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Sample records for addresses system conformance

  1. Addressing the Role of Conformational Diversity in Protein Structure Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Gustavo; Fornasari, Maria Silvina

    2016-01-01

    Computational modeling of tertiary structures has become of standard use to study proteins that lack experimental characterization. Unfortunately, 3D structure prediction methods and model quality assessment programs often overlook that an ensemble of conformers in equilibrium populates the native state of proteins. In this work we collected sets of publicly available protein models and the corresponding target structures experimentally solved and studied how they describe the conformational diversity of the protein. For each protein, we assessed the quality of the models against known conformers by several standard measures and identified those models ranked best. We found that model rankings are defined by both the selected target conformer and the similarity measure used. 70% of the proteins in our datasets show that different models are structurally closest to different conformers of the same protein target. We observed that model building protocols such as template-based or ab initio approaches describe in similar ways the conformational diversity of the protein, although for template-based methods this description may depend on the sequence similarity between target and template sequences. Taken together, our results support the idea that protein structure modeling could help to identify members of the native ensemble, highlight the importance of considering conformational diversity in protein 3D quality evaluations and endorse the study of the variability of the native structure for a meaningful biological analysis. PMID:27159429

  2. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  3. Conformational Transitions in Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, M.; Janke, W.

    2008-11-01

    Proteins are the "work horses" in biological systems. In almost all functions specific proteins are involved. They control molecular transport processes, stabilize the cell structure, enzymatically catalyze chemical reactions; others act as molecular motors in the complex machinery of molecular synthetization processes. Due to their significance, misfolds and malfunctions of proteins typically entail disastrous diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, the understanding of the trinity of amino acid composition, geometric structure, and biological function is one of the most essential challenges for the natural sciences. Here, we glance at conformational transitions accompanying the structure formation in protein folding processes.

  4. DAAS: Defense Automatic Addressing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Optional Development. flOSS can be provided in the following two ways: a. Potential Scbscribers Use of Existing ADP System. If the PW country has an...series. (1) Features of the Turnkea estem. This menu driven system provides for easy system operation aW initial training. Another feature of the turnkey

  5. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  6. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  7. Simulating Massive Conformation Changes within Polypeptide Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jaspinder Paul

    In this dissertation I employ all-atom structure based models with stable energy basins to several existing and novel polypeptide systems (postulated conformation changes of the mammalian prion protein and structurally dual proteins). The common themes are finding unfolding and refolding pathways between highly dissimilar protein structures as a means of understanding exactly how and why a protein may misfold. The modeling is based on the energy funnel landscape theory of protein conformation space. The principle of minimal frustration is considered as the model includes parameters which vary the roughness of the landscape and give rise to off-pathway misfoldings. The dual basin model is applied to the C-terminal (residues 166-226) of the mammalian prion protein. One basin represents the known alpha-helical (aH) structure while the other represents the same residues in a lefthanded beta-helical (LHBH) conformation. The LHBH structure has been proposed to help describe one class of in vitro grown fibrils, as well as possibly self-templating the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to the infectious form. Yet, it is unclear how the protein may make this global rearrangement. Our results demonstrate that the conformation changes are not strongly limited by large-scale geometry modification and that there may exist an overall preference for the LHBH conformation. Furthermore, our model presents novel intermediate trapping conformations with twisted LHBH structure. Polypeptides that display structural duality have primary structures that can give rise to different potential native conformations. We apply the structure-based all-atom model to a leucine zipper protein template with a stable aH structure that has been shown in experiment to switch to a β hairpin structure when exposed to a low-pH environment. We show that the model can be used to perform large-scale temperature-dependent conformational switching by simulating this switching behavior. We augmented

  8. May 6, 2005, Transportation Conformity Rule That Addresses PM2.5 Precursors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This final rule, published by EPA on May 6, 2005, adds the following transportation-related PM2.5 precursors to the transportation conformity regulations: nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur oxides (SOx), and ammonia (NH3).

  9. Conformal invariance and Hamilton Jacobi theory for dissipative systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    For certain dissipative systems, a comparison can be made between the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and the conformal invariance of action theory. The two concepts are not identical, but the conformal action theory covers the Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

  10. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1993-04-09

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems - an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSPI) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium-based system where polyacrylamide and xanthan are crosslinked by CR(III) and an organic crosslinked system. Development of the KUSPI system and evaluation and identification of a suitable organic crosslinked system will be done. The laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: development and selection of gelled polymer systems, physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; and mathematical modeling of gel systems.

  11. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, P.G.

    1992-12-25

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems -- an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium-based system where polyacrylamide and xanthan are crosslinked by Cr(III) and an organic crosslinked system. Development of the KUSP1 system and evaluation and, identification of the organic crosslinked system will be conducted. The laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Progress report are presented for the following tasks: Development and selection of gelled polymer systems; physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; and mathematical modelling of gel systems.

  12. Pilot Non-Conformance to Alerting System Commands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John

    1997-01-01

    Instances of pilot non-conformance to alerting system commands have been identified in previous studies. Pilot non-conformance changes the final behavior of the system, and therefore may reduce actual performance from that anticipated. A simulator study has examined pilot non-conformance, using the task of collision avoidance during closely spaced parallel approaches as a case study. Consonance between the display and the alerting system was found to significantly improve subject agreement with automatic alerts. Based on these results, a more general discussion of the factors involved in pilot conformance is given, and design guidelines for alerting systems are given.

  13. 14 CFR 25.1423 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Safety Equipment § 25.1423 Public address system. A public address system required by this chapter must— (a) Be powerable when the aircraft is in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public address system. 25.1423 Section...

  14. HVDC control developments - addressing system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Patel, H.S.; Piwko, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This article describes typical high voltage direct current (HVDC) control systems and some of the new developments in the control area. HVDC control systems are showing their flexible characteristics as demonstrated, for example, by the new modulation, torsional damping, and alternating current voltage and reactive power controllers. Extensive studies are conducted to design and integrate such controllers into HVDC systems and to assure against any detrimental interactions within the total control system. 8 figures.

  15. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  16. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  17. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public address systems. 121.610 Section 121.610...

  18. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  19. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.610 Public address systems. (a) Except as noted in paragraphs (d) and (e) below, each vessel must be... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610...

  20. March 10, 2006, Transportation Conformity Rule That Addresses Requirements for Project-level Conformity Determinations in PM2.5 and PM10 Nonattainment and Maintenance Areas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This final rule, published March 10, 2006, establishes requirements for project-level conformity determinations in particulate matter (PM) 2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas, and revises existing requirements for projects in PM10 areas.

  1. The 2006 ACTER Presidential Address: The Premier Educational Delivery System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Jack

    2007-01-01

    In this address, ACTER President Jack Elliot states that Career and Technical Education (CTE) is the premier educational delivery system in the world. It addresses all learning styles by employing pedagogical strategies that embrace all of the multiple intelligence areas and incorporate the current knowledge in brain-based research. He discusses…

  2. Quality management systems: a reliable proof of conformity.

    PubMed

    Suppo, M

    1997-01-01

    Doubts have been raised about whether proof of conformity via a certified full quality management system is appropriate for in vitro diagnostic products used for screening blood donations, for example, tests for HIV and hepatitis B and C. This article reviews all the arguments and finds in favour of the proposed system because it involves requirements that extend beyond the normal quality system standard.

  3. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public address systems. 184.610 Section 184.610 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems §...

  4. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... length, a battery powered bullhorn may serve as the public address system if audible throughout the accommodation spaces of the vessel during normal operating conditions. The bullhorn's batteries are to be continually maintained at a fully charged level by use of a battery charger or other means acceptable to...

  5. 46 CFR 184.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... length, a battery powered bullhorn may serve as the public address system if audible throughout the accommodation spaces of the vessel during normal operating conditions. The bullhorn's batteries are to be continually maintained at a fully charged level by use of a battery charger or other means acceptable to...

  6. Selective Attention in Multi-Chip Address-Event Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    Selective attention is the strategy used by biological systems to cope with the inherent limits in their available computational resources, in order to efficiently process sensory information. The same strategy can be used in artificial systems that have to process vast amounts of sensory data with limited resources. In this paper we present a neuromorphic VLSI device, the “Selective Attention Chip” (SAC), which can be used to implement these models in multi-chip address-event systems. We also describe a real-time sensory-motor system, which integrates the SAC with a dynamic vision sensor and a robotic actuator. We present experimental results from each component in the system, and demonstrate how the complete system implements a real-time stimulus-driven selective attention model. PMID:22346689

  7. Selective attention in multi-chip address-event systems.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    Selective attention is the strategy used by biological systems to cope with the inherent limits in their available computational resources, in order to efficiently process sensory information. The same strategy can be used in artificial systems that have to process vast amounts of sensory data with limited resources. In this paper we present a neuromorphic VLSI device, the "Selective Attention Chip" (SAC), which can be used to implement these models in multi-chip address-event systems. We also describe a real-time sensory-motor system, which integrates the SAC with a dynamic vision sensor and a robotic actuator. We present experimental results from each component in the system, and demonstrate how the complete system implements a real-time stimulus-driven selective attention model.

  8. A WiFi Public Address System for Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A.; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas. PMID:17238466

  9. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  10. Conformal Laplace superintegrable systems in 2D: polynomial invariant subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.; Miller, Willard, Jr.

    2016-07-01

    2nd-order conformal superintegrable systems in n dimensions are Laplace equations on a manifold with an added scalar potential and 2n-1 independent 2nd order conformal symmetry operators. They encode all the information about Helmholtz (eigenvalue) superintegrable systems in an efficient manner: there is a 1-1 correspondence between Laplace superintegrable systems and Stäckel equivalence classes of Helmholtz superintegrable systems. In this paper we focus on superintegrable systems in two-dimensions, n = 2, where there are 44 Helmholtz systems, corresponding to 12 Laplace systems. For each Laplace equation we determine the possible two-variate polynomial subspaces that are invariant under the action of the Laplace operator, thus leading to families of polynomial eigenfunctions. We also study the behavior of the polynomial invariant subspaces under a Stäckel transform. The principal new results are the details of the polynomial variables and the conditions on parameters of the potential corresponding to polynomial solutions. The hidden gl 3-algebraic structure is exhibited for the exact and quasi-exact systems. For physically meaningful solutions, the orthogonality properties and normalizability of the polynomials are presented as well. Finally, for all Helmholtz superintegrable solvable systems we give a unified construction of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) quasi-exactly solvable potentials possessing polynomial solutions, and a construction of new 2D PT-symmetric potentials is established.

  11. Conformal Invariance in Driven Diffusive Systems at High Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karevski, D.; Schütz, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    We consider space-time correlations in driven diffusive systems which undergo a fluctuation into a regime with an atypically large current or dynamical activity. For a single conserved mass we show that the spatiotemporal density correlations in one space dimension are fully determined by conformal field theory with central charge c =1 , corresponding to a ballistic universality class with dynamical exponent z =1 . The full phase diagram for general atypical behavior exhibits the conformally invariant regime and, for atypically low current or activity, a region of phase separation. The phase transition line between these two regimes corresponds to typical behavior and the dynamics belongs to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class with dynamical exponent z =3 /2 , except for a diffusive point with z =2 . The exact universal dynamical structure function is obtained in explicit form from the one-dimensional asymmetric simple exclusion process with periodic and open boundaries in the limit of maximal current.

  12. Conformal, Transparent Printed Antenna Developed for Communication and Navigation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1999-01-01

    Conformal, transparent printed antennas have advantages over conventional antennas in terms of space reuse and aesthetics. Because of their compactness and thin profile, these antennas can be mounted on video displays for efficient integration in communication systems such as palmtop computers, digital telephones, and flat-panel television displays. As an array of multiple elements, the antenna subsystem may save weight by reusing space (via vertical stacking) on photovoltaic arrays or on Earth-facing sensors. Also, the antenna could go unnoticed on automobile windshields or building windows, enabling satellite uplinks and downlinks or other emerging high-frequency communications.

  13. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  14. Addressing Questions on Life in Terrestrial Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2013-09-01

    A binational research team met on the campus of Yunnan University in Kunming, China, to discuss recent progress and future plans to leverage binational support to address major questions on life in terrestrial geothermal systems. The symposium included about 90 faculty, postdocs, and students from China and about 30 faculty, postdocs, students, and high school teachers from the United States. The introductory session reviewed the progress of the Tengchong PIRE project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) program (OISE-0836450). It also introduced a new collaborative project funded as a Key Project of International Cooperation by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST, 2013DFA31980), which is the first project funded through a memorandum of understanding between NSF and MOST to promote China-U.S. collaboration.

  15. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  16. Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Lexi Bambas; Braveman, Paula; Dachs, J. Norberto W.; Delgado, Iris; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Moser, Kath; Rolfe, Liz; Vega, Jeanette; Zarowsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Special studies and isolated initiatives over the past several decades in low-, middle- and high-income countries have consistently shown inequalities in health among socioeconomic groups and by gender, race or ethnicity, geographical area and other measures associated with social advantage. Significant health inequalities linked to social (dis)advantage rather than to inherent biological differences are generally considered unfair or inequitable. Such health inequities are the main object of health development efforts, including global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals, which require monitoring to evaluate progress. However, most national health information systems (HIS) lack key information needed to assess and address health inequities, namely, reliable, longitudinal and representative data linking measures of health with measures of social status or advantage at the individual or small-area level. Without empirical documentation and monitoring of such inequities, as well as country-level capacity to use this information for effective planning and monitoring of progress in response to interventions, movement towards equity is unlikely to occur. This paper reviews core information requirements and potential databases and proposes short-term and longer term strategies for strengthening the capabilities of HIS for the analysis of health equity and discusses HIS-related entry points for supporting a culture of equity-oriented decision-making and policy development. PMID:16184279

  17. Strength and conformance testing of a GCL used in a solid waste landfill lining system

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, K.S.; O`Brien, A.J.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes strength and conformance tests conducted on a Bentomat ST geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) used in a composite lining system for the Cells 4 and 5 expansion of the Anchorage Regional Landfill in Anchorage, Alaska. The Cells 4 and 5 lining system included use of an 80-mil, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner overlying a GCL on both the sideslopes and base of the cells. The use of this lining system in a Seismic Zone 4 area on relatively steep side slopes required careful evaluation of both internal shear strength of the GCL and interface friction between the GCL and textured HDPE. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate both peak and residual GCL internal strengths at normal loads up to 552 kiloPascals (80 pounds per square inch). Laboratory tests also were conducted to evaluate the interface strength between the GCL and Serrot box and point textured HDPE. Interface strengths between both woven and nonwoven sides of the GCL and the textured HDPE were evaluated. Considerations related to use of peak or residual strengths for various interim stability cases are described in this paper. Stability analyses using stress-dependent interface and internal strengths for the GCL are addressed. The quality assurance and conformance testing program adopted for the project on GCL is discussed also.

  18. Pilot Non-Conformance to Alerting System Commands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy

    1997-01-01

    This research project examined the effects of consonance between cockpit displays and alerting system as a technique to encourage pilots to conform to alerting system commands. An experiment used the task of collision avoidance during closely spaced parallel approaches as a case study, building upon previous experiments which identified instances of non-conformance and conflicts between the alerting criteria preferred by pilots, compared to that used by alerting systems. Using a workstation based, part-task simulator, each of 45 subjects completed 45 experiment runs. In each run, the subjects were told they were flying an approach. Their primary task was to keep their wings level despite turbulence through the use of a sidestick. The sidestick commands did not affect the path of the aircraft, however, so that consistent approach paths were be followed. Their secondary task was to indicate when an aircraft on a parallel approach is blundering towards them, as evidenced by the traffic display. Subjects were asked to press different buttons indicating whether they feel an avoidance maneuver is required by the traffic situation or not. At the completion of each run, subjects were asked to rate their confidence in their decision and, if appropriate, to rate the timeliness of automatic alerts when had been given. Three different automatic alert conditions were tested. The "No Automatic Alerts Given" condition is self-explanatory. In the "Automatic Alerts Based on NTZ Criteria" condition, an automatic alert was given when the NTZ criteria was triggered; this criteria is consistent with subject reactions in other studies, in which subjects were found to react, on average, when the other aircraft was 1350 min to the side of the own aircraft. In the "Automatic Alerts Based on MIT Criteria" condition, an automatic alert was given when the MIT criteria was triggered; this criteria was developed by Carpenter and Kuchar for parallel approaches to have better performance, at the

  19. Numerical analysis of a fractional-order chaotic system based on conformable fractional-order derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shaobo; Sun, Kehui; Mei, Xiaoyong; Yan, Bo; Xu, Siwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the numerical solutions of conformable fractional-order linear and nonlinear equations are obtained by employing the constructed conformable Adomian decomposition method (CADM). We found that CADM is an effective method for numerical solution of conformable fractional-order differential equations. Taking the conformable fractional-order simplified Lorenz system as an example, the numerical solution and chaotic behaviors of the conformable fractional-order simplified Lorenz system are investigated. It is found that rich dynamics exist in the conformable fractional-order simplified Lorenz system, and the minimum order for chaos is even less than 2. The results are validated by means of bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov characteristic exponents and phase portraits.

  20. Pilot Non-Conformance to Alerting System Commands During Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John

    1997-01-01

    Pilot non-conformance to alerting system commands has been noted in general and to a TCAS-like collision avoidance system in a previous experiment. This paper details two experiments studying collision avoidance during closely-spaced parallel approaches in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), and specifically examining possible causal factors of, and design solutions to, pilot non-conformance.

  1. Conformation of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol bound to a magnetically oriented membrane system.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, K P; Prestegard, J H

    1996-01-01

    The conformation of uniformly 13C-labeled sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) is studied in both membrane and solution environments using NMR spectroscopy. Analysis in a membrane-like environment is based on the measurement of dipolar interactions between 13C-13C and 1H-13C spin pairs and on the measurement of 13C chemical shift anisotropy offsets, which appear in magnetically oriented phospholipid-based membrane fragments. Potential energy maps for glycosidic torsions, phi, psi and theta 1, are calculated with a membrane interaction energy and are used in the interpretation of experimental data. The membrane-bound description for SQDG is most consistent with a set of low-energy conformations that extends the headgroup of SQDG away from the membrane surface. Analysis of the conformation of SQDG in CD3OD solution is based on measured 3JCH scalar couplings. The description of the solution conformation is modeled as a mixture of low-energy conformers predicted in the absence of a membrane interaction term and involves more extensive motional averaging than the model for SQDG embedded in the lipid matrix. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 6 PMID:8913595

  2. Developing Cohesive Leadership Means Addressing All Parts of the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Troyce

    2010-01-01

    In her role with the School Administrators of Iowa leading Iowa's leadership grant from The Wallace Foundation, the author works with a coalition of individuals and groups striving to implement a cohesive leadership system for school leaders. Efforts to create a cohesive leadership system in Iowa for the past nine years have resulted in many…

  3. Pilot Non-Conformance to Alerting System Commands During Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy Ruth; Hansman, R. John; Corker, Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Cockpit alerting systems monitor potentially hazardous situations, both inside and outside the aircraft. When a hazard is projected to occur, the alerting system displays alerts and/or command decisions to the pilot. However, pilots have been observed to not conform to alerting system commands by delaying their response or by not following the automatic commands exactly. This non-conformance to the automatic alerting system can reduce its benefit. Therefore, a need exists to understand the causes and effects of pilot non-conformance in order to develop automatic alerting systems whose commands the pilots are more likely to follow. These considerations were examined through flight simulator evaluations of the collision avoidance task during closely spaced parallel approaches. This task provided a useful case-study because the effects of non-conformance can be significant, given the time-critical nature of the task. A preliminary evaluation of alerting systems identified non-conformance in over 40% of the cases and a corresponding drop in collision avoidance performance. A follow-on experiment found subjects' alerting and maneuver selection criteria were consistent with different strategies than those used by automatic systems, indicating the pilot may potentially disagree with the alerting system if the pilot attempts to verify automatic alerts and commanded avoidance maneuvers. A final experiment found supporting automatic alerts with the explicit display of its underlying criteria resulted in more consistent subject reactions. In light of these experimental results, a general discussion of pilot non-conformance is provided. Contributing factors in pilot non-conformance include a lack of confidence in the automatic system and mismatches between the alerting system's commands and the pilots' own decisions based on the information available to them. The effects of non-conformance on system performance are discussed. Possible methods of reconciling mismatches are

  4. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  5. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of, and predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The IMBER community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  6. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the crewmember interphone system required by § 121.319, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  7. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of the crewmember interphone system required by § 121.319, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  8. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of the crewmember interphone system required by § 121.319, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1423 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of operation within 3 seconds from the time a microphone is removed from its stowage. (c) Be... so that no unused, unstowed microphone will render the system inoperative. (e) Be capable of... passenger emergency exit which has an adjacent flight attendant seat, have a microphone which is...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1423 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of operation within 3 seconds from the time a microphone is removed from its stowage. (c) Be... so that no unused, unstowed microphone will render the system inoperative. (e) Be capable of... passenger emergency exit which has an adjacent flight attendant seat, have a microphone which is...

  11. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the crewmember interphone system required by § 121.319, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1423 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of operation within 3 seconds from the time a microphone is removed from its stowage. (c) Be... so that no unused, unstowed microphone will render the system inoperative. (e) Be capable of... passenger emergency exit which has an adjacent flight attendant seat, have a microphone which is...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1423 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of operation within 3 seconds from the time a microphone is removed from its stowage. (c) Be... so that no unused, unstowed microphone will render the system inoperative. (e) Be capable of... passenger emergency exit which has an adjacent flight attendant seat, have a microphone which is...

  14. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the crewmember interphone system required by § 121.319, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  15. Addressing Modeling Challenges in Cyber-Physical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-04

    A. Lee and Eleftherios Matsikoudis. The semantics of dataflow with firing. In Grard Huet, Gordon Plotkin, Jean - Jacques Lévy, and Yves Bertot...Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 20(3), 2001. [12] Luca P. Carloni, Roberto Passerone, Alessandro Pinto , and Alberto Sangiovanni...gst/fullpage.html?res= 9504EFDA1738F933A2575AC0A9679C8B63. 20 [15] Abhijit Davare, Douglas Densmore, Trevor Meyerowitz, Alessandro Pinto , Alberto

  16. Discrete Address Beacon System (DABS) Baseline Test and Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    provides a method for performing a full loop system check. The CPME is permanently installed at a surveyed location within the, coverage pattern of one or...13 4 ATCRBS/DABS Performance as a Function of Signal Strength 27 5 Probability of Detection of Clear Air Targets for 29 ATCRBS/DABS Targets in ATCRBS...Only and ATCRBS and DABS Mixed Fruit Environments 6 Probability of Detection 31 7 ATCRBS Mode A-Code/DABS ID Reliability 32 8 Altitude Reliability 34

  17. Addressing Inpatient Glycaemic Control with an Inpatient Glucometry Alert System

    PubMed Central

    Seheult, J. N.; Pazderska, A.; Gaffney, P.; Fogarty, J.; Sherlock, M.; Gibney, J.; Boran, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Poor inpatient glycaemic control has a prevalence exceeding 30% and results in increased length of stay and higher rates of hospital complications and inpatient mortality. The aim of this study was to improve inpatient glycaemic control by developing an alert system to process point-of-care blood glucose (POC-BG) results. Methods. Microsoft Excel Macros were developed for the processing of daily glucometry data downloaded from the Cobas IT database. Alerts were generated according to ward location for any value less than 4 mmol/L (hypoglycaemia) or greater than 15 mmol/L (moderate-severe hyperglycaemia). The Diabetes Team provided a weekday consult service for patients flagged on the daily reports. This system was implemented for a 60-day period. Results. There was a statistically significant 20% reduction in the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted values >15 mmol/L compared to the preimplementation period without a significant change in the percentage of hypoglycaemic values. The time-to-next-reading after a dysglycaemic POC-BG result was reduced by 14% and the time-to-normalization of a dysglycaemic result was reduced from 10.2 hours to 8.4 hours. Conclusion. The alert system reduced the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted glucose values and the time-to-normalization of blood glucose. PMID:26290664

  18. Workshop Builds Strategies to Address Global Positioning System Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Genene

    2011-01-01

    When we examine the impacts of space weather on society, do we really understand the risks? Can past experiences reliably predict what will happen in the future? As the complexity of technology increases, there is the potential for it to become more fragile, allowing for a single point of failure to bring down the entire system. Take the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an example. GPS positioning, navigation, and timing have become an integral part of daily life, supporting transportation and communications systems vital to the aviation, merchant marine, cargo, cellular phone, surveying, and oil exploration industries. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Understanding the risks of space weather to GPS and the many economic sectors reliant upon it, as well as how to build resilience, was the focus of a policy workshop organized by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and held on 13-14 October 2010 in Washington, D. C. The workshop brought together a select group of policy makers, space weather scientists, and GPS experts and users.

  19. Integrated wireless systems: The future has arrived (Keynote Address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoir, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    It is believed that we are just at the beginning with wireless, and that a new age is dawning for this breakthrough technology. Thanks to several years of industrial manufacturing in mass-market applications such as cellular phones, wireless technology has nowadays reached a level of maturity that, combined with other achievements arising from different fields, such as information technology, artificial intelligence, pervasive computing, science of new materials, and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), will enable the realization of a networked stream-flow of real-time information, that will accompany us in our daily life, in a total seamless, transparent fashion. As almost any application scenario will require the deployment of complex, miniaturized, almost "invisible" systems, operating with different wireless standards, hard technological challenges will have to be faced for designing and fabricating ultra-low-cost, reconfigurable, and multi-mode heterogeneous smart micro-devices. But ongoing, unending progresses on wireless technology keeps the promise of helping to solve important societal problems in the health-care, safety, security, industry, environment sectors, and in general opening the possibility for an improved quality of life at work, on travel, at home, practically "everywhere, anytime".

  20. Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then

  1. The closed/open model for lipase activation. Addressing intermediate active forms of fungal enzymes by trapping of conformers in water-restricted environments.

    PubMed

    González-Navarro, H; Bañó, M C; Abad, C

    2001-03-13

    The behavior of prototypic fungal lipases in a water-restricted environment has been investigated by exploiting the reported experimental strategy that allows the trapping (freeze-drying) of the enzyme in the conformation present in aqueous solution and to subsequently assay it in nonaqueous media [Mingarro, I., Abad, C., and Braco, L. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 3308-3312]. We now report, using simple esterification as well as acidolysis (triglycerides as substrates) as nonaqueous model reactions, that the presence of a detergent (n-octyl-beta-glucopyranoside) in the freeze-drying buffer, at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration, generates different catalytically active (kinetically trapped) conformational states of the enzyme. These activated forms exquisitely discriminate between short- and long-chain fatty acids, suggesting that they can be correlated with intermediate conformations of the protein sufficiently open to permit the access of relatively small but not large substrates. Additional data obtained from aqueous solution activity measurements in the presence of detergent revealed that the fungal lipase retains an active conformation induced by high detergent concentration (30 mM) for a long period of time, a 'memory effect', which is stabilized in the absence of a well-defined interface by few detergent molecules. Together these results provide support to a model of lipase action involving several equilibrium states (closed, intermediate, and open), which can be modulated by the composition of the microenvironment, i.e., by the detergent concentration.

  2. A study of the spiropyran-merocyanine system using ion mobility-mass spectrometry: experimental support for the cisoid conformation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert A; Rodier, Allison R; Stanley, Jake A; Douglas, Nick A; Li, Xiaopeng; Brittain, William J

    2014-04-04

    The spiropyran-merocyanine system was studied using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and three major conformers were identified. Assignment of conformers is based on DFT-B3LYP energy minimized structures and collision cross-sections as light-induced changes in IM-MS. The three conformers were assigned to the spiropyran, cisoid and transoid structures.

  3. 2D anti{endash}de Sitter gravity as a conformally invariant mechanical system

    SciTech Connect

    Cadoni, M.; Carta, P.; Klemm, D.; Mignemi, S.

    2001-06-15

    We show that two-dimensional (2D) AdS gravity induces on the spacetime boundary a conformally invariant dynamics that can be described in terms of a de Alfaro{endash}Fubini{endash}Furlan model coupled to an external source with conformal dimension 2. The external source encodes information about the gauge symmetries of the 2D gravity system. Alternatively, there exists a description in terms of a mechanical system with anholonomic constraints. The considered systems are invariant under the action of the conformal group generated by a Virasoro algebra, which occurs also as an asymptotic symmetry algebra of two-dimensional anti{endash}de Sitter space. We calculate the central charge of the algebra and find perfect agreement between the statistical and thermodynamical entropies of AdS{sub 2} black holes.

  4. Study on conformity technology with ULEV using EHC system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimasaki, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Muramatsu, Hiroaki; Teshirogi, Tetsu; Aoki, Takuya; Saito, Akihisa; Rodrigues, G.

    1996-09-01

    An electrically heated catalyst (EHC) and an electric pump driven secondary air supply were employed to heat and energize the catalyst immediately after starting the engine. This measure made it possible for a high performance in-line four-cylinder engine with an exhaust system layout of 4-2-1 to meet the Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) category of the Californian Air Resource Board (CARB). Additionally, the following items are also reported in this paper: (1) light-off catalyst and its effectiveness in reduced emissions and rise in temperature; (2) comparison between alternator-powered EHC system and battery powered EHC system; (3) comparison between extrusion type and metal foil type EHCs; (4) power losses due to the EHC system; (5) EHC with non-contact Hall element electric current sensor used, and an OBD-2 system featuring a secondary air supply system; and (6) detection of the EHC system OBD-2 catalyst deterioration.

  5. Random countable alphabet conformal iterated function systems satisfying the transversality condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbański, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    Dealing with with countable (finite and infinite alike) alphabet random conformal iterated function systems with overlaps, we formulate appropriate transversality conditions and then prove the relevant, in such a context, the Moran-Bowen formula which determines the Hausdorff dimension of random limit sets in dynamical terms. We also provide large classes of examples of such random systems satisfying the transversality condition.

  6. Conformance testing strategies for DICOM protocols in a heterogenous communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ralph; Hewett, Andrew J.; Cordonnier, Emmanuel; Piqueras, Joachim; Jensch, Peter F.

    1995-05-01

    The goal of the DICOM standard is to define a standard network interface and data model for imaging devices from various vendors. It shall facilitate the development and integration of information systems and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) in a networked environment. Current activities in Oldenburg, Germany include projects to establish cooperative work applications for radiological purposes, comprising (joined) text, data, signal and image communications, based on narrowband ISDN and ATM communication for regional and Pan European applications. In such a growing and constantly changing environment it is vital to have a solid and implementable plan to bring standards in operation. A communication standard alone cannot ensure interoperability between different vendor implementations. Even DICOM does not specify implementation-specific requirements nor does it specify a testing procedure to assess an implementation's conformance to the standard. The conformance statements defined in the DICOM standard only allow a user to determine which optional components are supported by the implementation. The goal of our work is to build a conformance test suite for DICOM. Conformance testing can aid to simplify and solve problems with multivendor systems. It will check a vendor's implementation against the DICOM standard and state the found subset of functionality. The test suite will be built in respect to the ISO 9646 Standard (OSI-Conformance Testing Methodology and Framework) which is a standard devoted to the subject of conformance testing implementations of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards. For our heterogeneous communication environments we must also consider ISO 9000 - 9004 (quality management and quality assurance) to give the users the confidence in evolving applications.

  7. A phenomenographic study of the ability to address complex socio-technical systems via variation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Garcia, John A.

    Sometimes engineers fail when addressing the inherent complexity of socio-technical systems because they lack the ability to address the complexity of socio-technical systems. Teaching undergraduate engineering students how to address complex socio-technical systems, has been an educational endeavor at different levels ranging from kindergarten to post-graduate education. The literature presents different pedagogical strategies and content to reach this goal. However, there are no existing empirically-based assessments guided by a learning theory. This may be because at the same time explanations of how the skill is developed are scarce. My study bridges this gap, and I propose a developmental path for the ability to address the complex socio-technical systems via Variation Theory, and according to the conceptual framework provided by Variation Theory, my research question was "What are the various ways in which engineers address complex socio-technical systems?" I chose the research approach of phenomenography to answer my research question. I also chose to use a blended approach, Marton's approach for finding the dimensions of variation, and the developmental approach (Australian) for finding a hierarchical relationship between the dimensions. Accordingly, I recruited 25 participants with different levels of experience with addressing complex socio-technical systems and asked them all to address the same two tasks: A design of a system for a county, and a case study in a manufacturing firm. My outcome space is a nona-dimensional (nine) developmental path for the ability to address the complexity in socio-technical systems, and I propose 9 different ways of experiencing the complexity of a socio-technical system. The findings of this study suggest that the critical aspects that are needed to address the complexity of socio-technical systems are: being aware of the use of models, the ecosystem around, start recognizing different boundaries, being aware of time as a

  8. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Public Address System Review Findings

    SciTech Connect

    HUMPHRYS, K.L.

    1999-11-03

    Public address system operation at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility was reviewed. The review was based on an Operational Readiness Review finding that public address performance was not adequate in parts of the WRAP facility. Several improvements were made to the WRAP Public Address (PA) system to correct the deficiencies noted. Speaker gain and position was optimized. A speech processor was installed to boost intelligibility in high noise areas. Additional speakers were added to improve coverage in the work areas. The results of this evaluation indicate that further PA system enhancements are not warranted. Additional speakers cannot compensate for the high background sound and high reverberation levels found in the work areas. Recommendations to improve PA system intelligibility include minor speaker adjustments, enhanced PA announcement techniques, and the use of sound reduction and abatement techniques where economically feasible.

  9. Conformal Infinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauendiener, Jörg

    2004-12-01

    The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, "conformal infinity" is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  10. Conformal ultrasound imaging system for anatomical breast inspection.

    PubMed

    Rouyer, Julien; Mensah, Serge; Franceschini, Emilie; Lasaygues, Philippe; Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasound tomography has considerable potential as a means of breast cancer detection because it reduces the operator-dependency observed in echography. A half-ring transducer array was designed based on breast anatomy, to obtain reflectivity images of the ductolobular structures using tomographic reconstruction procedures. The 3-MHz transducer array comprises 1024 elements set in a 190-degree circular arc with a radius of 100 mm. The front-end electronics incorporate 32 independent parallel transmit/receive channels and a 32-to-1024 multiplexer unit. The transmit and receive circuitries have a variable sampling frequency of up to 80 MHz and 12-bit precision. Arbitrary waveforms are synthesized to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and to increase the spatial resolution when working with low-contrast objects. The setup was calibrated with academic objects and a needle hydrophone to develop the data correction tools and specify the properties of the system. The backscattering field was recorded using a restricted aperture, and tomographic acquisitions were performed with a pair of 0.08-mm-diameter steel wires, a low-contrast 2-D breast phantom, and a breast-shaped phantom containing inclusions. Data were processed with dedicated correction tools and a pulse compression technique. Objects were reconstructed using the elliptical back-projection algorithm.

  11. Steinberg conformal algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, A. V.; Pinchuk, I. A.

    2005-06-01

    The structure of Steinberg conformal algebras is studied; these are analogues of Steinberg groups (algebras, superalgebras).A Steinberg conformal algebra is defined as an abstract algebra by a system of generators and relations between the generators. It is proved that a Steinberg conformal algebra is the universal central extension of the corresponding conformal Lie algebra; the kernel of this extension is calculated.

  12. Non-Noether symmetries of Hamiltonian systems with conformable fractional derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin-Li, Wang; Jing-Li, Fu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the fractional Hamilton’s canonical equations and the fractional non-Noether symmetry of Hamilton systems by the conformable fractional derivative. Firstly, the exchanging relationship between isochronous variation and fractional derivatives, and the fractional Hamilton principle of the system under this fractional derivative are proposed. Secondly, the fractional Hamilton’s canonical equations of Hamilton systems based on the Hamilton principle are established. Thirdly, the fractional non-Noether symmetries, non-Noether theorem and non-Noether conserved quantities for the Hamilton systems with the conformable fractional derivatives are obtained. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11272287 and 11472247), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT13097), and the Key Science and Technology Innovation Team Project of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. 2013TD18).

  13. TTCN-3 Based Conformance Testing of Mobile Broadcast Business Management System in 3G Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiliang; Yin, Xia; Xiang, Yang; Zhu, Ruiping; Gao, Shirui; Wu, Xin; Liu, Shijian; Gao, Song; Zhou, Li; Li, Peng

    Mobile broadcast service is one of the emerging most important new services in 3G networks. To better operate and manage mobile broadcast services, mobile broadcast business management system (MBBMS) should be designed and developed. Such a system, with its distributed nature, complicated XML data and security mechanism, faces many challenges in testing technology. In this paper, we study the conformance testing methodology of MBBMS, and design and implement a MBBMS protocol conformance testing tool based on TTCN-3, a standardized test description language that can be used in black-box testing of reactive and distributed system. In this methodology and testing tool, we present a semi-automatic XML test data generation method of TTCN-3 test suite and use HMSC model to help the design of test suite. In addition, we also propose an integrated testing method for hierarchical MBBMS security architecture. This testing tool has been used in industrial level’s testing.

  14. Classrooms for Children with Developmental Disabilities: Sound-Field and Public Address Amplification Systems Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Stanley W. H.; McPherson, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    Background noise poses adverse effects on speech sounds and affects student learning, especially for children with developmental disabilities. Sound-field and public address amplification systems can help to solve this problem by amplifying speech sounds relative to background noise. This study surveyed school classrooms for children with special…

  15. [Research in social psychiatry - addressing future challenges of health- and social systems].

    PubMed

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2009-01-01

    Demographic change, limited financial resources and increasing social exclusion of individuals suffering chronic illness are major challenges for health and social systems in general and for psychiatry in particular. The paper analyses to what extent social psychiatric research currently addresses this challenges. Future perspectives are discussed, exploring the relationship of clinical neuroscience and social psychiatry.

  16. 33 CFR 149.675 - What are the requirements for the public address system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for the public address system? 149.675 Section 149.675 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... Medical Treatment Rooms...

  17. Coordination of International Standards with Implementation of the IECRE Conformity Assessment System to Provide Multiple Certification Offerings for PV Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, George; Haring, Adrian; Spooner, Ted; Ball, Greg; Kurtz, Sarah; Heinze, Matthias; Yamamichi, Masaaki; Eguchi, Yoshihito; Ramu, Govind

    2016-11-21

    To help address the industry's needs for assuring the value and reducing the risk of investments in PV power plants; the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a new conformity assessment system for renewable energy (IECRE). There are presently important efforts underway to define the requirements for various types of PV system certificates, and publication of the international standards upon which these certifications will be based. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the interrelationship of these activities and the timing for initiation of IECRE PV system certifications.

  18. Amyloid β peptide conformational changes in the presence of a lipid membrane system.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Angelo; Shalabaeva, Victoria; Cotte, Marine; Burghammer, Manfred; Krahne, Roman; Riekel, Christian; Dante, Silvia

    2014-03-25

    Here we are presenting a comparative analysis of conformational changes of two amyloid β peptides, Aβ(25-35) and Aβ(1-42), in the presence and absence of a phospholipid system, namely, POPC/POPS (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphospatidylcholine/palmitoyl-2-oleoylphospatidylserine), through Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation micro Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and micro X-ray diffraction. Ringlike samples were obtained from the evaporation of pure and mixed solutions of the proteins together with the POPC/POPS system on highly hydrophilic substrates. The results confirm the presence of a α-helical to β-sheet transition from the internal rim of the ringlike samples to the external one in the pure Aβ(25-35) residual, probably due to the convective flow inside the droplets sitting on highly hydrophilic substrates enhancing the local concentration of the peptide at the external edge of the dried drop. In contrast, the presence of POPC/POPS lipids in the peptide does not result in α-helical structures and introduces the presence of antiparallel β-sheet material together with parallel β-sheet structures and possible β-turns. As a control, Aβ(1-42) peptide was also tested and shows β-sheet conformations independently from the presence of the lipid system. The μXRD analysis further confirmed these conclusions, showing how the absence of the phospholipid system induces in the Aβ(25-35) a probable composite α/β material while its coexistence with the peptide leads to a not oriented β-sheet conformation. These results open interesting scenarios on the study of conformational changes of Aβ peptides and could help, with further investigations, to better clarify the role of enzymes and alternative lipid systems involved in the amyloidosis process of Aβ fragments.

  19. Conformal piezoelectric systems for clinical and experimental characterization of soft tissue biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Shi, Yan; Joe, Pauline; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Balooch, Guive; Usgaonkar, Karan; Gur, Onur; Tran, Phat L.; Crosby, Jessi R.; Meyer, Marcin; Su, Yewang; Chad Webb, R.; Tedesco, Andrew S.; Slepian, Marvin J.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2015-07-01

    Mechanical assessment of soft biological tissues and organs has broad relevance in clinical diagnosis and treatment of disease. Existing characterization methods are invasive, lack microscale spatial resolution, and are tailored only for specific regions of the body under quasi-static conditions. Here, we develop conformal and piezoelectric devices that enable in vivo measurements of soft tissue viscoelasticity in the near-surface regions of the epidermis. These systems achieve conformal contact with the underlying complex topography and texture of the targeted skin, as well as other organ surfaces, under both quasi-static and dynamic conditions. Experimental and theoretical characterization of the responses of piezoelectric actuator-sensor pairs laminated on a variety of soft biological tissues and organ systems in animal models provide information on the operation of the devices. Studies on human subjects establish the clinical significance of these devices for rapid and non-invasive characterization of skin mechanical properties.

  20. Conformal piezoelectric systems for clinical and experimental characterization of soft tissue biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Shi, Yan; Joe, Pauline; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Balooch, Guive; Usgaonkar, Karan; Gur, Onur; Tran, Phat L; Crosby, Jessi R; Meyer, Marcin; Su, Yewang; Chad Webb, R; Tedesco, Andrew S; Slepian, Marvin J; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2015-07-01

    Mechanical assessment of soft biological tissues and organs has broad relevance in clinical diagnosis and treatment of disease. Existing characterization methods are invasive, lack microscale spatial resolution, and are tailored only for specific regions of the body under quasi-static conditions. Here, we develop conformal and piezoelectric devices that enable in vivo measurements of soft tissue viscoelasticity in the near-surface regions of the epidermis. These systems achieve conformal contact with the underlying complex topography and texture of the targeted skin, as well as other organ surfaces, under both quasi-static and dynamic conditions. Experimental and theoretical characterization of the responses of piezoelectric actuator-sensor pairs laminated on a variety of soft biological tissues and organ systems in animal models provide information on the operation of the devices. Studies on human subjects establish the clinical significance of these devices for rapid and non-invasive characterization of skin mechanical properties.

