO Database Record
Flykt, Anders; Lindeberg, Sofie; Derakshan, Nazanin
To investigate whether fear affects the strength with which responses are made, 12 animal-fearful individuals (five snake fearful and seven spider fearful) were instructed to decide as quickly as possible whether an animal target from a deviant category was present in a 3 × 4 item (animal) search array. The animal categories were snakes, spiders, and cats. Response force was measured, in newtons. The results showed that the strength of the response was greater when the feared animal served as the target than when it served as the distractors. This finding was corroborated by evoked heart rate changes to the stimuli. Our findings strengthen the argument that focused attention on a single, feared animal can lead to increases in manual force.
Gates, Arthur I.; And Others
The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…
Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…
Dollinger, Stephen J.; And Others
Compares fears of lightning-strike victims (N=29) with matched control children (N=58), using fear reports from children and their mothers. Differences between samples were most pronounced for child-reported fears. Correspondence between mothers' and children's reports of intense storm-related fears was markedly larger in the lightning sample than…
Fear, such as fear of saying the wrong thing, fear of doing the wrong thing, and fear of being branded as intolerant, a racist, or worse, can be paralyzing for many school administrators in the United States because developing a culturally proficient school is a difficult task filled with the toughest land mines of all: the perceptions and…
Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark
Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned…
Dal Vera, Anne
Drawing from research on fear of failure and anecdotes from personal experience with the first women's expedition to ski to the South Pole, this discussion centers on how fear of failure affects women. Fear of failure leads to procrastination and performance well below one's ability. Women generally express more fear of failure than do men, partly…
Moracco, John C.; Camilleri, Jack
Investigated fears of 121 third graders who completed a checklist of 25 items. Results showed girls were generally more fearful than boys. Loss of parents was the principal source of fear. Fears of natural phenomena (tornados and storms) and of animals resulted in the most consistency. (JAC)
... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... should be considered as a factor in your child's normal development. Many kids experience age-appropriate fears, such as ...
Stern, Paul C.
Scientists often expect fear of climate change and its impacts to motivate public support of climate policies. A study suggests that climate change deniers don't respond to this, but that positive appeals can change their views.
Hindi Attar, Catherine; Finckh, Barbara; Büchel, Christian
Learning of associations between aversive stimuli and predictive cues is the basis of Pavlovian fear conditioning and is driven by a mismatch between expectation and outcome. To investigate whether serotonin modulates the formation of such aversive cue-outcome associations, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dietary tryptophan depletion to reduce brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in healthy human subjects. In a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm, 5-HT depleted subjects compared to a non-depleted control group exhibited attenuated autonomic responses to cues indicating the upcoming of an aversive event. These results were closely paralleled by reduced aversive learning signals in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex, two prominent structures of the neural fear circuit. In agreement with current theories of serotonin as a motivational opponent system to dopamine in fear learning, our data provide first empirical evidence for a role of serotonin in representing formally derived learning signals for aversive events.