  1. DVE flight test results of a sensor enhanced 3D conformal pilot support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münsterer, Thomas; Völschow, Philipp; Singer, Bernhard; Strobel, Michael; Kramper, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents results and findings of flight tests of the Airbus Defence and Space DVE system SFERION performed at Yuma Proving Grounds. During the flight tests ladar information was fused with a priori DB knowledge in real-time and 3D conformal symbology was generated for display on an HMD. The test flights included low level flights as well as numerous brownout landings.

  2. Field theoretical Lie symmetry analysis: The Möbius group, exact solutions of conformal autonomous systems, and predictive model-building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulides, Kyriakos

    2014-07-01

    We study single and coupled first-order differential equations (ODEs) that admit symmetries with tangent vector fields, which satisfy the N-dimensional Cauchy-Riemann equations. In the two-dimensional case, classes of first-order ODEs which are invariant under Möbius transformations are explored. In the N dimensional case we outline a symmetry analysis method for constructing exact solutions for conformal autonomous systems. A very important aspect of this work is that we propose to extend the traditional technical usage of Lie groups to one that could provide testable predictions and guidelines for model-building and model-validation. The Lie symmetries in this paper are constrained and classified by field theoretical considerations and their phenomenological implications. Our results indicate that conformal transformations are appropriate for elucidating a variety of linear and nonlinear systems which could be used for, or inspire, future applications. The presentation is pragmatic and it is addressed to a wide audience.

  3. Judges in judo conform to the referee because of the reactive feedback system.

    PubMed

    Boen, Filip; Ginis, Pieter; Smits, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This experiment tested whether the conformism observed among panels of judges in aesthetic sports also occurs among judges in judo. Similar to aesthetic sports, judo judging relies upon a form of open feedback. However, in judo, this system is reactive (i.e. two judges have to publicly 'correct' the score given by the higher-status referee), whereas it is active in aesthetic sports (i.e. judges with equal status report their score simultaneously and can use the feedback about the scores of their colleagues for evaluating later performances). In order to test whether such reactive open-feedback system leads to conformism among judges in judo, we designed an experiment in which this feedback was manipulated. Participants were 20 certified Flemish judges, who had to score two sets of 11 ambiguous video sequences that are used during formation and training of judo judges: one set with feedback about the referee's score and one set without feedback. The results revealed that when participants knew the referee's score, their scores were significantly more in line with this score than when they did not know this score. More specifically, for both sets of sequences at least 10% less deviations from the referee were observed when participants were given feedback about the score of the referee. These results suggest that preventable conformism can occur in typical judo judging, that is with reactive open feedback.

  4. Core-shell silk hydrogels with spatially tuned conformations as drug-delivery system.

    PubMed

    Yan, Le-Ping; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Oliveira, Ana L; Reis, Rui L

    2016-12-05

    Hydrogels of spatially controlled physicochemical properties are appealing platforms for tissue engineering and drug delivery. In this study, core-shell silk fibroin (SF) hydrogels of spatially controlled conformation were developed. The core-shell structure in the hydrogels was formed by means of soaking the preformed (enzymatically crosslinked) random coil SF hydrogels in methanol. When increasing the methanol treatment time from 1 to 10 min, the thickness of the shell layer can be tuned from about 200 to about 850 μm as measured in wet status. After lyophilization of the rehydrated core-shell hydrogels, the shell layer displayed compact morphology and the core layer presented porous structure, when observed by scanning electron microscopy. The conformation of the hydrogels was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in wet status. The results revealed that the shell layer possessed dominant β-sheet conformation and the core layer maintained mainly random coil conformation. Enzymatic degradation data showed that the shell layers presented superior stability to the core layer. The mechanical analysis displayed that the compressive modulus of the core-shell hydrogels ranged from about 25 kPa to about 1.1 MPa by increasing the immersion time in methanol. When incorporated with albumin, the core-shell SF hydrogels demonstrated slower and more controllable release profiles compared with the non-treated hydrogel. These core-shell SF hydrogels of highly tuned properties are useful systems as drug-delivery system and may be applied as cartilage substitute. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  6. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Quarterly report, September 25--December 24, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1994-01-19

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems -- an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium(III)-polyacrylamide system and the aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide system. Laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Results to date are summarized.

  7. Design of a wind turbine-generator system considering the conformability to wind velocity fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Hashizume, Takumi; Outa, Eisuke

    1999-07-01

    The conformability of the rated power output of the wind turbine-generator system and of the wind turbine type to wind velocity fluctuations are investigated with a simulation model. The authors examine three types of wind turbines: the Darrieus-Savonius hybrid, the Darrieus proper and the Propeller. These systems are mainly operated at a constant tip speed ratio, which refers to a maximum power coefficient points. As a computed result of the net extracting power, the Darrieus turbine proper has little conformability to wind velocity fluctuations because of its output characteristics. As for the other turbines, large-scale systems do not always have an advantage over small-scale systems as the effect of its dynamic characteristics. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the net extracting power of the Propeller turbine, under wind direction fluctuation, is much reduced when compared with the hybrid wind turbine. Thus, the authors conclude that the appropriate rated power output of the system exists with relation to the wind turbine type for each wind condition.

  8. Discrete Address Beacon System (DABS) Software System Reliability Modeling and Prediction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    19004 DT-A.3.Tef e.0-OW8 , ... t 13. Tyeo Sat ~ n-v d e ed_ 12 Spon soring Agency Name and Address U.S. Department of Transportation Final / / [’’ -4...Model 36 12 Surveillance Module - Reliability Growth Model 39 B-1 DABS Trouble Report/Change Proposal 49 B-2 DABS Trouble Report/Change Proposal Update...Surveillance Module - Reliability Data Summary 38 12 Summary of Software Reliability Predictions 42 13 Summary of Module Critical Error Rates 43 iii I

  9. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1995-10-17

    Objectives of this project are to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance to fluid displacement systems; determine the performance of these systems; and to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. Gels investigated include an aqueous polysaccharide, a chromium-polacrylamide, and an aluminium citrate-polyacrylamide system.

  10. Continental-Scale Stable Isotope Measurements at NEON to Address Ecological Processes Across Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Goodman, K. J.; Hinckley, E. S.; West, J. B.; Williams, D. G.; Bowen, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform. The overarching goal of NEON is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology (such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, ecohydrology, etc.). NEON focuses explicitly on questions that relate to grand challenges in environmental science, are relevant to large regions, and would otherwise be very difficult to address with traditional ecological approaches. The use of stable isotope approaches in ecological research has grown steadily during the last two decades. Stable isotopes at natural abundances in the environment trace and integrate the interaction between abiotic and biotic components across temporal and spatial scales. In this poster, we will present the NEON data products that incorporate stable isotope measurements in atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems in North America. We further outline current questions in the natural sciences community and how these data products can be used to address continental-scale ecological questions, such as the ecological impacts of climate change, terrestrial-aquatic system linkages, land-atmosphere exchange, landscape ecohydrological processes, and linking biogeochemical cycles across systems. Specifically, we focus on the use of stable isotopes to evaluate water availability and residence times in terrestrial systems, as well as nutrient sources to terrestrial systems, and cycling across ecosystem boundaries.

  11. An Integrated Survey System for Addressing Abuse and Misconduct Toward Air Force Trainees During Basic Military Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    An Integrated Survey System for Addressing Abuse and Misconduct Toward Air Force Trainees During Basic Military Training Kirsten M. Keller, Laura...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Survey System for Addressing Abuse and Misconduct Toward Air Force Trainees During...RAND Project AIR FORCE to help develop an integrated survey system to help address abuse and misconduct toward trainees in the BMT environment. This

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of a Conformal Skin-like Electronic System for Quantitative, Cutaneous Wound Management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woosik; Kwon, Ohjin; Lee, Dong Sup; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2015-09-02

    Recent advances in the development of electronic technologies and biomedical devices offer opportunities for non-invasive, quantitative assessment of cutaneous wound healing on the skin. Existing methods, however, still rely on visual inspections through various microscopic tools and devices that normally include high-cost, sophisticated systems and require well trained personnel for operation and data analysis. Here, we describe methods and protocols to fabricate a conformal, skin-like electronics system that enables conformal lamination to the skin surface near the wound tissues, which provides recording of high fidelity electrical signals such as skin temperature and thermal conductivity. The methods of device fabrication provide details of step-by-step preparation of the microelectronic system that is completely enclosed with elastomeric silicone materials to offer electrical isolation. The experimental study presents multifunctional, biocompatible, waterproof, reusable, and flexible/stretchable characteristics of the device for clinical applications. Protocols of clinical testing provide an overview and sequential process of cleaning, testing setup, system operation, and data acquisition with the skin-like electronics, gently mounted on hypersensitive, cutaneous wound and contralateral tissues on patients.

  13. Practices Changes in the Child Protection System to Address the Needs of Parents With Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra T.; Maggi, Mirella C.; Proctor, Stephon Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    Parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD) are over-represented in the child protection system. However, the current state of the child protection system is not well prepared for working with them. Biases that exist against their parenting, the need for accommodations in assessment and intervention practices, and specific training in staff and cross systems barriers need to be addressed. This paper argues for changes that will ensure such parents are more effectively served and that child protection staff and contract providers are better equipped to work with them. Specific changes are discussed in assessment and intervention practices. These changes will require human capacity building and organizational restructuring. Although empirically based behavioral approaches with PCD will be emphasized, recent empirical work suggests that social information processing and neurocognitive problems occur in PCD. Approaches to working with such problems are emerging and must also be considered and integrated into a blueprint for change. PMID:27610050

  14. Systems and capacity to address noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammed K; Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Flanigan, John; Blanchard, Claire; Narayan, K M Venkat; Engelgau, Michael

    2013-04-17

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are increasingly getting attention from different forums, including media outlets, health agencies, and the public and private sectors. Progress is being made in addressing NCDs, though more slowly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as compared with high-income settings. Here, we offer an analysis of the challenges faced in LMICs. We discuss realistic strategies to understand and develop capacity needs (workforce, finances, and infrastructure) and systems (institutions and processes) to sustainably optimize NCD prevention and care in LMICs.

  15. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. First quarterly report, September 25, 1992--December 24, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, P.G.

    1992-12-25

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems -- an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium-based system where polyacrylamide and xanthan are crosslinked by Cr(III) and an organic crosslinked system. Development of the KUSP1 system and evaluation and, identification of the organic crosslinked system will be conducted. The laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Progress report are presented for the following tasks: Development and selection of gelled polymer systems; physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; and mathematical modelling of gel systems.

  16. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Second quarterly report, December 25, 1992--March 24, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1993-04-09

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems - an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSPI) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium-based system where polyacrylamide and xanthan are crosslinked by CR(III) and an organic crosslinked system. Development of the KUSPI system and evaluation and identification of a suitable organic crosslinked system will be done. The laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: development and selection of gelled polymer systems, physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; and mathematical modeling of gel systems.

  17. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Third quarterly report, March 25, 1993--June 24, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1993-07-01

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems - an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium-based system where polyacrylamide and xanthan are crosslinked by CR(III) and an organic crosslinked system. Development of the KUSP1 system and evaluation and identification of a suitable organic crosslinked system will be done. The laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented for the following tasks: development and selection of gelled polymer systems; physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; mechanism of in situ gelation; and mathematical modelling of gel systems.

  18. An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Wyss, Kaspar; de Savigny, Don

    2011-12-02

    As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health system stewards should have a good understanding of how health systems operate in order to govern them appropriately. While a number of frameworks for assessing governance in the health sector have been proposed, their application is often hindered by unrealistic indicators or they are overly complex resulting in limited empirical work on governance in health systems. This paper reviews contemporary health sector frameworks which have focused on defining and developing indicators to assess governance in the health sector. Based on these, we propose a simplified approach to look at governance within a common health system framework which encourages stewards to take a systematic perspective when assessing governance. Although systems thinking is not unique to health, examples of its application within health systems has been limited. We also provide an example of how this approach could be applied to illuminate areas of governance weaknesses which are potentially addressable by targeted interventions and policies. This approach is built largely on prior literature, but is original in that it is problem-driven and promotes an outward application taking into consideration the major health system building blocks at various levels in order to ensure a more complete assessment of a governance issue rather than a simple input-output approach. Based on an assessment of contemporary literature we propose a practical approach which we believe will facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of governance in health systems leading to the development of governance interventions to strengthen system performance and improve health as a basic human right.

  19. An investigation of conformable antennas for the astronaut backpack communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Stuart A.; Jackson, David R.; Williams, Jeffery T.; Wilton, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    During periods of extravehicular activity it is obviously important that communication and telemetry systems continue to function independently of the astronaut. A system of antennas must therefore be designed that will provide the necessary isotropic coverage using circular polarization over both the transmit and receive frequency bands. To avoid the inherent physical limitations to motion that would be incurred with any sort of protruding antenna, it is necessary that the radiator be essentially flush-mounted or conformable to the structure on which it is attached. Several individual antenna elements are needed for the desired coverage. Both the particular elements chosen and their location determine the ultimate radiation pattern of the overall system. For these reasons a two-fold research plan was undertaken. First, individual elements were investigated and designed. Then various mounting locations were considered and the radiation patterns were predicted taking into account the effects of the astronaut's backpack.

  20. Numerical tests of conjectures of conformal field theory for three-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Martin; Janke, Wolfhard

    1998-11-01

    The concept of conformal field theory provides a general classification of statistical systems on two-dimensional geometries at the point of a continuous phase transition. Considering the finite-size scaling of certain special observables, one thus obtains not only the critical exponents but even the corresponding amplitudes of the divergences analytically. A first numerical analysis brought up the question whether analogous results can be obtained for those systems on three-dimensional manifolds. Using Monte Carlo simulations based on the Wolff single-cluster update algorithm we investigate the scaling properties of O(n) symmetric classical spin models on a three-dimensional, hyper-cylindrical geometry with a toroidal cross-section considering both periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions. Studying the correlation lengths of the Ising, the XY, and the Heisenberg model, we find strong evidence for a scaling relation analogous to the two-dimensional case, but in contrast here for the systems with antiperiodic boundary conditions.

  1. Using Systems Approaches to Address Challenges for Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Karnes, Jason H; Van Driest, Sara; Bowton, Erica A; Weeke, Peter E; Mosley, Jonathan D; Peterson, Josh F; Denny, Joshua C

    2014-01-01

    Many genetic variants have been shown to affect drug response through changes in drug efficacy and likelihood of adverse effects. Much of pharmacogenomic science has focused on discovering and clinically implementing single gene variants with large effect sizes. Given the increasing complexities of drug responses and their variability, a systems approach may be enabling for discovery of new biology in this area. Further, systems approaches may be useful in addressing challenges in moving these data to clinical implementation, including creation of predictive models of drug response phenotypes, improved clinical decision-making through complex biological models, improving strategies for integrating genomics into clinical practice, and evaluating the impact of implementation programs on public health. PMID:24319008

  2. OSI Conformance Testing for Bibliographic Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbez, Gilbert; Swain, Leigh

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) conformance testing sites, conformance testing tools, and conformance testing services. Discusses related topics such as interoperability testing, arbitration testing, and international harmonization of conformance testing. A glossary is included. (24 references) (SD)

  3. 76 FR 2369 - Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk- Power System... related to reliability of the Bulk-Power System, including priorities for addressing risks to reliability.... The conference will be Webcast. Anyone with Internet access who desires to listen to this event can...

  4. The effects of a public address system on the off-task behavior of elementary physical education students.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Stu; Ormond, Tom; Imwold, Charles; Rotunda, Rob J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of teacher feedback delivered via a public address system on the off-task behavior of elementary-school physical education students. A multiple baseline design across three classes was used in this investigation. Results indicated a consistent decline in off-task behavior when the public address feedback system was used. PMID:12365746

  5. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, September 25, 1994--September 24, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1996-05-01

    The objectives of the research program are to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems -- KUSP1 systems which contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethylphthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system. The KUSP1 polymer-ester system and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to super-critical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  6. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Quarterly progress report, July 1--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1994-11-01

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP 1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium(III)-polyacrylamide system and the aluminum citratepolyacrylamide system. Laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Technical progress is described for three studies: Physical and chemical characterization of gel systems (chemical reaction kinetics of KUSP1); Mechanisms of in situ gelation; and Mathematical modeling of gel systems.

  7. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Sixth quarterly report, December 25, 1993--March 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1994-04-21

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems - an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium(III)-polyacrylamide system and the aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide system. Laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented for the following tasks: development and selection of gelled polymer systems; and physical and chemical characterization of gel systems.

  8. Addressing Impacts of Geomagnetic Disturbances on the North American Bulk Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollison, Eric; Moura, John; Lauby, Mark

    2011-08-01

    In a joint report issued in June 2010, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified geomagnetic disturbances as a high-impact, low-frequency (HILF) event risk to bulk power system reliability. The potential impact of geomagnetic disturbance events has gained renewed attention as recent studies have suggested that solar storms may be more severe and reach lower geographic latitudes than formerly expected and can affect bulk power system reliability. The most well known power system experience with geomagnetic disturbances in North America was the 13-14 March 1989 storm, which led to the collapse of the Hydro-Québec system in the early morning hours of 13 March 1989, lasting approximately 9 hours. NERC is actively addressing a range of HILF event risks to bulk power system reliability through the efforts of four of its task forces: Geomagnetic Disturbance, Spare Equipment Database, Cyber and Physical Attack, and Severe Impact Resilience. These task forces operate under the direction of three NERC committees: Planning, Operating, and Critical Infrastructure Protection. The NERC Geomagnetic Disturbance Task Force (GMDTF), which was established in September 2010, is charged with investigating the implications of geomagnetic disturbances to the reliability of bulk power systems and developing solutions to help mitigate these risks. The objective of these efforts is to develop models to better understand the nature and effects of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the vulnerabilities of equipment, bulk power system design considerations, our ability to reduce the operational and real-time impacts of geomagnetic disturbances on the bulk power system, and restoration methods, as well as to inventory long-lead-time equipment. For more information on the current activities of the GMDTF, please visit: www.nerc.com/filez/gmdtf.html

  9. Addressing Neuroplastic Changes in Distributed Areas of the Nervous System Associated With Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, René; Higgins, Johanne; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Present interventions utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation are guided, in large part, by a biomedical model where peripheral structural injury is believed to be the sole driver of the disorder. There are, however, neurophysiological changes across different areas of the peripheral and central nervous systems, including peripheral receptors, dorsal horn of the spinal cord, brain stem, sensorimotor cortical areas, and the mesolimbic and prefrontal areas associated with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and tendon injuries. These neurophysiological changes appear not only to be a consequence of peripheral structural injury but also to play a part in the pathophysiology of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Neurophysiological changes are consistent with a biopsychosocial formulation reflecting the underlying mechanisms associated with sensory and motor findings, psychological traits, and perceptual changes associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. These changes, therefore, have important implications in the clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, and treatment of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation professionals have at their disposal tools to address these neuroplastic changes, including top-down cognitive-based interventions (eg, education, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, motor imagery) and bottom-up physical interventions (eg, motor learning, peripheral sensory stimulation, manual therapy) that induce neuroplastic changes across distributed areas of the nervous system and affect outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Furthermore, novel approaches such as the use of transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be utilized to help renormalize neurological function. Comprehensive treatment addressing peripheral structural injury as well as neurophysiological changes occurring across

  10. Numerical Computation of Diffusion Properties in Molecular Systems on a Topology-Conforming Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Ivan; Schulten, Klaus

    2012-02-01

    Multiscale problems involving diffusion in molecular systems are a mainstay of computational biophysics. Given a molecular system, the local diffusion coefficient D(r) as well as the equilibrium distribution function P(r) that characterizes the local free energy are computed to describe the kinetics of diffusing particles at each point in space through the Smoluchowski equation (SE). An irregular grid of space-varying fineness conforming to P(r) is generated via the method of topology-representing networks and a subsequent Voronoi tessellation. The discretized SE produces a rate matrix which describes the probabilities of particles hopping from point to point on the grid. We demonstrate the calculation of the rate matrix for ions diffusing through the balloon-like structure of the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) and thence the determination of mean first-passage times that characterize conduction of ions through balloon and channel.

  11. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Final report, September 25, 1992--July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1997-06-01

    The objectives of the research program were to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems--KUSP1 systems that contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethyl phthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to supercritical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  12. Simulating microbial systems: addressing model uncertainty/incompleteness via multiscale and entropy methods.

    PubMed

    Singharoy, A; Joshi, H; Cheluvaraja, S; Miao, Y; Brown, D; Ortoleva, P

    2012-01-01

    Most systems of interest in the natural and engineering sciences are multiscale in character. Typically available models are incomplete or uncertain. Thus, a probabilistic approach is required. We present a deductive multiscale approach to address such problems, focusing on virus and cell systems to demonstrate the ideas. There is usually an underlying physical model, all factors in which (e.g., particle masses, charges, and force constants) are known. For example, the underlying model can be cast in terms of a collection of N-atoms evolving via Newton's equations. When the number of atoms is 10(6) or more, these physical models cannot be simulated directly. However, one may only be interested in a coarse-grained description, e.g., in terms of molecular populations or overall system size, shape, position, and orientation. The premise of this chapter is that the coarse-grained equations should be derived from the underlying model so that a deductive calibration-free methodology is achieved. We consider a reduction in resolution from a description for the state of N-atoms to one in terms of coarse-grained variables. This implies a degree of uncertainty in the underlying microstates. We present a methodology for modeling microbial systems that integrates equations for coarse-grained variables with a probabilistic description of the underlying fine-scale ones. The implementation of our strategy as a general computational platform (SimEntropics™) for microbial modeling and prospects for developments and applications are discussed.

  13. Effective target binarization method for linear timed address-event vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiangtao; Zou, Jiawei; Yan, Shi; Gao, Zhiyuan

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an effective target binarization method for a linear timed address-event (TAE) vision system. In the preprocessing phase, TAE data are processed by denoising, thinning, and edge connection methods sequentially to obtain the denoised- and clear-event contours. Then, the object region will be confirmed by an event-pair matching method. Finally, the image open and close operations of morphology methods are introduced to remove the artifacts generated by event-pair mismatching. Several degraded images were processed by our method and some traditional binarization methods, and the experimental results are provided. As compared with other methods, the proposed method performs efficiently on extracting the target region and gets satisfactory binarization results from object images with low-contrast and nonuniform illumination.

  14. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  15. Commissioning of a conformal irradiation system for heavy-ion radiotherapy using a layer-stacking method

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Minohara, Shinichi; Komori, Masataka; Torikoshi, Masami; Asakura, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Noritoshi; Uno, Takayuki; Takei, Yuka

    2006-08-15

    The commissioning of conformal radiotherapy system using heavy-ion beams at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is described in detail. The system at HIMAC was upgraded for a clinical trial using a new technique: large spot uniform scanning with conformal layer stacking. The system was developed to localize the irradiation dose to the target volume more effectively than with the old system. With the present passive irradiation method using a ridge filter, a scatterer, a pair of wobbler magnets, and a multileaf collimator, the width of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) in the radiation field could not be changed. With dynamic control of the beam-modifying devices during irradiation, a more conformal radiotherapy could be achieved. In order to safely perform treatments with this conformal therapy, the moving devices should be watched during irradiation and the synchronousness among the devices should be verified. This system, which has to be safe for patient irradiations, was constructed and tested for safety and for the quality of the dose localization realized. Through these commissioning tests, we were successfully able to prepare the conformal technique using layer stacking for patients. Subsequent to commissioning the technique has been applied to patients in clinical trials.

  16. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, September 15, 1993--September 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of the research program are to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focuses on three types of aqueous gel systems - a polysaccharide (KUSP1) that gels as a function of pH, a polyacrylamide-chromium(III) system and a polyacrylamide-aluminum citrate system. This report describes work conducted during the second year of a three-year program. Progress was made in the utilization of KUSP1 as a gelling agent. It was shown that gels can be formed in situ in porous media using CO{sub 2} or ester hydrolysis to lower pH. An ester was identified that could be used in field-scale operations. It was determined that KUSP1 will form strong gels when ortho boric acid is added to the system. It was also determined, in cooperation with Abbott Laboratories, that KUSP1 can be produced on a commercial scale. Rheological studies showed that shear rate significantly affects gelation time and gel strength. The effect of rock-fluid interactions at alkaline conditions was examined experimentally and through mathematical modeling. A model was developed that treats non-equilibrium conditions and this is an improvement over previously published models.

  17. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, September 25, 1992--September 24, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1994-08-01

    The general objectives of the research program are to (1) identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focuses on three types of gel systems-an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSPI) that gels as a function of pH, polyacrylamide or xanthan crosslinked by CR(III) and a polyacrylamide-aluminum citrate system. Work to date has focused primarily on development of a database, selection of systems, and work to characterize the gel/polymer physical properties and kinetics. The use of ester hydrolysis to control the rate of pH change of a gel system has been investigated and this approach to gel-time control shows promise. Extensive kinetic data were taken on the uptake of CR(III) oligomers by polyacrylamide. A model was developed which describes very well the monomer uptake rates. The model described the dimer uptake data less well and the trimer uptake data poorly. Studies of the flow and gelation in rock materials have been initiated. A mathematical model of rock-fluid interaction during flow of high pH solutions has been developed.

  18. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-03-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  19. Institutional misfit and environmental change: A systems approach to address ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Ekstrom, Julia A; Crona, Beatrice I

    2017-01-15

    Emerging environmental threats often lack sufficient governance to address the full extent of the problem. An example is ocean acidification which is a growing concern in fishing and aquaculture economies worldwide, but has remained a footnote in environmental policy at all governance levels. However, existing legal jurisdictions do account for some aspects of the system relating to ocean acidification and these may be leveraged to support adapting to and mitigating ocean acidification. We refine and apply a methodological framework that helps objectively evaluate governance, from a social-ecological systems perspective. We assess how well a set of extant US institutions fits with the social-ecological interactions pertinent to ocean acidification. The assessment points to measured legal gaps, for which we evaluate the government authorities most appropriate to help fill these gaps. The analysis is conducted on United State federal statutes and regulations. Results show quantitative improvement of institutional fit over time (2006 to 2013), but a substantial number of measured legal gaps persist especially around acknowledging local sources of acidification and adaptation strategies to deal with or avoid impacts. We demonstrate the utility of this framework to evaluate the governance surrounding any emerging environmental threat as a first step to guiding the development of jurisdictionally realistic solutions.

  20. Constructing Surrogate Models of Complex Systems with Enhanced Sparsity: Quantifying the influence of conformational uncertainty in biomolecular solvation

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Huan; Yang, Xiu; Zheng, Bin; Baker, Nathan A.

    2015-11-05

    Biomolecules exhibit conformational fluctuations near equilibrium states, inducing uncertainty in various biological properties in a dynamic way. We have developed a general method to quantify the uncertainty of target properties induced by conformational fluctuations. Using a generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansion, we construct a surrogate model of the target property with respect to varying conformational states. We also propose a method to increase the sparsity of the gPC expansion by defining a set of conformational “active space” random variables. With the increased sparsity, we employ the compressive sensing method to accurately construct the surrogate model. We demonstrate the performance of the surrogate model by evaluating fluctuation-induced uncertainty in solvent-accessible surface area for the bovine trypsin inhibitor protein system and show that the new approach offers more accurate statistical information than standard Monte Carlo approaches. Further more, the constructed surrogate model also enables us to directly evaluate the target property under various conformational states, yielding a more accurate response surface than standard sparse grid collocation methods. In particular, the new method provides higher accuracy in high-dimensional systems, such as biomolecules, where sparse grid performance is limited by the accuracy of the computed quantity of interest. Our new framework is generalizable and can be used to investigate the uncertainty of a wide variety of target properties in biomolecular systems.

  1. Constructing Surrogate Models of Complex Systems with Enhanced Sparsity: Quantifying the Influence of Conformational Uncertainty in Biomolecular Solvation

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Huan; Yang, Xiu; Zheng, Bin; Lin, Guang; Baker, Nathan A.

    2015-11-05

    Biomolecules exhibit conformational fluctuations near equilibrium states, inducing uncertainty in various biological properties in a dynamic way. We have developed a general method to quantify the uncertainty of target properties induced by conformational fluctuations. Using a generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansion, we construct a surrogate model of the target property with respect to varying conformational states. We also propose a method to increase the sparsity of the gPC expansion by defining a set of conformational “active space” random variables. With the increased sparsity, we employ the compressive sensing method to accurately construct the surrogate model. We demonstrate the performance of the surrogate model by evaluating fluctuation-induced uncertainty in solvent-accessible surface area for the bovine trypsin inhibitor protein system and show that the new approach offers more accurate statistical information than standard Monte Carlo approaches. Further more, the constructed surrogate model also enables us to directly evaluate the target property under various conformational states, yielding a more accurate response surface than standard sparse grid collocation methods. In particular, the new method provides higher accuracy in high-dimensional systems, such as biomolecules, where sparse grid performance is limited by the accuracy of the computed quantity of interest. Finally, our new framework is generalizable and can be used to investigate the uncertainty of a wide variety of target properties in biomolecular systems.

  2. Constructing Surrogate Models of Complex Systems with Enhanced Sparsity: Quantifying the Influence of Conformational Uncertainty in Biomolecular Solvation

    DOE PAGES

    Lei, Huan; Yang, Xiu; Zheng, Bin; ...

    2015-11-05

    Biomolecules exhibit conformational fluctuations near equilibrium states, inducing uncertainty in various biological properties in a dynamic way. We have developed a general method to quantify the uncertainty of target properties induced by conformational fluctuations. Using a generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansion, we construct a surrogate model of the target property with respect to varying conformational states. We also propose a method to increase the sparsity of the gPC expansion by defining a set of conformational “active space” random variables. With the increased sparsity, we employ the compressive sensing method to accurately construct the surrogate model. We demonstrate the performance ofmore » the surrogate model by evaluating fluctuation-induced uncertainty in solvent-accessible surface area for the bovine trypsin inhibitor protein system and show that the new approach offers more accurate statistical information than standard Monte Carlo approaches. Further more, the constructed surrogate model also enables us to directly evaluate the target property under various conformational states, yielding a more accurate response surface than standard sparse grid collocation methods. In particular, the new method provides higher accuracy in high-dimensional systems, such as biomolecules, where sparse grid performance is limited by the accuracy of the computed quantity of interest. Finally, our new framework is generalizable and can be used to investigate the uncertainty of a wide variety of target properties in biomolecular systems.« less

  3. Examining How Web Designers' Activity Systems Address Accessibility: Activity Theory as a Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    While accessibility of information technologies is often acknowledged as important, it is frequently not well addressed in practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the work of web developers and content managers to explore why and how accessibility is or is not addressed as an objective as websites are planned, built and maintained.…

  4. Addressing the systems-based practice requirement with health policy content and educational technology.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Alisa; Andolsek, Kathryn; Dossary, Kristin; Schlueter, Joanne; Schulman, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Duke University Hospital Office of Graduate Medical Education and Duke University's Fuqua School of Business collaborated to offer a Health Policy lecture series to residents and fellows across the institution, addressing the "Systems-based Practice" competency.During the first year, content was offered in two formats: live lecture and web/podcast. Participants could elect the modality which was most convenient for them. In Year Two, the format was changed so that all content was web/podcast and a quarterly live panel discussion was led by module presenters or content experts. Lecture evaluations, qualitative focus group feedback, and post-test data were analyzed.A total of 77 residents and fellows from 8 (of 12) Duke Graduate Medical Education departments participated. In the first year, post-test results were the same for those who attended the live lectures and those who participated via web/podcast. A greater number of individuals participated in Year Two. Participants from both years expressed the need for health policy content in their training programs. Participants in both years valued a hybrid format for content delivery, recognizing a desire for live interaction with the convenience of accessing web/podcasts at times and locations convenient for them. A positive unintended consequence of the project was participant networking with residents and fellows from other specialties.

  5. Systems approach to address incivility and disruptive behaviors in health-care organizations.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Elizabeth; Kusy, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing evidence that disruptive behaviors within health-care teams constitute a major threat to the quality of care, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO; Joint Commission Resources, 2008) has a new leadership standard that addresses disruptive and inappropriate behaviors effective January 1, 2009. For professionals who work in human resources and organization development, these standards represent a clarion call to design and implement evidence-based interventions to create health-care communities of respectful engagement that have zero tolerance for disruptive, uncivil, and intimidating behaviors by any professional. In this chapter, we will build an evidence-based argument that sustainable change must include organizational, team, and individual strategies across all professionals in the organization. We will then describe an intervention model--Toxic Organization Change System--that has emerged from our own research on toxic behaviors in the workplace (Kusy & Holloway, 2009) and provide examples of specific strategies that we have used to prevent and ameliorate toxic cultures.

  6. Effect of different flooring systems on claw conformation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Nilsson, C

    2009-06-01

    The effect of different flooring surfaces in walking and standing areas on claw conformation, claw horn growth, and wear was studied in 2 experiments during 2 consecutive housing seasons in a research dairy herd of 170 cows. In experiment 1, the flooring systems tested were solid rubber mats, mastic asphalt with and without rubber-matted feed-stalls, and aged concrete slats. In experiment 2, slatted concrete flooring was compared with slatted rubber flooring. The cows were introduced to the respective flooring systems in early lactation and their claws were trimmed before the exposure period. Toe length, toe angle, sole concavity, and claw width, as well as claw growth and wear rates were recorded for lateral and medial claws of the left hind limb. Claw asymmetry calculations were based on these claw measurements and on differences in sole protrusion between lateral and medial soles. Asphalt floors caused shorter toe length and steeper toe angle. They also increased wear on rear claws (5.30 +/- 0.31 and 5.95 +/- 0.33 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively; LSM +/- SE) and horn growth rate (5.12 +/- 0.36 and 5.83 +/- 0.31 mm/mo of lateral and medial claws, respectively). Rubber mats instead of asphalt in walking areas reduced wear (1.36 +/- 0.19 and 2.02 +/- 0.20 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively) and claw growth (3.83 +/- 0.23 and 3.94 +/- 0.17 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). Rubber-matted feed-stalls together with asphalt walkways decreased claw wear (3.29 +/- 0.31 and 4.10 +/- 0.32 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). The concavity of claw soles was reduced on asphalt, especially in the lateral rear claws. Rubber matting in feed-stalls prevented loss of sole concavity compared with asphalt. Claw asymmetry did not differ between flooring systems. While different access to abrasive flooring affected claw conformation, there was no evidence that flooring system influenced the disproportion between lateral and

  7. Standard conforming involute gear metrology using an articulated arm coordinate measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härtig, Frank; Lin, Hu; Kniel, Karin; Shi, Zhaoyao

    2012-10-01

    Standard conforming involute gear measurements were taken by a manually operating articulated arm system and the respective task-specific measurement uncertainties were estimated. User-friendly templates were developed to provide almost unambiguous and repeatable measurement results. They allow the metrologist to easily detect and gather the single measurement points according to existing guidelines and standards commonly used in gear metrology. The research activities were carried out at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany in the Department of Coordinate Metrology. Measurements were taken on a robust and highly accurate large gear measurement standard of PTB, in the following called the gear standard. This gear standard materializes a left-hand and a right-hand gear as well as a spur gear. The 1 m outside diameter of the gear standard is similar to the gears used in wind power plants. A commercial articulated arm coordinate measuring system was used for the measurements. A high temperature stability of ±0.2 °C was provided to minimize thermal influences. The results of profile and helix measurements will be presented. This worldwide first investigation, on the basis of a calibrated involute gear standard, gives users of the articulating arm system quantitative information on a task-specific performance of a representative gear measurement.

  8. Addressing security, collaboration, and usability with tactical edge mobile devices and strategic cloud-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Christopher J.

    2012-05-01

    Success in the future battle space is increasingly dependent on rapid access to the right information. Faced with a shrinking budget, the Government has a mandate to improve intelligence productivity, quality, and reliability. To achieve increased ISR effectiveness, leverage of tactical edge mobile devices via integration with strategic cloud-based infrastructure is the single, most likely candidate area for dramatic near-term impact. This paper discusses security, collaboration, and usability components of this evolving space. These three paramount tenets outlined below, embody how mission information is exchanged securely, efficiently, with social media cooperativeness. Tenet 1: Complete security, privacy, and data integrity, must be ensured within the net-centric battle space. This paper discusses data security on a mobile device, data at rest on a cloud-based system, authorization and access control, and securing data transport between entities. Tenet 2: Lack of collaborative information sharing and content reliability jeopardizes mission objectives and limits the end user capability. This paper discusses cooperative pairing of mobile devices and cloud systems, enabling social media style interaction via tagging, meta-data refinement, and sharing of pertinent data. Tenet 3: Fielded mobile solutions must address usability and complexity. Simplicity is a powerful paradigm on mobile platforms, where complex applications are not utilized, and simple, yet powerful, applications flourish. This paper discusses strategies for ensuring mobile applications are streamlined and usable at the tactical edge through focused features sets, leveraging the power of the back-end cloud, minimization of differing HMI concepts, and directed end-user feedback.teInput=

  9. Second order superintegrable systems in conformally flat spaces. IV. The classical 3D Staeckel transform and 3D classification theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, E.G.; Kress, J.M.; Miller, W. Jr.

    2006-04-15

    This article is one of a series that lays the groundwork for a structure and classification theory of second order superintegrable systems, both classical and quantum, in conformally flat spaces. In the first part of the article we study the Staeckel transform (or coupling constant metamorphosis) as an invertible mapping between classical superintegrable systems on different three-dimensional spaces. We show first that all superintegrable systems with nondegenerate potentials are multiseparable and then that each such system on any conformally flat space is Staeckel equivalent to a system on a constant curvature space. In the second part of the article we classify all the superintegrable systems that admit separation in generic coordinates. We find that there are eight families of these systems.

  10. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpole, M.; Wercinski, R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Fan, W.; Thornton, J; Szalai, C.

    2012-01-01

    interest. The entry environment is not always guaranteed with a direct entry, and improving the entry systems robustness to a variety of environmental conditions could aid in reaching more varied landing sites. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: 1) Mass to Surface, 2) Surface Access, 3) Precision Landing, 4) Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, 5) Safety and Mission Assurance, and 6) Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems is manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (3/8 cell) by hand and within a limited amount of time once the ablative compound is mixed, all of the cells have to be filled and the entire heat-shield has to be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the mechanical strength characteristic and the manufacturing limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS> A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials.

  11. Applications of the conformal transformation method in studies of composed superconducting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyzosiak, Mateusz; Gonczarek, Ryszard; Gonczarek, Adam; Jacak, Lucjan

    2016-12-01

    A framework for analytical studies of superconducting systems is presented and illustrated. The formalism, based on the conformal transformation of momentum space, allows one to study the effects of both the dispersion relation and the structure of the pairing interaction in two-dimensional anisotropic high- T c superconductors. In this method, the number of employed degrees of freedom coincides with the dimension of the momentum space, which is different compared to that in the standard Van Hove scenario with a single degree of freedom. A new function, the kernel of the density of states, is defined and its relation to the standard density of states is explained. The versatility of the method is illustrated by analyzing coexistence and competition between spin-singlet and spin-triplet order parameters in superconducting systems with a tight-binding-type dispersion relation and an anisotropic pairing potential. Phase diagrams of stable superconducting states in the coordinates η (the ratio of hopping parameters) and n (the carrier concentration) are presented and discussed. Moreover, the role of attractive and repulsive on-site interactions for the stability of the s-wave order parameter is explained.

  12. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast (SEUS; AL, AR, GA, FL, KY, LA, NC, SC, TN, E. TX) faces the greatest impacts as a result of climate change of any region in the U.S. which presents considerable and costly adaptation challenges. Paradoxically, people in the SEUS hold attitudes and perceptions that are more dismissive of climate change than those of any other region. An additional mismatch exists between the manner in which climate science is generally communicated and the underlying core values and beliefs held by a large segment of people in the SEUS. As a result, people frequently misinterpret and/or distrust information sources, inhibiting efforts to productively discuss and consider climate change and related impacts on human and environmental systems, and possible solutions and outcomes. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project includes an extensive network of partners throughout the SEUS from faith, agriculture, culturally diverse, leisure, and K-20 educator communities that aim to address this educational need through a shared vision. CLiPSE has conducted a Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in and beyond the CLiPSE network. The descriptive results of the CSS indicate that religion, predominantly Protestantism, plays a minor role in climate knowledge and perceptions. Likewise, political affiliation plays a minimal role in climate knowledge and perceptions between religions. However, when Protestants were broken out by political affiliation, statistically significant differences (t(30)=2.44, p=0.02) in knowledge related to the causes of climate change exist. Those Protestants affiliated with the Democratic Party (n=206) tended to maintain a statistically significant stronger knowledge of the causes of global climate change than their Republican counterparts. When SEUS educator (n=277) group was only considered, similar trends were evidenced, indicating that strongly held beliefs potentially

  13. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  14. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions:An Overview of the Technology Maturation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A S.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist, NASA identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: Mass to Surface, Surface Access, Precision Landing, Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, Safety and Mission Assurance, and Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems are manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (38 cell) by hand, and in a limited amount of time all of the cells must be filled and the heatshield must be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the low strain-to-failure and manufacturing size limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS. A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials. The high strain-to-failure nature of the conformal ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. By reducing the overall part count, the cost of installation (based on cost comparisons between blanket

  15. Predicting bioactive conformations and binding modes of macrocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anighoro, Andrew; de la Vega de León, Antonio; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    Macrocyclic compounds experience increasing interest in drug discovery. It is often thought that these large and chemically complex molecules provide promising candidates to address difficult targets and interfere with protein-protein interactions. From a computational viewpoint, these molecules are difficult to treat. For example, flexible docking of macrocyclic compounds is hindered by the limited ability of current docking approaches to optimize conformations of extended ring systems for pose prediction. Herein, we report predictions of bioactive conformations of macrocycles using conformational search and binding modes using docking. Conformational ensembles generated using specialized search technique of about 70 % of the tested macrocycles contained accurate bioactive conformations. However, these conformations were difficult to identify on the basis of conformational energies. Moreover, docking calculations with limited ligand flexibility starting from individual low energy conformations rarely yielded highly accurate binding modes. In about 40 % of the test cases, binding modes were approximated with reasonable accuracy. However, when conformational ensembles were subjected to rigid body docking, an increase in meaningful binding mode predictions to more than 50 % of the test cases was observed. Electrostatic effects did not contribute to these predictions in a positive or negative manner. Rather, achieving shape complementarity at macrocycle-target interfaces was a decisive factor. In summary, a combined computational protocol using pre-computed conformational ensembles of macrocycles as a starting point for docking shows promise in modeling binding modes of macrocyclic compounds.

  16. Determining the complexity of multi-component conformal systems: A platoon-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosun, Caglar; Ozdemir, Serhan

    2017-04-01

    Many systems in nature and engineering are composed of subsystems. These subsystems may be formed in a linear, planar or spatial array. A typical example of these formations is a chain of vehicles known as platoon formation in traffic flow. Platoon formation of vehicles is a linear or planar formation of vehicles where a certain and a constant headway, and sideway if applicable, is provided in between every and each one of them. It is argued in this paper that a well-automated platoon formation of vehicles is an extreme case of conformity. During this transformation from a many degrees of freedom formation to a solid object, Tsallis q value is computed to be ranging from one extreme case of q = 3 to the other where q = 1, when classified in terms of inverse temperatures of clearance fluctuations. At one extreme of q = 3, one observes unbounded fluctuations in clearance fluctuations so that inverse temperature distributions approach a Dirac delta at the origin. At the other extreme of q = 1, fluctuations in clearance tend to zero asymptotically, where a solid structure of agents (vehicles) emerges. The transition from q = 3 to q = 1 is investigated through synthetic and experimental clearance fluctuations between the cars. The results show that during the transition from q = 3 to q = 1, the platoon loses its many degrees of freedom (dof) of motion until a solid single object emerges. Authors assert that the Tsallis q value of a platoon of vehicles is limited to 3 > q > 1.

  17. SU-E-T-262: Development of An In-House Forward Planning System for Conformal Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Eldib, A; Chibani, O; Jin, L; Li, J; Chen, L; Lin, T; Ma, C; Lin, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Conformal radiotherapy with forward planning has many practical advantages (e.g., more uniform target dose) and has been used routinely for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and other conventional treatment. This study investigates a forward-planning approach for conformal arc therapy and a dedicated treatment planning system (TPS) for a newly designed cobalt 60 machine with a ring type gantry and a multileaf collimator (MLC). Methods: Conformal arcs were modeled with continuous delivery of treatment fields conformal to the target cross-section. Treatment plans were further optimized by weighting or offsetting beams based on the target-critical structure relationship. CT and structure data of seven previous SBRT patients treated at our center were used for plan evaluation. An in-house forward planning tool was developed to aid the forward planning process. A graphical user interface (GUI) was designed with interactive and automatic adjustment between beam gantry angle and the beam weight. Dose distributions were calculated using our in-house Monte Carlo based TPS. Dose contributions from individual beam angles were summed together with different weight factors, which were continuously optimized until the pre-set dose conformity goal was met. Results: We were able to achieve target coverage and critical structure sparing to meet the required clinical criteria in all studied cases. It should be mentioned that those cases were selected having critical structures not proximal to the target. However, this was usually the case in the majority of SBRT cases especially those involving lung targets. The developed GUI tool was very useful in the forward treatment planning process. Conclusion: Conformal arcs can be used successfully on the new Cobalt 60 modality for the treatment of a sizeable fraction of cancer patients, which can be efficiently planned with our simple forward planning approach.

  18. Traceability and Risk Analysis Strategies for Addressing Counterfeit Electronics in Supply Chains for Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    DiMase, Daniel; Collier, Zachary A; Carlson, Jinae; Gray, Robin B; Linkov, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Within the microelectronics industry, there is a growing concern regarding the introduction of counterfeit electronic parts into the supply chain. Even though this problem is widespread, there have been limited attempts to implement risk-based approaches for testing and supply chain management. Supply chain risk management tends to focus on the highly visible disruptions of the supply chain instead of the covert entrance of counterfeits; thus counterfeit risk is difficult to mitigate. This article provides an overview of the complexities of the electronics supply chain, and highlights some gaps in risk assessment practices. In particular, this article calls for enhanced traceability capabilities to track and trace parts at risk through various stages of the supply chain. Placing the focus on risk-informed decision making through the following strategies is needed, including prioritization of high-risk parts, moving beyond certificates of conformance, incentivizing best supply chain management practices, adoption of industry standards, and design and management for supply chain resilience.

  19. Addressing Special Education Inequity through Systemic Change: Contributions of Ecologically Based Organizational Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; Hernandez-Saca, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of special education, scholars and practitioners have been concerned about the disproportionate representation of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds among students identified with disabilities. Professional efforts to address this disproportionality have encompassed a range of targets, but scholars…

  20. Transportation Conformity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This section provides information on: current laws, regulations and guidance, policy and technical guidance, project-level conformity, general information, contacts and training, adequacy review of SIP submissions

  1. Epigenetic Dominance of Prion Conformers

    PubMed Central

    Saijo, Eri; Kang, Hae-Eun; Bian, Jifeng; Bowling, Kristi G.; Browning, Shawn; Kim, Sehun; Hunter, Nora; Telling, Glenn C.

    2013-01-01

    Although they share certain biological properties with nucleic acid based infectious agents, prions, the causative agents of invariably fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative disorders such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, sheep scrapie, and human Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, propagate by conformational templating of host encoded proteins. Once thought to be unique to these diseases, this mechanism is now recognized as a ubiquitous means of information transfer in biological systems, including other protein misfolding disorders such as those causing Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. To address the poorly understood mechanism by which host prion protein (PrP) primary structures interact with distinct prion conformations to influence pathogenesis, we produced transgenic (Tg) mice expressing different sheep scrapie susceptibility alleles, varying only at a single amino acid at PrP residue 136. Tg mice expressing ovine PrP with alanine (A) at (OvPrP-A136) infected with SSBP/1 scrapie prions propagated a relatively stable (S) prion conformation, which accumulated as punctate aggregates in the brain, and produced prolonged incubation times. In contrast, Tg mice expressing OvPrP with valine (V) at 136 (OvPrP-V136) infected with the same prions developed disease rapidly, and the converted prion was comprised of an unstable (U), diffusely distributed conformer. Infected Tg mice co-expressing both alleles manifested properties consistent with the U conformer, suggesting a dominant effect resulting from exclusive conversion of OvPrP-V136 but not OvPrP-A136. Surprisingly, however, studies with monoclonal antibody (mAb) PRC5, which discriminates OvPrP-A136 from OvPrP-V136, revealed substantial conversion of OvPrP-A136. Moreover, the resulting OvPrP-A136 prion acquired the characteristics of the U conformer. These results, substantiated by in vitro analyses, indicated that co-expression of OvPrP-V136 altered the conversion potential of OvPrP-A136 from the S to the

  2. GPS: Actions Needed to Address Ground System Development Problems and User Equipment Production Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    review the status of OCX development and DOD’s efforts to field M- code signal capability. This report addresses (1) the extent to which DOD is...meeting cost, schedule, and performance requirements for OCX; (2) the progress DOD is making in delivering M- code capable MGUE by the end of fiscal year...2017; and (3) the challenges DOD faces in synchronizing the development of GPS III, OCX, and MGUE to deploy M- code . To conduct this work, GAO

  3. Increasing EHR system usability through standards: Conformance criteria in the HL7 EHR-system functional model.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Rebecca A; Mon, Donald T; Kelly, Kandace M; Rocca, Mitra; Dickinson, Gary; Ritter, John; Johnson, Constance M

    2016-10-01

    Though substantial work has been done on the usability of health information technology, improvements in electronic health record system (EHR) usability have been slow, creating frustration, distrust of EHRs and the use of potentially unsafe work-arounds. Usability standards could be part of the solution for improving EHR usability. EHR system functional requirements and standards have been used successfully in the past to specify system behavior, the criteria of which have been gradually implemented in EHR systems through certification programs and other national health IT strategies. Similarly, functional requirements and standards for usability can help address the multitude of sequelae associated with poor usability. This paper describes the evidence-based functional requirements for usability contained in the Health Level Seven (HL7) EHR System Functional Model, and the benefits of open and voluntary EHR system usability standards.

  4. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (CA-TPS) for Venus and Saturn Backshells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Gasch, M.; Stackpoole, M.; Wilder, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Prabhu, Dinesh; Kazemba, Cole D.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the work performed to date on the Conformal Ablative TPS (CA-TPS) element of the TPSM project out of GCDP. Under this element, NASA is developing improved ablative TPS materials based on flexible felt for reinforcement rather than rigid reinforcements. By replacing the reinforcements with felt, the resulting materials have much higher strain-to-failure and are much lower in thermal conductivity than their rigid counterparts. These characteristics should allow for larger tile sizes, direct bonding to aeroshells and even lower weight TPS. The conformal phenolic impregnated carbon felt (C-PICA) is a candidate for backshell TPS for both Venus and Saturn entry vehicles.

  5. COMBINED MICROBIAL SURFACTANT-POLYMER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED OIL MOBILITY AND CONFORMANCE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2005-08-01

    Many domestic oil fields are facing abandonment even though they still contain two-thirds of their original oil. A significant number of these fields can yield additional oil using advanced oil recovery (AOR) technologies. To maintain domestic oil production at current levels, AOR technologies are needed that are affordable and can be implemented by the independent oil producers of the future. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technologies have become established as cost-effective solutions for declining oil production. MEOR technologies are affordable for independent producers operating stripper wells and can be used to extend the life of marginal fields. The demonstrated versatility of microorganisms can be used to design advanced microbial systems to treat multiple production problems in complex, heterogeneous reservoirs. The proposed research presents the concept of a combined microbial surfactant-polymer system for advanced oil recovery. The surfactant-polymer system utilizes bacteria that are capable of both biosurfactant production and metabolically-controlled biopolymer production. This novel technology combines complementary mechanisms to extend the life of marginal fields and is applicable to a large number of domestic reservoirs. The research project described in this report was performed by Bio-Engineering Inc., a woman owned small business, Texas A&M University and Prairie View A&M University, a Historically Black College and University. This report describes the results of our laboratory work to grow microbial cultures, the work done on recovery experiments on core rocks, and computer simulations. We have selected two bacterial strains capable of producing both surfactant and polymers. We have conducted laboratory experiments to determine under what conditions surfactants and polymers can be produced from one single strain. We have conduct recovery experiments to determine the performance of these strains under different conditions. Our results

  6. Assessing the Use of School Public Address Systems to Deliver Nutrition Messages to Children: Shape Up Somerville--Audio Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folta, Sara C.; Goldberg, Jeanne P.; Economos, Christina; Bell, Rick; Landers, Stewart; Hyatt, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Given the current childhood obesity epidemic, it is especially important to find effective ways to promote healthful foods to children. School public address (PA) systems represent an inexpensive and a replicable way of reaching children with health messages. To test the effectiveness of this channel, messages were created to promote 2 dried bean…

  7. Media Literacy Education from Kindergarten to College: A Comparison of How Media Literacy Is Addressed across the Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans C.

    2013-01-01

    This study of media literacy education at all levels of the educational system considered faculty perceptions of student media literacy competencies, the extent to which media literacy is addressed in class, and the extent to which faculty members consider media literacy education to be important. Data suggest that despite the research and policy…

  8. Activity and conformation of lysozyme in molecular solvents, protic ionic liquids (PILs) and salt-water systems.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, Emmy C; Separovic, Frances; Drummond, Calum J; Greaves, Tamar L

    2016-09-21

    Improving protein stabilisation is important for the further development of many applications in the pharmaceutical, specialty chemical, consumer product and agricultural sectors. However, protein stabilization is highly dependent on the solvent environment and, hence, it is very complex to tailor protein-solvent combinations for stable protein maintenance. Understanding solvent features that govern protein stabilization will enable selection or design of suitable media with favourable solution environments to retain protein native conformation. In this work the structural conformation and activity of lysozyme in 29 solvent systems were investigated to determine the role of various solvent features on the stability of the enzyme. The solvent systems consisted of 19 low molecular weight polar solvents and 4 protic ionic liquids (PILs), both at different water content levels, and 6 aqueous salt solutions. Small angle X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to investigate the tertiary and secondary structure of lysozyme along with the corresponding activity in various solvation systems. At low non-aqueous solvent concentrations (high water content), the presence of solvents and salts generally maintained lysozyme in its native structure and enhanced its activity. Due to the presence of a net surface charge on lysozyme, electrostatic interactions in PIL-water systems and salt solutions enhanced lysozyme activity more than the specific hydrogen-bond interactions present in non-ionic molecular solvents. At higher solvent concentrations (lower water content), solvents with a propensity to exhibit the solvophobic effect, analogous to the hydrophobic effect in water, retained lysozyme native conformation and activity. This solvophobic effect was observed particularly for solvents which contained hydroxyl moieties. Preferential solvophobic effects along with bulky chemical structures were postulated to result in less

  9. Gramicidin conformational studies with mixed-chain unsaturated phospholipid bilayer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, K.J.; Ho, Cojen; Lombardi, J.V.; Stubbs, C.D. )

    1992-02-04

    The transition of gramicidin from a nonchannel to a channel form was investigated using mixed-chain phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. Gramicidin and phospholipids were codispersed, after removal of the solvents chloroform/methanol or trifluoroethanol which resulted in nonchannel and channel conformations, respectively, as confirmed using circular dichroism (CD). The fluorescence emission maxima of the nonchannel form were shifted toward shorter wavelengths by heating at 60C (for 0-12 h), which converted it to a channel form, again as confirmed by CD. The channel form did not respond to heat treatment. Heat treatment also increased the fluorescence anisotropy of the nonchannel gramicidin tryptophans. The rate of transition from the nonchannel to channel conformation was found to be faster is phosphatidylethanolamine was present in combination with phosphatidylcholine compared to phosphatidylcholine alone. Using the fluorescence anisotropy of the membrane lipid probe, 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, it was also shown that the motional properties of the surrounding lipid acyl chains differed for the channel and nonchannel gramicidin conformations. The possibility that lipids tending to favor the hexagonal phase (H{sub II}) would enhance the rate of the nonchannel to channel transition was supported by {sup 31}P NMR which revealed the presence of some H{sub II} lipids in the channel preparations. The results of this study suggest that gramicidin may serve as a useful model for similar conformational transitions in other more complex membrane proteins.

  10. Update on Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, R. A. S.; Arnold, J. O.; Gasch, M. J.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2014-06-01

    In FY13, more advanced testing and modeling of the new NASA conformal ablative TPS material was performed. Most notable were the 3- and 4-point bending tests and the aerothermal testing on seams and joints in shear. The material outperformed PICA.

  11. A Multimedia Adaptive Tutoring System for Mathematics That Addresses Cognition, Metacognition and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly Park; Burelson, Winslow; Muldner, Kasia; Rai, Dovan; Tai, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    This article describes research results based on multiple years of experimentation and real-world experience with an adaptive tutoring system named Wayang Outpost. The system represents a novel adaptive learning technology that has shown successful outcomes with thousands of students, and provided teachers with valuable information about students'…

  12. General Conformity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  13. Addressing fundamental architectural challenges of an activity-based intelligence and advanced analytics (ABIAA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Kevin; Albert, Thomas; Brower, Bernard V.; Pellechia, Matthew F.

    2015-06-01

    The domain of Geospatial Intelligence Analysis is rapidly shifting toward a new paradigm of Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) and information-based Tipping and Cueing. General requirements for an advanced ABIAA system present significant challenges in architectural design, computing resources, data volumes, workflow efficiency, data mining and analysis algorithms, and database structures. These sophisticated ABI software systems must include advanced algorithms that automatically flag activities of interest in less time and within larger data volumes than can be processed by human analysts. In doing this, they must also maintain the geospatial accuracy necessary for cross-correlation of multi-intelligence data sources. Historically, serial architectural workflows have been employed in ABIAA system design for tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination. These simpler architectures may produce implementations that solve short term requirements; however, they have serious limitations that preclude them from being used effectively in an automated ABIAA system with multiple data sources. This paper discusses modern ABIAA architectural considerations providing an overview of an advanced ABIAA system and comparisons to legacy systems. It concludes with a recommended strategy and incremental approach to the research, development, and construction of a fully automated ABIAA system.

  14. An Update to a Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpoole, M.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2014-01-01

    As described at IPPW-10, in FY12, the CA-TPS element focused on establishing materials requirements based on MSL-type and COTS Low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions (q 250 Wcm2) to develop and deliver a conformal ablative TPS. This involved down selecting, manufacturing and testing two of the best candidate materials, demonstrating uniform infiltration of resins into baseline 2-cm thick carbon felt, selecting a primary conformal material formulation based on novel arc jet and basic material properties testing, developing and demonstrating instrumentation for felt-based materials and, based on the data, developing a low fidelity material response model so that the conformal ablator TPS thickness for missions could be established. In addition, the project began to develop Industry Partnerships. Since the nominal thickness of baseline carbon felts was only 2-cm, a partnership with a rayon felt developer was made in order to upgrade equipment, establish the processes required and attempt to manufacture 10-cm thick white goods. A partnership with a processing house was made to develop the methodology to carbonize large pieces of the white goods into 7.5-cm thick carbon felt. In FY13, more advanced testing and modeling of the down selected conformal material was performed. Material thermal properties tests and structural properties tests were performed. The first 3 and 4-point bend tests were performed on the conformal ablator as well as PICA for comparison and the conformal ablator had outstanding behavior compared to PICA. Arc jet testing was performed with instrumented samples of both the conformal ablator and standard PICA at heating rates ranging from 40 to 400 Wcm2 and shear as high as 600 Pa. The results from these tests showed a remarkable improvement in the thermal penetration through the conformal ablator when compared to PICAs response. The data from these tests were used to develop a mid-fidelity thermal response model. Additional arc jet testing in the same

  15. Arcjet Testing of Advanced Conformal Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Beck, Robin; Agrawal, Parul

    2014-01-01

    A conformable TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials (such as tiled Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) system on MSL. The compliant (high strain to failure) nature of the conformable ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. In May of 2013 the CA250 project executed an arcjet test series in the Ames IHF facility to evaluate a phenolic-based conformal system (named Conformal-PICA) over a range of test conditions from 40-400Wcm2. The test series consisted of four runs in the 13-inch diameter nozzle. Test models were based on SPRITE configuration (a 55-deg sphere cone), as it was able to provide a combination of required heat flux, pressure and shear within a single entry. The preliminary in-depth TC data acquired during that test series allowed a mid-fidelity thermal response model for conformal-PICA to be created while testing of seam models began to address TPS attachment and joining of multiple segments for future fabrication of large-scale aeroshells. Discussed in this paper are the results.

  16. Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

  17. System and method for forming synthetic protein crystals to determine the conformational structure by crystallography

    DOEpatents

    Craig, George D.; Glass, Robert; Rupp, Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    A method for forming synthetic crystals of proteins in a carrier fluid by use of the dipole moments of protein macromolecules that self-align in the Helmholtz layer adjacent to an electrode. The voltage gradients of such layers easily exceed 10.sup.6 V/m. The synthetic protein crystals are subjected to x-ray crystallography to determine the conformational structure of the protein involved.

  18. System and method for forming synthetic protein crystals to determine the conformational structure by crystallography

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Glass, R.; Rupp, B.

    1997-01-28

    A method is disclosed for forming synthetic crystals of proteins in a carrier fluid by use of the dipole moments of protein macromolecules that self-align in the Helmholtz layer adjacent to an electrode. The voltage gradients of such layers easily exceed 10{sup 6}V/m. The synthetic protein crystals are subjected to x-ray crystallography to determine the conformational structure of the protein involved. 2 figs.

  19. Status of Civil Judicial Consent Decrees Addressing Combined Sewer Systems (CSOs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tracking table of civil consent decrees for combined sewer systems (CSOs). This supports the National Enforcement Initiative (NEI) for Keeping Raw Sewage and Contaminated Stormwater Out of Our Nation's Waters.

  20. A Possible Approach for Addressing Neglected Human Factors Issues of Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity of safety-critical applications has led to the introduction of decision support tools in the transportation and process industries. Automation has also been introduced to support operator intervention in safety-critical applications. These innovations help reduce overall operator workload, and filter application data to maximize the finite cognitive and perceptual resources of system operators. However, these benefits do not come without a cost. Increased computational support for the end-users of safety-critical applications leads to increased reliance on engineers to monitor and maintain automated systems and decision support tools. This paper argues that by focussing on the end-users of complex applications, previous research has tended to neglect the demands that are being placed on systems engineers. The argument is illustrated through discussing three recent accidents. The paper concludes by presenting a possible strategy for building and using highly automated systems based on increased attention by management and regulators, improvements in competency and training for technical staff, sustained support for engineering team resource management, and the development of incident reporting systems for infrastructure failures. This paper represents preliminary work, about which we seek comments and suggestions.

  1. Environmentally responsive material to address human-system interaction in the automotive cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehkopf, Jackie D.; Barbat, Saeed D.; Goldman, Neil M.; Samus, Marsha A.; Gold, Harris

    2001-06-01

    There is significant human-system interaction in an automotive cockpit, and for particular components this interaction can be ever-present while being transient in nature. It is envisioned that environmentally responsive materials can be used in some components to accommodate personal and transient differences in the desired human-system interaction. Systems containing responsive gels have been developed to provide user activation and adjustment of the physical properties of a particular interior automotive component. Proprietary reverse viscosification gel formulations were developed that are thermally responsive. Formulations were modified to adjust the dynamic modulus and viscosity in terms of magnitude, amount of change over the viscosification transition, and the temperature over which the transition occurs. Changes in the physical properties of two orders of magnitude and more were achieved over a narrow transition region. Preliminary human factors assessment indicates that this order of magnitude of change is desirable. As the system of responsive gel, encapsulating material and activation mechanism is developed further, additional human factors studies will refine the desired physical properties and thermal activation mechanism. Ultimately, this system will have to perform over the broad range of temperatures imposed on interior automotive components and exhibit long-term durability chemically, physically and mechanically.

  2. Engineered muscle systems having individually addressable distributed muscle actuators controlled by optical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Neal, Devin; Asada, H Harry

    2013-01-01

    A multi degree-of-freedom system using live skeletal muscles as actuators is presented. Millimeter-scale, optically excitable 3D skeletal muscle strips are created by culturing genetically coded precursory muscle cells that are activated with light: optogenetics. These muscle bio-actuators are networked together to create a distributed actuator system. Unlike traditional mechanical systems where fixed axis joints are rotated with electric motors, the new networked muscle bio-actuators can activate loads having no fixed joint. These types of loads include shoulders, the mouth, and the jaw. The optogenetic approach offers high spatiotemporal resolution for precise control of muscle activation, and opens up the possibility to activate hundreds of interconnected muscles in a spatiotemporally coordinated manner. In this work, we explore the design of robotic systems composed of multiple light-activated live muscular actuator units. We describe and compare massively parallel and highly serial/networked distributions of these building-block actuator units. We have built functional fundamental prototypes and present experimental results to demonstrate the feasibility of the construction of larger scale muscle systems.

  3. Probing the biology of dry biological systems to address the basis of seed longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying cells reduces molecular mobility and slows chemical and physical reactions. As a result, dry biological systems deteriorate slowly. The time course of deterioration in a population of living cells often follows a sigmoidal pattern in which aging is occurring but no changes to viability are ...

  4. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  5. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Further Actions Needed to Address Challenges and Improve Accountability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Compliance and Requirements Traceability AF-IPPS Air Force Integrated Personnel and Pay System BPR business process reengineering BEA business...updated its BPR guidance in late September 2012 to include actions to be taken to review supporting documentation on selected investments

  6. Clicker Lessons: Assessing and Addressing Student Responses to Audience Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Tim; Pelton, Leslee Francis; Sanseverino, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This project began in response to a perceived need to assess students' perceptions with respect to the emerging use of audience response systems (clickers) in several mid- to large-size undergraduate courses at the University of Victoria. We developed and validated a "Clicker Use Survey" to gather students' opinions with respect to…

  7. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... interphone system required by paragraph (b) of this section, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  8. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interphone system required by paragraph (b) of this section, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  9. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interphone system required by paragraph (b) of this section, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  10. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... interphone system required by paragraph (b) of this section, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  11. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interphone system required by paragraph (b) of this section, except for handsets, headsets, microphones... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted...

  12. Collaborative Group Learning and Knowledge Building to Address Information Systems Project Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelo, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Approximately half of the information systems (IS) projects implemented each year are considered failures. These failed projects cost billions of dollars annually. Failures can be due to projects being delivered late, over-budget, abandoned after significant time and resource investment, or failing to achieve desired results. More often than not,…

  13. Addressing Indigenous (ICT) Approaches in South-East Asian Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a structural overview about indigenous approaches to learning in South East Asian countries, with a particular reference to education initiatives that have been operating in this region; and especially to investigate information and communication technologies (ICT) systems, in combination with…

  14. Moving Forward? Addressing the Needs of Young At-Risk Students in the Dutch Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina M.

    2007-01-01

    Inclusive education in the Dutch education system has achieved new meaning in the last decade or so. Until 1998, the Netherlands recognized 19 types of special education. Then, two Educational Acts were passed, in 1998 and 2003, that decreased the types of special education by including measures to enhance inclusion of students with special…

  15. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system

    PubMed Central

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere–ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system—System 4—has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981–2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  16. Girls in the juvenile justice system: leave no girl's health un-addressed.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Barbara J; Hoey, Erin; Ravoira, LaWanda; Kintner, Eileen

    2002-12-01

    Despite an increase in middle to older aged adolescent females' early contact with the juvenile justice system, inadequate health care remains a concern. This descriptive study surveyed the physical and mental health needs of 130 self-selected, nonrandomized girls aged 12 to 18 years, with a mean age of 15.42 years (SD, 1.24), who were involved with a juvenile justice diversional program located in a southeastern region of the United States. Findings revealed early initiation of sexual-related activities (mean age, 13.9 years; SD, 1.49) and substance use (mean age, 12.9 years; SD, 1.53). The data suggest an increasing need for pediatric nurses, and in particular advanced practice nurses, to provide gender-responsive health care and health promotion services to early middle-childhood females in the juvenile justice system.

  17. San Diego Healthy Weight Collaborative: a systems approach to address childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Serpas, Shaila; Brandstein, Kendra; McKennett, Marianne; Hillidge, Sharon; Zive, Michelle; Nader, Philip R

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative approach to identify opportunities for interactions between multiple systems is an important model for childhood obesity prevention. This paper describes a process aligning multiple partners in primary care, public health, university research, schools, and community organizations. Jointly implemented strategies in a Latino underserved community included: (1) building an effective and sustainable collaborative team; (2) disseminating a healthy weight message across sectors; (3) assessing weight status and healthy weight plans in primary care, school, and early childhood settings; and (4) implementing policy changes to support healthy eating and physical activity. The process and lessons learned were analyzed so other communities can utilize a systems approach to develop culturally appropriate interventions tailored to a specific community.

  18. Series-connected shaded modules to address partial shading conditions in SPV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, Smita; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    With the progress of technology and reduced cost of PV cells, the PV systems are being installed in many countries, including India. Even though this method of power generation has sufficient potential but its effective utilization is still lacking. This is because the output power of PV cells depends on many factors like insolation, temperature, climate conditions prevailing nearby, aging, using modules from different technologies/manufacturers or partial shading conditions. Among these factors, partial shading causes major reduction in output power despite the size of PV systems. As a result, the produced power is lower than the expected value. The connection of modules to each other has great impact on output power if they are prone to partial shading conditions. In this paper, PV arrays are investigated under partial shading conditions. The results show that partial shading losses can be minimized by connecting shaded modules in series rather than in parallel.

  19. A manual for addressing ineffectiveness within a Corrective Action System and driving on-time dispositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallari, Lawrence Anthony Castro

    This project proposes a manual specifically for remedying an ineffective Corrective Action Request System for Company ABC by providing dispositions within the company's quality procedure. A Corrective Action Request System is a corrective action tool that provides a means for employees to engage in the process improvement, problem elimination cycle. At Company ABC, Corrective Action Recommendations (CARs) are not provided with timely dispositions; CARs are being ignored due to a lack of training and awareness of Company ABC's personnel and quality procedures. In this project, Company ABC's quality management software database is scrutinized to identify the number of delinquent, non-dispositioned CARs in 2014. These CARs are correlated with the number of nonconformances generated for the same issue while the CAR is still open. Using secondary data, the primary investigator finds that nonconformances are being remediated at the operational level. However, at the administrative level, CARS are being ignored and forgotten.

  20. Identifying and Addressing Stakeholder Interests in Design Science Research: An Analysis Using Critical Systems Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venable, John R.

    This paper utilises the Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) framework developed by Werner Ulrich to critically consider the stakeholders and design goals that should be considered as relevant by researchers conducing Design Science Research (DSR). CSH provides a philosophically and theoretically grounded framework and means for critical consideration of the choices of stakeholders considered to be relevant to any system under design consideration. The paper recommends that legitimately undertaken DSR should include witnesses to represent the interests of the future consumers of the outcomes of DSR, i.e., the future clients, decision makers, professionals, and other non-included stakeholders in the future use of the solution technologies to be invented in DSR. The paper further discusses options for how witnesses might be included, who should be witnessed for and obstacles to implementing the recommendations.

  1. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  2. F-35 Sustainment: DOD Needs a Plan to Address Risks Related to Its Central Logistics System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    planning, supply-chain management , maintenance, and other processes. The F-35 program is approaching several key milestones: the Air Force and...Air Vehicle Data/Health CAPE Office of the Director for Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation CMMS Computerized Maintenance Management ...Office of the Secretary of Defense SCM Supply Chain Management SOU Standard Operating Unit TMS Training Management System This is a work

  3. Policy Options to Address Crucial Communication Gaps in the Incident Command System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection COML Communications Unit Leader COMT Communication Technician EBRPD East Bay Regional Parks...Laguna Fire 1970 - One of California’s Worst Wildfires.” Available at http://www.cccarto.com/cal_wildfire/laguna/fire.html, Accessed August 10, 2012...NIMS - The Evolution of the National Incident Management System.” Fire Rescue Magazine, August 2011. 15 compatibility, and department emergency

  4. Can We Better Address the Siting of Hazard Division 1.3 Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    American Petroleum Institute standard API 521 (Reference 22). These include (1) 15.97 kW/m2 for heat flux on structures where operators are not likely...The Hague, Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning, and Environment, 1990.) 22. American Petroleum Institute . Guide for Pressure-Relieving...and Depressurizing Systems. American Petroleum Institute , Washington, D.C., 1997, API 521. 23. Quest Consultants, Inc. Worst-Case Consequence

  5. Tailored Educational Approaches for Consumer Health (TEACH): a model system for addressing health communication.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Wendy F; Pannone, Aaron; Schubart, Jane; Lyman, Jason; Kinzie, Mable; Broshek, Donna K; Guterbock, Thomas M; Hartman, David; Mick, David; Bolmey, Armando; Garson, Arthur T

    2006-01-01

    The Consumer Health Education Institute (CHEDI) has developed a model system to improve the quality and effectiveness of patient education and health communication. Through assessment of characteristics and preferences, segmentation into groups and matching with the appropriate materials, we have demonstrated that patients and health consumers have different health information needs and preferences which show promise as a basis for selecting or designing the most appropriate materials or programs.

  6. Spring-Based Helmet System Support Prototype to Address Aircrew Neck Strain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Royal Canadian Air Force Griffon helicopter aircrew are known to have extremely high incidence of chronic, debilitating neck pain. Fischer et al...2013) identified that unbalanced moments due to head-borne equipment (i.e. helmet with NVG ) were a particular concern since the current solution was...to add more weight (battery pack and counterweight (CW)) as a counterbalancing force. Three concepts were proposed to improve the helmet- NVG system

  7. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Melin, Alexander M; Czejdo, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  8. Application of fuzzy system theory in addressing the presence of uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Yusmye, A. Y. N.; Goh, B. Y.; Adnan, N. F.; Ariffin, A. K.

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, the combinations of fuzzy system theory with the finite element methods are present and discuss to deal with the uncertainties. The present of uncertainties is needed to avoid for prevent the failure of the material in engineering. There are three types of uncertainties, which are stochastic, epistemic and error uncertainties. In this paper, the epistemic uncertainties have been considered. For the epistemic uncertainty, it exists as a result of incomplete information and lack of knowledge or data. Fuzzy system theory is a non-probabilistic method, and this method is most appropriate to interpret the uncertainty compared to statistical approach when the deal with the lack of data. Fuzzy system theory contains a number of processes started from converting the crisp input to fuzzy input through fuzzification process and followed by the main process known as mapping process. The term mapping here means that the logical relationship between two or more entities. In this study, the fuzzy inputs are numerically integrated based on extension principle method. In the final stage, the defuzzification process is implemented. Defuzzification is an important process to allow the conversion of the fuzzy output to crisp outputs. Several illustrative examples are given and from the simulation, the result showed that propose the method produces more conservative results comparing with the conventional finite element method.

  9. Socio-Ecohydrologic Agents And Services: Integrating Human And Natural Components To Address Coupled System Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavao-zuckerman, M.; Pope, A.; Chan, D.; Curl, K.; Gimblett, H. R.; Hough, M.; House-Peters, L.; Lee, R.; Scott, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian corridors in arid regions are highly valued for their relative scarcity, and because healthy riparian systems support high levels of biodiversity, can meet human demand for water and water-related resources and functions. Our team is taking a transdiciplinary social-ecological systems approach to assessing riparian corridor resilience in two watersheds (the San Pedro River in USA and Mexico, and the Rio San Miguel in Mexico) through a project funded by the NSF CNH program ("Strengthening Resilience of Arid Region Riparian Corridors"). Multiple perspectives are integrated in the project, including hydrology, ecology, institutional dynamics, and decision making (at the level of both policy and individual choice), as well as the perspectives of various stakeholder groups and individuals in the watersheds. Here we discuss initial findings that center around linking changes in ecohydrology and livelihoods related to decisions in response to climatic, ecological, and social change. The research team is implementing two approaches to integrate the disparate disciplines participating in the research (and the varied perspectives among the stakeholders in this binational riparian context): (1) ecosystem service assessment, and (2) agent based model simulation. We are developing an ecosystem service perspective that provides a bridge between ecological dynamics in the landscape and varied stakeholder perspectives on the implications of ecohydrology for well-being (economic, cultural, ecological). Services are linked on one hand to the spatial patterns of traits of individuals within species (allowing a more predictive application of ecosystem services as they vary with community change in time), and to stakeholder perspectives (facilitating integration of ecosystem services into our understanding of decision making processes) in a case study in the San Pedro River National Conservation Area. The agent- based model (ABM) approach incorporates the influence of human

  10. Whole Neuraxis Irradiation to Address Central Nervous System Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Croog, Victoria J.; Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Souweidane, Mark M.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2010-11-01

    Background: As systemic control of high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) has improved, relapse in the central nervous system (CNS) is an increasingly recognized entity that carries a grim prognosis. This study describes the use of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for CNS relapse and compares outcomes to patients who received focal radiotherapy (RT). Methods: A retrospective query identified 29 children with NB treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center since 1987 who received RT for CNS relapse. At CNS relapse, 16 patients received CSI (median dose, 2160cGy), and 13 received focal RT. Of those who underwent CSI, 14 (88%) received intra-Ommaya (IO) radioimmunotherapy (RIT); one patient in the non-CSI cohort received IO-RIT. Results: Patient characteristics were similar between the groups. Time to CNS relapse was 20 and 17 months for the CSI and non-CSI cohorts, respectively. At a median follow-up of 28 months, 12 patients (75%) in the CSI group are alive without CNS disease, including two patients with isolated skeletal relapse. Another patient is alive without disease after a brain relapse was retreated with RT. Three patients died-one with no NB at autopsy, one of CNS disease, and one of systemic disease. The two patients who died of NB did not receive IO-RIT. All 13 patients in the non-CSI cohort died at a median of 8.8 months. Conclusions: Low-dose CSI together with IO-RIT provides durable CNS remissions and improved survival compared with focal RT and conventional therapies. Further evaluation of long-term NB survivors after CSI is warranted to determine the treatment consequences for this cohort.

  11. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  12. Hierarchical Docking of Databases of Multiple Ligand Conformations

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, David M.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2006-01-01

    Ligand flexibility is an important problem in molecular docking and virtual screening. To address this challenge, we investigate a hierarchical pre-organization of multiple conformations of small molecules. Such organization of pre-calculated conformations removes the exploration of ligand conformational space from the docking calculation and allows for concise representation of what can be thousands of conformations. The hierarchy also recognizes and prunes incompatible conformations early in the calculation, eliminating redundant calculations of fit. We investigate the method by docking the MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR), an annotated database of 100,000 molecules, into apo and holo forms of seven unrelated targets. This annotated database allows us to track the ranking of tens to hundreds of annotated ligands in each of the docking systems. The binding sites and database are prepared in an automated fashion in an attempt to remove some human bias from the calculations. Many thousands of explicit and implicit ligand conformations may be docked in calculations not much longer than required for single conformer docking. As long as internal energies are not considered, recombination with the hierarchy is additive as the number of degrees of freedom is increased. Molecules with even millions of conformations can be docked in a few minutes on a single desktop computer. PMID:16101414

  13. Substrate-Linked Conformational Change in the Periplasmic Component of a Cu(I)/Ag(I) Efflux System

    SciTech Connect

    Bagai, I.; Liu, W.; Rensing, C.; Blackburn, N.J.; McEvoy, M.M.

    2009-06-02

    Gram-negative bacteria utilize dual membrane resistance nodulation division-type efflux systems to export a variety of substrates. These systems contain an essential periplasmic component that is important for assembly of the protein complex. We show here that the periplasmic protein CusB from the Cus copper/silver efflux system has a critical role in Cu(I) and Ag(I) binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments demonstrate that one Ag(I) ion is bound per CusB molecule with high affinity. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data indicate that the metal environment is an all-sulfur 3-coordinate environment. Candidates for the metal-coordinating residues were identified from sequence analysis, which showed four conserved methionine residues. Mutations of three of these methionine residues to isoleucine resulted in significant effects on CusB metal binding in vitro. Cells containing these CusB variants also show a decrease in their ability to grow on copper-containing plates, indicating an important functional role for metal binding by CusB. Gel filtration chromatography demonstrates that upon binding metal, CusB undergoes a conformational change to a more compact structure. Based on these structural and functional effects of metal binding, we propose that the periplasmic component of resistance nodulation division-type efflux systems plays an active role in export through substrate-linked conformational changes.

  14. Electrical addressing of confined quantum systems for quasiclassical computation and finite state logic machines.

    PubMed

    Remacle, F; Heath, J R; Levine, R D

    2005-04-19

    Conduction spectroscopy measures the current I through a nanosystem as a function of the voltage V between two electrodes. The differential conductance, dI/dV, has peaks that can be assigned to resonance conditions with different electronic levels of the system. Between these increments, the current has roughly constant plateaus. We discuss how measurements of the current vs. voltage can be used to perform Boolean operations and hence construct finite state logic machines and combinational circuits. The inputs to the device are the source-drain voltage, including its sign, and a gate voltage applied in a manner analogous to optical Stark spectroscopy. As simple examples, we describe a two-state set-reset machine (a machine whose output depends on the input and also on its present state) and a full adder circuit (a circuit that requires three inputs and provides two outputs).

  15. Don't blame patients, engage them: transforming health systems to address health literacy.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Dominick L; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is affirming a new era for health care delivery in the United States, with an increased focus on patient engagement. The field of health literacy has important contributions to make, and there are opportunities to achieve much more synergy between these seemingly different perspectives. Systems need to be designed in a user-centered way that is responsive to patients at all levels of health literacy. Similarly, strategies are needed to ensure that patients are supported to become engaged, at the level they desire, instead of the status quo, in which patients are rarely actively empowered and encouraged to engage in health care decisions, where preferences are rarely elicited, and where there is a lack of interest in how their life circumstances shape their priorities.

  16. A chimera grid scheme. [multiple overset body-conforming mesh system for finite difference adaptation to complex aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steger, J. L.; Dougherty, F. C.; Benek, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A mesh system composed of multiple overset body-conforming grids is described for adapting finite-difference procedures to complex aircraft configurations. In this so-called 'chimera mesh,' a major grid is generated about a main component of the configuration and overset minor grids are used to resolve all other features. Methods for connecting overset multiple grids and modifications of flow-simulation algorithms are discussed. Computational tests in two dimensions indicate that the use of multiple overset grids can simplify the task of grid generation without an adverse effect on flow-field algorithms and computer code complexity.

  17. Moonrise: Sampling the South Pole-Aitken Basin to Address Problems of Solar System Significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Shearer, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    A mission to land in the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin on the Moon's southern farside and return a sample to Earth for analysis is a high priority for Solar System Science. Such a sample would be used to determine the age of the SPA impact; the chronology of the basin, including the ages of basins and large impacts within SPA, with implications for early Solar System dynamics and the magmatic history of the Moon; the age and composition of volcanic rocks within SPA; the origin of the thorium signature of SPA with implications for the origin of exposed materials and thermal evolution of the Moon; and possibly the magnetization that forms a strong anomaly especially evident in the northern parts of the SPA basin. It is well known from studies of the Apollo regolith that rock fragments found in the regolith form a representative collection of many different rock types delivered to the site by the impact process (Fig. 1). Such samples are well documented to contain a broad suite of materials that reflect both the local major rock formations, as well as some exotic materials from far distant sources. Within the SPA basin, modeling of the impact ejection process indicates that regolith would be dominated by SPA substrate, formed at the time of the SPA basin-forming impact and for the most part moved around by subsequent impacts. Consistent with GRAIL data, the SPA impact likely formed a vast melt body tens of km thick that took perhaps several million years to cool, but that nonetheless represents barely an instant in geologic time that should be readily apparent through integrated geochronologic studies involving multiple chronometers. It is anticipated that a statistically significant number of age determinations would yield not only the age of SPA but also the age of several prominent nearby basins and large craters within SPA. This chronology would provide a contrast to the Imbrium-dominated chronology of the nearside Apollo samples and an independent test of

  18. Addressing health system barriers to access to and use of skilled delivery services: perspectives from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ganle, John Kuumuori; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Otupiri, Easmon; Parker, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Poor access to and use of skilled delivery services have been identified as a major contributory factor to poor maternal and newborn health in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. However, many previous studies that examine norms of childbirth and care-seeking behaviours have focused on identifying the norms of non-use of services, rather than factors, that can promote service use. Based on primary qualitative research with a total of 185 expectant and lactating mothers, and 20 healthcare providers in six communities in Ghana, this paper reports on strategies that can be used to overcome health system barriers to the use of skilled delivery services. The strategies identified include expansion and redistribution of existing maternal health resources and infrastructure, training of more skilled maternity caregivers, instituting special programmes to target women most in need, improving the quality of maternity care services provided, improving doctor-patient relationships in maternity wards, promotion of choice, protecting privacy and patient dignity in maternity wards and building partnerships with traditional birth attendants and other non-state actors. The findings suggest the need for structural changes to maternity clinics and routine nursing practices, including an emphasis on those doctor-patient relational practices that positively influence women's healthcare-seeking behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Lameness detection challenges in automated milking systems addressed with partial least squares discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; Klaas, I; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Enevoldsen, C

    2014-12-01

    Lameness causes decreased animal welfare and leads to higher production costs. This study explored data from an automatic milking system (AMS) to model on-farm gait scoring from a commercial farm. A total of 88 cows were gait scored once per week, for 2 5-wk periods. Eighty variables retrieved from AMS were summarized week-wise and used to predict 2 defined classes: nonlame and clinically lame cows. Variables were represented with 2 transformations of the week summarized variables, using 2-wk data blocks before gait scoring, totaling 320 variables (2 × 2 × 80). The reference gait scoring error was estimated in the first week of the study and was, on average, 15%. Two partial least squares discriminant analysis models were fitted to parity 1 and parity 2 groups, respectively, to assign the lameness class according to the predicted probability of being lame (score 3 or 4/4) or not lame (score 1/4). Both models achieved sensitivity and specificity values around 80%, both in calibration and cross-validation. At the optimum values in the receiver operating characteristic curve, the false-positive rate was 28% in the parity 1 model, whereas in the parity 2 model it was about half (16%), which makes it more suitable for practical application; the model error rates were, 23 and 19%, respectively. Based on data registered automatically from one AMS farm, we were able to discriminate nonlame and lame cows, where partial least squares discriminant analysis achieved similar performance to the reference method.

  20. Potential enhancements to addressing programmatic risk in the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.; Fassbender, L.; Bilyard, G.; Levine, L.

    1996-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management methodology development task. The objective of this task was to develop risk management methodology focused on (1) the use of programmatic risk information in making TWRS architecture selection decisions and (2) the identification/evaluation/selection of TWRS risk-handling actions. Methods for incorporating programmatic risk/uncertainty estimates into trade studies are provided for engineers/analysts. Methods for identifying, evaluating, and selecting risk-handling actions are provided for managers. The guidance provided in this report is designed to help decision-makers make difficult judgments. Current approaches to architecture selection decisions and identification/evaluation/selection of risk-handling actions are summarized. Three categories of sources of programmatic risk (parametric, external, and organizational) are examined. Multiple analytical approaches are presented to enhance the current alternative generation and analysis (AGA) and risk-handling procedures. Appendix A describes some commercially available risk management software tools and Appendix B provides a brief introduction to quantification of risk attitudes. The report provides three levels of analysis for enhancing the AGA Procedure: (1) qualitative discussion coupled with estimated uncertainty ranges for scores in the alternatives-by-criteria matrix; (2) formal elicitation of probability distributions for the alternative scores; and (3) a formal, more structured, comprehensive risk analysis. A framework is also presented for using the AGA programmatic risk analysis results in making better decisions. The report also presents two levels of analysis for evaluation and selection of risk-handling actions: (1) qualitative analysis and judgmental rankings of alternative actions, and (2) Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART).

  1. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  2. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  3. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (CA-TPS) for Venus and Saturn Backshells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Gasch, M.; Stackpoole, M.; Wilder, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Prabhu, D.; Kazemba, C.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2015-01-01

    The new conformal ablator C-PICA, which was developed under STMD GCD, is an optimal candidate for use on the backshells for high velocity entry vehicles at both Venus and Saturn. The material has been tested at heat fluxes up to 400 Wcm2 in shear and over 1800 Wcm2 and 1.5 atm in stagnation with good results. C-PICA has similar density to PICA, but shows half the thermal penetration and similar recession at the same conditions, allowing for a lighter weight TPS to be flown. This poster for VEXAG will show the progress made in the development of the material and why it should be considered for use.

  4. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  5. Sophisticated Calculation of the 1oo4-architecture for Safety-related Systems Conforming to IEC61508

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayek, A.; Bokhaiti, M. Al; Schwarz, M. H.; Boercsoek, J.

    2012-05-01

    With the publication and enforcement of the standard IEC 61508 of safety related systems, recent system architectures have been presented and evaluated. Among a number of techniques and measures to the evaluation of safety integrity level (SIL) for safety-related systems, several measures such as reliability block diagrams and Markov models are used to analyze the probability of failure on demand (PFD) and mean time to failure (MTTF) which conform to IEC 61508. The current paper deals with the quantitative analysis of the novel 1oo4-architecture (one out of four) presented in recent work. Therefore sophisticated calculations for the required parameters are introduced. The provided 1oo4-architecture represents an advanced safety architecture based on on-chip redundancy, which is 3-failure safe. This means that at least one of the four channels have to work correctly in order to trigger the safety function.

  6. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  7. Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Central Nervous System and Head and Neck Lesions, Using a Conformal Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy System (Peacock™ System)

    PubMed Central

    Ammirati, Mario; Bernardo, Antonio; Ramsinghani, Nilam; Yakoob, Richard; Al-Ghazi, Matthew; Kuo, Jeffrey; Ammirati, Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate single-fraction or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of central nervous system (CNS) and head and neck lesions using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a commercially available system (Peacock™, Nomos Corporation, Sewickley, PA). This system allows tomotherapeutic delivery of intensity-modulated radiation, that is, the slice-by-slice treatment of the volume of interest with an intensity-modulated beam, making the delivery of highly conformal radiation to the target possible in both single or multiple fractions mode. During an 18-month period, 43 (21 males and 22 females) patients were treated, using a removable cranial screw-fixation device. Ages ranged from 10 to 77 years (mean, 52.2; median, 53.5). Intra- and extra-axial lesions, including head and neck malignancies and spine metastases, were treated. Clinical target volume ranged from 0.77 to 195 cm3 (mean, 47.8; median, 29.90). The dose distribution was normalized to the maximum and was prescribed, in most cases, at the 80% or 90% isodose line (range, 65 to 96%; median, 85%; mean, 83.4%) and ranged from 14 to 80 Gy (mean, 48; median, 50). The number of fractions ranged from 1 to 40 (mean, 23; median, 25). In all but one patient, 90% of the prescription isodose line covered 100% of the clinical target volume. The heterogeneity index (the ratio between the maximum radiation dose and the prescribed dose) ranged between 1.0 and 1.50, whereas the conformity index (the ratio between the volume encompassed by the prescription isodose line and the clinical target volume) ranged between 1.0 and 4.5. There were no complications related to the radiation treatment. With a median follow-up of 6 months, more than 70% of our patients showed decreased lesion size. Stereotactic IMRT of CNS and head and neck lesions can be delivered safely and accurately. The Peacock system delivers stereotactic radiation in single or multiple fractions and has no volume limitations

  8. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  9. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Budy, Fidel C T

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  10. President's Address

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Maurice

    1928-01-01

    Conditions which experience has proved conducive to mental disturbance considered.—Suggestions as to their treatment.—A weakened inhibition, rather than any positive condition, is probably the most important factor in the production of the exhaustion psycho-neuroses or psychoses. This view is supported by the prophylactic value of giving for prolonged periods small doses of bromide to hypersensitive children or to highly-strung persons exposed to stress or tropical climate, etc.—Pavlov's work on the conditioned reflexes in dogs quoted in support of the author's clinical experience: Pavlov states that bromides should not be regarded as sedatives, diminishing the excitability of the central nervous system, but as simply regulating the nervous system by strengthening the intensity of internal inhibition. This agrees with the author's clinical experience, as small doses of bromide taken regularly over a period of many years do not diminish the mental powers but in fact increase them. Question of sleeplessness considered with regard to the way in which sedatives act. Most of these do not act as so-called “sleeping draughts”; research may ultimately show that their action is to strengthen a weakened inhibition and that sleep is only a secondary benefit.—Value of sedatives before and after surgical operation. Importance of toxæmia in the production of mental disorder; insomnia often precedes a toxic process and permits it to become active. The theory of weakened inhibition explains many problems; e.g., why certain brilliant children or adults break down and why at first there is no interference with their normal mental activity which only becomes involved as sleep and other bodily functions become affected; why a toxæmia may affect the nervous system of certain people; why a breakdown may follow over-stimulation or occur with advancing years; why some persons relapse when certain treatment is discontinued; why treatment should at times be continuous, and why

  11. Probabilistic model-based methodology for the conformational study of cyclic systems: application to copper complexes double-bridged by phosphate and related ligands.

    PubMed

    Kessler, M; Pérez, J; Bueso, M C; García, L; Pérez, E; Serrano, J L; Carrascosa, R

    2007-12-01

    A methodology for the conformational study of cyclic systems through the statistical analysis of torsion angles is presented. It relies on a combination of different methods based on a probabilistic model which takes into account the topological symmetry of the structures. This methodology is applied to copper complexes double-bridged by phosphate and related ligands. Structures from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) are analyzed and the chair, boat-chair and boat conformations are identified as the most frequent conformations. The output of the methodology also provides information about distortions from the ideal conformations, the most frequent being: chair <--> twist-chair, chair <--> twist-boat-chair and boat <--> twist-boat. Molecular mechanics calculations identify these distortions as energetically accessible pathways.

  12. Hydrophobic Properties of tRNA with Varied Conformations Evaluated by an Aqueous Two-Phase System

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Keishi; Tomita, Hibiki; Tanaka, Seishiro; Umakoshi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The surface properties of transfer RNA (tRNA) were analyzed using a poly(ethylene glycol)/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), where the surface net hydrophobicity (HFS) and the local hydrophobicity (LH) were evaluated based on the partition coefficient of tRNA in the ATPS. According to the evaluated HFS values, the surface of the tRNA molecule was hydrophilic at 20° -40 °C, and it became hydrophobic at 50° -80 °C because of the exposure of the intrinsic nucleobases of tRNA. In contrast, the LH values were found to be maximal at 20° -40 °C. The conformation of tRNA was investigated by Raman and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, corroborating the results with the calculated prediction of its secondary structure (Mfold). It was shown that 66% of A-form structure existed at room temperature; the base stacking (θ265) was gradually decreased, and the A-form structure (θ208) was denatured along with a sigmoid curve against the temperature increase; the denatured secondary structures were observed above 50° C by Mfold prediction. The HFS value of the DNA duplex was found to be hydrophilic, compared to that of the single-stranded DNA, indicating that the exposure of nucleobases is a key factor of the hydrophobic properties of nucleotides. We conclude that the hydrophobic property of the tRNA surface was directly affected by its conformational transition. PMID:23091416

  13. Results of a Loran-C flight test using an absolute data reference. [vhf monirange navigation system and discrete address beacon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    A closed circuit flight test was conducted using VORs and NDBs as reference points. The Loran-C data collected during the flight was then compared against a reference provided by a discrete address beacon system facility. Information on the equipment configuration in the aircraft, the flight procedure, and the results obtained are presented.

  14. Constraint damping of the conformal and covariant formulation of the Z4 system in simulations of binary neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alic, Daniela; Kastaun, Wolfgang; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2013-09-01

    Following previous work in vacuum spacetimes, we investigate the constraint-damping properties in the presence of matter of the recently developed traceless, conformal and covariant Z4 (CCZ4) formulation of the Einstein equations. First, we evolve an isolated neutron star with an ideal gas equation of state and subject to a constraint-violating perturbation. We compare the evolution of the constraints using the CCZ4 and Baumgarte-Shibata-Shapiro-Nakamura-Oohara-Kojima (BSSNOK) systems. Second, we study the collapse of an unstable spherical star to a black hole. Finally, we evolve binary neutron star systems over several orbits until the merger, the formation of a black hole, and up to the ringdown. We show that the CCZ4 formulation is stable in the presence of matter and that the constraint violations are 1 or more orders of magnitude smaller than for the BSSNOK formulation. Furthermore, by comparing the CCZ4 and the BSSNOK formulations also for neutron star binaries with large initial constraint violations, we investigate their influence on the errors on physical quantities. We also give a new, simple and robust prescription for the damping parameter that removes the instabilities found when using the fully covariant version of CCZ4 in the evolution of black holes. Overall, we find that at essentially the same computational costs, the CCZ4 formulation provides solutions that are stable and with a considerably smaller violation of the Hamiltonian constraint than the BSSNOK formulation. We also find that the performance of the CCZ4 formulation is very similar to another conformal and traceless, but noncovariant formulation of the Z4 system, i.e., the Z4c formulation.

  15. Interaction of pepsin-[C16mim]Br system: interfacial dilational rheology and conformational studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Chong; Liu, Zi-lin; Li, Yang; Du, Feng-pei

    2014-09-21

    The interfacial rheological property is closely related to the stabilities of foams and emulsions, yet there have been limited studies on the interaction between proteins with ionic liquid-type imidazolium surfactants at the decane-water interface as well as in the bulk. Herein, we investigated the interfacial and bulk properties of pepsin (PEP) and an ionic liquid (IL), 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [C(16)mim]Br. The interfacial pressure and dilational rheology studies were performed to describe the formation of [C(16)mim]Br-pepsin complexes. The influence of the oscillating frequency and the bulk concentration of [C(16)mim]Br on the dilational properties were explored. The conformational changes were studied by monitoring the fluorescence and far UV-CD spectra. The results reveal that the globular structure of pepsin is one of the decisive factors controlling the nature of the interfacial film. The monotonous increase in the dilational elastic modulus of pepsin-[C(16)mim]Br solutions with the surface age indicates that no loops and tails had formed. Interestingly, with an increase in the concentration of [C(16)mim]Br, the εd-c curve first passes through a plateau value due to steric hindrance and the electrostatic barrier of already absorbed tenacious pepsin-[C(16)mim]Br complexes. With the further addition of [C(16)mim]Br, the remarkable decrease in dilational elastic modulus indicates that the compact structure is destroyed gradually. The results of the fluorescence spectra and far UV-CD spectra confirm that [C(16)mim]Br did not produce perceptible changes in pepsin at the concentrations studied in the dilational experiment. Possible schematic programs of the pepsin-[C(16)mim]Br interaction model at the interface and in bulk phase are proposed.

  16. Politics and technology in health information systems development: a discourse analysis of conflicts addressed in a systems design group.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2008-02-01

    Different types of disagreements must be managed during the development of health information systems. This study examines the antagonisms discussed during the design of an information system for 175,000 users in a public health context. Discourse analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis. Three hundred and twenty-six conflict events were identified from four design meetings and divided into 16 categories. There were no differences regarding the types of conflicts that the different participants brought into the design discussions. Instead, conflict occurrence was primarily affected by the agendas that set the stage for examinations and debates. The results indicate that the selection of design method and the structure used for the meetings are important factors for the manner in which conflicts are brought into consideration during health information system design. Further studies comparing participatory and non-participatory information system design practices in health service settings are warranted.

  17. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  18. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  19. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

  20. A Portable Low-Power Harmonic Radar System and Conformal Tag for Insect Tracking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmonic radar systems provide an effective modality for tracking insect behavior. This paper presents a harmonic radar system proposed to track the migration of the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB). The system offers a unique combination of portability, low power and small tag design. It is comprised of a...

  1. Individual addressing of trapped {sup 171}Yb{sup +} ion qubits using a microelectromechanical systems-based beam steering system

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, S.; Mount, E.; Baek, S.; Kim, J.

    2014-11-03

    The ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits is one of the many challenges towards scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems technology, we focus laser beams on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. We demonstrate sequential single qubit gates on multiple {sup 171}Yb{sup +} qubits and characterize the gate performance using quantum state tomography. Our system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (<3×10{sup −4}), and switching speed comparable to typical single qubit gate times (<2 μs)

  2. Do we need to change the legislation to a system of presumed consent to address organ shortage?

    PubMed

    Simillis, Constantinos

    2010-04-01

    Organ transplantation significantly improves the health, quality of life and life-expectancy of people whose organs have failed. Most patients in the UK cannot enjoy the benefits of a transplant because of an extreme shortage of organs. This paper demonstrates the magnitude of the problem of organ shortage and identifies possible causes. The current UK legislation regarding consent to organ transplantation is analysed and compared with other jurisdictions. The hypothesis of changing the legislation to a system of presumed consent in order to address the organ shortage is explored. The main issues surrounding a change in the legislation are considered, and the effects on society and the individual are discussed. This paper argues that there is not enough convincing evidence to support a change in the legislation to a system of presumed consent at this time. Instead, an increase in organ donations could be achieved by improving the effectiveness of the current system of organ donation, and by improving the public's awareness and understanding of organ transplantation issues.

  3. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G.; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2015-08-01

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  4. Effect of temperature gradients on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis in a capillary electrophoresis system using Pluronic polymer matrix.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hee Sung; Shin, Gi Won; Park, Han Jin; Ryu, Chang Y; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2013-09-02

    Capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) analysis is a prominent bioseparation method based on the mobility diversity caused by sequence-induced conformational differences of single-stranded DNA. The use of Pluronic polymer matrix has opened up new opportunities for CE-SSCP, because it improved the resolution for various genetic analyses. However, there still exists a challenge in optimizing Pluronic-based CE-SSCP, because the physical properties of Pluronic solutions are sensitive to temperature, particularly near the gelation temperature, where the viscoelasticity of Pluronic F108 solutions sharply changes from that of a Newtonian fluid to a hydrogel upon heating. We have focused on a set of experiments to control the ambient temperature of the CE system with the aim of enhancing the reliability of the CE-SSCP analysis by using the Applied Biosystems ABI 3130xl genetic analyzer with Pluronic F108 solution matrix. The ambient temperature control allowed us to vary the inlet and outlet portion of the capillary column, while the temperature of the column was kept at 35°C. The resolution to separate 2 single-base-pair-differing DNA fragments was significantly enhanced by changing the temperature from 19 to 30°C. The viscoelastic properties of the F108 solution matrix upon heating were also investigated by ex situ rheological experiments with an effort to reveal how the development of gels in Pluronic solutions affects the resolution of CE-SSCP. We found that the column inlet and outlet temperatures of the capillary column have to be controlled to optimize the resolution in CE-SSCP by using the Pluronic matrix.

  5. Assessing the use of school public address systems to deliver nutrition messages to children: Shape up Somerville--audio adventures.

    PubMed

    Folta, Sara C; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Economos, Christina; Bell, Rick; Landers, Stewart; Hyatt, Raymond

    2006-11-01

    Given the current childhood obesity epidemic, it is especially important to find effective ways to promote healthful foods to children. School public address (PA) systems represent an inexpensive and a replicable way of reaching children with health messages. To test the effectiveness of this channel, messages were created to promote 2 dried bean (legume) dishes that had been added to the school lunch menu. Six elementary schools were pair matched, and 1 school from each pair was randomly chosen to play the messages. The impact of the intervention on choice of the 2 new entrees was assessed. Results indicate that for all schools combined, choice was not significantly affected. However, compared to their matched control schools, choice was significantly higher in the school that received the highest dose of the intervention and was significantly lower in the school that received the lowest dose. Choice was not changed in the school that received an intermediate dose. These results suggest that PA systems show promise as an effective and appropriate communications channel but only in schools that are able to play messages frequently.

  6. System for routing messages in a vertex symmetric network by using addresses formed from permutations of the transmission line indicees

    DOEpatents

    Faber, Vance; Moore, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs .GAMMA..sub.d (k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d+1)!/(d-k+1)! processors for each d.gtoreq.k and .GAMMA..sub.d (k,-1) with degree 3-1, diameter k+1, and (d+1)!/(d-k+1)! processors for each d.gtoreq.k.gtoreq.4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network .GAMMA..sub.d (k,-1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction .delta..sub.1. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations.

  7. Role of Systemic Therapy in the Development of Lung Sequelae After Conformal Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Zoltan; Cserhati, Adrienn; Kelemen, Gyoengyi; Boda, Krisztina; Thurzo, Laszlo; Kahan, Zsuzsanna

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the risk of radiogenic lung damage in breast cancer patients after conformal radiotherapy and different forms of systemic treatment. Methods and Materials: In 328 patients receiving sequential taxane-based chemotherapy, concomitant hormone therapy (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors), or no adjuvant systemic therapy, symptomatic and asymptomatic lung sequelae were prospectively evaluated via the detection of visible CT abnormalities, 3 months or 1 year after the completion of the radiotherapy. Results: Significant positive associations were detected between the development of both pneumonitis and fibrosis of Grade 1 and patient age, ipsilateral mean lung dose, volume of the ipsilateral lung receiving 20 Gy, and irradiation of the regional lymph nodes. In multivariate analysis, age and mean lung dose proved to be independent predictors of early (odds ratio [OR] = 1.035, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.011-1.061 and OR = 1.113, 95% CI 1.049-1.181, respectively) and late (OR = 1.074, 95% CI 1.042-1.107 and OR = 1.207, 95% CI 1.124-1.295, respectively) radiogenic lung damage, whereas the role of systemic therapy was significant in the development of Grade 1 lung fibrosis (p = 0.01). Among the various forms of systemic therapy, tamoxifen increased the risk of late lung sequelae (OR = 2.442, 95% CI 1.120-5.326, p = 0.025). No interaction was demonstrated between the administration of systemic therapy and the other above-mentioned parameters as regards the risk of radiogenic lung damage. Conclusions: Our analyses demonstrate the independent role of concomitant tamoxifen therapy in the development of radiogenic lung fibrosis but do not suggest such an effect for the other modes of systemic treatment.

  8. 76 FR 7187 - Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk-Power System; Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... protecting against sophisticated and fast-moving threats? What role do you expect Smart Grid to play in the... grid reliability under Smart Grid applications? If not, how should NERC address these issues? c. Will Smart Grid applications have non-cyber reliability implications that need to be addressed? d. What...

  9. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  10. The conformal bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2016-06-01

    The conformal bootstrap was proposed in the 1970s as a strategy for calculating the properties of second-order phase transitions. After spectacular success elucidating two-dimensional systems, little progress was made on systems in higher dimensions until a recent renaissance beginning in 2008. We report on some of the main results and ideas from this renaissance, focusing on new determinations of critical exponents and correlation functions in the three-dimensional Ising and O(N) models.

  11. Future prospects for prophylactic immune stimulation in crustacean aquaculture - the need for improved metadata to address immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Hauton, Chris; Hudspith, Meggie; Gunton, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Future expansion of the crustacean aquaculture industry will be required to ensure global food security. However, this expansion must ensure: (a) that natural resources (including habitat use and fish meal) are sustainably exploited, (b) that the socio-economic development of producing nations is safeguarded, and (c) that the challenge presented by crustacean diseases is adequately met. Conventionally, the problem of disease in crustacean aquaculture has been addressed through prophylactic administration of stimulants, additives or probiotics. However, these approaches have been questioned both experimentally and philosophically. In this review, we argue that real progress in the field of crustacean immune stimulants has now slowed, with only incremental advances now being made. We further contend that an overt focus on the immune effector response has been misguided. In light of the wealth of new data reporting immune system complexity, a more refined approach is necessary - one that must consider the important role played by pattern recognition proteins. In support of this more refined approach, there is now a much greater requirement for the reporting of essential metadata. We propose a broad series of recommendations regarding the 'Minimum Information required to support a Stimulant Assessment experiment' (MISA guidelines) to foster new progression within the field.

  12. Multi-Conformation Monte Carlo: A Method for Introducing Flexibility in Efficient Simulations of Many-Protein Systems.

    PubMed

    Prytkova, Vera; Heyden, Matthias; Khago, Domarin; Freites, J Alfredo; Butts, Carter T; Martin, Rachel W; Tobias, Douglas J

    2016-08-25

    We present a novel multi-conformation Monte Carlo simulation method that enables the modeling of protein-protein interactions and aggregation in crowded protein solutions. This approach is relevant to a molecular-scale description of realistic biological environments, including the cytoplasm and the extracellular matrix, which are characterized by high concentrations of biomolecular solutes (e.g., 300-400 mg/mL for proteins and nucleic acids in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli). Simulation of such environments necessitates the inclusion of a large number of protein molecules. Therefore, computationally inexpensive methods, such as rigid-body Brownian dynamics (BD) or Monte Carlo simulations, can be particularly useful. However, as we demonstrate herein, the rigid-body representation typically employed in simulations of many-protein systems gives rise to certain artifacts in protein-protein interactions. Our approach allows us to incorporate molecular flexibility in Monte Carlo simulations at low computational cost, thereby eliminating ambiguities arising from structure selection in rigid-body simulations. We benchmark and validate the methodology using simulations of hen egg white lysozyme in solution, a well-studied system for which extensive experimental data, including osmotic second virial coefficients, small-angle scattering structure factors, and multiple structures determined by X-ray and neutron crystallography and solution NMR, as well as rigid-body BD simulation results, are available for comparison.

  13. COMBINED MICROBIAL SURFACTANT-POLYMER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED OIL MOBILITY AND CONFORMANCE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2004-08-01

    Many domestic oil fields are facing abandonment even though they still contain two-thirds of their original oil. A significant number of these fields can yield additional oil using advanced oil recovery (AOR) technologies. To maintain domestic oil production at current levels, AOR technologies are needed that are affordable and can be implemented by independent oil producers of the future. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technologies have become established as cost-effective solutions for declining oil production. MEOR technologies are affordable for independent producers operating stripper wells and can be used to extend the life of marginal fields. The demonstrated versatility of microorganisms can be used to design advanced microbial systems to treat multiple production problems in complex, heterogeneous reservoirs. The proposed research presents the concept of a combined microbial surfactant-polymer system for advanced oil recovery. The surfactant-polymer system utilizes bacteria that are capable of both biosurfactant production and metabolically-controlled biopolymer production. This novel technology combines complementary mechanisms to extend the life of marginal fields and is applicable to a large number of domestic reservoirs. The research project described in this report is performed jointly by, Bio-Engineering Inc., a woman owned small business, Texas A&M University and Prairie View A&M University, a Historically Black College and University. This report describes the results of our laboratory work to grow microbial cultures and the work done on recovery experiments on core rocks. We have selected two bacterial strains capable of producing both surfactant and polymers. We have conducted laboratory experiments to determine under what conditions surfactants and polymers can be produced from one single strain. We have conduct recovery experiments to determine the performance of these strains under different conditions. Our results do not show a

  14. Conformable wearable systems comprising organic electronics on foil for well being and healthcare (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kok, Margreet M.

    2014-10-01

    Integration of electronics into materials and objects that have not been functionalized with electronics before, open up extensive possibilities to support mankind. By adding intelligence and/or operating power to materials in close skin contact like clothing, furniture or bandages the health of people can be monitored or even improved. Foil based electronics are interesting components to be integrated as they are thin, large area and cost effective available components Our developed technology of printed electronic structures to which components are reliably bonded, fulfills the promise. We have integrated these components into textiles and built wearable encapsulated products with foil based electronics. Foil components with organic and inorganic LEDs are interconnected and laminated onto electronic textiles by using conductive adhesives to bond the contact pads of the component to conductive yarns in the textile. Modelling and reliability testing under dynamic circumstances provided important insights in order to optimise the technology. The design of the interconnection and choice of conductive adhesive / underfill and lamination contributed to the durability of the system. Transition zones from laminated foil to textile are engineered to withstand dynamic use. As an example of a product, we have realized an electronic wristband that is encapsulated in rubber and has a number of sensor functionalities integrated on stretchable electronic circuits based on Cu and Ag. The encapsulation with silicone or polyurethanes was performed such, that charging and sensor/skin contacts are possible while simultaneously protecting the electronics from mechanical and environmental stresses.

  15. Conformal ALON® windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Smith, Mark; Nag, Nagendra; Foti, Robyn; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri

    2014-05-01

    Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON® Optical Ceramic) combines broadband transparency with excellent mechanical properties. ALON's cubic structure means that it is transparent in its polycrystalline form, allowing it to be manufactured by conventional powder processing techniques. Surmet controls every aspect of the manufacturing process, beginning with synthesis of ALON® powder, continuing through forming/heat treatment of blanks, ending with optical fabrication of ALON® windows. Surmet has made significant progress in its production capability in recent years. Additional scale up of Surmet's manufacturing capability, for complex geometries, larger sizes and higher quantities, is underway. The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the ability to produce windows in complex geometries currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows. Surmet's ability to produce large curved ALON® blanks is an important step in the development of conformal windows for future aircraft applications.

  16. Stabilizing the boat conformation of cyclohexane rings

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, S.; Goddard, W.A. III; Moldowan, J.M.; Carlson, R.M.K.; Goddard, W.A. III.

    1995-06-21

    In calculating the energetics for various conformers of the A, B, and C series of hopanoid hydrocarbons present in mature oil reservoirs, we find that the B series prefers the boat conformation (by 1.3-2.5 kcal/mol) for the D cyclohexane ring. We analyze the structural elements responsible for stabilizing this boat conformation, identify the key features, and illustrate how one might stabilize boat conformations of other systems. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Pilot study of systemic and intrathecal mafosfamide followed by conformal radiation for infants with intracranial central nervous system tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study (PBTC-001).

    PubMed

    Blaney, Susan M; Kocak, Mehmet; Gajjar, Amar; Chintagumpala, Murali; Merchant, Thomas; Kieran, Mark; Pollack, Ian F; Gururangan, Sri; Geyer, Russ; Phillips, Peter; McLendon, Roger E; Packer, Roger; Goldman, Stewart; Banerjee, Anu; Heideman, Richard; Boyett, James M; Kun, Larry

    2012-09-01

    A pilot study to investigate the feasibility of the addition of intrathecal (IT) mafosfamide to a regimen of concomitant multi-agent systemic chemotherapy followed by conformal radiation therapy (RT) for children <3 years with newly diagnosed embryonal CNS tumors was performed. Ninety-three newly diagnosed infants and children (<3 years) with embryonal CNS tumors were enrolled. Twenty weeks of systemic multi-agent chemotherapy commenced within 35 days of surgery. Patients without CSF flow obstruction (n = 71) received IT mafosfamide (14 mg) with chemotherapy. Localized (M(0)) patients with SD or better subsequently received RT followed by 20 additional weeks of chemotherapy. Second look surgery was encouraged prior to RT if there was an incomplete surgical resection at diagnosis. 71 evaluable patients with normal CSF flow received IT Mafosfamide with systemic chemotherapy; patients with M + disease were removed from protocol therapy at 20 weeks and those with PD at the time of progression. One and 5-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the cohort of 71 evaluable patients were 52 ± 6.5 % and 33 ± 13 %, and 67 ± 6.2 % and 51 ± 11 %, respectively. The 1-year Progression Free Survival (PFS) for M0 patients with medulloblastoma (MB, n = 20), supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET, n = 9), and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT, n = 12) was 80 ± 7 %, 67 ± 15 % and 27 ± 13 % and 5-year PFS was 65 ± 19 %, 37 ± 29 %, and 0 ± 0 %, respectively. The addition of IT mafosfamide to systemic chemotherapy in infants with embryonal CNS tumors was feasible. The PFS for M0 patients appears comparable to or better than most prior historical comparisons and was excellent for those receiving conformal radiotherapy.

  18. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  19. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    ) using combinations of high and low molecular weight (Mw) polymers, (5) using secondary crosslinking reactions, (6) injecting un-hydrated polymer particles, and (7) incorporating particulates. All of these methods showed promise in some aspects, but required performance improvements in other aspects. All materials investigated to date showed significant performance variations with fracture width. High pressure gradients and limited distance of penetration are common problems in tight fractures. Gravity segregation and low resistance to breaching are common problems in wide fractures. These will be key issues to address in future work. Although gels can exhibit disproportionate permeability reduction in fractures, the levels of permeability reduction for oil flow are too high to allow practical exploitation in most circumstances. In contrast, disproportionate permeability reduction provided by gels that form in porous rock (adjacent to the fractures) has considerable potential in fractured systems.

  20. A study on quantitative analysis of field size and dose by using gating system in 4D conformal radiation treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Youn-Sang; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kim, Chang-Bok; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the gating-based 4-D conformal radiation therapy (4D-CT) treatment planning by a comparison with the common 3-D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CT) treatment planning and examined the change in treatment field size and dose to the tumors and adjacent normal tissues because an unnecessary dose is also included in the 3-D treatment planning for the radiation treatment of tumors in the chest and abdomen. The 3D-CT and gating-based 4D-CT images were obtained from patients who had undergone radiation treatment for chest and abdomen tumors in the oncology department. After establishing a treatment plan, the CT treatment and planning system were used to measure the change in field size for analysis. A dose volume histogram (DVH) was used to calculate the appropriate dose to planning target volume (PTV) tumors and adjacent normal tissue. The difference in the treatment volume of the chest was 0.6 and 0.83 cm on the X- and Y-axis, respectively, for the gross tumor volume (GTV). Accordingly, the values in the 4D-CT treatment planning were smaller and the dose was more concentrated by 2.7% and 0.9% on the GTV and clinical target volume (CTV), respectively. The normal tissues in the surrounding normal tissues were reduced by 3.0%, 7.2%, 0.4%, 1.7%, 2.6% and 0.2% in the bronchus, chest wall, esophagus, heart, lung and spinal cord, respectively. The difference in the treatment volume of the abdomen was 0.72 cm on the X-axis and 0.51 cm on the Y-axis for the GTV; and 1.06 cm on the X-axis and 1.85 cm on the Y-axis for the PTV. Therefore, the values in the 4D-CT treatment planning were smaller. The dose was concentrated by 6.8% and 4.3% on the GTV and PTV, respectively, whereas the adjacent normal tissues in the cord, Lt. kidney, Rt. kidney, small bowels and whole liver were reduced by 3.2%, 4.2%, 1.5%, 6.2% and 12.7%, respectively. The treatment field size was smaller in volume in the case of the 4D-CT treatment planning. In the DVH, the 4D-CT treatment

  1. Use of restrained molecular dynamics to predict the conformations of phosphorylated receiver domains in two‐component signaling systems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Clay A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two‐component signaling (TCS) is the primary means by which bacteria, as well as certain plants and fungi, respond to external stimuli. Signal transduction involves stimulus‐dependent autophosphorylation of a sensor histidine kinase and phosphoryl transfer to the receiver domain of a downstream response regulator. Phosphorylation acts as an allosteric switch, inducing structural and functional changes in the pathway's components. Due to their transient nature, phosphorylated receiver domains are challenging to characterize structurally. In this work, we provide a methodology for simulating receiver domain phosphorylation to predict conformations that are nearly identical to experimental structures. Using restrained molecular dynamics, phosphorylated conformations of receiver domains can be reliably sampled on nanosecond timescales. These simulations also provide data on conformational dynamics that can be used to identify regions of functional significance related to phosphorylation. We first validated this approach on several well‐characterized receiver domains and then used it to compare the upstream and downstream components of the fungal Sln1 phosphorelay. Our results demonstrate that this technique provides structural insight, obtained in the absence of crystallographic or NMR information, regarding phosphorylation‐induced conformational changes in receiver domains that regulate the output of their associated signaling pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a protocol has been described that can be broadly applied to TCS proteins for predictive purposes. Proteins 2016; 85:155–176. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27802580

  2. Who reports address changes through the healthcare system? The characteristics of laggers and non-reporters using the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Shuttleworth, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Address information from health service professionals is already important for the delivery of health care and population monitoring and screening. It is also important for statistical purposes such as the estimation of migration and small area populations and its importance could increase as the decade progresses and alternatives are sought to the traditional census. Because of this, it is important to understand more about the accuracy of address information provided through the health care system.This article considers the characteristics of 'laggers' - those who delay in reporting address changes - and 'non-reporters' - those who on occasion fail to report their addresses.The article finds that, as might be expected, laggers and non-reporters tend to be male and resident in urban and deprived areas. However, less expectedly, older people tend to be laggers, as are owner occupiers, those who are not ill, those who have some educational qualifications, and those who are self-employed. Some non-reporters are also more likely to be employed in professional jobs and to be unmarried (for example single, remarried and divorced). This suggests that poor address information is not just a problem associated with the socially deprived and the young but also with some more affluent groups such as those not experiencing limiting long-term illness. The article concludes by arguing that the checking of patients' address information should be collected under the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) as a performance indicator.

  3. Theoretical in-Solution Conformational/Tautomeric Analyses for Chain Systems with Conjugated Double Bonds Involving Nitrogen(s)

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Conformational/tautomeric transformations for X=CH–CH=Y structures (X = CH2, O, NH and Y = NH) have been studied in the gas phase, in dichloromethane and in aqueous solutions. The paper is a continuation of a former study where s-cis/s-trans conformational equilibria were predicted for analogues. The s-trans conformation is preferred for the present molecules in the gas phase on the basis of its lowest internal free energy as calculated at the B97D/aug-cc-pvqz and CCSD(T)CBS (coupled-cluster singles and doubles with non-iterative triples extrapolated to the complete basis set) levels. Transition state barriers are of 29–36 kJ/mol for rotations about the central C–C bonds. In solution, an s-trans form is still favored on the basis of its considerably lower internal free energy compared with the s-cis forms as calculated by IEF-PCM (integral-equation formalism of the polarizable continuum dielectric solvent model) at the theoretical levels indicated. A tetrahydrate model in the supermolecule/continuum approach helped explore the 2solute-solvent hydrogen bond pattern. The calculated transition state barrier for rotation about the C–C bond decreased to 27 kJ/mol for the tetrahydrate. Considering explicit solvent models, relative solvation free energies were calculated by means of the free energy perturbation method through Monte Carlo simulations. These calculated values differ remarkably from those by the PCM approach in aqueous solution, nonetheless the same prevalent conformation was predicted by the two methods. Aqueous solution structure-characteristics were determined by Monte Carlo. Equilibration of conformers/tautomers through water-assisted double proton-relay is discussed. This mechanism is not viable, however, in non-protic solvents where the calculated potential of mean force curve does not predict remarkable solute dimerization and subsequent favorable orientation. PMID:25984602

  4. Conformal mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Gonera, Joanna

    2013-08-15

    The SL(2,R) invariant Hamiltonian systems are discussed within the framework of the orbit method. It is shown that both the dynamics and the symmetry transformations are globally well-defined on phase space. The flexibility in the choice of the time variable and the Hamiltonian function described in the paper by de Alfaro et al. [Nuovo Cimento 34A (1976) 569] is related to the nontrivial global structure of 1+0-dimensional space–time. The operational definition of time is discussed.

  5. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions: An Update of the Technology Maturation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpoole, M.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will update the community on the development of conformal ablative TPS. As described at IPPW-10, in FY12, the CA-TPS element focused on establishing materials requirements based on MSL-type and COTS Low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions (q 250 Wcm2) to develop and deliver a conformal ablative TPS. This involved downselecting, manufacturing and testing two of the best candidate materials, demonstrating uniform infiltration of resins into baseline 2-cm thick carbon felt, selecting a primary conformal material formulation based on novel arc jet and basic material properties testing, developing and demonstrating instrumentation for felt-based materials and, based on the data, developing a low fidelity material response model so that the conformal ablator TPS thickness for missions could be established. In addition, the project began to develop Industry Partnerships. Since the nominal thickness of baseline carbon felts was only 2-cm, a partnership with a rayon felt developer was made in order to upgrade equipment, establish the processes required and attempt to manufacture 10-cm thick white goods. A partnership with a processing house was made to develop the methodology to carbonize large pieces of the white goods into 7.5-cm thick carbon felt.In FY13, more advanced testing and modeling of the downselected conformal material was performed. Material thermal properties tests and structural properties tests were performed. The first 3 and 4-point bend tests were performed on the conformal ablator as well as PICA for comparison and the conformal ablator had outstanding behavior compared to PICA. Arc jet testing was performed with instrumented samples of both the conformal ablator and standard PICA at heating rates ranging from 40 to 400 Wcm2 and shear as high as 600 Pa. The results from these tests showed a remarkable improvement in the thermal penetration through the conformal ablator when compared to PICAs response. The data from these tests were used to

  6. Atomic layer deposition of conformal inorganic nanoscale coatings on three-dimensional natural fiber systems: effect of surface topology on film growth characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hyde, G Kevin; Park, Kie Jin; Stewart, S Michael; Hinestroza, Juan P; Parsons, Gregory N

    2007-09-11

    Atomic-scale material deposition is utilized to achieve uniform coverage and modification of the surface properties of natural fiber and woven fabric materials, where irregular nanoscale features are embedded in a macroscale interpenetrating fiber network. The complex surface topology of the woven fabric results in significantly different film-growth thickness per ALD cycle as compared to planar surfaces coated using the same process conditions, likely due to reactant adsorption within the fiber starting material, as well as impeded reactant transport out of the fabric system during the purge cycle. Cotton textiles modified with conformal nanoscale Al2O3 are found to show extreme hydrophobic effects, distinctly different from planar surfaces that receive the same coatings. The results highlight key concerns for achieving controlled conformal coatings on complex surfaces and open the possibility for new textile finishing approaches to create novel fabric-based materials with specialized function and performance.

  7. Leaf growth is conformal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I.; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-10-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  8. Scale invariance vs conformal invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this review article, we discuss the distinction and possible equivalence between scale invariance and conformal invariance in relativistic quantum field theories. Under some technical assumptions, we can prove that scale invariant quantum field theories in d = 2 space-time dimensions necessarily possess the enhanced conformal symmetry. The use of the conformal symmetry is well appreciated in the literature, but the fact that all the scale invariant phenomena in d = 2 space-time dimensions enjoy the conformal property relies on the deep structure of the renormalization group. The outstanding question is whether this feature is specific to d = 2 space-time dimensions or it holds in higher dimensions, too. As of January 2014, our consensus is that there is no known example of scale invariant but non-conformal field theories in d = 4 space-time dimensions under the assumptions of (1) unitarity, (2) Poincaré invariance (causality), (3) discrete spectrum in scaling dimensions, (4) existence of scale current and (5) unbroken scale invariance in the vacuum. We have a perturbative proof of the enhancement of conformal invariance from scale invariance based on the higher dimensional analogue of Zamolodchikov's c-theorem, but the non-perturbative proof is yet to come. As a reference we have tried to collect as many interesting examples of scale invariance in relativistic quantum field theories as possible in this article. We give a complementary holographic argument based on the energy-condition of the gravitational system and the space-time diffeomorphism in order to support the claim of the symmetry enhancement. We believe that the possible enhancement of conformal invariance from scale invariance reveals the sublime nature of the renormalization group and space-time with holography. This review is based on a lecture note on scale invariance vs conformal invariance, on which the author gave lectures at Taiwan Central University for the 5th Taiwan School on Strings and

  9. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  10. A Domain Analysis Model for eIRB Systems: Addressing the Weak Link in Clinical Research Informatics

    PubMed Central

    He, Shan; Narus, Scott P.; Facelli, Julio C.; Lau, Lee Min; Botkin, Jefferey R.; Hurdle, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are a critical component of clinical research and can become a significant bottleneck due to the dramatic increase, in both volume and complexity of clinical research. Despite the interest in developing clinical research informatics (CRI) systems and supporting data standards to increase clinical research efficiency and interoperability, informatics research in the IRB domain has not attracted much attention in the scientific community. The lack of standardized and structured application forms across different IRBs causes inefficient and inconsistent proposal reviews and cumbersome workflows. These issues are even more prominent in multi-institutional clinical research that is rapidly becoming the norm. This paper proposes and evaluates a domain analysis model for electronic IRB (eIRB) systems, paving the way for streamlined clinical research workflow via integration with other CRI systems and improved IRB application throughput via computer-assisted decision support. PMID:24929181

  11. A domain analysis model for eIRB systems: addressing the weak link in clinical research informatics.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Narus, Scott P; Facelli, Julio C; Lau, Lee Min; Botkin, Jefferey R; Hurdle, John F

    2014-12-01

    Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are a critical component of clinical research and can become a significant bottleneck due to the dramatic increase, in both volume and complexity of clinical research. Despite the interest in developing clinical research informatics (CRI) systems and supporting data standards to increase clinical research efficiency and interoperability, informatics research in the IRB domain has not attracted much attention in the scientific community. The lack of standardized and structured application forms across different IRBs causes inefficient and inconsistent proposal reviews and cumbersome workflows. These issues are even more prominent in multi-institutional clinical research that is rapidly becoming the norm. This paper proposes and evaluates a domain analysis model for electronic IRB (eIRB) systems, paving the way for streamlined clinical research workflow via integration with other CRI systems and improved IRB application throughput via computer-assisted decision support.

  12. Quantifying and Addressing the DOE Material Reactivity Requirements with Analysis and Testing of Hydrogen Storage Materials & Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Y. F.

    2012-04-30

    The objective of this project is to examine safety aspects of candidate hydrogen storage materials and systems being developed in the DOE Hydrogen Program. As a result of this effort, the general DOE safety target will be given useful meaning by establishing a link between the characteristics of new storage materials and the satisfaction of safety criteria. This will be accomplished through the development and application of formal risk analysis methods, standardized materials testing, chemical reactivity characterization, novel risk mitigation approaches and subscale system demonstration. The project also will collaborate with other DOE and international activities in materials based hydrogen storage safety to provide a larger, highly coordinated effort.

  13. A Systems Thinking Framework for Assessing and Addressing Malaria Locally: An Alternative to the Globalization of Anti-Malaria Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Derek W.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes a decision system that was used in the early 1900s in the Federated Malay States (FMS) by Malcolm Watson in order to make anti-malaria program recommendations to decision makers in a wide range of ecological settings. Watson's recommendations to decision makers throughout the FMS led to a dramatic suppression of malaria…

  14. Understanding Community Schools as Collaboratives for System Building to Address Barriers and Promote Well-Being. A Center Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This brief reviews different agenda for establishing school-community connections in general and community schools specifically. A Comprehensive Community School is discussed as an entity that emerges from system building by school-family-community collaboratives. Establishing effective collaboratives requires policy that supports shared…

  15. Cost Analysis of the Discrete Address Beacon System for the Low-Performance General Aviation Aircraft Community.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Community S. Performing Organization Report No.7. Author’,) S. Kowalski, K. Peter, A. Schust, D. Swann, P. Young 1326-01-15-2529 9. Perferming Organization... cooperative surveillance and communications system for air traffic control. It employs ground-based interrogators and airborne transponders. Data-link

  16. Declaration of Conformance with Executive Order 13423: Challenges for Department of the Army Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-14

    conformance ) • Installation MUST resolve all Major Nonconformance Issues prior to Declaration of EMS Conformance (Verification by IMCOM Region/MACOM...endorsed a Corrective Action Plan to address unresolved minor nonconformance issues; and – (c) Commander has formally declared EMS conformance to ISO... Conformance 42 15 57 DA Definitions – Nonconformance • Major Nonconformance – Audit evidence indicates one of the following

  17. Toward Understanding the Conformal Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, V. A.; Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.

    2017-03-01

    We constructed the conformally invariant model for scalar particle creation induced by strong gravitational fields. Starting from the usual hydrodynamic description of the particle motion written in the Eulerian coordinates, we substituted the particle number conservation law (which enters the formalism) by the particle creation law, proportional to the square of the Weyl tensor, following the famous result by Ya. B. Zel'dovich and A. A. Starobinsky. Then, demanding the conformal invariance of the whole dynamical system, we have got both the Weyl-conformal gravity and the Einstein-Hilbert dilaton gravity action integral. Thus, we obtained something like the induced gravity suggested first by A. D. Sakharov. It is shown that the resulting system is self-consistent.

  18. Status of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems’ Cost, Schedule, and Management Actions Taken to Address Prior Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    identified corrective actions taken to ensure the integrity of business process re-engineering ( BPR ) assessments submitted for DoD ERP programs. DoD...certification authority determine that an appropriate BPR effort is completed before funds in excess of $1 million are obligated for defense...determine whether an adequate BPR effort occurred for ongoing defense business systems modernizations that have a total cost in excess of $100

  19. Improving U. S. Army Analysis of Alternatives to Better Address the Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act of 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Hume (2012) presents ideas for building an analytical framework for the capabilities development process. TRAC (2011b) presents recommendations to...TRAC WSMR Mr. Scott Schoeb, Chief, Maneuver Systems Branch, AMSAA Mr. Alan Dinsmore, Integration Team Leader, AMSAA Mr. David Henningsen, Office...continue to be, involved in multiple Army AoAs. The name, rank, organization, and position are provided below for each person interviewed. Dr. David

  20. Opportunity, risk, and success recognizing, addressing, and balancing multiple factors crucial to the success of a project management system deployed to support multi-lateral decommissioning programs

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Greg; Longsworth, Paul

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the factors involved in effectively implementing a world-class program/project management information system funded by multiple nations. Along with many other benefits, investing in and utilizing such systems improves delivery and drive accountability for major expenditures. However, there are an equally large number of impediments to developing and using such systems. To be successful, the process requires a dynamic combining of elements and strategic sequencing of initiatives. While program/project-management systems involve information technologies, software and hardware, they represent only one element of the overall system.. Technology, process, people and knowledge must all be integrated and working in concert with one another to assure a fully capable system. Major system implementations occur infrequently, and frequently miss established targets in relatively small organizations (with the risk increasing with greater complexity). The European Bank of Reconstruction (EBRD) is midway through just such an implementation. The EBRD is using funds from numerous donor countries to sponsor development of an overarching program management system. The system will provide the Russian Federation with the tools to effectively manage prioritizing, planning, and physically decommissioning assets{sub i}n northwest Russia to mitigate risks associated the Soviet era nuclear submarine program. Project-management delivery using world-class techniques supported by aligned systems has been proven to increase the probability of delivering on-time and on-budget, assuring those funding such programs optimum value for money. However, systems deployed to manage multi-laterally funded projects must be developed with appropriate levels of consideration given to unique aspects such as: accommodation of existing project management methods, consideration for differences is management structures and organizational behaviors, incorporation of unique strengths, and

  1. Conformational analysis of small molecules: NMR and quantum mechanics calculations.

    PubMed

    Tormena, Cláudio F

    2016-08-01

    This review deals with conformational analysis in small organic molecules, and describes the stereoelectronic interactions responsible for conformational stability. Conformational analysis is usually performed using NMR spectroscopy through measurement of coupling constants at room or low temperature in different solvents to determine the populations of conformers in solution. Quantum mechanical calculations are used to address the interactions responsible for conformer stability. The conformational analysis of a large number of small molecules is described, using coupling constant measurements in different solvents and at low temperature, as well as recent applications of through-space and through-hydrogen bond coupling constants JFH as tools for the conformational analysis of fluorinated molecules. Besides NMR parameters, stereoelectronic interactions such as conjugative, hyperconjugative, steric and intramolecular hydrogen bond interactions involved in conformational preferences are discussed.

  2. Using Models to Address Misconceptions in Size and Scale Related to the Earth, Moon, Solar System, and Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Salthouse, K.; Canizo, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    Many children and adults have misconceptions about space-related concepts such as size and distance: Earth-Moon size and distance, distances between the planets, distances to the stars (including the Sun), etc. Unfortunately, when images are used to illustrate common phenomena, such as Moon phases and seasons, they may do a good job of explaining the phenomenon, but may reinforce other misconceptions. For topics such as phases and seasons, scale (size and distance) can easily lead to confusion and reinforce misconceptions. For example, when showing Moon phases, the Moon is usually represented as large relative to the Earth and the true relative distance cannot be easily shown. Similarly, when showing the tilt of the Earth’s axis as the reason for the seasons, the Earth is usually almost as large as the Sun and the distance between them is usually only a few times Earth’s diameter.What lessons have we learned? It is critical with any model to engage the participants: if at all possible, everyone should participate. A critical part of any modeling needs to be a discussion, involving the participants, of the limitations of the model: what is modeled accurately and what is not? This helps to identify and rectify misconceptions and helps to avoid creating new ones. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: The University of Arizona, Tucson Unified School District, Science Center of Inquiry, Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona, and the Planetary Science Institute. Examples of activities that we will present on our poster include: •Earth/Moon size and distance •Macramé model of the Solar System •Human orrery and tabletop orrery •3-D nature of the constellations •Comparing our Solar System to other planetary systems •Origin of the Universe: scale of time and distance

  3. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: development of a market conformity tool for pork products based on technological quality traits.

    PubMed

    Gonzàlez, J; Gispert, M; Gil, M; Hviid, M; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Zimmer, C; Fàbrega, E

    2014-12-01

    A market conformity tool, based on technological meat quality parameters, was developed within the Q-PorkChains project, to be included in a global sustainability evaluation of pig farming systems. The specific objective of the market conformity tool was to define a scoring system based on the suitability of meat to elaborate the main pork products, according to their market shares based on industry requirements, in different pig farming systems. The tool was based on carcass and meat quality parameters that are commonly used for the assessment of technological quality, which provide representative and repeatable data and are easily measurable. They were the following: cold carcass weight; lean meat percentage; minimum subcutaneous back fat depth at m. gluteus medius level, 45 postmortem and ultimate pH (measured at 24-h postmortem) in m. longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus; meat colour; drip losses and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample. Five categories of pork products produced at large scale in Europe were considered in the study: fresh meat, cooked products, dry products, specialties and other meat products. For each of the studied farming systems, the technological meat quality requirements, as well as the market shares for each product category within farming system, were obtained from the literature and personal communications from experts. The tool resulted in an overall conformity score that enabled to discriminate among systems according to the degree of matching of the achieved carcass and meat quality with the requirements of the targeted market. In order to improve feasibility, the tool was simplified by selecting ultimate pH at m. longissimus or semimembranosus, minimum fat thickness measured at the left half carcass over m. gluteus medius and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample as iceberg indicators. The overall suitability scores calculated by using both the complete and the reduced tools presented good

  4. A perfusion bioreactor system efficiently generates cell‐loaded bone substitute materials for addressing critical size bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhans, Claudia; Mohan, Ramkumar Ramani; Vacun, Gabriele; Schwarz, Thomas; Haller, Barbara; Sun, Yang; Kahlig, Alexander; Kluger, Petra; Finne‐Wistrand, Anna; Walles, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Critical size bone defects and non‐union fractions are still challenging to treat. Cell‐loaded bone substitutes have shown improved bone ingrowth and bone formation. However, a lack of methods for homogenously colonizing scaffolds limits the maximum volume of bone grafts. Additionally, therapy robustness is impaired by heterogeneous cell populations after graft generation. Our aim was to establish a technology for generating grafts with a size of 10.5 mm in diameter and 25 mm of height, and thus for grafts suited for treatment of critical size bone defects. Therefore, a novel tailor‐made bioreactor system was developed, allowing standardized flow conditions in a porous poly(L‐lactide‐co‐caprolactone) material. Scaffolds were seeded with primary human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different donors. In contrast to static experimental conditions, homogenous cell distributions were accomplished under dynamic culture. Additionally, culture in the bioreactor system allowed the induction of osteogenic lineage commitment after one week of culture without addition of soluble factors. This was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of calcification and gene expression markers related to osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the novel bioreactor technology allows efficient and standardized conditions for generating bone substitutes that are suitable for the treatment of critical size defects in humans. PMID:26011163

  5. Unmanned Aerial Systems as Part of a Multi-Component Assessment Strategy to Address Climate Change and Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Sciare, Jean; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been established as versatile tools for different applications, providing data and observations for atmospheric and Earth-Systems research. They offer an urgently needed link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations and are distinguished by significant versatility, flexibility and moderate operational costs. UAS have the proven potential to contribute to a multi-component assessment strategy that combines remote-sensing, numerical modelling and surface measurements in order to elucidate important atmospheric processes. This includes physical and chemical transformations related to ongoing climate change as well as issues linked to aerosol-cloud interactions and air quality. The distinct advantages offered by UAS comprise, to name but a few: (i) their ability to operate from altitudes of a few meters to up to a few kilometers; (ii) their capability to perform autonomously controlled missions, which provides for repeat-measurements to be carried out at precisely defined locations; (iii) their relative ease of operation, which enables flexible employment at short-term notice and (iv) the employment of more than one platform in stacked formation, which allows for unique, quasi-3D-observations of atmospheric properties and processes. These advantages are brought to bear in combining in-situ ground based observations and numerical modeling with UAS-based remote sensing in elucidating specific research questions that require both horizontally and vertically resolved measurements at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Employing numerical atmospheric modelling, UAS can provide survey information over spatially and temporally localized, focused areas of evolving atmospheric phenomena, as they become identified by the numerical models. Conversely, UAS observations offer urgently needed data for model verification and provide boundary conditions for numerical models. In this presentation, we will

  6. How much detail and accuracy is required in plant growth sub-models to address questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural systems?

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Simulations that integrate sub-models of important biological processes can be used to ask questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural and ecological systems. Building sub-models with more detail and aiming for greater accuracy and realism may seem attractive, but is likely to be more expensive and time-consuming and result in more complicated models that lack transparency. This paper illustrates a general integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems that is based on the principle of starting simple and then directly testing for the need to add additional detail and complexity. Methodology The approach is demonstrated using LUSO (Land Use Sequence Optimizer), an agricultural system analysis framework based on simulation and optimization. A simple sensitivity analysis and functional perturbation analysis is used to test to what extent LUSO's crop–weed competition sub-model affects the answers to a number of questions at the scale of the whole farming system regarding optimal land-use sequencing strategies and resulting profitability. Principal results The need for accuracy in the crop–weed competition sub-model within LUSO depended to a small extent on the parameter being varied, but more importantly and interestingly on the type of question being addressed with the model. Only a small part of the crop–weed competition model actually affects the answers to these questions. Conclusions This study illustrates an example application of the proposed integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems based on testing whether complexity needs to be added to address particular questions of interest. We conclude that this example clearly demonstrates the potential value of the general approach. Advantages of this approach include minimizing costs and resources required for model construction, keeping models transparent and easy to analyse, and ensuring the model

  7. Recommendations for implementing policy, systems, and environmental improvements to address chronic diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-11-20

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities.

  8. Addressing the Challenges of Diverse Knowledge Systems through Landscape Analysis: A Case Study in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, A. H.; Griggs, D.; Joachim, L.; Heider, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Barmah-Millewa region of the Murray-Darling Basin is the heart of the Traditional Lands of the Yorta Yorta people. Management of water and ecosystem services in the region is governed by a wide array of sometimes inconsistent legislation and policies with differing rules, management focus and plans, and permitting and allocation procedures. Geographic information systems are a common framework for the integration of Indigenous knowledge and insights into natural resources management. But only with appropriate collection, management and database design protocols in place can geodatabase development and analysis support the effective and respectful participation of the Yorta Yorta community in management of this ecologically, economically and culturally important region. Here we describe the knowledge collection and protection protocols that were applied to develop the integrated geodatabase. We present approaches to generating meaningful guidance for water managers on the cultural implications of water allocation decisions.

  9. Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  10. Profile evolution for conformal atomic layer deposition over nanotopography.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Erin R; Banerjee, Parag; Perez, Israel; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2010-08-24

    The self-limiting reactions which distinguish atomic layer deposition (ALD) provide ultrathin film deposition with superb conformality over the most challenging topography. This work addresses how the shapes (i.e., surface profiles) of nanostructures are modified by the conformality of ALD. As a nanostructure template, we employ a highly scalloped surface formed during the first anodization of the porous anodic alumina (PAA) process, followed by removal of the alumina to expose a scalloped Al surface. SEM and AFM reveal evolution of surface profiles that change with ALD layer thickness, influenced by the way ALD conformality decorates the underlying topography. The evolution of surface profiles is modeled using a simple geometric 3D extrusion model, which replicates the measured complex surface topography. Excellent agreement is obtained between experimental data and the results from this model, suggesting that for this ALD system conformality is very high even on highly structured, sharp features of the initial template surface. Through modeling and experimentation, the benefits of ALD to manipulate complex surface topographies are recognized and will play an important role in the design and nanofabrication of next generation devices with increasingly high aspect ratios as well as nanoscale features.

  11. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  12. Conformal regularization of Einstein's field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhr, Niklas; Uggla, Claes

    2005-09-01

    To study asymptotic structures, we regularize Einstein's field equations by means of conformal transformations. The conformal factor is chosen so that it carries a dimensional scale that captures crucial asymptotic features. By choosing a conformal orthonormal frame, we obtain a coupled system of differential equations for a set of dimensionless variables, associated with the conformal dimensionless metric, where the variables describe ratios with respect to the chosen asymptotic scale structure. As examples, we describe some explicit choices of conformal factors and coordinates appropriate for the situation of a timelike congruence approaching a singularity. One choice is shown to just slightly modify the so-called Hubble-normalized approach, and one leads to dimensionless first-order symmetric hyperbolic equations. We also discuss differences and similarities with other conformal approaches in the literature, as regards, e.g., isotropic singularities.

  13. A hybrid approach for addressing ring flexibility in 3D database searching.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, J

    1997-01-01

    A hybrid approach for flexible 3D database searching is presented that addresses the problem of ring flexibility. It combines the explicit storage of up to 25 multiple conformations of rings, with up to eight atoms, generated by the 3D structure generator CORINA with the power of a torsional fitting technique implemented in the 3D database system UNITY. A comparison with the original UNITY approach, using a database with about 130,000 entries and five different pharmacophore queries, was performed. The hybrid approach scored, on an average, 10-20% more hits than the reference run. Moreover, specific problems with unrealistic hit geometries produced by the original approach can be excluded. In addition, the influence of the maximum number of ring conformations per molecule was investigated. An optimal number of 10 conformations per molecule is recommended.

  14. Logarithmic conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more

  15. Acceleration of dormant storage effects to address the reliability of silicon surface micromachined Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, James V.; Candelaria, Sam A.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Duesterhaus, Michelle Ann; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Timpe, Shannon J.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Skousen, Troy J.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Parson, Ted Blair

    2006-06-01

    Qualification of microsystems for weapon applications is critically dependent on our ability to build confidence in their performance, by predicting the evolution of their behavior over time in the stockpile. The objective of this work was to accelerate aging mechanisms operative in surface micromachined silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with contacting surfaces that are stored for many years prior to use, to determine the effects of aging on reliability, and relate those effects to changes in the behavior of interfaces. Hence the main focus was on 'dormant' storage effects on the reliability of devices having mechanical contacts, the first time they must move. A large number ({approx}1000) of modules containing prototype devices and diagnostic structures were packaged using the best available processes for simple electromechanical devices. The packaging processes evolved during the project to better protect surfaces from exposure to contaminants and water vapor. Packages were subjected to accelerated aging and stress tests to explore dormancy and operational environment effects on reliability and performance. Functional tests and quantitative measurements of adhesion and friction demonstrated that the main failure mechanism during dormant storage is change in adhesion and friction, precipitated by loss of the fluorinated monolayer applied after fabrication. The data indicate that damage to the monolayer can occur at water vapor concentrations as low as 500 ppm inside the package. The most common type of failure was attributed to surfaces that were in direct contact during aging. The application of quantitative methods for monolayer lubricant analysis showed that even though the coverage of vapor-deposited monolayers is generally very uniform, even on hidden surfaces, locations of intimate contact can be significantly depleted in initial concentration of lubricating molecules. These areas represent defects in the film prone to adsorption of water or

  16. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  17. The Conformal Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons-Duffin, David

    These notes are from courses given at TASI and the Advanced Strings School in summer 2015. Starting from principles of quantum field theory and the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, we develop the basics of conformal field theory, including conformal Ward identities, radial quantization, reection positivity, the operator product expansion, and conformal blocks. We end with an introduction to numerical bootstrap methods, focusing on the 2d and 3d Ising models.

  18. Conformal deposition of LPCVD TEOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Paul; Somasundram, Kumar; Byrne, Stephen; Nevin, Andrew

    2001-09-01

    The step coverage of dielectrics is important for the microelectronics industry and critical to Micro-machined products and High Voltage MEMS drivers. The techniques used to fabricate MEMS structures require void free refill processes and even film deposition along deep trenches to protect against etch chemistries. High voltage drivers used to actuate MEMS devices benefit from dielectric isolation, which reduces the need for large tub formation between devices. It also enables 'system on chip' solutions for MEMs devices and protection against voltage spikes. This paper presents a process developed at Analog Devices Belfast that enables an LPCVD TEOS furnace to perform a highly conformal trench refill without equipment modification. The conformality is over 95% for 20 micrometer deep trenches and maintains a conformality greater than 85% in 50 micrometer deep trenches. This compares with 75% conformality which is considered excellent for 20 micrometer trench refills obtained using previous LPCVD TEOS processing. The process is shown to have benefits in conformality, breakdown voltage, and stress over standard trench fill processes including Ozone TEOS. The densification of the TEOS film has been optimized for electrical parameters using CV and IV techniques, while XPS, FTIR and spectroscopic ellipsometry are used for physical characterization. Stress is a very important parameter for micro-machining and the conformal TEOS has a film stress which is tensile 30 - 40 MPa as deposited and compressive 100 MPa after densification. The breakdown voltage has been measured at 8.5 MV/cm compared to 7.5 - 9 MV/cm for a typical densified TEOS film and the refractive index is 1.456 compared to 1.465 for a thermal oxide. Analog Devices Belfast is part of the Micro-machined Products division and provides SOI and customized SOI for the MEMs and IC market.

  19. [Dosimetric evaluation of conformal radiotherapy: conformity factor].

    PubMed

    Oozeer, R; Chauvet, B; Garcia, R; Berger, C; Felix-Faure, C; Reboul, F

    2000-01-01

    The aim of three-dimensional conformal therapy (3DCRT) is to treat the Planning Target Volume (PTV) to the prescribed dose while reducing doses to normal tissues and critical structures, in order to increase local control and reduce toxicity. The evaluation tools used for optimizing treatment techniques are three-dimensional visualization of dose distributions, dose-volume histograms, tumor control probabilities (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). These tools, however, do not fully quantify the conformity of dose distributions to the PTV. Specific tools were introduced to measure this conformity for a given dose level. We have extended those definitions to different dose levels, using a conformity index (CI). CI is based on the relative volumes of PTV and outside the PTV receiving more than a given dose. This parameter has been evaluated by a clinical study including 82 patients treated for lung cancer and 82 patients treated for prostate cancer. The CI was low for lung dosimetric studies (0.35 at the prescribed dose 66 Gy) due to build-up around the GTV and to spinal cord sparing. For prostate dosimetric studies, the CI was higher (0.57 at the prescribed dose 70 Gy). The CI has been used to compare treatment plans for lung 3DCRT (2 vs 3 beams) and prostate 3DCRT (4 vs 7 beams). The variation of CI with dose can be used to optimize dose prescription.

  20. Conformal differential invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglikov, Boris

    2017-03-01

    We compute the Hilbert polynomial and the Poincaré function counting the number of fixed jet-order differential invariants of conformal metric structures modulo local diffeomorphisms, and we describe the field of rational differential invariants separating generic orbits of the diffeomorphism pseudogroup action. This resolves the local recognition problem for conformal structures.

  1. Conformations of Substituted Ethanes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Charles A.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews state-of-the-art of conformational analysis and factors which affect it. Emphasizes sp-3 hybridized acrylic molecules. Provides examples on the importance of certain factors in determining conformation. Purpose, is to provide examples for examination questions. (Author/SA)

  2. Multi-modal demands of a smartphone used to place calls and enter addresses during highway driving relative to two embedded systems

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Reagan, Ian; Kidd, David; Dobres, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is limited research on trade-offs in demand between manual and voice interfaces of embedded and portable technologies. Mehler et al. identified differences in driving performance, visual engagement and workload between two contrasting embedded vehicle system designs (Chevrolet MyLink and Volvo Sensus). The current study extends this work by comparing these embedded systems with a smartphone (Samsung Galaxy S4). None of the voice interfaces eliminated visual demand. Relative to placing calls manually, both embedded voice interfaces resulted in less eyes-off-road time than the smartphone. Errors were most frequent when calling contacts using the smartphone. The smartphone and MyLink allowed addresses to be entered using compound voice commands resulting in shorter eyes-off-road time compared with the menu-based Sensus but with many more errors. Driving performance and physiological measures indicated increased demand when performing secondary tasks relative to ‘just driving’, but were not significantly different between the smartphone and embedded systems. Practitioner Summary: The findings show that embedded system and portable device voice interfaces place fewer visual demands on the driver than manual interfaces, but they also underscore how differences in system designs can significantly affect not only the demands placed on drivers, but also the successful completion of tasks. PMID:27110964

  3. Work stealing for GPU-accelerated parallel programs in a global address space framework: WORK STEALING ON GPU-ACCELERATED SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Arafat, Humayun; Dinan, James; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Balaji, Pavan; Sadayappan, P.

    2016-01-06

    Task parallelism is an attractive approach to automatically load balance the computation in a parallel system and adapt to dynamism exhibited by parallel systems. Exploiting task parallelism through work stealing has been extensively studied in shared and distributed-memory contexts. In this paper, we study the design of a system that uses work stealing for dynamic load balancing of task-parallel programs executed on hybrid distributed-memory CPU-graphics processing unit (GPU) systems in a global-address space framework. We take into account the unique nature of the accelerator model employed by GPUs, the significant performance difference between GPU and CPU execution as a function of problem size, and the distinct CPU and GPU memory domains. We consider various alternatives in designing a distributed work stealing algorithm for CPU-GPU systems, while taking into account the impact of task distribution and data movement overheads. These strategies are evaluated using microbenchmarks that capture various execution configurations as well as the state-of-the-art CCSD(T) application module from the computational chemistry domain.

  4. Multi-modal demands of a smartphone used to place calls and enter addresses during highway driving relative to two embedded systems.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Reagan, Ian; Kidd, David; Dobres, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    There is limited research on trade-offs in demand between manual and voice interfaces of embedded and portable technologies. Mehler et al. identified differences in driving performance, visual engagement and workload between two contrasting embedded vehicle system designs (Chevrolet MyLink and Volvo Sensus). The current study extends this work by comparing these embedded systems with a smartphone (Samsung Galaxy S4). None of the voice interfaces eliminated visual demand. Relative to placing calls manually, both embedded voice interfaces resulted in less eyes-off-road time than the smartphone. Errors were most frequent when calling contacts using the smartphone. The smartphone and MyLink allowed addresses to be entered using compound voice commands resulting in shorter eyes-off-road time compared with the menu-based Sensus but with many more errors. Driving performance and physiological measures indicated increased demand when performing secondary tasks relative to 'just driving', but were not significantly different between the smartphone and embedded systems. Practitioner Summary: The findings show that embedded system and portable device voice interfaces place fewer visual demands on the driver than manual interfaces, but they also underscore how differences in system designs can significantly affect not only the demands placed on drivers, but also the successful completion of tasks.

  5. Pain Palliation in Patients with Bone Metastases Using Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound with Conformal Bone System: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Bio; Lee, Soo Hyeon; Choi, Hye Jin; Lim, Seung Tack; Rha, Sun Young; Rachmilevitch, Itay; Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) with the ExAblate Conformal Bone System for the palliation of painful bone metastases. Materials and Methods Our Institutional Review Board approved this study, and all patients gave informed consent prior to enrollment. A total of six painful metastatic bone lesions in five patients were treated using MRgFUS with the ExAblate Conformal Bone System for pain palliation. The follow-up sessions were at 3 days, 2 weeks, 1, 2, and 3 months, and 1 year after treatment. Efficacy was evaluated by the changes in visual analog scale (VAS) scores. At 3-months and 1-year follow-ups, unenhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced MR imaging examinations were performed. All adverse events were assessed to evaluate treatment safety. Results All patients showed significant pain relief within 2 weeks. Two patients experienced complete pain reduction that lasted for 1 year. Two other patients showed pain relief measured as VAS scores of 2 and 4 on their last follow-up. Although the remaining patient had experienced significant pain relief in two lesions, the VAS score re-increased on his last follow-up. The size of the enhancing soft tissue mass in metastatic lesions decreased, and new bone formation was seen on follow-up images. Although adverse events were not serious, non-specific leg pain and second degree skin burn were noted. Conclusion MRgFUS was demonstrated to be effective palliative treatment within 2 weeks in selected patients with painful bone metastases. PMID:25684002

  6. Addressing the social determinants of health through health system strengthening and inter-sectoral convergence: the case of the Indian National Rural Health Mission

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Amit Mohan; Chakraborty, Gautam; Yadav, Sajjan Singh; Bhatia, Salima

    2013-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 21st century, India was plagued by significant rural–urban, inter-state and inter-district inequities in health. For example, in 2004, the infant mortality rate (IMR) was 24 points higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. To address these inequities, to strengthen the rural health system (a major determinant of health in itself) and to facilitate action on other determinants of health, India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in April 2005. Methods Under the NRHM, Rs. 666 billion (US$12.1 billion) was invested in rural areas from April 2005 to March 2012. There was also a substantially higher allocation for 18 high-focus states and 264 high-focus districts, identified on the basis of poor health and demographic indicators. Other determinants of health, especially nutrition and decentralized action, were addressed through mechanisms like State/District Health Missions, Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committees, and Village Health and Nutrition Days. Results Consequently, in bigger high-focus states, rural IMR fell by 15.6 points between 2004 and 2011, as compared to 9 points in urban areas. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate in high-focus states declined by 17.9% between 2004–2006 and 2007–2009 compared to 14.6% in other states. Conclusion The article, on the basis of the above approaches employed under NRHM, proposes the NRHM model to ‘reduce health inequities and initiate action on SDH’. PMID:23458089

  7. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  8. Performance of Conformable Ablators in Aerothermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, J.; Fan, W.; Skokova, K.; Stackpoole, M.; Beck, R.; Chavez-Garcia, J.

    2012-01-01

    Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICAs performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.

  9. Conformations of Trimethyl Phosphite: a Matrix Isolation Infrared and AB Initio Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, N.; Sundararajan, K.; Kar, Bishnu Prasad; Viswanathan, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Hyperconjugative interactions have received considerable attention because of its importance in determining structure and reactivity in organic compounds. In all these molecules, our studies, as many others in the literature, indicated that the O-P-O and O-C-O segments played a crucial role in conformational preferences. In the case of the organic phosphates, in addition to the O-P-O segments, the P=O group was also found to influence the structures. To address this issue further, it was thought interesting to study the conformations of trimethylphosphite (TMPhite), which lacks a P=O group. A comparison of the conformations of trimethylphosphate (TMP) and TMPhite was expected to highlight the role of the P=O group in the conformational preference of organic phosphates, which is the motivation for the present work. The conformations of TMPhite were studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. TMPhite was trapped in a nitrogen matrix using an effusive source maintained at 298 K and 410 K and also a supersonic source. These experiments were designed to enable us to assign the infrared features of the higher energy conformer(s). As a result of these experiments, infrared spectra of the conformations of TMPhite were obtained. The experimental studies were supported by ab initio computations performed at the B3LYP/6-31++G** level. Computations indicated four minima corresponding to conformers with the following symmetries: C_1, C_s, C1a and C_3, given in order of increasing energy. This conformational picture was clearly different from that of TMP, in which the C_3 was the lowest energy structure, thereby clearly indicating the role of the P=O group in structural preferences in these systems. We also performed a photochemical insertion of oxygen in TMPhite to produce TMP in the matrix, in an effort to correlate the conformers of the two molecules. These experiments also gave rise to interesting side reactions, where in addition to TMP, we also observed the

  10. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  11. Conformally covariant parametrizations for relativistic initial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Erwann

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the Lichnerowicz-York method, and an alternative method of York, in order to obtain some conformally covariant systems. This type of parametrization is certainly more natural for non constant mean curvature initial data.

  12. Conformational Sampling of Peptides in Cellular Environments☆

    PubMed Central

    Tanizaki, Seiichiro; Clifford, Jacob; Connelly, Brian D.; Feig, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Biological systems provide a complex environment that can be understood in terms of its dielectric properties. High concentrations of macromolecules and cosolvents effectively reduce the dielectric constant of cellular environments, thereby affecting the conformational sampling of biomolecules. To examine this effect in more detail, the conformational preference of alanine dipeptide, poly-alanine, and melittin in different dielectric environments is studied with computer simulations based on recently developed generalized Born methodology. Results from these simulations suggest that extended conformations are favored over α-helical conformations at the dipeptide level at and below dielectric constants of 5–10. Furthermore, lower-dielectric environments begin to significantly stabilize helical structures in poly-alanine at ɛ = 20. In the more complex peptide melittin, different dielectric environments shift the equilibrium between two main conformations: a nearly fully extended helix that is most stable in low dielectrics and a compact, V-shaped conformation consisting of two helices that is preferred in higher dielectric environments. An additional conformation is only found to be significantly populated at intermediate dielectric constants. Good agreement with previous studies of different peptides in specific, less-polar solvent environments, suggest that helix stabilization and shifts in conformational preferences in such environments are primarily due to a reduced dielectric environment rather than specific molecular details. The findings presented here make predictions of how peptide sampling may be altered in dense cellular environments with reduced dielectric response. PMID:17905846

  13. Observing the Great Plains Low-Level Jet Using the Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS): A Comparison with Boundary Layer Profiler Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, P. S.; Basu, S.

    2009-12-01

    Wind resources derived from the nocturnal low-level jet of the Great Plains of the United States are a driving factor in the proliferation of wind energy facilities across the region. Accurate diagnosis and forecasting of the low-level jet is important to not only assess the wind resource but to estimate the potential for shear-induced stress generation on turbine rotors. This study will examine the utility of Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) observations in diagnosing low-level jet events across the Texas Panhandle. ACARS observations from Lubbock International Airport (KLBB) will be compared to observations from a 915 MHZ Doppler radar vertical boundary-layer profiler with 60m vertical resolution located at the field experiment site of Texas Tech University. The ability of ACARS data to adequately observe low-level jet events during the spring and summer of 2009 will be assessed and presented.

  14. Generative models of conformational dynamics.

    PubMed

    Langmead, Christopher James

    2014-01-01

    Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter is to review both traditional and emerging methods for learning generative models from atomistic simulation data. Here, the term 'generative' refers to a model of the joint probability distribution over the behaviors of the constituent atoms. In the context of molecular modeling, generative models reveal the correlation structure between the atoms, and may be used to predict how the system will respond to structural perturbations. We begin by discussing traditional methods, which produce multivariate Gaussian models. We then discuss GAMELAN (GRAPHICAL MODELS OF ENERGY LANDSCAPES), which produces generative models of complex, non-Gaussian conformational dynamics (e.g., allostery, binding, folding, etc.) from long timescale simulation data.

  15. EC declaration of conformity.

    PubMed

    Donawa, M E

    1996-05-01

    The CE-marking procedure requires that manufacturers draw up a written declaration of conformity before placing their products on the market. However, some companies do not realize that this is a requirement for all devices. Also, there is no detailed information concerning the contents and format of the EC declaration of conformity in the medical device Directives or in EC guidance documentation. This article will discuss some important aspects of the EC declaration of conformity and some of the guidance that is available on its contents and format.

  16. Conformal Carroll groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2014-08-01

    Conformal extensions of Lévy-Leblond's Carroll group, based on geometric properties analogous to those of Newton-Cartan space-time are proposed. The extensions are labeled by an integer k. This framework includes and extends our recent study of the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) and Newman-Unti (NU) groups. The relation to conformal Galilei groups is clarified. Conformal Carroll symmetry is illustrated by ‘Carrollian photons’. Motion both in the Newton-Cartan and Carroll spaces may be related to that of strings in the Bargmann space.

  17. Regional Arctic System Model (RASM): A Tool to Address the U.S. Priorities and Advance Capabilities for Arctic Climate Modeling and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslowski, W.; Roberts, A.; Cassano, J. J.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Nijssen, B.; Osinski, R.; Zeng, X.; Brunke, M.; Duvivier, A.; Hamman, J.; Hossainzadeh, S.; Hughes, M.; Seefeldt, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing some of the most coordinated rapid climatic changes currently occurring anywhere on Earth, including the retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, which integrates forcing by, exchanges with and feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and land. While historical reconstructions from Earth System Models (ESMs) are in broad agreement with these changes, the rate of change in ESMs generally remains outpaced by observations. Reasons for that relate to a combination of coarse resolution, inadequate parameterizations, under-represented processes and a limited knowledge of physical interactions. We demonstrate the capability of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) in addressing some of the ESM limitations in simulating observed variability and trends in arctic surface climate. RASM is a high resolution, pan-Arctic coupled climate model with the sea ice and ocean model components configured at an eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12o and the atmosphere and land hydrology model components at 50 km resolution, which are all coupled at 20-minute intervals. RASM is an example of limited-area, process-resolving, fully coupled ESM, which due to the constraints from boundary conditions facilitates detailed comparisons with observational statistics that are not possible with ESMs. The overall goal of RASM is to address key requirements published in the Navy Arctic Roadmap: 2014-2030 and in the Implementation Plan for the National Strategy for the Arctic Region, regarding the need for advanced modeling capabilities for operational forecasting and strategic climate predictions through 2030. The main science objectives of RASM are to advance understanding and model representation of critical physical processes and feedbacks of importance to sea ice thickness and area distribution. RASM results are presented to quantify relative contributions by (i) resolved processes and feedbacks as well as (ii) sensitivity to space dependent sub-grid parameterizations to better

  18. A Novel Approach to Mission-Level Engineering of Complex Systems of Systems: Addressing Integration and Interoperability Shortfalls by Interrogating the Interstitials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-17

    components on nodes, interconnections on edges) and emphasizes the components on the nodes. Figure 2 illustrates a simple system of two sensors (node A...other types of modeling – DoDAF views (OV-1, OV- 2 ), SysML Context Diagrams, UML Use Case Diagrams, etc. In fact, any model that depicts entities of...simulation, and analysis tools and processes for integrating a complex, adaptive System of Systems . Mr. Garrett was recognized by the International

  19. New potentials for conformal mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, G.

    2013-04-01

    We find under some mild assumptions that the most general potential of one-dimensional conformal systems with time-independent couplings is expressed as V = V0 + V1, where V0 is a homogeneous function with respect to a homothetic motion in configuration space and V1 is determined from an equation with source a homothetic potential. Such systems admit at most an SL(2,{R}) conformal symmetry which, depending on the couplings, is embedded in {Diff}({R}) in three different ways. In one case, SL(2,{R}) is also embedded in Diff(S1). Examples of such models include those with potential V = αx2 + βx-2 for arbitrary couplings α and β, the Calogero models with harmonic oscillator couplings and nonlinear models with suitable metrics and potentials. In addition, we give the conditions on the couplings for a class of gauge theories to admit a SL(2,{R}) conformal symmetry. We present examples of such systems with general gauge groups and global symmetries that include the isometries of AdS2 × S3 and AdS2 × S3 × S3 which arise as backgrounds in AdS2/CFT1.

  20. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity.

  1. Mesh generation by conformal and quasiconformal mappings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, C. W.; Thompson, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that many recent advances in the finite-difference solution of elliptic equations have been limited to regions whose boundary contours coincide with coordinate lines of the Cartesian coordinate system. The reason for this is related to the fact that in the case of an arbitrary curvilinear coordinate system the original equation becomes much more complex. However, there is no added complexity if an orthogonal coordinate system is generated from a conformal mapping. In the present investigation, a finite difference method developed for the construction of conformal mappings has been generalized to construct quasi-conformal mappings. It is expected that the use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms could lead to improvements in both speed and accuracy. Quasi-conformal mappings have applications not only in the solution of elliptic equations but also in other areas such as orthogonal mesh generation on surfaces and the solution of certain fluid flow problems.

  2. Chiral switching by spontaneous conformational change in adsorbed organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Sigrid; Busse, Carsten; Petersen, Lars; Rauls, Eva; Hammer, Bjørk; Gothelf, Kurt V; Besenbacher, Flemming; Linderoth, Trolle R

    2006-02-01

    Self-assembly of adsorbed organic molecules is a promising route towards functional surface nano-architectures, and our understanding of associated dynamic processes has been significantly advanced by several scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) investigations. Intramolecular degrees of freedom are widely accepted to influence ordering of complex adsorbates, but although molecular conformation has been identified and even manipulated by STM, the detailed dynamics of spontaneous conformational change in adsorbed molecules has hitherto not been addressed. Molecular surface structures often show important stereochemical effects as, aside from truly chiral molecules, a large class of so-called prochiral molecules become chiral once confined on a surface with an associated loss of symmetry. Here, we investigate a model system in which adsorbed molecules surprisingly switch between enantiomeric forms as they undergo thermally induced conformational changes. The associated kinetic parameters are quantified from time-resolved STM data whereas mechanistic insight is obtained from theoretical modelling. The chiral switching is demonstrated to enable an efficient channel towards formation of extended homochiral surface domains. Our results imply that appropriate prochiral molecules may be induced (for example, by seeding) to assume only one enantiomeric form in surface assemblies, which is of relevance for chiral amplification and asymmetric heterogenous catalysis.

  3. Letter Report to Address Comments on the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-03-17

    The Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on November 01, 2007. The approval letter contained the following two comments: Comment 1--For 06-05-01, 06-17-04, 06-23-01 provide evidence that the 6 inch VCP pipe originating from building CP-2 is no longer active and sealed to prevent possible future contamination. Comment 2--For the area that includes 06-03-01, provide evidence that active lines are no longer feeding the North and South lagoons and have been sealed to prevent possible future contamination. To address these comments, closure documentation was reviewed, and site visits were conducted to locate and document the areas of concern. Additional fieldwork was conducted in March 2008 to seal the lines and openings described in the two comments. Photographs were taken of the closed drains and lines to document that the NDEP comments were adequately addressed and potential inadvertent discharge to the environment has been eliminated. Investigation and closure documentation was reviewed to identify the locations of potential drains, lines, and other features that could receive and/or transmit liquid. Based on the investigation findings and subsequent closure activities, no openings, distribution boxes, or other features (excluding known floor drains at CP-2) that could receive liquid were found at the CP-2 location (Figure 1), and potential manholes for the north and south sewage lagoons were identified for Corrective Action Site (CAS) 06-03-01 (Figure 2). The distribution box identified in Figure 1 was not located during the investigation and was assumed to have been previously removed.

  4. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  5. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  6. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  7. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  8. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  9. SU-C-204-05: Simulations of a Portal Imaging System for Conformal and Intensity Modulated Fast Neutron Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    James, S St.; Argento, D; Stewart, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The University of Washington Medical Center offers neutron therapy for the palliative and definitive treatment of selected cancers. In vivo field verification has the potential to improve the safe and effective delivery of neutron therapy. We propose a portal imaging method that relies on the creation of positron emitting isotopes (11C and 15O) through (n, 2n) reactions with a PMMA plate placed below the patient. After field delivery, the plate is retrieved from the vault and imaged using a reader that detects annihilation photons. The spatial pattern of activity produced in the PMMA plate provides information to reconstruct the neutron fluence map needed to confirm treatment delivery. Methods: We used MCNP to simulate the accumulation of 11C activity in a slab of PMMA 2 mm thick, and GATE was used to simulate the sensitivity and spatial resolution of a prototype imaging system. BGO crystal thicknesses of 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm were simulated with detector separations of 2 cm. Crystal pitches of 2 mm and 4 mm were evaluated. Back-projection of the events was used to create a planar image. The spatial resolution was taken to be the FWHM of the reconstructed point source image. Results: The system sensitivity for a point source in the center of the field of view was found to range from 58% for 1 cm thick BGO with 2 mm crystal pitch to 74% for the 3 cm thick BGO crystals with 4 mm crystal pitch. The spatial resolution at the center of the field of view was found to be 1.5 mm for the system with 2 mm crystal pitch and 2.8 mm for the system with the 4 mm crystal pitch. Conclusion: BGO crystals with 4 mm crystal pitch and 3 cm length would offer the best sensitivity reader.

  10. Tunable diastereoselection of biased rigid systems by Lewis acid induced conformational effects: a rationalization of the vinylation of cyclic nitrones en route to polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Delso, Ignacio; Marca, Eduardo; Mannucci, Vanni; Tejero, Tomás; Goti, Andrea; Merino, Pedro

    2010-08-23

    The diastereofacial selection in addition reactions to biased rigid systems can be modulated by the action of Lewis acids. As an example, the stereoselectivity of the nucleophilic addition of vinyl magnesium bromide (VMB) to cyclic nitrones in the presence of diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC) shows a strong dependence on the temperature and the carbon substituent adjacent at the reaction center; it is remarkable that whereas a high selectivity is obtained at higher temperatures, in the presence of DEAC, a trend to invert the stereochemical course of the reaction is observed at lower temperatures, provided the substituent at C3 of the pyrrolidine ring allows delivery of the vinyl moiety. This behavior and difference in selectivity is to be attributed to the high conformational barriers of the intermediate nitrone-DEAC-VMB complex. A clear inversion of the selectivity is observed at -78 degrees C for the reaction of the nitrone protected as an O-methyl derivative. The present study provides a rationalization for the stereocontrolled addition of nucleophiles to rigid systems (cyclic nitrones).

  11. Conformational kinetics reveals affinities of protein conformational states.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kyle G; Suo, Yang; Oas, Terrence G

    2015-07-28

    Most biological reactions rely on interplay between binding and changes in both macromolecular structure and dynamics. Practical understanding of this interplay requires detection of critical intermediates and determination of their binding and conformational characteristics. However, many of these species are only transiently present and they have often been overlooked in mechanistic studies of reactions that couple binding to conformational change. We monitored the kinetics of ligand-induced conformational changes in a small protein using six different ligands. We analyzed the kinetic data to simultaneously determine both binding affinities for the conformational states and the rate constants of conformational change. The approach we used is sufficiently robust to determine the affinities of three conformational states and detect even modest differences in the protein's affinities for relatively similar ligands. Ligand binding favors higher-affinity conformational states by increasing forward conformational rate constants and/or decreasing reverse conformational rate constants. The amounts by which forward rate constants increase and reverse rate constants decrease are proportional to the ratio of affinities of the conformational states. We also show that both the affinity ratio and another parameter, which quantifies the changes in conformational rate constants upon ligand binding, are strong determinants of the mechanism (conformational selection and/or induced fit) of molecular recognition. Our results highlight the utility of analyzing the kinetics of conformational changes to determine affinities that cannot be determined from equilibrium experiments. Most importantly, they demonstrate an inextricable link between conformational dynamics and the binding affinities of conformational states.

  12. Conformers of Gaseous Serine.

    PubMed

    He, Kedan; Allen, Wesley D

    2016-08-09

    The myriad conformers of the neutral form of natural amino acid serine (Ser) have been investigated by systematic computations with reliable electronic wave function methods. A total of 85 unique conformers were located using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The 12 lowest-energy conformers of serine fall within a 8 kJ mol(-1) window, and for these species, geometric structures, precise relative energies, equilibrium and vibrationally averaged rotational constants, anharmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants, dipole moments, and (14)N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants were computed. The relative energies were refined through composite focal-point analyses employing basis sets as large as aug-cc-pV5Z and correlation treatments through CCSD(T). The rotational constants for seven conformers measured by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy are in good agreement with the vibrationally averaged rotational constants computed in this study. Our anharmonic vibrational frequencies are compared to the large number of experimental vibrational absorptions attributable to at least six conformers.

  13. Structure and Conformational Dynamics of DMPC/Dicationic Surfactant and DMPC/Dicationic Surfactant/DNA Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pietralik, Zuzanna; Krzysztoń, Rafał; Kida, Wojciech; Andrzejewska, Weronika; Kozak, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphilic dicationic surfactants, known as gemini surfactants, are currently studied for gene delivery purposes. The gemini surfactant molecule is composed of two hydrophilic “head” groups attached to hydrophobic chains and connected via molecular linker between them. The influence of different concentrations of 1,5-bis (1-imidazolilo-3- decyloxymethyl) pentane chloride (gemini surfactant) on the thermotropic phase behaviour of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayers with and without the presence of DNA was investigated using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation and differential scanning calorimetry. With increasing concentration of surfactant in DMPC/DNA systems, a disappearance of pretransition and a decrease in the main phase transition enthalpy and temperature were observed. The increasing intensity of diffraction peaks as a function of surfactant concentration also clearly shows the ability of the surfactant to promote the organisation of lipid bilayers in the multilayer lamellar phase. PMID:23571492

  14. Controlling complex networks with conformity behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu-Wen; Nie, Sen; Wang, Wen-Xu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Controlling complex networks accompanied by common conformity behavior is a fundamental problem in social and physical science. Conformity behavior that individuals tend to follow the majority in their neighborhood is common in human society and animal communities. Despite recent progress in understanding controllability of complex networks, the existent controllability theories cannot be directly applied to networks associated with conformity. Here we propose a simple model to incorporate conformity-based decision making into the evolution of a network system, which allows us to employ the exact controllability theory to explore the controllability of such systems. We offer rigorous theoretical results of controllability for representative regular networks. We also explore real networks in different fields and some typical model networks, finding some interesting results that are different from the predictions of structural and exact controllability theory in the absence of conformity. We finally present an example of steering a real social network to some target states to further validate our controllability theory and tools. Our work offers a more realistic understanding of network controllability with conformity behavior and can have potential applications in networked evolutionary games, opinion dynamics and many other complex networked systems.

  15. Application of heteronuclear couplings to conformational analysis of oligonucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, G.; Live, D.; Bax, A.

    1994-12-01

    The value of vicinal coupling constants extracted from NMR spectra in deducing torsion angles for conformational analysis is well recognized. Due to the abundance of protons, their couplings have been mostly widely used. In many instances, couplings between protons and other nuclei may be a valuable complement to proton-proton couplings or, in some instances, may be the only coupling available to characterize the torsion angle about a bond. Recently, heteronuclear couplings have been used to great benefit in studies of isotopically enriched proteins, and this general approach has been extended to peptides at natural abundance. The possibility of using this approach to study oligonucleotides is also attractive but has not as yet been widely exploited. With the development of strategies for labeling such molecules, particularly RNAs, this may become an important component in conformational analysis. For DNA, labeling is less accessible, but sufficient quantities of unlabeled material are readily available for measuring these couplings at natural abundance. We chose several DNA systems to explore the usefulness of heteronuclear couplings in addressing the sugar conformation and the glycosidic torsion angle. Intensities of cross peaks in long-range HMQC experiments can be related to the couplings. Crosspeaks involving H1{prime} and C1{prime} atoms have been emphasized because of the superior shift dispersion at these positions between sugar protons and carbon atoms. Results will be shown for the self-complementary Dickerson duplex dodecamer sequence d(CGCGAATTCGCG) and for d(GGTCGG), which dimerizes to form a G-tetrad structure incorporating both syn and anti base orientations. The couplings provide a clear discrimination between presence of C3{prime}-endo and C2{prime}-endo conformations of the sugars and syn and anti bases arrangements.

  16. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Small and Large Scale Missions: Approaching TRL 6 for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions and TRL 9 for Small Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R. A. S.; Gasch, M. J.; Milos, F. S.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Smith, B. P.; Switzer, M. R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Wilder, M. C.; Boghhozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an effort to develop an ablative thermal protection system (TPS) material that would have improved properties when compared to Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and AVCOAT. Their goal was a conformal material, processed with a flexible reinforcement that would result in similar or better thermal characteristics and higher strain-to-failure characteristics that would allow for easier integration on flight aeroshells than then-current rigid ablative TPS materials. In 2012, NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began funding the maturation of the best formulation of the game changing conformal ablator, C-PICA. Progress has been reported at IPPW over the past three years, describing C-PICA with a density and recession rates similar to PICA, but with a higher strain-to-failure which allows for direct bonding and no gap fillers, and even more important, with thermal characteristics resulting in half the temperature rise of PICA. Overall, C-PICA should be able to replace PICA with a thinner, lighter weight, less complicated design. These characteristics should be particularly attractive for use as backshell TPS on high energy planetary entry vehicles. At the end of this year, the material should be ready for missions to consider including in their design, in fact, NASAs Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is considering incentivizing the use of C-PICA in the next Discovery Proposal call. This year both scale up of the material to large (1-m) sized pieces and the design and build of small probe heatshields for flight tests will be completed. NASA, with an industry partner, will build a 1-m long manufacturing demonstration unit (MDU) with a shape based on a mid LD lifting body. In addition, in an effort to fly as you test and test as you fly, NASA, with a second industry partner, will build a small probe to test in the Interactive Heating Facility (IHF) arc jet and, using nearly the

  17. Comparative Study of LDR (Manchester System) and HDR Image-guided Conformal Brachytherapy of Cervical Cancer: Patterns of Failure, Late Complications, and Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Kailash Dyk, Sylvia van; Bernshaw, David; Rajasooriyar, Chrishanthi; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To compare patterns of failure, late toxicities, and survival in locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated by either low-dose-rate (LDR) or conformal high-dose-rate (HDRc) brachytherapy as a part of curative radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective comparative study of 217 advanced cervix cancer patients was conducted; 90 of these patients received LDR and 127 received HDRc brachytherapy. All patients were staged using International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) rules, had pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and were treated with concurrent cisplatin chemoradiotherapy. Both groups matched for FIGO stage, MRI tumor volume, and uterine invasion status. Results: Local and pelvic failures were similar 12-13% and 14% both in both groups. Abdominal and systemic failures in LDR group were 21% and 24%, whereas corresponding failures in HDRc group were 20% and 24%. Sixty-eight percent (87/127) of patients treated by HDRc remained asymptomatic, whereas 42% (38/90) of patients were asymptomatic from the bowel and bladder symptoms after treatment with LDR. The 5-year OS rate was 60% (SE = 4%). The 5-year failure-free survival rate was 55% (SE = 3%). There was no significant difference between the groups. Conclusions: Image-guided HDRc planning led to a large decrease in late radiation effects in patients treated by HDRc. Patterns of failure and survival were similar in patients treated either by LDR or HDRc.

  18. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-15

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spin{sup c}-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  19. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  20. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  1. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  2. Addressing the impact of environmental uncertainty in plankton model calibration with a dedicated software system: the Marine Model Optimization Testbed (MarMOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, J. C. P.; Challenor, P. G.

    2011-08-01

    A wide variety of different marine plankton system models have been coupled with ocean circulation models, with the aim of understanding and predicting aspects of environmental change. However, an ability to make reliable inferences about real-world processes from the model behaviour demands a quantitative understanding of model error that remains elusive. Assessment of coupled model output is inhibited by relatively limited observing system coverage of biogeochemical components. Any direct assessment of the plankton model is further inhibited by uncertainty in the physical state. Furthermore, comparative evaluation of plankton models on the basis of their design is inhibited by the sensitivity of their dynamics to many adjustable parameters. The Marine Model Optimization Testbed is a new software tool designed for rigorous analysis of plankton models in a multi-site 1-D framework, in particular to address uncertainty issues in model assessment. A flexible user interface ensures its suitability to more general inter-comparison, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, including model comparison at the level of individual processes, and to state estimation for specific locations. The principal features of MarMOT are described and its application to model calibration is demonstrated by way of a set of twin experiments, in which synthetic observations are assimilated in an attempt to recover the true parameter values of a known system. The experimental aim is to investigate the effect of different misfit weighting schemes on parameter recovery in the presence of error in the plankton model's environmental input data. Simulated errors are derived from statistical characterizations of the mixed layer depth, the horizontal flux divergences of the biogeochemical tracers and the initial state. Plausible patterns of uncertainty in these data are shown to produce strong temporal and spatial variability in the expected simulation error over an annual cycle, indicating

  3. Addressing the impact of environmental uncertainty in plankton model calibration with a dedicated software system: the Marine Model Optimization Testbed (MarMOT 1.1 alpha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, J. C. P.; Challenor, P. G.

    2012-04-01

    A wide variety of different plankton system models have been coupled with ocean circulation models, with the aim of understanding and predicting aspects of environmental change. However, an ability to make reliable inferences about real-world processes from the model behaviour demands a quantitative understanding of model error that remains elusive. Assessment of coupled model output is inhibited by relatively limited observing system coverage of biogeochemical components. Any direct assessment of the plankton model is further inhibited by uncertainty in the physical state. Furthermore, comparative evaluation of plankton models on the basis of their design is inhibited by the sensitivity of their dynamics to many adjustable parameters. Parameter uncertainty has been widely addressed by calibrating models at data-rich ocean sites. However, relatively little attention has been given to quantifying uncertainty in the physical fields required by the plankton models at these sites, and tendencies in the biogeochemical properties due to the effects of horizontal processes are often neglected. Here we use model twin experiments, in which synthetic data are assimilated to estimate a system's known "true" parameters, to investigate the impact of error in a plankton model's environmental input data. The experiments are supported by a new software tool, the Marine Model Optimization Testbed, designed for rigorous analysis of plankton models in a multi-site 1-D framework. Simulated errors are derived from statistical characterizations of the mixed layer depth, the horizontal flux divergence tendencies of the biogeochemical tracers and the initial state. Plausible patterns of uncertainty in these data are shown to produce strong temporal and spatial variability in the expected simulation error variance over an annual cycle, indicating variation in the significance attributable to individual model-data differences. An inverse scheme using ensemble-based estimates of the

  4. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  5. Conformational properties of pyrethroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullaley, Anne; Taylor, Robin

    1994-04-01

    X-ray database searches and theoretical potential-energy calculations indicate that the acid moieties of pyrethroid cyclopropanecarboxylate esters adopt a well-defined, relatively inflexible conformation. In contrast, the alcohol moieties can exist in many low-energy geometries. One of the least conformationally flexible pyrethroid alcohols is 4-phenylindan-2-ol. The approximate overall conformation adopted at the biological binding site by insecticidal esters of this alcohol can be deduced with reasonable confidence by molecular modelling. Graphics superposition of a variety of pyrethroid acids suggests the existence of a large but rather narrow pocket at the binding site, in which substituents at the 3-position of the cyclopropane ring can be accommodated. This pocket is asymmetric with respect to the plane of the cyclopropane ring, extending further on the side remote from the ester group. The effects of α-substitution on the insecticidal activity of pyrethroid esters may be due to the influence of substituents on the preferred conformations of the molecules. This hypothesis rationalises the paradoxical dependence on absolute stereochemistry of the activities of various allylbenzyl and cinnamyl alcohol derivatives.

  6. Conformal cloak for waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Huanyang; Leonhardt, Ulf; Tyc, Tomas

    2011-05-15

    Conformal invisibility devices are only supposed to work within the valid range of geometrical optics. Here, we show by numerical simulations and analytical arguments that for certain quantized frequencies, they are nearly perfect even in a regime that clearly violates geometrical optics. The quantization condition follows from the analogy between the Helmholtz equation and the stationary Schroedinger equation.

  7. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    PubMed

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  8. Effects of the transport site conformation on the binding of external NAP-taurine to the human erythrocyte anion exchange system: evidence for intrinsic asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Knauf, P.A.; Law, F.Y.; Tarshis, T.; Furuya, W.

    1984-05-01

    External N-(4-azido (NAP-taurine) inhibits human red cell chloride exchange by binding to a site that is distinct from the chloride transport site. Increases in the intracellular chloride concentration (at constant external chloride) cause an increase in the inhibitory potency of external NAP-taurine. This effect is not due to the changes in pH or membrane potential that usually accompany a chloride gradient, since even when these changes are reversed or eliminated the inhibitory potency remains high. According to the ping-pong model for anion exchange, such transmembrane effects of intracellular chloride on external NAP-taurine can be explained if NAP-taurine only binds to its site when the transport site is in the outward-facing (E/sub o/ or ECl/sub o/) form. Since NAP-taurine prevents the conformational change from ECl/sub o/ to ECl/sub i/, it must lock the system in the outward-facing form. NAP-taurine can therefore be used just like the competitive inhibitor H/sub 2/DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyano-1,2-diphenylethane-2,2'-disulfonic acid) to monitor the fraction of transport sites that face outward. A quantitative analysis of the effects of chloride gradients on the inhibitory potency of NAP-taurine and H/sub 2/DIDS reveals that the transport system is intrinsically asymmetric, such that when Cl/sub i/ = Cl/sub o/, most of the unloaded transport sites face the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. 30 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Chromosome Conformation Capture in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Linear chromatin fiber is packed inside the nuclei as a complex three-dimensional structure, and the organization of the chromatin has important roles in the appropriate spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. To understand how chromatin organizes inside nuclei, and how regulatory proteins physically interact with genes, chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique provides a powerful and sensitive tool to detect both short- and long-range DNA-DNA interaction. Here I describe the 3C technique to detect the DNA-DNA interactions mediated by insulator proteins that are closely related to PcG in Drosophila, which is also broadly applicable to other systems.

  10. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  11. Transportation Conformity Training and Presentations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's OTAQ has provided multiple conformity training sessions in the past to assist state and local governments in implementing conformity requirements. As training information is prepared for other venues, it will be posted on this page.

  12. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics. PMID:27329824

  13. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.

  14. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016.

  15. Direct tumor in vivo dosimetry in highly-conformal radiotherapy: A feasibility study of implantable MOSFETs for hypofractionated extracranial treatments using the Cyberknife system

    SciTech Connect

    Scalchi, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cavedon, Carlo; Francescon, Paolo; Colombo, Federico

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: In highly-conformal radiotherapy, due to the complexity of both beam configurations and dose distributions, traditional in vivo dosimetry is unpractical or even impossible. The ideal dosimeter would be implanted inside the planning treatment volume so that it can directly measure the total delivered dose during each fraction with no additional uncertainty due to calculation models. The aim of this work is to verify if implantable metal oxide semiconductors field effect transistors (MOSFETs) can achieve a sufficient degree of dosimetric accuracy when used inside extracranial targets undergoing radiotherapy treatments using the Cyberknife system. Methods: Based on the preliminary findings of this study, new prototypes for high dose fractionations were developed to reduce the time dependence for long treatment delivery times. These dosimeters were recently cleared and are marketed as DVS-HFT. Multiple measurements were performed using both Virtual Water and water phantoms to characterize implantable MOSFETs under the Cyberknife beams, and included the reference-dosimetry consistency, the dependence of the response on the collimator size, on the daily delivered dose, and the time irradiation modality. Finally a Cyberknife prostate treatment simulation using a body phantom was conducted, and both MOSFET and ionization readings were compared to Monte Carlo calculations. The feasibility analysis was conducted based on the ratios of the absorbed dose divided by the dose reading, named as ''further calibration factor'' (FCF). Results: The average FCFs resulted to be 0.98 for the collimator dependence test, and about 1.00 for the reference-dosimetry test, the dose-dependence test, and the time-dependence test. The average FCF of the prostate treatment simulation test was 0.99. Conclusions: The obtained results are well within DVS specifications, that is, the factory calibration is still valid for such kind of treatments using the Cyberknife system, with no need of

  16. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  17. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  18. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  19. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  20. Conformal scalar field wormholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, Jonathan J.; Laflamme, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    The Euclidian Einstein equations with a cosmological constant and a conformally coupled scalar field are solved, taking the metric to be of the Robertson-Walker type. In the case Lambda = 0, solutions are found which represent a wormhole connecting two asymptotically flat Euclidian regions. In the case Lambda greater than 0, the solutions represent tunneling from a small Tolman-like universe to a large Robertson-Walker universe.

  1. Conformal coating of thin polymer electrolyte layer on nanostructured electrode materials for three-dimensional battery applications.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Sanketh R; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Shaijumon, Manikoth M; Zhan, Xiaobo; Ci, Lijie; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2011-01-12

    Various three-dimensional (3D) battery architectures have been proposed to address effective power delivery in micro/nanoscale devices and for increasing the stored energy per electrode footprint area. One step toward obtaining 3D configurations in batteries is the formation of core-shell nanowires that combines electrode and electrolyte materials. One of the major challenges however in creating such architectures has been the coating of conformal thin nanolayers of polymer electrolytes around nanostructured electrodes. Here we show conformal coatings of 25-30 nm poly(methyl methacralate) electrolyte layers around individual Ni-Sn nanowires used as anodes for Li ion battery. This configuration shows high discharge capacity and excellent capacity retention even at high rates over extended cycling, allowing for scalable increase in areal capacity with electrode thickness. Our results demonstrate conformal nanoscale anode-electrolyte architectures for an efficient Li ion battery system.

  2. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  3. Conformations of organophosphine oxides

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2015-07-17

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 force field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. As a result, the predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.

  4. Conformations of organophosphine oxides

    DOE PAGES

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; ...

    2015-07-17

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 forcemore » field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. As a result, the predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.« less

  5. Generative Models of Conformational Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Langmead, Christopher James

    2014-01-01

    Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter is to review both traditional and emerging methods for learning generative models from atomistic simulation data. Here, the term ‘generative’ refers to a model of the joint probability distribution over the behaviors of the constituent atoms. In the context of molecular modeling, generative models reveal the correlation structure between the atoms, and may be used to predict how the system will respond to structural perturbations. We begin by discussing traditional methods, which produce multivariate Gaussian models. We then discuss GAMELAN (GrAphical Models of Energy LANdscapes), which produces generative models of complex, non-Gaussian conformational dynamics (e.g., allostery, binding, folding, etc) from long timescale simulation data. PMID:24446358

  6. Conformal coordinates associated with uniformly accelerated motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Specific problems in the theory of relativity are often simplified by an appropriate choice of the coordinate system. Restricted conformal coordinates provide an especially simple analysis of motion with uniform acceleration, known as hyperbolic motion. Conformal coordinates x', t' may be obtained from Cartesian coordinates x, t by the transformation x'+ct'=F(x+ct) and x'-ct'=G(x-ct), where c is the velocity of light. A variable motion of the x' system is determined by the choice of the functions F and G.

  7. Electrical control of protein conformation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Alwin M D; Schur, Rebecca M; Ober, Christopher K; Fischbach, Claudia; Gourdon, Delphine; Malliaras, George G

    2012-05-08

    Conducting polymer devices that enable precise control of fibronectin conformation over macroscopic areas are reported. Single conformations as well as conformation gradients are achieved by applying an appropriate potential. These surfaces remain biologically relevant and support cell culture; hence, they may serve as a model to understand and control cell-surface interactions, with applications in basic research, medical diagnostics, and tissue engineering.

  8. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  9. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  10. Cosmological particle creation in conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Victor; Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav; Eroshenko, Yury

    2016-10-01

    We constructed the conformally invariant model for scalar particle creation induced by strong gravitational fields. Starting from the "usual" hydrodynamical description of the particle motion written in the Eulerian coordinates we substituted the particle number conservation law (which enters the formalism) by "the particle creation law", proportional to the square of the Weyl tensor (following the famous result by Ya. B. Zel`dovich and A. A. Starobinsky). Then, demanding the conformal invariance of the whole dynamical system, we have got both the (Weyl)-conformal gravity and the Einstein-Hilbert-dilaton gravity action integral. Thus, we obtained something like the induced gravity suggested first by A. D. Sakharov. It is shown that the resulting system is self-consistent. Some future developments of the theory are discussed in the concluding Chapter.

  11. CEDS Addresses: Rubric Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 4 introduced a common data vocabulary for defining rubrics in a data system. The CEDS elements support digital representations of both holistic and analytic rubrics. This document shares examples of holistic and analytic project rubrics, available CEDS Connections, and a logical model showing the…

  12. Conformal Janus on Euclidean sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gustavsson, Andreas; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2016-12-01

    We interpret Janus as an interface in a conformal field theory and study its properties. The Janus is created by an exactly marginal operator and we study its effect on the interface conformal field theory on the Janus. We do this by utilizing the AdS/CFT correspondence. We compute the interface free energy both from leading correction to the Euclidean action in the dual gravity description and from conformal perturbation theory in the conformal field theory. We find that the two results agree each other and that the interface free energy scales precisely as expected from the conformal invariance of the Janus interface.

  13. Conformal vectors and stellar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjonjo, A. M.; Maharaj, S. D.; Moopanar, S.

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between conformal symmetries and relativistic spheres in astrophysics is studied. We use the nonvanishing components of the Weyl tensor to classify the conformal symmetries in static spherical spacetimes. It is possible to find an explicit connection between the two gravitational potentials for both conformally flat and nonconformally flat cases. We show that the conformal Killing vector admits time dependence in terms of quadratic, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. The Einstein and Einstein-Maxwell field equations can be written in terms of a single potential, any choice of which leads to an exact solution. Previous results of conformally invariant static spheres are contained in our treatment.

  14. Probing conformation and conformational change in proteins is optimally undertaken in relative mode.

    PubMed

    Errington, Neil; Rowe, Arthur J

    2003-08-01

    Hydrodynamic bead modelling has been widely used in attempts to assess the 3D conformation of proteins in solution. Initially, simple models employing only a small number of beads were used, with a considerable degree of success. Latterly, high-resolution bead models based upon atomic coordinates have been developed, and much more sophisticated questions can in principle be addressed. A detailed analysis is presented of the errors involved in the generation of such models and associated prediction of (translational friction) parameters, and in the practical measurement of these parameters for comparison. It is shown that in most cases, for a particle of only moderate asymmetry, the errors are such that it is not feasible to determine, on an absolute basis, which of a range of candidate conformers is the "correct" one. However, when the properties of the candidate conformers can be compared in relation to those of a "paradigm conformer", whose structure in solution, on the basis of external evidence, can be accepted as correct, then errors cancel and very precise comparisons become possible. The generation of 3D bead models (and hence 3D data files) for a range of candidate conformers is a simple matter, using the existing program MacBEADS, further facilitated by a 3D display module (pro Fit).

  15. Addressing hidden financial risk.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Jan; Kruger, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Managing low-dollar, high-volume claim denials associated with outpatient procedures is a challenge for many hospitals because of the expense involved in manually reviewing such denials. These denials often are the source of "hidden loss" for hospitals. For some hospitals, the most practical, cost-effective approach for managing low-dollar, high-volume claim denials will include the use of automated systems to monitor and highlight denials and expose trends.

  16. Addressing Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  17. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  18. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  19. Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Lapine, Mikhail; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2011-01-01

    Within a decade of fruitful development, metamaterials became a prominent area of research, bridging theoretical and applied electrodynamics, electrical engineering and material science. Being man-made structures, metamaterials offer a particularly useful playground to develop interdisciplinary concepts. Here we demonstrate a novel principle in metamaterial assembly which integrates electromagnetic, mechanical, and thermal responses within their elements. Through these mechanisms, the conformation of the meta-molecules changes, providing a dual mechanism for nonlinearity and offering nonlinear chirality. Our proposal opens a wide road towards further developments of nonlinear metamaterials and photonic structures, adding extra flexibility to their design and control. PMID:22355655

  20. Immersogeometric cardiovascular fluid-structure interaction analysis with divergence-conforming B-splines.

    PubMed

    Kamensky, David; Hsu, Ming-Chen; Yu, Yue; Evans, John A; Sacks, Michael S; Hughes, Thomas J R

    2017-02-01

    This paper uses a divergence-conforming B-spline fluid discretization to address the long-standing issue of poor mass conservation in immersed methods for computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) that represent the influence of the structure as a forcing term in the fluid subproblem. We focus, in particular, on the immersogeometric method developed in our earlier work, analyze its convergence for linear model problems, then apply it to FSI analysis of heart valves, using divergence-conforming B-splines to discretize the fluid subproblem. Poor mass conservation can manifest as effective leakage of fluid through thin solid barriers. This leakage disrupts the qualitative behavior of FSI systems such as heart valves, which exist specifically to block flow. Divergence-conforming discretizations can enforce mass conservation exactly, avoiding this problem. To demonstrate the practical utility of immersogeometric FSI analysis with divergence-conforming B-splines, we use the methods described in this paper to construct and evaluate a computational model of an in vitro experiment that pumps water through an artificial valve.

  1. Organic bioelectronics probing conformational changes in surface confined proteins

    PubMed Central

    Macchia, Eleonora; Alberga, Domenico; Manoli, Kyriaki; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe F.; Magliulo, Maria; Palazzo, Gerardo; Giordano, Francesco; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Torsi, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The study of proteins confined on a surface has attracted a great deal of attention due to its relevance in the development of bio-systems for laboratory and clinical settings. In this respect, organic bio-electronic platforms can be used as tools to achieve a deeper understanding of the processes involving protein interfaces. In this work, biotin-binding proteins have been integrated in two different organic thin-film transistor (TFT) configurations to separately address the changes occurring in the protein-ligand complex morphology and dipole moment. This has been achieved by decoupling the output current change upon binding, taken as the transducing signal, into its component figures of merit. In particular, the threshold voltage is related to the protein dipole moment, while the field-effect mobility is associated with conformational changes occurring in the proteins of the layer when ligand binding occurs. Molecular Dynamics simulations on the whole avidin tetramer in presence and absence of ligands were carried out, to evaluate how the tight interactions with the ligand affect the protein dipole moment and the conformation of the loops surrounding the binding pocket. These simulations allow assembling a rather complete picture of the studied interaction processes and support the interpretation of the experimental results. PMID:27312768

  2. Organic bioelectronics probing conformational changes in surface confined proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchia, Eleonora; Alberga, Domenico; Manoli, Kyriaki; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe F.; Magliulo, Maria; Palazzo, Gerardo; Giordano, Francesco; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Torsi, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    The study of proteins confined on a surface has attracted a great deal of attention due to its relevance in the development of bio-systems for laboratory and clinical settings. In this respect, organic bio-electronic platforms can be used as tools to achieve a deeper understanding of the processes involving protein interfaces. In this work, biotin-binding proteins have been integrated in two different organic thin-film transistor (TFT) configurations to separately address the changes occurring in the protein-ligand complex morphology and dipole moment. This has been achieved by decoupling the output current change upon binding, taken as the transducing signal, into its component figures of merit. In particular, the threshold voltage is related to the protein dipole moment, while the field-effect mobility is associated with conformational changes occurring in the proteins of the layer when ligand binding occurs. Molecular Dynamics simulations on the whole avidin tetramer in presence and absence of ligands were carried out, to evaluate how the tight interactions with the ligand affect the protein dipole moment and the conformation of the loops surrounding the binding pocket. These simulations allow assembling a rather complete picture of the studied interaction processes and support the interpretation of the experimental results.

  3. Enhanced conformational sampling using enveloping distribution sampling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhixiong; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-10-14

    To lessen the problem of insufficient conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations is still a major challenge in computational biochemistry. In this article, an application of the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is proposed that addresses this challenge and its sampling efficiency is demonstrated in simulations of a hexa-β-peptide whose conformational equilibrium encompasses two different helical folds, i.e., a right-handed 2.7(10∕12)-helix and a left-handed 3(14)-helix, separated by a high energy barrier. Standard MD simulations of this peptide using the GROMOS 53A6 force field did not reach convergence of the free enthalpy difference between the two helices even after 500 ns of simulation time. The use of soft-core non-bonded interactions in the centre of the peptide did enhance the number of transitions between the helices, but at the same time led to neglect of relevant helical configurations. In the simulations of a two-state EDS reference Hamiltonian that envelops both the physical peptide and the soft-core peptide, sampling of the conformational space of the physical peptide ensures that physically relevant conformations can be visited, and sampling of the conformational space of the soft-core peptide helps to enhance the transitions between the two helices. The EDS simulations sampled many more transitions between the two helices and showed much faster convergence of the relative free enthalpy of the two helices compared with the standard MD simulations with only a slightly larger computational effort to determine optimized EDS parameters. Combined with various methods to smoothen the potential energy surface, the proposed EDS application will be a powerful technique to enhance the sampling efficiency in biomolecular simulations.

  4. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  5. Addressing the Training and Employment Needs of Youth with Mental Health Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System. Conference Proceedings with Recommendations to the Presidential Task Force on Employment of Adults with Disabilities (March 3-4, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagungun, Hazel

    This document contains information about and from a conference on addressing the training and employment needs of youth with mental health disabilities in the juvenile justice system that was held by the National Mental Health Association (NMHA). The document begins with an executive summary and nine recommendations for the Youth Subcommittee of…

  6. Seed conformal blocks in 4D CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Elkhidir, Emtinan; Karateev, Denis; Serone, Marco

    2016-02-01

    We compute in closed analytical form the minimal set of "seed" conformal blocks associated to the exchange of generic mixed symmetry spinor/tensor operators in an arbitrary representation ( ℓ, overline{ℓ} ) of the Lorentz group in four dimensional conformal field theories. These blocks arise from 4-point functions involving two scalars, one (0, | ℓ - overline{7ell;} |) and one (| ℓ - overline{ℓ} |, 0) spinors or tensors. We directly solve the set of Casimir equations, that can elegantly be written in a compact form for any ( ℓ, overline{ℓ} ), by using an educated ansatz and reducing the problem to an algebraic linear system. Various details on the form of the ansatz have been deduced by using the so called shadow formalism. The complexity of the conformal blocks depends on the value of p = | ℓ - overline{ℓ} | and grows with p, in analogy to what happens to scalar conformal blocks in d even space-time dimensions as d increases. These results open the way to bootstrap 4-point functions involving arbitrary spinor/tensor operators in four dimensional conformal field theories.

  7. Optically addressed ultra-wideband phased antenna array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jian

    Demands for high data rate and multifunctional apertures from both civilian and military users have motivated development of ultra-wideband (UWB) electrically steered phased arrays. Meanwhile, the need for large contiguous frequency is pushing operation of radio systems into the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) range. Therefore, modern radio systems require UWB performance from VHF to mm-wave. However, traditional electronic systems suffer many challenges that make achieving these requirements difficult. Several examples includes: voltage controlled oscillators (VCO) cannot provide a tunable range of several octaves, distribution of wideband local oscillator signals undergo high loss and dispersion through RF transmission lines, and antennas have very limited bandwidth or bulky sizes. Recently, RF photonics technology has drawn considerable attention because of its advantages over traditional systems, with the capability of offering extreme power efficiency, information capacity, frequency agility, and spatial beam diversity. A hybrid RF photonic communication system utilizing optical links and an RF transducer at the antenna potentially provides ultra-wideband data transmission, i.e., over 100 GHz. A successful implementation of such an optically addressed phased array requires addressing several key challenges. Photonic generation of an RF source with over a seven-octave bandwidth has been demonstrated in the last few years. However, one challenge which still remains is how to convey phased optical signals to downconversion modules and antennas. Therefore, a feed network with phase sweeping capability and low excessive phase noise needs to be developed. Another key challenge is to develop an ultra-wideband array antenna. Modern frontends require antennas to be compact, planar, and low-profile in addition to possessing broad bandwidth, conforming to stringent space, weight, cost, and power constraints. To address these issues, I will study broadband and miniaturization

  8. Structure- and conformation-activity studies of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor dimeric ligands

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Salvatore; Carotenuto, Alfonso; Brancaccio, Diego; Novellino, Ettore; Marzola, Erika; Ferrari, Federica; Cerlesi, Maria Camilla; Trapella, Claudio; Preti, Delia; Salvadori, Severo; Calò, Girolamo; Guerrini, Remo

    2017-01-01

    The peptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and the N/OFQ receptor (NOP) constitute a neuropeptidergic system that modulates various biological functions and is currently targeted for the generation of innovative drugs. In the present study dimeric NOP receptor ligands with spacers of different lengths were generated using both peptide and non-peptide pharmacophores. The novel compounds (12 peptide and 7 nonpeptide ligands) were pharmacologically investigated in a calcium mobilization assay and in the mouse vas deferens bioassay. Both structure- and conformation-activity studies were performed. Results demonstrated that dimerization did not modify the pharmacological activity of both peptide and non-peptide pharmacophores. Moreover, when dimeric compounds were obtained with low potency peptide pharmacophores, dimerization recovered ligand potency. This effect depends on the doubling of the C-terminal address sequence rather than the presence of an additional N-terminal message sequence or modifications of peptide conformation. PMID:28383520

  9. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  10. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; ...

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  11. Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-10-15

    Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced.

  12. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  13. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  14. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  15. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  16. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  17. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  18. Identifying Liquid-Gas System Misconceptions and Addressing Them Using a Laboratory Exercise on Pressure-Temperature Diagrams of a Mixed Gas Involving Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on students' understandings of a liquid-gas system with liquid-vapor equilibrium in a closed system using a pressure-temperature ("P-T") diagram. By administrating three assessment questions concerning the "P-T" diagrams of liquid-gas systems to students at the beginning of undergraduate general chemistry…

  19. Sweet substrate: a polysaccharide nanocomposite for conformal electronic decals.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Michael A; Knight, Adrian J; Roberts, Steven A; Radom, Kathryn; Erickson, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-04

    A conformal electronic decal based on a polysaccharide circuit board (PCB) is fabricated and characterized. The PCBs are laminates composed of bioderived sugars - nanocellulose and pullulan. The PCB and decal transfer are a bioactive material system for supporting electronic devices capable of conforming to bio-logical surfaces.

  20. Recent Advances in Conformal Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, James; Chaykov, Spasen

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in alternative gravitational theories. Although MOND remains the leading candidate among the alternative models, Conformal Gravity has been studied by Mannheim and O'Brien to solve the rotation curve problem without the need for dark matter. Recently, Mannheim, O'Brien and Chaykov have begun solving other gravitational questions in Conformal Gravity. In this presentation, we highlight the new work of Conformal Gravity's application to random motions of clusters (the original Zwicky problem), gravitational bending of light, gravitational lensing and a very recent survey of dwarf galaxy rotation curves. We will show in each case that Conformal Gravity can provide an accurate explanation and prediction of the data without the need for dark matter. Coupled with the fact that Conformal Gravity is a fully re-normalizable metric theory of gravity, these results help to push Conformal Gravity onto a competitive stage against other alternative models.

  1. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermionfermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. In addition, conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  2. Prosocial Conformity: Prosocial Norms Generalize Across Behavior and Empathy.

    PubMed

    Nook, Erik C; Ong, Desmond C; Morelli, Sylvia A; Mitchell, Jason P; Zaki, Jamil

    2016-08-01

    Generosity is contagious: People imitate others' prosocial behaviors. However, research on such prosocial conformity focuses on cases in which people merely reproduce others' positive actions. Hence, we know little about the breadth of prosocial conformity. Can prosocial conformity cross behavior types or even jump from behavior to affect? Five studies address these questions. In Studies 1 to 3, participants decided how much to donate to charities before learning that others donated generously or stingily. Participants who observed generous donations donated more than those who observed stingy donations (Studies 1 and 2). Crucially, this generalized across behaviors: Participants who observed generous donations later wrote more supportive notes to another participant (Study 3). In Studies 4 and 5, participants observed empathic or non-empathic group responses to vignettes. Group empathy ratings not only shifted participants' own empathic feelings (Study 4), but they also influenced participants' donations to a homeless shelter (Study 5). These findings reveal the remarkable breadth of prosocial conformity.

  3. Conformal array antenna subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-04-01

    An antenna subsystem to communicate between Ariane 4 and a data relay satellite was studied, concluding that the original ideas on ring antennas should be corrected due to the wide margin of coverage required in elevation for such antennas, which implies the need of splitting the coverage. Nevertheless, the study of cylindrical and conical conformal arrays was continued in view of their intrinsic interest. Needed coverages with specified gain can be obtained with a set of microstrip circular patch antennas. For the lower stage, a single patch is enough. For geostationary missions, one horizontal array is used, and for heliosynchronous missions two horizontal arrays and a vertical one. The numerical study carried out on omniazimuthal ring antennas shows that a tendency to omnidirectional pattern exists in spite of the directivity of the elementary radiators. A small pointing improvement of the meridian pattern can be obtained by means of conical arrays instead of the cylindrical ones.

  4. Capturing Chromosome Conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Job; Rippe, Karsten; Dekker, Martijn; Kleckner, Nancy

    2002-02-01

    We describe an approach to detect the frequency of interaction between any two genomic loci. Generation of a matrix of interaction frequencies between sites on the same or different chromosomes reveals their relative spatial disposition and provides information about the physical properties of the chromatin fiber. This methodology can be applied to the spatial organization of entire genomes in organisms from bacteria to human. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis. We also analyzed yeast chromosome III at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. We found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout. Furthermore, functionally distinct AT- and GC-rich domains were found to exhibit different conformations, and a population-average 3D model of chromosome III could be determined. Chromosome III emerges as a contorted ring.

  5. Conformally symmetric relativistic star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Farook; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Sardar, Iftikar Hossain; Chakraborty, Koushik

    2017-03-01

    We investigate whether compact stars having Tolman-like interior geometry admit conformal symmetry. Taking anisotropic pressure along the two principal directions within the compact object, we obtain physically relevant quantities such as transverse and radial pressure, density and redshift function. We study the equation of state (EOS) for the matter distribution inside the star. From the relation between pressure and density function of the constituent matter, we explore the nature and properties of the interior matter. The redshift function and compactness parameter are found to be physically reasonable. The matter inside the star satisfies the null, weak and strong energy conditions. Finally, we compare the masses and radii predicted from the model with corresponding values in some observed stars.

  6. Mapping conformational dynamics of proteins using torsional dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Gangupomu, Vamshi K; Wagner, Jeffrey R; Park, In-Hee; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2013-05-07

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations are widely used to study the flexibility of protein conformations. However, enhanced sampling techniques are required for simulating protein dynamics that occur on the millisecond timescale. In this work, we show that torsional molecular dynamics simulations enhance protein conformational sampling by performing conformational search in the low-frequency torsional degrees of freedom. In this article, we use our recently developed torsional-dynamics method called Generalized Newton-Euler Inverse Mass Operator (GNEIMO) to study the conformational dynamics of four proteins. We investigate the use of the GNEIMO method in simulations of the conformationally flexible proteins fasciculin and calmodulin, as well as the less flexible crambin and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. For the latter two proteins, the GNEIMO simulations with an implicit-solvent model reproduced the average protein structural fluctuations and sample conformations similar to those from Cartesian simulations with explicit solvent. The application of GNEIMO with replica exchange to the study of fasciculin conformational dynamics produced sampling of two of this protein's experimentally established conformational substates. Conformational transition of calmodulin from the Ca(2+)-bound to the Ca(2+)-free conformation occurred readily with GNEIMO simulations. Moreover, the GNEIMO method generated an ensemble of conformations that satisfy about half of both short- and long-range interresidue distances obtained from NMR structures of holo to apo transitions in calmodulin. Although unconstrained all-atom Cartesian simulations have failed to sample transitions between the substates of fasciculin and calmodulin, GNEIMO simulations show the transitions in both systems. The relatively short simulation times required to capture these long-timescale conformational dynamics indicate that GNEIMO is a promising molecular-dynamics technique for studying domain motion in

  7. Mapping Conformational Dynamics of Proteins Using Torsional Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Gangupomu, Vamshi K.; Wagner, Jeffrey R.; Park, In-Hee; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations are widely used to study the flexibility of protein conformations. However, enhanced sampling techniques are required for simulating protein dynamics that occur on the millisecond timescale. In this work, we show that torsional molecular dynamics simulations enhance protein conformational sampling by performing conformational search in the low-frequency torsional degrees of freedom. In this article, we use our recently developed torsional-dynamics method called Generalized Newton-Euler Inverse Mass Operator (GNEIMO) to study the conformational dynamics of four proteins. We investigate the use of the GNEIMO method in simulations of the conformationally flexible proteins fasciculin and calmodulin, as well as the less flexible crambin and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. For the latter two proteins, the GNEIMO simulations with an implicit-solvent model reproduced the average protein structural fluctuations and sample conformations similar to those from Cartesian simulations with explicit solvent. The application of GNEIMO with replica exchange to the study of fasciculin conformational dynamics produced sampling of two of this protein’s experimentally established conformational substates. Conformational transition of calmodulin from the Ca2+-bound to the Ca2+-free conformation occurred readily with GNEIMO simulations. Moreover, the GNEIMO method generated an ensemble of conformations that satisfy about half of both short- and long-range interresidue distances obtained from NMR structures of holo to apo transitions in calmodulin. Although unconstrained all-atom Cartesian simulations have failed to sample transitions between the substates of fasciculin and calmodulin, GNEIMO simulations show the transitions in both systems. The relatively short simulation times required to capture these long-timescale conformational dynamics indicate that GNEIMO is a promising molecular-dynamics technique for studying domain motion in

  8. Addressing Invisible Barriers: Improving Outcomes for Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osher, David; Quinn, Mary Magee; Kendziora, Kimberly; Woodruff, Darren; Rouse, Gerald

    This monograph introduces a series on youth with cognitive or behavioral disabilities and the juvenile justice system. The first section discusses the importance of prevention and early intervention to divert youth with disabilities from entering the justice system. It offers examples of such efforts and considers early and later intervention…

  9. On conformal higher spins in curved background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, M.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    We address the question of how to represent an interacting action for a tower of conformal higher spin fields in a form covariant with respect to a background metric. We use the background metric to define the star product which plays a central role in the definition of the corresponding gauge transformations. By analogy with the kinetic term in the 4-derivative Weyl gravity action expanded near an on-shell background one expects that the kinetic term in such an action should be gauge-invariant in a Bach-flat metric. We demonstrate this fact to first order in expansion in powers of the curvature of the background metric. This generalizes the result of arXiv:1404.7452 for spin 3 case to all conformal higher spins. We also comment on a possibility of extending this claim to terms quadratic in the curvature and discuss the appearance of background-dependent mixing terms in the quadratic part of the conformal higher spin action.

  10. Conformal dome aberration correction by designing the inner surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wang; Chen, Shouqian; Fan, Zhigang

    2016-12-01

    The ray transmission models of optical domes were established, and the characteristics of the rays while passing through a hemispherical dome and a conformal dome were comparatively analysed. Acquiring the minimum deviated angles from the inner surface of the conformal dome was then determined to be the designing goal for reducing the dynamic aberrations. Based on this, the inner surface of the conformal dome was optimized and thus, the dynamic aberrations were reduced. Finally, a completely cooled conformal optical system was designed. The results show that the optical system have produced good imaging quality within all the fields of regard, which further illustrates that designing the inner surface of a conformal dome is an effective method for aberration correction.

  11. Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future.

  12. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized.

  13. The pseudo-conformal universe: scale invariance from spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2012-04-01

    We present a novel theory of the very early universe which addresses the traditional horizon and flatness problems of big bang cosmology and predicts a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations. Unlike inflation, this scenario requires no exponential accelerated expansion of space-time. Instead, the early universe is described by a conformal field theory minimally coupled to gravity. The conformal fields develop a time-dependent expectation value which breaks the flat space so(4,2) conformal symmetry down to so(4,1), the symmetries of de Sitter, giving perturbations a scale invariant spectrum. The solution is an attractor, at least in the case of a single time-dependent field. Meanwhile, the metric background remains approximately flat but slowly contracts, which makes the universe increasingly flat, homogeneous and isotropic, akin to the smoothing mechanism of ekpyrotic cosmology. Our scenario is very general, requiring only a conformal field theory capable of developing the appropriate time-dependent expectation values, and encompasses existing incarnations of this idea, specifically the U(1) model of Rubakov and the Galileon Genesis scenario. Its essential features depend only on the symmetry breaking pattern and not on the details of the underlying lagrangian. It makes generic observational predictions that make it potentially distinguishable from standard inflation, in particular significant non-gaussianities and the absence of primordial gravitational waves.

  14. Conformation-determined through-bond versus through-space electronic communication in mixed-valence systems with a cross-conjugated urea bridge.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhong-Liang; Zhong, Yu-Wu; Yao, Jiannian

    2015-01-19

    Bis-triarylamine 2 and cyclometalated diruthenium 6(PF6)2 with a linear trans,trans-urea bridge have been prepared, together with the bis-triarylamine 3 and cyclometalated diruthenium 8(PF6)2 with a folded cis,cis-N,N-dimethylurea bridge. The linear or folded conformations of these molecules are supported by single-crystal X-ray structures of 2, 3, and other related compounds. These compounds display two consecutive anodic redox waves (N(·+/0) or Ru(III/II) processes) with a potential separation of 110-170 mV. This suggests that an efficient electronic coupling is present between two redox termini through the cross-conjugated urea bridge. The degree of electronic coupling has been investigated by using spectroelectrochemical measurements. Distinct intervalence charge-transfer (IVCT) transitions have been observed for mixed-valent (MV) compounds with a linear conformation. The IVCT transitions can also be identified for the folded MV compounds, albeit with a much weaker intensity. DFT results support that the electronic communication occurs by a through-bond and through-space pathway for the linear and folded compounds, respectively. The IVCT transitions of the MV compounds have been reproduced by TDDFT calculations. For the purpose of comparison, a bistriarylamine and a diruthenium complex with an imidazolidin-2-one bridge and a urea-containing mono-triarylamine and monoruthenium complex have been synthesized and studied.

  15. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  16. Changing chromatin fiber conformation by nucleosome repositioning.

    PubMed

    Müller, Oliver; Kepper, Nick; Schöpflin, Robert; Ettig, Ramona; Rippe, Karsten; Wedemann, Gero

    2014-11-04

    Chromatin conformation is dynamic and heterogeneous with respect to nucleosome positions, which can be changed by chromatin remodeling complexes in the cell. These molecular machines hydrolyze ATP to translocate or evict nucleosomes, and establish loci with regularly and more irregularly spaced nucleosomes as well as nucleosome-depleted regions. The impact of nucleosome repositioning on the three-dimensional chromatin structure is only poorly understood. Here, we address this issue by using a coarse-grained computer model of arrays of 101 nucleosomes considering several chromatin fiber models with and without linker histones, respectively. We investigated the folding of the chain in dependence of the position of the central nucleosome by changing the length of the adjacent linker DNA in basepair steps. We found in our simulations that these translocations had a strong effect on the shape and properties of chromatin fibers: i), Fiber curvature and flexibility at the center were largely increased and long-range contacts between distant nucleosomes on the chain were promoted. ii), The highest destabilization of the fiber conformation occurred for a nucleosome shifted by two basepairs from regular spacing, whereas effects of linker DNA changes of ?10 bp in phase with the helical twist of DNA were minimal. iii), A fiber conformation can stabilize a regular spacing of nucleosomes inasmuch as favorable stacking interactions between nucleosomes are facilitated. This can oppose nucleosome translocations and increase the energetic costs for chromatin remodeling. Our computational modeling framework makes it possible to describe the conformational heterogeneity of chromatin in terms of nucleosome positions, and thus advances theoretical models toward a better understanding of how genome compaction and access are regulated within the cell.

  17. Changing Chromatin Fiber Conformation by Nucleosome Repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Oliver; Kepper, Nick; Schöpflin, Robert; Ettig, Ramona; Rippe, Karsten; Wedemann, Gero

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin conformation is dynamic and heterogeneous with respect to nucleosome positions, which can be changed by chromatin remodeling complexes in the cell. These molecular machines hydrolyze ATP to translocate or evict nucleosomes, and establish loci with regularly and more irregularly spaced nucleosomes as well as nucleosome-depleted regions. The impact of nucleosome repositioning on the three-dimensional chromatin structure is only poorly understood. Here, we address this issue by using a coarse-grained computer model of arrays of 101 nucleosomes considering several chromatin fiber models with and without linker histones, respectively. We investigated the folding of the chain in dependence of the position of the central nucleosome by changing the length of the adjacent linker DNA in basepair steps. We found in our simulations that these translocations had a strong effect on the shape and properties of chromatin fibers: i), Fiber curvature and flexibility at the center were largely increased and long-range contacts between distant nucleosomes on the chain were promoted. ii), The highest destabilization of the fiber conformation occurred for a nucleosome shifted by two basepairs from regular spacing, whereas effects of linker DNA changes of ∼10 bp in phase with the helical twist of DNA were minimal. iii), A fiber conformation can stabilize a regular spacing of nucleosomes inasmuch as favorable stacking interactions between nucleosomes are facilitated. This can oppose nucleosome translocations and increase the energetic costs for chromatin remodeling. Our computational modeling framework makes it possible to describe the conformational heterogeneity of chromatin in terms of nucleosome positions, and thus advances theoretical models toward a better understanding of how genome compaction and access are regulated within the cell. PMID:25418099

  18. 76 FR 63575 - Transportation Conformity Rule: MOVES Regional Grace Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... CONTACT: Meg Patulski, State Measures and Conformity Group, Transportation and Regional Programs Division...; fax number: (734) 214-4052; e- mail address: patulski.meg@epa.gov ; or Astrid Larsen, State...

  19. 76 FR 63554 - Transportation Conformity Rule: MOVES Regional Grace Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Meg Patulski, State Measures and Conformity Group, Transportation and Regional Programs...: (734) 214-4842; fax number: (734) 214-4052; e- mail address: patulski.meg@epa.gov ; or Astrid...

  20. Staff Preparation, Reward, and Support: Are Quality Rating and Improvement Systems Addressing All of the Key Ingredients Necessary for Change? Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Lea J. E.; Whitebook, Marcy; Connors, Maia; Darrah, Rory

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting the growing momentum in support of quality rating and improvement systems (QRISs) as a key strategy to improve early care and education quality, significant amounts of public dollars have been devoted to their development and implementation. In this brief, the authors report on their investigation of both quality rating and improvement…

  1. Can the sustainable development goals reduce the burden of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases without truly addressing major food system reforms?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-06-16

    While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; 2000-2015) focused primarily on poverty reduction, hunger and infectious diseases, the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets pay more attention to nutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). One of the 169 proposed targets of the SDGs is to reduce premature deaths from NCDs by one third; another is to end malnutrition in all its forms. Nutrition-related NCDs (NR-NCDs) stand at the intersection between malnutrition and NCDs. Driven in large part by remarkable transformations of food systems, they are rapidly increasing in most low and middle income countries (LMICs). The transformation to modern food systems began in the period following World War II with policies designed to meet a very different set of nutritional and food needs, and continued with globalization in the 1990s onwards. Another type of food systems transformation will be needed to shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet--as will meeting many of the other SDGs. The process will be complex but is necessary. Communities concerned with NCDs and with malnutrition need to work more closely together to demand food systems change.

  2. Dynamics of protein conformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Maria

    2010-10-01

    A novel theoretical methodology is introduced to identify dynamic structural domains and analyze local flexibility in proteins. The methodology employs a multiscale approach combining identification of essential collective coordinates based on the covariance analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories, construction of the Mori projection operator with these essential coordinates, and analysis of the corresponding generalized Langevin equations [M.Stepanova, Phys.Rev.E 76(2007)051918]. Because the approach employs a rigorous theory, the outcomes are physically transparent: the dynamic domains are associated with regions of relative rigidity in the protein, whereas off-domain regions are relatively soft. This also allows scoring the flexibility in the macromolecule with atomic-level resolution [N.Blinov, M.Berjanskii, D.S.Wishart, and M.Stepanova, Biochemistry, 48(2009)1488]. The applications include the domain coarse-graining and characterization of conformational stability in protein G and prion proteins. The results are compared with published NMR experiments. Potential applications for structural biology, bioinformatics, and drug design are discussed.

  3. Imaging of conformational changes

    SciTech Connect

    Michl, Josef

    2016-03-13

    Control of intramolecular conformational change in a small number of molecules or even a single one by an application of an outside electric field defined by potentials on nearby metal or dielectric surfaces has potential applications in both 3-D and 2-D nanotechnology. Specifically, the synthesis, characterization, and understanding of designed solids with controlled built-in internal rotational motion of a dipole promises a new class of materials with intrinsic dielectric, ferroelectric, optical and optoelectronic properties not found in nature. Controlled rotational motion is of great interest due to its expected utility in phenomena as diverse as transport, current flow in molecular junctions, diffusion in microfluidic channels, and rotary motion in molecular machines. A direct time-resolved observation of the dynamics of motion on ps or ns time scale in a single molecule would be highly interesting but is also very difficult and has yet to be accomplished. Much can be learned from an easier but still challenging comparison of directly observed initial and final orientational states of a single molecule, which is the basis of this project. The project also impacts the understanding of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and single-molecule spectroscopic detection, as well as the synthesis of solid-state materials with tailored properties from designed precursors.

  4. Conformal Fermi Coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Liang; Pajer, Enrico; Schmidt, Fabian E-mail: Enrico.pajer@gmail.com

    2015-11-01

    Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC) are a useful frame for isolating the locally observable, physical effects of a long-wavelength spacetime perturbation. Their cosmological application, however, is hampered by the fact that they are only valid on scales much smaller than the horizon. We introduce a generalization that we call Conformal Fermi Coordinates (CFC). CFC preserve all the advantages of FNC, but in addition are valid outside the horizon. They allow us to calculate the coupling of long- and short-wavelength modes on all scales larger than the sound horizon of the cosmological fluid, starting from the epoch of inflation until today, by removing the complications of the second order Einstein equations to a large extent, and eliminating all gauge ambiguities. As an application, we present a calculation of the effect of long-wavelength tensor modes on small scale density fluctuations. We recover previous results, but clarify the physical content of the individual contributions in terms of locally measurable effects and ''projection'' terms.

  5. Remarks on Polyelectrolyte Conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gennes, P. G.; Pincus, P.; Velasco, R. M.; Brochard, F.

    Nous discutons des conformations de polymères linéaires chargés en faisant les hypothèses suivantes : a) la chaĬne sans charge est flexible, b) la force éctrostatique domine les interactions monomère-monomère c) il n'y a pas de sels. 1) Pour le cas dilué (chaĬne non enchevetrees) en corrigeant le calcul self-consistant fait récemment par Richmond [1a], on trouve une taille des polyions égale a = R ND, qui est une fonction linéaire de l'indice de polymérisation N. Ce rèsultat est en accord avec les prècèdents travaux de Hermans et Overbeek [1b], Kuhn, Kunzle et Katchalsky [1c]. 2) Il existe un domaine pour des concentrations très petites c (c** < c < c*) oò les interactions èlectrostatiques entre les polyions sont supèrieures aux ènergies thermiques, il semble donc possible que les polyions puissent former un rèseau pèriodique à trois dimensions. Nèanmoins, il semble difficile de mettre en èvidence un rèseau si diluè. 3) Jusqu'ici toutes les expériences avec les polyélectrolytes sans sels ont été pratiquement faites à des concentrations c > c*, pour lesquelles les différentes cha.nes sont enchevêtrées. Pour discuter ce régime on s.intéresse uniquement au cas où la charge par unité de longueur est près du (ou audessus du) seuil de condensation, donc il existe une seule longueur ξ(c) caractérisant les corrélations; à trois dimensions 03BE a le même comportement que le rayon de Debye pour les contre-ions. On a considéré quelques conformations possibles : a) un réseau hexagonal de batonnets; b) un réseau cubique de batonnets; c) une phase isotrope de cha.nes partiellement flexibles. Les différentes structures formées de batonnets semblent avoir la même énergie électrostatique. Ce fait suggère que la phase isotrope peut être la plus favorable. On analyse cette dernière phase en utilisant les mêmes méthodes qui se sont révélées efficaces pour les solutions des polymères neutres. Dans le modèle isotrope

  6. 47 CFR 68.322 - Changes in name, address, ownership or control of responsible party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changes in name, address, ownership or control... Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.322 Changes in name, address, ownership or control of... Conformity, such as a transfer of control or sale to another company, mergers, or transfer of...

  7. Conformal Visualization for Partially-Immersive Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhang, Min; Kaufman, Arie E.; Gu, Xianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Current immersive VR systems such as the CAVE provide an effective platform for the immersive exploration of large 3D data. A major limitation is that in most cases at least one display surface is missing due to space, access or cost constraints. This partially-immersive visualization results in a substantial loss of visual information that may be acceptable for some applications, however it becomes a major obstacle for critical tasks, such as the analysis of medical data. We propose a conformal deformation rendering pipeline for the visualization of datasets on partially-immersive platforms. The angle-preserving conformal mapping approach is used to map the 360°3D view volume to arbitrary display configurations. It has the desirable property of preserving shapes under distortion, which is important for identifying features, especially in medical data. The conformal mapping is used for rasterization, realtime raytracing and volume rendering of the datasets. Since the technique is applied during the rendering, we can construct stereoscopic images from the data, which is usually not true for image-based distortion approaches. We demonstrate the stereo conformal mapping rendering pipeline in the partially-immersive 5-wall Immersive Cabin (IC) for virtual colonoscopy and architectural review. PMID:26279083

  8. Testing of Advanced Conformal Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Agrawal, Parul; Beck, Robin

    2013-01-01

    In support of the CA250 project, this paper details the results of a test campaign that was conducted at the Ames Arcjet Facility, wherein several novel low density thermal protection (TPS) materials were evaluated in an entry like environment. The motivation for these tests was to investigate whether novel conformal ablative TPS materials can perform under high heat flux and shear environment as a viable alternative to rigid ablators like PICA or Avcoat for missions like MSL and beyond. A conformable TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials (such as tiled Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) system on MSL, and honeycomb-based Avcoat on the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV)). The compliant (high strain to failure) nature of the conformable ablative materials will allow better integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments to be used in fabrication.A novel SPRITE1 architecture, developed by the researchers at NASA Ames was used for arcjet testing. This small probe like configuration with 450 spherecone, enabled us to test the materials in a combination of high heat flux, pressure and shear environment. The heat flux near the nose were in the range of 500-1000 W/sq cm whereas in the flank section of the test article the magnitudes were about 50 of the nose, 250-500W/sq cm range. There were two candidate conformable materials under consideration for this test series. Both test materials are low density (0.28 g/cu cm) similar to Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) or Silicone Impregnated Refractory Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA) and are comprised of: A flexible carbon substrate (Carbon felt) infiltrated with an ablative resin system: phenolic (Conformal-PICA) or silicone (Conformal-SICA). The test demonstrated a successful performance of both the conformable ablators for heat flux conditions between 50

  9. Contextual analysis of machine-printed addresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Peter B.; Ho, Tin K.; Hull, Jonathan J.; Prussak, Michal; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1992-08-01

    The assignment of a nine digit ZIP Code (ZIP + 4 Code) to the digital image of a machine printed address block is a problem of central importance in automated mail sorting. This problem is especially difficult since most addresses do not contain ZIP + 4 Codes and often the information that must be read to match an address to one of the 28 million entries in the ZIP + 4 file is either erroneous, incomplete, or missing altogether. This paper discusses a system for interpreting a machine printed address and assigning a ZIP + 4 Code that uses a constraint satisfaction approach. Words in an address block are first segmented and parsed to assign probable semantic categories. Word images are then recognized by a combination of digit, character, and word recognition algorithms. The control structure uses a constraint satisfaction problem solving approach to match the recognition results to an entry in the ZIP + 4 file. It is shown how this technique can both determine correct responses as well as compensate for incomplete or erroneous information. Experimental results demonstrate the success of this system. In a recent test on over 1000 machine printed address blocks, the ZIP + 4 encode rate was over 73 percent. This compares to the success rate of current postal OCRs which is about 45 percent. Additionally, the word recognition algorithm recognizes over 92 percent of the input images (over 98 percent in the top 10 choices.

  10. Close to community health providers post 2015: Realising their role in responsive health systems and addressing gendered social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Universal health coverage is gaining momentum and is likely to form a core part of the post Millennium Development Goal (MDG) agenda and be linked to social determinants of health, including gender; Close to community health providers are arguably key players in meeting the goal of universal health coverage through extending and delivering health services to poor and marginalised groups; Close to community health providers are embedded in communities and may therefore be strategically placed to understand intra household gender and power dynamics and how social determinants shape health and well-being. However, the opportunities to develop critical awareness and to translate this knowledge into health system and multi-sectoral action are poorly understood; Enabling close to community health providers to realise their potential requires health systems support and human resource management at multiple levels. PMID:28281706

  11. ACARS wind measurements - An intercomparison with radiosonde, cloud motion and VAS thermally derived winds. [Communications, Addressing and Reporting System VISSR Atmospheric Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, R. J.; Menzel, W. P.; Pecht, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical comparisons between winds measured by ACARS and winds obtained from radiosondes, geostationary satellite image cloud motions, and VAS are presented. Observations from three separate comparisons reveal over 60 percent of wind vector magnitude differences are within 9 m/s, and 70 percent of the directional differences are within 15 deg. The comparisons indicate that the ACARS system provides an independent source of wind data that complements other sources of wind data for constructing composite wind field analyses.

  12. Environmental Assessment Addressing FTFA07-1174, Repair Approach Lighting System at the North End of Runway 01/19 at Eglin AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    photovoltaic panels, solar collection, heat recovery systems, wind turbines , green roofs, and habitat-oriented storm water management) would be...and im pacts on the installation ’s habitats will be reduced with the im plementation of BMPs and environmental protection measures. Most wildlife wi...disturbing activities occurring at the same time and in lhe same vicinity could have temporary cumulative effects on habitats and wildlife . However. these

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.203 - Activity address codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Activity address codes... PROGRAM 26.2-Federal Requisitioning System § 101-26.203 Activity address codes. To obtain items through the FEDSTRIP system, each ordering activity is required to have an activity address code. The...

  14. Individually addressable cathodes with integrated focusing stack or detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Baylor, Larry R.; Voelkl, Edgar; Simpson, Michael L.; Paulus, Michael J.; Lowndes, Douglas; Whealton, John; Whitson, John C.; Wilgen, John B.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and method are described for addressable field emission array (AFEA) chips. A plurality of individually addressable cathodes are integrated with an electrostatic focusing stack and/or a plurality of detectors on the addressable field emission array. The systems and methods provide advantages including the avoidance of space-charge blow-up.

  15. Performance of Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator in Aerothermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Jeremy; Fan, Wendy; Stackpoole, Mairead; Kao, David; Skokova, Kristina; Chavez-Garcia, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICA's performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.

  16. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2002-02-28

    This technical progress report describes work performed from June 20 through December 19, 2001, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels''. Interest has increased in some new polymeric products that purport to substantially reduce permeability to water while causing minimum permeability reduction to oil. In view of this interest, we are currently studying BJ's Aqua Con. Results from six corefloods revealed that the Aqua Con gelant consistently reduced permeability to water more than that to oil. However, the magnitude of the disproportionate permeability reduction varied significantly for the various experiments. Thus, as with most materials tested to date, the issue of reproducibility and control of the disproportionate permeability remains to be resolved. Concern exists about the ability of gels to resist washout after placement in fractures. We examined whether a width constriction in the middle of a fracture would cause different gel washout behavior upstream versus downstream of the constriction. Tests were performed using a formed Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel in a 48-in.-long fracture with three sections of equal length, but with widths of 0.08-, 0.02-, and 0.08-in., respectively. The pressure gradients during gel extrusion (i.e., placement) were similar in the two 0.08-in.-wide fracture sections, even though they were separated by a 0.02-in.-wide fracture section. The constriction associated with the middle fracture section may have inhibited gel washout during the first pulse of brine injection after gel placement. However, during subsequent phases of brine injection, the constriction did not inhibit washout in the upstream fracture section any more than in the downstream section.

  17. Mental health care delivery system reform in Belgium: the challenge of achieving deinstitutionalisation whilst addressing fragmentation of care at the same time.

    PubMed

    Nicaise, Pablo; Dubois, Vincent; Lorant, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Most mental health care delivery systems in welfare states currently face two major issues: deinstitutionalisation and fragmentation of care. Belgium is in the process of reforming its mental health care delivery system with the aim of simultaneously strengthening community care and improving integration of care. The new policy model attempts to strike a balance between hospitals and community services, and is based on networks of services. We carried out a content analysis of the policy blueprint for the reform and performed an ex-ante evaluation of its plan of operation, based on the current knowledge of mental health service networks. When we examined the policy's multiple aims, intermediate goals, suggested tools, and their articulation, we found that it was unclear how the new policy could achieve its goals. Indeed, deinstitutionalisation and integration of care require different network structures, and different modes of governance. Furthermore, most of the mechanisms contained within the new policy were not sufficiently detailed. Consequently, three major threats to the effectiveness of the reform were identified. These were: issues concerning the relationship between network structure and purpose, the continued influence of hospitals despite the goal of deinstitutionalisation, and the heterogeneity in the actual implementation of the new policy.

  18. Sources of Non-Conformity in Phonology: Variation and Exceptionality in Modern Hebrew Spirantization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michal Temkin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the integration of two sources of non-conformity--exceptionality and variation - in a single phonological system. Exceptionality manifests itself as systematic non-conformity, and variation as partial or variable non-conformity. When both occur within the same phenomenon, this is particularly challenging for the…

  19. 48 CFR 227.7103-14 - Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conformity, acceptance..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7103-14 Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of... requirements of the contract pertaining to the delivery of technical data. (b) Conformity and acceptance....

  20. 48 CFR 227.7103-14 - Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conformity, acceptance..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7103-14 Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of... requirements of the contract pertaining to the delivery of technical data. (b) Conformity and acceptance....

  1. Mapping the conformational space accessible to catechol-O-methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ehler, Andreas; Benz, Jörg; Schlatter, Daniel; Rudolph, Markus G.

    2014-01-01

    Methylation catalysed by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is the main pathway of catechol neurotransmitter deactivation in the prefrontal cortex. Low levels of this class of neurotransmitters are held to be causative of diseases such as schizophrenia, depression and Parkinson’s disease. Inhibition of COMT may increase neurotransmitter levels, thus offering a route for treatment. Structure-based drug design hitherto seems to be based on the closed enzyme conformation. Here, a set of apo, semi-holo, holo and Michaelis form crystal structures are described that define the conformational space available to COMT and that include likely intermediates along the catalytic pathway. Domain swaps and sizeable loop movements around the active site testify to the flexibility of this enzyme, rendering COMT a difficult drug target. The low affinity of the co-substrate S-adenosylmethionine and the large conformational changes involved during catalysis highlight significant energetic investment to achieve the closed conformation. Since each conformation of COMT is a bona fide target for inhibitors, other states than the closed conformation may be promising to address. Crystallographic data for an alternative avenue of COMT inhibition, i.e. locking of the apo state by an inhibitor, are presented. The set of COMT structures may prove to be useful for the development of novel classes of inhibitors. PMID:25084335

  2. Appendage mountable electronic devices conformable to surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John; Ying, Ming; Bonifas, Andrew; Lu, Nanshu

    2017-01-24

    Disclosed are appendage mountable electronic systems and related methods for covering and conforming to an appendage surface. A flexible or stretchable substrate has an inner surface for receiving an appendage, including an appendage having a curved surface, and an opposed outer surface that is accessible to external surfaces. A stretchable or flexible electronic device is supported by the substrate inner and/or outer surface, depending on the application of interest. The electronic device in combination with the substrate provides a net bending stiffness to facilitate conformal contact between the inner surface and a surface of the appendage provided within the enclosure. In an aspect, the system is capable of surface flipping without adversely impacting electronic device functionality, such as electronic devices comprising arrays of sensors, actuators, or both sensors and actuators.

  3. Predicting conformational switches in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Young, M.; Kirshenbaum, K.; Dill, K. A.; Highsmith, S.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a new computational technique to predict conformationally switching elements in proteins from their amino acid sequences. The method, called ASP (Ambivalent Structure Predictor), analyzes results from a secondary structure prediction algorithm to identify regions of conformational ambivalence. ASP identifies ambivalent regions in 16 test protein sequences for which function involves substantial backbone rearrangements. In the test set, all sites previously described as conformational switches are correctly predicted to be structurally ambivalent regions. No such regions are predicted in three negative control protein sequences. ASP may be useful as a guide for experimental studies on protein function and motion in the absence of detailed three-dimensional structural data. PMID:10493576

  4. Conformational changes of adsorbed proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Scott

    2005-03-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and pepsin to gold surfaces has been studied using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Proteins are adsorbed from solution onto a gold surface and changes in the conformation of the adsorbed proteins are induced by changing the buffer solution. We selected pH and ionic strength values for the buffer solutions that are known from our circular dichroism measurements to cause conformational changes of the proteins in bulk solution. We find that for both BSA and pepsin the changes in conformation are impeded by the interaction of the protein with the gold surface.

  5. Conformal tensors via Lovelock gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastor, David

    2013-10-01

    Constructs from conformal geometry are important in low dimensional gravity models, while in higher dimensions the higher curvature interactions of Lovelock gravity are similarly prominent. Considering conformal invariance in the context of Lovelock gravity leads to natural, higher curvature generalizations of the Weyl, Schouten, Cotton and Bach tensors, with properties that straightforwardly extend those of their familiar counterparts. As a first application, we introduce a new set of conformally invariant gravity theories in D = 4k dimensions, based on the squares of the higher curvature Weyl tensors.

  6. Increased conformity offers diminishing returns for reducing total knee replacement wear.

    PubMed

    Fregly, Benjamin J; Marquez-Barrientos, Carlos; Banks, Scott A; DesJardins, John D

    2010-02-01

    Wear remains a significant problem limiting the lifespan of total knee replacements (TKRs). Though increased conformity between TKR components has the potential to decrease wear, the optimal amount and planes of conformity have not been investigated. Furthermore, differing conformities in the medial and lateral compartments may provide designers the opportunity to address both wear and kinematic design goals simultaneously. This study used a computational model of a Stanmore knee simulator machine and a previously validated wear model to investigate this issue for simulated gait. TKR geometries with different amounts and planes of conformity on the medial and lateral sides were created and tested in two phases. The first phase utilized a wide range of sagittal and coronal conformity combinations to blanket a physically realistic design space. The second phase performed a focused investigation of the conformity conditions from the first phase to which predicted wear volume was sensitive. For the first phase, sagittal but not coronal conformity was found to have a significant effect on predicted wear volume. For the second phase, increased sagittal conformity was found to decrease predicted wear volume in a nonlinear fashion, with reductions gradually diminishing as conformity increased. These results suggest that TKR geometric design efforts aimed at minimizing wear should focus on sagittal rather than coronal conformity and that at least moderate sagittal conformity is desirable in both compartments.

  7. Determination of conformational entropy of fully and partially folded conformations of holo- and apomyoglobin.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Andreas M; Koza, Michael Marek; Fitter, Jörg

    2015-01-08

    Holo- and apomyoglobin can be stabilized in native folded, partially folded molten globules (MGs) and denatured states depending on the solvent composition. Although the protein has been studied as a model system in the field of protein folding, little is known about the internal dynamics of the different structural conformations on the picosecond time scale. In a comparative experimental study we investigated the correlation between protein folding and dynamics on the picosecond time scale using incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). The measured mean square displacements (MSDs) of conformational motions depend significantly on the secondary structure content of the protein, whereas the correlation times of the observed internal dynamics were found to be similar irrespective of the degree of folding. The conformational entropy difference ΔSconf between the folded conformations and the acid denatured state could be determined from the measured MSDs and was compared to the entropy difference ΔS obtained from thermodynamic parameters reported in the literature. The observed difference between ΔS and ΔSconf was attributed to the entropy difference ΔShydr of dynamically disordered water molecules of the hydration shell. The entropy content of the hydration water is significantly larger in the native folded proteins than in the partially folded MGs. We demonstrate the potential of incoherent neutron scattering for the investigation of the role of conformational dynamics in protein folding.

  8. Conformational Landscape of Nicotinoids: Solving the "conformational - Rity" of Anabasine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesarri, Alberto; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Evangelisti, Luca; Suenram, Richard D.; Caminati, Walther; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2010-06-01

    The conformational landscape of the alkaloid anabasine (neonicotine) has been investigated using rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The results allow a detailed comparison of the structural properties of the prototype piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nicotinoids (anabasine vs. nicotine). Anabasine adopts two most stable conformations in isolation conditions, for which we determined accurate rotational and nuclear quadrupole coupling parameters. The preferred conformations are characterized by an equatorial pyridine moiety and additional N-H equatorial stereochemistry at the piperidine ring (Eq-Eq). The two rings of anabasine are close to a bisecting arrangement, with the observed conformations differing in a ca. 180° rotation of the pyridine subunit, denoted either Syn or Anti. The preference of anabasine for the Eq-Eq-Syn conformation has been established by relative intensity measurements (Syn/Anti˜5(2)). The conformational preferences of free anabasine are directed by a N\\cdot\\cdot\\cdotH-C weak hydrogen bond interaction between the nitrogen lone pair at piperidine and the closest hydrogen bond in pyridine, with N\\cdot\\cdot\\cdotN distances ranging from 4.750 Å (Syn) to 4.233 Å (Anti). R. J. Lavrich, R. D. Suenram, D. F. Plusquellic and S. Davis, 58^th OSU Int. Symp. on Mol. Spectrosc., Columbus, OH, 2003, Comm. RH13.

  9. Conformal symmetry and light flavor baryon spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchbach, M.; Compean, C. B.

    2010-08-01

    The degeneracy among parity pairs systematically observed in the N and Δ spectra is interpreted to hint on a possible conformal symmetry realization in the light flavor baryon sector in line with AdS5/CFT4. The case is made by showing that all the observed N and Δ resonances with masses below 2500 MeV distribute fairly well each over the first levels of a unitary representation of the conformal group, a representation that covers the spectrum of a quark-diquark system, placed directly on a conformally compactified Minkowski spacetime, R1⊗S3, as approached from the AdS5 cone. The free geodesic motion on the S3 manifold is described by means of the scalar conformal equation there, which is of the Klein-Gordon-type. The equation is then gauged by the curved Coulomb potential that has the form of a cotangent function. Conformal symmetry is not exact, this because the gauge potential slightly modifies the conformal centrifugal barrier of the free geodesic motion. Thanks to this, the degeneracy between P11-S11 pairs from same level is relaxed, while the remaining states belonging to same level remain practically degenerate. The model describes the correct mass ordering in the P11-S11 pairs through the spectra as a combined effect of the above conformal symmetry breaking, on the one side, and a parity change of the diquark from a scalar at low masses, to a pseudoscalar at higher masses, on the other. The quality of the wave functions is illustrated by calculations of realistic mean square charge radii and electric charge form factors on the examples of the proton, and the protonic P11(1440), and S11(1535) resonances. The scheme also allows for a prediction of the dressing function of an effective instantaneous gluon propagator from the Fourier transform of the gauge potential. We find a dressing function that is finite in the infrared and tends to zero at infinity.

  10. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the conformity SIP adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, OH, WI) is provided here.

  11. Graphene-based conformal devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Ju; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Hyunmin; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2014-08-26

    Despite recent progress in bendable and stretchable thin-film transistors using novel designs and materials, the development of conformal devices remains limited by the insufficient flexibility of devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-based conformal and stretchable devices such as transistor and tactile sensor on a substrate with a convoluted surface by scaling down the device thickness. The 70 nm thick graphene-based conformal devices displayed a much lower bending stiffness than reported previously. The demonstrated devices provided excellent conformal coverage over an uneven animal hide surface without the need for an adhesive. In addition, the ultrathin graphene devices formed on the three-dimensionally curved animal hide exhibited stable electrical characteristics, even under repetitive bending and twisting. The advanced performance and flexibility demonstrated here show promise for the development and adoption of wearable electronics in a wide range of future applications.

  12. Conformation Distributions in Adsorbed Proteins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuse, Curtis W.; Hubbard, Joseph B.; Vrettos, John S.; Smith, Jackson R.; Cicerone, Marcus T.

    2007-03-01

    While the structural basis of protein function is well understood in the biopharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, few methods for the characterization and comparison of protein conformation distributions are available. New methods capable of measuring the stability of protein conformations and the integrity of protein-protein, protein-ligand and protein-surface interactions both in solution and on surfaces are needed to help the development of protein-based products. We are developing infrared spectroscopy methods for the characterization and comparison of molecular conformation distributions in monolayers and in solutions. We have extracted an order parameter describing the orientational and conformational variations of protein functional groups around the average molecular values from a single polarized spectrum. We will discuss the development of these methods and compare them to amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange methods for albumin in solution and on different polymer surfaces to show that our order parameter is related to protein stability.

  13. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE PAGES

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; ...

    2011-09-01

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that itmore » does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.« less

  14. Conformal mapping of rectangular heptagons

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatyrev, Andrei B

    2012-12-31

    A new effective approach to calculating the direct and inverse conformal mapping of rectangular polygons onto a half-plane is put forward; it is based on the use of Riemann theta functions. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  15. Solution NMR conformation of glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been giving a pivotal contribution to the progress of glycomics, mostly by elucidating the structural, dynamical, conformational and intermolecular binding aspects of carbohydrates. Particularly in the field of conformation, NOE resonances, scalar couplings, residual dipolar couplings, and chemical shift anisotropy offsets have been the principal NMR parameters utilized. Molecular dynamics calculations restrained by NMR-data input are usually employed in conjunction to generate glycosidic bond dihedral angles. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a special class of sulfated polysaccharides extensively studied worldwide. Besides regulating innumerous physiological processes, these glycans are also widely explored in the global market as either clinical or nutraceutical agents. The conformational aspects of GAGs are key regulators to the quality of interactions with the functional proteins involved in biological events. This report discusses the solution conformation of each GAG type analyzed by one or more of the above-mentioned methods.

  16. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-03-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from September 1, 2003, through February 29, 2004, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' We examined the properties of several ''partially formed'' gels that were formulated with a combination of high and low molecular weight HPAM polymers. After placement in 4-mm-wide fractures, these gels required about 25 psi/ft for brine to breach the gel (the best performance to date in fractures this wide). After this breach, stabilized residual resistance factors decreased significantly with increased flow rate. Also, residual resistance factors were up to 9 times greater for water than for oil. Nevertheless, permeability reduction factors were substantial for both water and oil flow. Gel with 2.5% chopped fiberglass effectively plugged 4-mm-wide fractures if a 0.5-mm-wide constriction was present. The ability to screen-out at a constriction appears crucial for particulate incorporation to be useful in plugging fractures. In addition to fiberglass, we examined incorporation of polypropylene fibers into gels. Once dispersed in brine or gelant, the polypropylene fibers exhibited the least gravity segregation of any particulate that we have tested to date. In fractures with widths of at least 2 mm, 24-hr-old gels (0.5% high molecular weight HPAM) with 0.5% fiber did not exhibit progressive plugging during placement and showed extrusion pressure gradients similar to those of gels without the fiber. The presence of the fiber roughly doubled the gel's resistance to first breach by brine flow. The breaching pressure gradients were not as large as for gels made with high and low molecular weight polymers (mentioned above). However, their material requirements and costs (i.e., polymer and/or particulate concentrations) were substantially lower than for those gels. A partially formed gel made with 0.5% HPAM did not enter a 0.052-mm-wide fracture when applying a pressure gradient of 65 psi/ft. This result

  17. Probing the impact of chromatin conformation on genome editing tools

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Rinsma, Marrit; Janssen, Josephine M.; Liu, Jin; Maggio, Ignazio; Gonçalves, Manuel A.F.V.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and RNA-guided nucleases derived from clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 systems have become ubiquitous genome editing tools. Despite this, the impact that distinct high-order chromatin conformations have on these sequence-specific designer nucleases is, presently, ill-defined. The same applies to the relative performance of TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases at isogenic target sequences subjected to different epigenetic modifications. Here, to address these gaps in our knowledge, we have implemented quantitative cellular systems based on genetic reporters in which the euchromatic and heterochromatic statuses of designer nuclease target sites are stringently controlled by small-molecule drug availability. By using these systems, we demonstrate that TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases are both significantly affected by the high-order epigenetic context of their target sequences. In addition, this outcome could also be ascertained for S. pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 complexes harbouring Cas9 variants whose DNA cleaving specificities are superior to that of the wild-type Cas9 protein. Thus, the herein investigated cellular models will serve as valuable functional readouts for screening and assessing the role of chromatin on designer nucleases based on different platforms or with different architectures or compositions. PMID:27280977

  18. Holography of the conformal window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvares, Raul; Evans, Nick; Kim, Keun-Young

    2012-07-01

    Inspired by the model of Jarvinen and Kiritsis, we present a simple holographic model for the onset of chiral symmetry breaking at the edge of the conformal window in QCD in the Veneziano limit. Our most naive model enforces the QCD two-loop running coupling on a D3/D7 holographic brane system. The mass of the holographic field, describing the chiral condensate in the model, is driven below the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound when the running is sufficiently strong, triggering chiral symmetry breaking for Nf/Nc<2.9. This model though contains too great a remnant of supersymmetry and does not correctly encode the perturbative anomalous dimensions of QCD. In a second model we impose the QCD anomalous dimension result and find chiral symmetry breaking sets in for Nf/Nc=4 at a Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type phase transition. In this case the transition is triggered when the anomalous dimension of the mass operator γm=1.

  19. Conformal dynamical equivalence and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyrou, N. K.

    2011-02-01

    The "Conformal Dynamical Equivalence" (CDE) approach is briefly reviewed, and some of its applications, at various astrophysical levels (Sun, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Clusters of Galaxies, Universe as a whole), are presented. According to the CDE approach, in both the Newtonian and general-relativistic theories of gravity, the isentropic hydrodynamic flows in the interior of a bounded gravitating perfect-fluid source are dynamically equivalent to geodesic motions in a virtual, fully defined fluid source. Equivalently, the equations of hydrodynamic motion in the former source are functionally similar to those of the geodesic motions in the latter, physically, fully defined source. The CDE approach is followed for the dynamical description of the motions in the fluid source. After an observational introduction, taking into account all the internal physical characteristics of the corresponding perfect-fluid source, and based on the property of the isentropic hydrodynamic flows (quite reasonable for an isolated physical system), we examine a number of issues, namely, (i) the classical Newtonian explanation of the celebrated Pioneer-Anomaly effect in the Solar System, (ii) the possibility of both the attractive gravity and the repulsive gravity in a non-quantum Newtonian framework, (iii) the evaluation of the masses - theoretical, dynamical, and missing - and of the linear dimensions of non-magnetized and magnetized large-scale cosmological structures, (iv) the explanation of the flat-rotation curves of disc galaxies, (v) possible formation mechanisms of winds and jets, and (vi) a brief presentation of a conventional approach - toy model to the dynamics of the Universe, characterized by the dominant collisional dark matter (with its subdominant luminous baryonic "contamination"), correctly interpreting the cosmological observational data without the need of the notions dark energy, cosmological constant, and universal accelerating expansion.

  20. Heterogeneous cationic liposomes modified with 3β-{N-[(N',N'-dimethylamino)ethyl]carbamoyl}cholesterol can induce partial conformational changes in messenger RNA and regulate translation in an Escherichia coli cell-free translation system.

    PubMed

    Suga, Keishi; Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Umakoshi, Hiroshi

    2013-02-12

    The effect of cationic liposomes (CLs) on messenger RNA(mRNA) conformation and translation was studied, focusing on membrane heterogeneity. CLs, composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dioleoyl-3-timethylammonium propane (DOPC/DOTAP) and DOPC/3β-{N-[(N',N'-dimethylamino)ethyl]carbamoyl}cholesterol (DOPC/DC-Ch), inhibited mRNA translation in an Escherichia coli cell-free translation system. Analysis of the membrane fluidity and polarity indicated a heterogeneous DOPC/DC-Ch (70/30) membrane, while other CLs exhibited homogeneous disordered membranes. mRNA adsorbed onto DOPC/DC-Ch liposomes showed translational activity, while DOPC/DOTAP liposomes inhibited mRNA translation in proportion to its adsorption onto membranes. Dehydration of DOPC/DOTAP (70/30) and DOPC/DC-Ch (70/30) was observed in the presence of mRNA but not in the case of zwitterionic DOPC liposomes, indicating that mRNA binds in regions between the phosphate [-PO(2)(-)-] and carbonyl [-C=O-] moieties of lipids. UV resonance Raman spectroscopy suggests that adenine, cytosine, and guanine interact with DOPC/DOTAP (70/30) and DOPC/DC-Ch (70/30) but not with DOPC. Circular dichroism indicates that DOPC/DOTAP (70/30) extensively denatured the mRNA. In contrast, heterogeneous DOPC/DC-Ch (70/30) induced partial conformational changes but maintained the translational activity of mRNA.

  1. Correlation between conformational equilibria of free host and guest binding affinity in non-preorganized receptors.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Romen; Morales, Ezequiel Q; Martín, Víctor S; Martín, Tomás

    2013-08-16

    Positive cooperativity between host conformational equilibria and guest binding has been widely reported in protein receptors. However, reported examples of this kind of cooperativity in synthetic hosts are scarce and largely serendipitous, among other things because it is hard to envision systems which display this kind of cooperativity. In order to shed some light on the correlation between conformational equilibria of free host and guest binding, selected structural modifications have been performed over a family of nonpreorganized hosts in order to induce conformational changes and to analyze their effect on the binding affinity. The conformational effect was evaluated by a theoretical conformational search and correlated with the ability of the receptors. All data suggest that those receptors that display the best association constants are able to sample folded conformations analogous to the conformational requirements for the binding of the guests. On the contrary, for those receptors where folded conformers are scarce, then the association constant and enantioselectivity clearly drop.

  2. Targeting the Conformal Window: Scalars on the Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Evan; Brower, Rich; Hasenfratz, Anna; Rebbi, Claudio; Witzel, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    The light Higgs boson of the Standard Model could arise as the consequence of the weakly broken conformal symmetry in a strongly interacting gauge theory. Here we present a novel idea to study the transition from conformal to confining behavior using an SU(3) gauge theory with four light and eight heavy flavors. This system interpolates between the 12-flavor conformal and the 4 flavor chirally broken theory as the mass of the heavy flavors are varied. We show first results on our determination of the iso-singlet 0++ state.

  3. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the flow capacity of

  4. Development of conformal respirator monitoring technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, J.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Logan, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project to develop a modular, surface conforming respirator monitor to improve upon the manual survey techniques presently used by the nuclear industry. Research was performed with plastic scintillator and gas proportional modules in an effort to find the most conducive geometry for a surface conformal, position sensitive monitor. The respirator monitor prototype developed is a computer controlled, position-sensitive detection system employing 56 modular proportional counters mounted in molds conforming to the inner and outer surfaces of a commonly used respirator (Scott Model 801450-40). The molds are housed in separate enclosures and hinged to create a {open_quotes}waffle-iron{close_quotes} effect so that the closed monitor will simultaneously survey both surfaces of the respirator. The proportional counter prototype was also designed to incorporate Shonka Research Associates previously developed charge-division electronics. This research provided valuable experience into pixellated position sensitive detection systems. The technology developed can be adapted to other monitoring applications where there is a need for deployment of many traditional radiation detectors.

  5. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  6. To conform or not to conform: spontaneous conformity diminishes the sensitivity to monetary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjun; Sun, Sai

    2013-01-01

    When people have different opinions in a group, they often adjust their own attitudes and behaviors to match the group opinion, known as social conformity. The affiliation account of normative conformity states that people conform to norms in order to 'fit in', whereas the accuracy account of informative conformity posits that the motive to learn from others produces herding. Here, we test another possibility that following the crowd reduces the experienced negative emotion when the group decision turns out to be a bad one. Using event related potential (ERP) combined with a novel group gambling task, we found that participants were more likely to choose the option that was predominately chosen by other players in previous trials, although there was little explicit normative pressure at the decision stage and group choices were not informative. When individuals' choices were different from others, the feedback related negativity (FRN), an ERP component sensitive to losses and errors, was enhanced, suggesting that being independent is aversive. At the outcome stage, the losses minus wins FRN effect was significantly reduced following conformity choices than following independent choices. Analyses of the P300 revealed similar patterns both in the response and outcome period. Our study suggests that social conformity serves as an emotional buffer that protects individuals from experiencing strong negative emotion when the outcomes are bad.

  7. To Conform or Not to Conform: Spontaneous Conformity Diminishes the Sensitivity to Monetary Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    When people have different opinions in a group, they often adjust their own attitudes and behaviors to match the group opinion, known as social conformity. The affiliation account of normative conformity states that people conform to norms in order to ‘fit in’, whereas the accuracy account of informative conformity posits that the motive to learn from others produces herding. Here, we test another possibility that following the crowd reduces the experienced negative emotion when the group decision turns out to be a bad one. Using event related potential (ERP) combined with a novel group gambling task, we found that participants were more likely to choose the option that was predominately chosen by other players in previous trials, although there was little explicit normative pressure at the decision stage and group choices were not informative. When individuals' choices were different from others, the feedback related negativity (FRN), an ERP component sensitive to losses and errors, was enhanced, suggesting that being independent is aversive. At the outcome stage, the losses minus wins FRN effect was significantly reduced following conformity choices than following independent choices. Analyses of the P300 revealed similar patterns both in the response and outcome period. Our study suggests that social conformity serves as an emotional buffer that protects individuals from experiencing strong negative emotion when the outcomes are bad. PMID:23691242

  8. Evaluation of High Density Air Traffic Operations with Automation for Separation Assurance, Weather Avoidance and Schedule Conformance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey S.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Cabrall, Christopher D.; Brasil, Connie L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development and evaluation of our prototype technologies and procedures for far-term air traffic control operations with automation for separation assurance, weather avoidance and schedule conformance. Controller-in-the-loop simulations in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center in 2010 have shown very promising results. We found the operations to provide high airspace throughput, excellent efficiency and schedule conformance. The simulation also highlighted areas for improvements: Short-term conflict situations sometimes resulted in separation violations, particularly for transitioning aircraft in complex traffic flows. The combination of heavy metering and growing weather resulted in an increased number of aircraft penetrating convective weather cells. To address these shortcomings technologies and procedures have been improved and the operations are being re-evaluated with the same scenarios. In this paper we will first describe the concept and technologies for automating separation assurance, weather avoidance, and schedule conformance. Second, the results from the 2010 simulation will be reviewed. We report human-systems integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. Next, improvements will be discussed that were made to address identified shortcomings. We conclude that, with further refinements, air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can routinely provide currently unachievable levels of traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  9. A knowledge-based agent prototype for Chinese address geocoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xuehu; Ding, Linfang; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2009-10-01

    Chinese address geocoding is a difficult problem to deal with due to intrinsic complexities in Chinese address systems and a lack of standards in address assignments and usages. In order to improve existing address geocoding algorithm, a spatial knowledge-based agent prototype aimed at validating address geocoding results is built to determine the spatial accuracies as well as matching confidence. A portion of human's knowledge of judging the spatial closeness of two addresses is represented via first order logic and the corresponding algorithms are implemented with the Prolog language. Preliminary tests conducted using addresses matching result in Beijing area showed that the prototype can successfully assess the spatial closeness between the matching address and the query address with 97% accuracy.

  10. Distinction and temporal stability of conformational epitopes on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein recognized by patients with different inflammatory central nervous system diseases.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Marie C; Breithaupt, Constanze; Reindl, Markus; Schanda, Kathrin; Rostásy, Kevin; Berger, Thomas; Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne; Olsson, Tomas; Jenne, Dieter; Pröbstel, Anne-Katrin; Dornmair, Klaus; Wekerle, Hartmut; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Banwell, Brenda; Bar-Or, Amit; Meinl, Edgar

    2013-10-01

    Autoantibodies targeting conformationally intact myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are found in different inflammatory diseases of the CNS, but their antigenic epitopes have not been mapped. We expressed mutants of MOG on human HeLa cells and analyzed sera from 111 patients (104 children, 7 adults) who recognized cell-bound human MOG, but had different diseases, including acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), one episode of transverse myelitis or optic neuritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-negative neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuritis (CRION). We obtained insight into the recognition of epitopes in 98 patients. All epitopes identified were located at loops connecting the β strands of MOG. The most frequently recognized MOG epitope was revealed by the P42S mutation positioned in the CC'-loop. Overall, we distinguished seven epitope patterns, including the one mainly recognized by mouse mAbs. In half of the patients, the anti-MOG response was directed to a single epitope. The epitope specificity was not linked to certain disease entities. Longitudinal analysis of 11 patients for up to 5 y indicated constant epitope recognition without evidence for intramolecular epitope spreading. Patients who rapidly lost their anti-MOG IgG still generated a long-lasting IgG response to vaccines, indicating that their loss of anti-MOG reactivity did not reflect a general lack of capacity for long-standing IgG responses. The majority of human anti-MOG Abs did not recognize rodent MOG, which has implications for animal studies. Our findings might assist in future detection of potential mimotopes and pave the way to Ag-specific depletion.

  11. Addressing Enterprise-Level Information System Deficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    INFORMATION 5841014708036CX PROCESSOR,RADAR DATA 2840010491153OJ LINER ,COMBUSTION CHAMBER,AIRCRAFT GAS TU 6610015272395 INDICATOR, VERTICAL...1610008736424 AFTER BODY HALF BODY 1620011708325 CYLINDER AND PISTON ASSEMBLY,LANDING GEA F-22 5985015260321 Antenna 1560015246083 Radome 5993015237903...Generator/Amplifier 6130014869149 Power Supply 5841015279740 Processor, Radar Data 2840015614467RF LINER ,AFT EXT SW UR 1560015252952FR DOOR,ACCESS

  12. Presidential address. Systemic effects of smoking.

    PubMed

    Read, R C

    1984-12-01

    Millions of people continue to smoke. Recent studies confirm the pioneering epidemiologic data that indicated that, despite the well-established effects on the lung, most of the hundreds of thousands of premature deaths annually result from extrapulmonary toxicity, particularly accelerated cardiac and vascular disease. As with lung cancer, abstention significantly reduces the risk, even after myocardial infarction or surgery for complications of vascular disease. Erythrocytosis, thrombocytosis, and leukocytosis, by increasing blood viscosity, aggravate ischemia. The neutrophils of smokers release excessive amounts of oxidants which damage tissue and antiproteases. Increased alveolar permeability enhances allergy. Lymphocytic suppressor cells increase, which leads to immunocompetence, increased infection, and cancer. Smokers lose weight and die at an earlier age, even after cancer chemotherapy and peptic ulcer surgery. Smoking prevents inhibition of gastric night acid secretion by histamine-blocking agents. Menopause occurs earlier and children are damaged in utero and after birth by passive smoking. Recent evidence indicates that nicotine releases endorphins, which account for the addiction. Surgeons need to do more to combat this menace. Many victims need professional assistance to stop the habit.

  13. Scale invariance, conformality, and generalized free fields

    SciTech Connect

    Dymarsky, Anatoly; Farnsworth, Kara; Komargodski, Zohar; Luty, Markus A.; Prilepina, Valentina

    2016-02-16

    This paper addresses the question of whether there are 4D Lorentz invariant unitary quantum fi eld theories with scale invariance but not conformal invariance. We present an important loophole in the arguments of Luty-Polchinski-Rattazzi and Dymarsky-Komargodski-Schwimmer-Theisen that is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor T could be a generalized free field. In this paper we rule out this possibility. The key ingredient is the observation that a unitary theory with scale but not conformal invariance necessarily has a non-vanishing anomaly for global scale transformations. We show that this anomaly cannot be reproduced if T is a generalized free field unless the theory also contains a dimension-2 scalar operator. In the special case where such an operator is present it can be used to redefine ("improve") the energy-momentum tensor, and we show that there is at least one energy-momentum tensor that is not a generalized free field. In addition, we emphasize that, in general, large momentum limits of correlation functions cannot be understood from the leading terms of the coordinate space OPE. This invalidates a recent argument by Farnsworth-Luty-Prilepina (FLP). Finally, despite the invalidity of the general argument of FLP, some of the techniques turn out to be useful in the present context.

  14. Scale invariance, conformality, and generalized free fields

    DOE PAGES

    Dymarsky, Anatoly; Farnsworth, Kara; Komargodski, Zohar; ...

    2016-02-16

    This paper addresses the question of whether there are 4D Lorentz invariant unitary quantum fi eld theories with scale invariance but not conformal invariance. We present an important loophole in the arguments of Luty-Polchinski-Rattazzi and Dymarsky-Komargodski-Schwimmer-Theisen that is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor T could be a generalized free field. In this paper we rule out this possibility. The key ingredient is the observation that a unitary theory with scale but not conformal invariance necessarily has a non-vanishing anomaly for global scale transformations. We show that this anomaly cannot be reproduced if T is a generalized free field unlessmore » the theory also contains a dimension-2 scalar operator. In the special case where such an operator is present it can be used to redefine ("improve") the energy-momentum tensor, and we show that there is at least one energy-momentum tensor that is not a generalized free field. In addition, we emphasize that, in general, large momentum limits of correlation functions cannot be understood from the leading terms of the coordinate space OPE. This invalidates a recent argument by Farnsworth-Luty-Prilepina (FLP). Finally, despite the invalidity of the general argument of FLP, some of the techniques turn out to be useful in the present context.« less

  15. Explicit mentalizing mechanisms and their adaptive role in memory conformity.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Rebecca; Allan, Kevin; Tsivilis, Dimitris; Martin, Douglas; Gabbert, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Memory conformity occurs when an individual endorses what other individuals remember about past events. Research on memory conformity is currently dominated by a 'forensic' perspective, which views the phenomenon as inherently undesirable. This is because conformity not only distorts the accuracy of an individual's memory, but also produces false corroboration between individuals, effects that act to undermine criminal justice systems. There is growing awareness, however, that memory conformity may be interpreted more generally as an adaptive social behavior regulated by explicit mentalizing mechanisms. Here, we provide novel evidence in support of this emerging alternative theoretical perspective. We carried out a memory conformity experiment which revealed that explicit belief-simulation (i.e. using one's own beliefs to model what other people believe) systematically biases conformity towards like-minded individuals, even when there is no objective evidence that they have a more accurate memory than dissimilar individuals. We suggest that this bias is functional, i.e. adaptive, to the extent that it fosters trust, and hence cooperation, between in-group versus out-group individuals. We conclude that memory conformity is, in more fundamental terms, a highly desirable product of explicit mentalizing mechanisms that promote adaptive forms of social learning and cooperation.

  16. Resurrecting Letters of Marque and Reprisal to Address Modern Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    framework for resurrecting a letter of marque and reprisal system as a means of addressing contemporary security threats within an environment of...and reprisal system as a means of addressing contemporary security threats within an environment of constrained military budgets and rebalanced...proposes a conceptual framework for resurrecting a letter of marque and reprisal system as a means of addressing contemporary security threats within an

  17. 40 CFR 93.154 - Conformity analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 93.154 Section 93...) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 93.154 Conformity analysis. Any...

  18. Group Cohesiveness, Deviation, Stress, and Conformity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-11

    assessed pre- and post- conformity pressure (see Appendix VIII). Components of group influences , Offer of Reward for Conformity (ORC), and Threat of...Cohesiveness Pressures to Uniformity Studies . . . . Evidence Supporting a Group Cohesiveness- Conformity Relationship . . . . . . Evidence Supporting a...Response and Conformity Pressure . . . . Stress and ORC and TPN . . . . . . . . TPN and Space Crews . . . . . . . . . . Summary of Group

  19. Markov state models of biomolecular conformational dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chodera, John D.; Noé, Frank

    2014-01-01

    It has recently become practical to construct Markov state models (MSMs) that reproduce the long-time statistical conformational dynamics of biomolecules using data from molecular dynamics simulations. MSMs can predict both stationary and kinetic quantities on long timescales (e.g. milliseconds) using a set of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations that are individually much shorter, thus addressing the well-known sampling problem in molecular dynamics simulation. In addition to providing predictive quantitative models, MSMs greatly facilitate both the extraction of insight into biomolecular mechanism (such as folding and functional dynamics) and quantitative comparison with single-molecule and ensemble kinetics experiments. A variety of methodological advances and software packages now bring the construction of these models closer to routine practice. Here, we review recent progress in this field, considering theoretical and methodological advances, new software tools, and recent applications of these approaches in several domains of biochemistry and biophysics, commenting on remaining challenges. PMID:24836551

  20. Self-Dual Conformal Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunajski, Maciej; Tod, Paul

    2014-10-01

    We find necessary and sufficient conditions for a Riemannian four-dimensional manifold ( M, g) with anti-self-dual Weyl tensor to be locally conformal to a Ricci-flat manifold. These conditions are expressed as the vanishing of scalar and tensor conformal invariants. The invariants obstruct the existence of parallel sections of a certain connection on a complex rank-four vector bundle over M. They provide a natural generalisation of the Bach tensor which vanishes identically for anti-self-dual conformal structures. We use the obstructions to demonstrate that LeBrun's anti-self-dual metrics on connected sums of s are not conformally Ricci-flat on any open set. We analyze both Riemannian and neutral signature metrics. In the latter case we find all anti-self-dual metrics with a parallel real spinor which are locally conformal to Einstein metrics with non-zero cosmological constant. These metrics admit a hyper-surface orthogonal null Killing vector and thus give rise to projective structures on the space of β-surfaces.

  1. MEMS conformal electrode array for retinal implant.

    SciTech Connect

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.; Myers, Ramona Lynn; Lemp, Thomas; Okandan, Murat; James, Conrad D.; Shul, Randy John; Stein, David J.; Baker, Michael Sean

    2003-03-01

    Retinal prosthesis projects around the world have been pursuing a functional replacement system for patients with retinal degeneration. In this paper, the concept for a micromachined conformal electrode array is outlined. Individual electrodes are designed to float on micromachined springs on a substrate that will enable the adjustment of spring constants-and therefore contact force-by adjusting the dimensions of the springs at each electrode. This also allows the accommodation of the varying curvature/topography of the retina. We believe that this approach provides several advantages by improving the electrode/tissue interface as well as generating some new options for in-situ measurements and overall system design.

  2. Three-dimensional conformal setup (3D-CSU) of patients using the coordinate system provided by three internal fiducial markers and two orthogonal diagnostic X-ray systems in the treatment room

    SciTech Connect

    Shirato, Hiroki . E-mail: hshirato@radi.med.hokudai.ac.jp; Oita, Masataka; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Shinichi; Onimaru, Rikiya; Uegaki, Shinji; Watanabe, Yoshiharu; Kato, Norio; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To test the accuracy of a system for correcting for the rotational error of the clinical target volume (CTV) without having to reposition the patient using three fiducial markers and two orthogonal fluoroscopic images. We call this system 'three-dimensional conformal setup' (3D-CSU). Methods and materials: Three 2.0-mm gold markers are inserted into or adjacent to the CTV. On the treatment couch, the actual positions of the three markers are calculated based on two orthogonal fluoroscopies crossing at the isocenter of the linear accelerator. Discrepancy of the actual coordinates of gravity center of three markers from its planned coordinates is calculated. Translational setup error is corrected by adjustment of the treatment couch. The rotation angles ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) of the coordinates of the actual CTV relative to the planned CTV are calculated around the lateral (x), craniocaudal (y), and anteroposterior (z) axes of the planned CTV. The angles of the gantry head, collimator, and treatment couch of the linear accelerator are adjusted according to the rotation of the actual coordinates of the tumor in relation to the planned coordinates. We have measured the accuracy of 3D-CSU using a static cubic phantom. Results: The gravity center of the phantom was corrected within 0.9 {+-} 0.3 mm (mean {+-} SD), 0.4 {+-} 0.2 mm, and 0.6 {+-} 0.2 mm for the rotation of the phantom from 0-30 degrees around the x, y, and z axes, respectively, every 5 degrees. Dose distribution was shown to be consistent with the planned dose distribution every 10 degrees of the rotation from 0-30 degrees. The mean rotational error after 3D-CSU was -0.4 {+-} 0.4 (mean {+-} SD), -0.2 {+-} 0.4, and 0.0 {+-} 0.5 degrees around the x, y, and z axis, respectively, for the rotation from 0-90 degrees. Conclusions: Phantom studies showed that 3D-CSU is useful for performing rotational correction of the target volume without correcting the position of the patient on the treatment couch

  3. Mutual Recognition of the Food and Drug Administration and European Community Member State Conformity Assessment Procedures; pharmaceutical GMP inspection reports, medical device quality system evaluation reports, and certain medical device premarket evaluation reports--FDA. Proposed rule.

    PubMed

    1998-04-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend its regulations pursuant to an international agreement that is expected to be concluded between the United States and the European Community (EC) (Ref. 1). Under the terms of that agreement, FDA may normally endorse good manufacturing practice (GMP) inspection reports for pharmaceuticals provided by equivalent EC Member State regulatory authorities and medical device quality system evaluation reports and certain medical device premarket evaluation reports provided by equivalent conformity assessment bodies. FDA is taking this action to enhance its ability to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals and medical devices through more efficient and effective utilization of its regulatory resources. The agency is requesting comments on the proposed rule.

  4. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  5. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  6. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  7. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  8. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  9. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  10. Characterization of Conformation-dependent Prion Protein Epitopes*

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae-Eun; Weng, Chu Chun; Saijo, Eri; Saylor, Vicki; Bian, Jifeng; Kim, Sehun; Ramos, Laylaa; Angers, Rachel; Langenfeld, Katie; Khaychuk, Vadim; Calvi, Carla; Bartz, Jason; Hunter, Nora; Telling, Glenn C.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas prion replication involves structural rearrangement of cellular prion protein (PrPC), the existence of conformational epitopes remains speculative and controversial, and PrP transformation is monitored by immunoblot detection of PrP(27–30), a protease-resistant counterpart of the pathogenic scrapie form (PrPSc) of PrP. We now describe the involvement of specific amino acids in conformational determinants of novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against randomly chimeric PrP. Epitope recognition of two mAbs depended on polymorphisms controlling disease susceptibility. Detection by one, referred to as PRC5, required alanine and asparagine at discontinuous mouse PrP residues 132 and 158, which acquire proximity when residues 126–218 form a structured globular domain. The discontinuous epitope of glycosylation-dependent mAb PRC7 also mapped within this domain at residues 154 and 185. In accordance with their conformational dependence, tertiary structure perturbations compromised recognition by PRC5, PRC7, as well as previously characterized mAbs whose epitopes also reside in the globular domain, whereas conformation-independent epitopes proximal or distal to this region were refractory to such destabilizing treatments. Our studies also address the paradox of how conformational epitopes remain functional following denaturing treatments and indicate that cellular PrP and PrP(27–30) both renature to a common structure that reconstitutes the globular domain. PMID:22948149

  11. Partial masslessness and conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.; Joung, E.; Waldron, A.

    2013-05-01

    We use conformal, but ghostful, Weyl gravity to study its ghost-free, second derivative, partially massless (PM) spin-2 component in the presence of Einstein gravity with positive cosmological constant. Specifically, we consider both gravitational- and self-interactions of PM via the fully nonlinear factorization of conformal gravity’s Bach tensor into Einstein times Schouten operators. We find that extending PM beyond linear order suffers from familiar higher spin consistency obstructions: it propagates only in Einstein backgrounds, and the conformal gravity route generates only the usual safe, Noether, cubic order vertices. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  12. Universality class in conformal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu

    2013-07-01

    We develop a new class of chaotic inflation models with spontaneously broken conformal invariance. Observational consequences of a broad class of such models are stable with respect to strong deformations of the scalar potential. This universality is a critical phenomenon near the point of enhanced symmetry, SO(1,1), in case of conformal inflation. It appears because of the exponential stretching of the moduli space and the resulting exponential flattening of scalar potentials upon switching from the Jordan frame to the Einstein frame in this class of models. This result resembles stretching and flattening of inhomogeneities during inflationary expansion. It has a simple interpretation in terms of velocity versus rapidity near the Kähler cone in the moduli space, similar to the light cone of special theory of relativity. This effect makes inflation possible even in the models with very steep potentials. We describe conformal and superconformal versions of this cosmological attractor mechanism.

  13. Algebraic orbifold conformal field theories

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng

    2000-01-01

    The unitary rational orbifold conformal field theories in the algebraic quantum field theory and subfactor theory framework are formulated. Under general conditions, it is shown that the orbifold of a given unitary rational conformal field theory generates a unitary modular category. Many new unitary modular categories are obtained. It is also shown that the irreducible representations of orbifolds of rank one lattice vertex operator algebras give rise to unitary modular categories and determine the corresponding modular matrices, which has been conjectured for some time. PMID:11106383

  14. SUSY Unparticle and Conformal Sequestering

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Yu; Nakayama, Yu

    2007-07-17

    We investigate unparticle physics with supersymmetry (SUSY). The SUSY breaking effects due to the gravity mediation induce soft masses for the SUSY unparticles and hence break the conformal invariance. The unparticle physics observable in near future experiments is only consistent if the SUSY breakingeffects from the hidden sector to the standard model sector are dominated by the gauge mediation, or if the SUSY breaking effects to the unparticle sector are sufficiently sequestered. We argue that the natural realization of the latter possibility is the conformal sequestering scenario.

  15. Nonlocal gravity: Conformally flat spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2016-04-01

    The field equations of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation are presented in a form that is reminiscent of general relativity. The implications of the nonlocal field equations are studied in the case of conformally flat spacetimes. Even in this simple case, the field equations are intractable. Therefore, to gain insight into the nature of these equations, we investigate the structure of nonlocal gravity (NLG) in 2D spacetimes. While any smooth 2D spacetime is conformally flat and satisfies Einstein’s field equations, only a subset containing either a Killing vector or a homothetic Killing vector can satisfy the field equations of NLG.

  16. Social influence: compliance and conformity.

    PubMed

    Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J

    2004-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement in compliance and conformity research, this review emphasizes the ways in which these goals interact with external forces to engender social influence processes that are subtle, indirect, and outside of awareness.

  17. Universal Entanglement Entropy in 2D Conformal Quantum Critical Points

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Benjamin; Mulligan, Michael; Fradkin, Eduardo; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2008-12-05

    We study the scaling behavior of the entanglement entropy of two dimensional conformal quantum critical systems, i.e. systems with scale invariant wave functions. They include two-dimensional generalized quantum dimer models on bipartite lattices and quantum loop models, as well as the quantum Lifshitz model and related gauge theories. We show that, under quite general conditions, the entanglement entropy of a large and simply connected sub-system of an infinite system with a smooth boundary has a universal finite contribution, as well as scale-invariant terms for special geometries. The universal finite contribution to the entanglement entropy is computable in terms of the properties of the conformal structure of the wave function of these quantum critical systems. The calculation of the universal term reduces to a problem in boundary conformal field theory.

  18. 48 CFR 246.504 - Certificate of conformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate of conformance. 246.504 Section 246.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 246.504 Certificate of...

  19. Evidence for weak or linear conformity but not for hyper-conformity in an everyday social learning context.

    PubMed

    Claidière, Nicolas; Bowler, Mark; Whiten, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conformity is thought to be an important force in cultural evolution because it has the potential to stabilize cooperation in large groups, potentiate group selection and thus explain uniquely human behaviors. However, the effects of such conformity on cultural and biological evolution will depend much on the way individuals are influenced by the frequency of alternative behavioral options witnessed. Theoretical modeling has suggested that only what we refer to as 'hyper-conformity', an exaggerated tendency to perform the most frequent behavior witnessed in other individuals, is able to increase within-group homogeneity and between-group diversity, for instance. Empirically however, few experiments have addressed how the frequency of behavior witnessed affects behavior. Accordingly we performed an experiment to test for the presence of conformity in a natural situation with humans. Visitors to a Zoo exhibit were invited to write or draw answers to questions on A5 cards and potentially win a small prize. We manipulated the proportion of existing writings versus drawings visible to visitors and measured the proportion of written cards submitted. We found a strong and significant effect of the proportion of text displayed on the proportion of text in the answers, thus demonstrating social learning. We show that this effect is approximately linear, with potentially a small, weak-conformist component but no hyper-conformist one. The present experiment therefore provides evidence for linear conformity in humans in a very natural context.

  20. Unitary Fermi Gas, ɛ Expansion, and Nonrelativistic Conformal Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Yusuke; Son, Dam Thanh

    We review theoretical aspects of unitary Fermi gas (UFG), which has been realized in ultracold atom experiments. We first introduce the ɛ expansion technique based on a systematic expansion in terms of the dimensionality of space. We apply this technique to compute the thermodynamic quantities, the quasiparticle cum, and the criticl temperature of UFG. We then discuss consequences of the scale and conformal invariance of UFG. We prove a correspondence between primary operators in nonrelativistic conformal field theories and energy eigenstates in a harmonic potential. We use this correspondence to compute energies of fermions at unitarity in a harmonic potential. The scale and conformal invariance together with the general coordinate invariance constrains the properties of UFG. We show the vanishing bulk viscosities of UFG and derive the low-energy effective Lagrangian for the superfluid UFG. Finally we propose other systems exhibiting the nonrelativistic scaling and conformal symmetries that can be in principle realized in ultracold atom experiments.

  1. Conformational analysis: a tool for the elucidation of the antioxidant properties of ferulic acid derivatives in membrane models.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Cecilia; Centini, Marisanna; Andreassi, Marco; Buonocore, Anna; La Rosa, Caterina; Facino, Roberto Maffei; Sega, Alessandro; Tsuno, Fumi

    2004-09-03

    With the aim to search and design more effective and safe antioxidant molecules to be used as functional ingredients in cosmetic formulations for UV protection, we evaluated the antioxidant/radical scavenging activities of ferulic acid and of some alkyl ferulates in both acellular and cellular systems. Ferulic acid esters, equipotent as antioxidant in homogeneous phase, showed when tested in membranous systems (rat liver microsomes, rat erythrocytes) marked differences in antioxidant potency. The n-C(12) derivative was the most potent, followed by n-C(8), n-C(16) and branched C(8), and then by ferulic acid. A conformational study carried out by NMR and modelling, indicates that the different antioxidant activity of ferulates in membrane models is due to the different spatial conformation and arrangement of the side chain of the molecule, which governs the access and binding to the phospholipid bilayer, the modality of orientation of the scavenging/quenching nucleus (phenol moiety), and hence the overall antioxidant potency of the derivative. These results emphasize the need of analytical studies (NMR and molecular modelling) addressed to the knowledge of the conformational parameters in combination with conventional antioxidant testings for understanding the antioxidant behaviour of a molecule in a biological membrane/system.

  2. Address block localization based on graph theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaceb, Djamel; Eglin, Véronique; Lebourgeois, Frank; Emptoz, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    An efficient mail sorting system is mainly based on an accurate optical recognition of the addresses on the envelopes. However, the localizing of the address block (ABL) should be done before the OCR recognition process. The location step is very crucial as it has a great impact on the global performance of the system. Currently, a good localizing step leads to a better recognition rate. The limit of current methods is mainly caused by modular linear architectures used for ABL: their performances greatly depend on each independent module performance. We are presenting in this paper a new approach for ABL based on a pyramidal data organization and on a hierarchical graph coloring for classification process. This new approach presents the advantage to guarantee a good coherence between different modules and reduces both the computation time and the rejection rate. The proposed method gives a very satisfying rate of 98% of good locations on a set of 750 envelope images.

  3. Addressing Medical Errors in Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Adkinson, Joshua M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Influential think-tank such as the Institute of Medicine has raised awareness about the implications of medical errors. In response, organizations, medical societies, and institutions have initiated programs to decrease the incidence and effects of these errors. Surgeons deal with the direct implications of adverse events involving patients. In addition to managing the physical consequences, they are confronted with ethical and social issues when caring for a harmed patient. Although there is considerable effort to implement system-wide changes, there is little guidance for hand surgeons on how to address medical errors. Admitting an error is difficult, but a transparent environment where patients are notified of errors and offered consolation and compensation is essential to maintain trust. Further, equipping hand surgeons with a guide for addressing medical errors will promote compassionate patient interaction, help identify system failures, provide learning points for safety improvement, and demonstrate a commitment to ethically responsible medical care. PMID:25154576

  4. Molecular mechanics conformational analysis of tylosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Petko M.

    1998-01-01

    The conformations of the 16-membered macrolide antibiotic tylosin were studied with molecular mechanics (AMBER∗ force field) including modelling of the effect of the solvent on the conformational preferences (GB/SA). A Monte Carlo conformational search procedure was used for finding the most probable low-energy conformations. The present study provides complementary data to recently reported analysis of the conformations of tylosin based on NMR techniques. A search for the low-energy conformations of protynolide, a 16-membered lactone containing the same aglycone as tylosin, was also carried out, and the results were compared with the observed conformation in the crystal as well as with the most probable conformations of the macrocyclic ring of tylosin. The dependence of the results on force field was also studied by utilizing the MM3 force field. Some particular conformations were computed with the semiempirical molecular orbital methods AM1 and PM3.

  5. Correct Representation of Conformational Equilibria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulop, F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In representing conformational equilibria of compounds having only one chiral center, erroneous formulas showing different antipodes on the two sides of the equilibrium are rare. In contrast, with compounds having two or more chiral centers especially with saturated heterocycles, this erroneous representation occurs frequently in the chemical…

  6. Conformal mapping for multiple terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weimin; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2016-11-01

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool that can be used to solve various physical and engineering problems in many fields, including electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. It is an accurate and convenient way to solve problems involving two terminals. However, when faced with problems involving three or more terminals, which are more common in practical applications, existing conformal mapping methods apply assumptions or approximations. A general exact method does not exist for a structure with an arbitrary number of terminals. This study presents a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals. Through an accurate analysis of boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded into the inner part of a mapped region. The method is applied to several typical situations, and the calculation process is described for two examples of an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes and of a light beam splitter with three ports. Compared with previously reported results, the solutions for the two examples based on our method are more precise and general. The proposed method is helpful in promoting the application of conformal mapping in analysis of practical problems.

  7. Conformal mapping for multiple terminals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weimin; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2016-11-10

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool that can be used to solve various physical and engineering problems in many fields, including electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. It is an accurate and convenient way to solve problems involving two terminals. However, when faced with problems involving three or more terminals, which are more common in practical applications, existing conformal mapping methods apply assumptions or approximations. A general exact method does not exist for a structure with an arbitrary number of terminals. This study presents a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals. Through an accurate analysis of boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded into the inner part of a mapped region. The method is applied to several typical situations, and the calculation process is described for two examples of an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes and of a light beam splitter with three ports. Compared with previously reported results, the solutions for the two examples based on our method are more precise and general. The proposed method is helpful in promoting the application of conformal mapping in analysis of practical problems.

  8. Conformal mapping for multiple terminals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weimin; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool that can be used to solve various physical and engineering problems in many fields, including electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. It is an accurate and convenient way to solve problems involving two terminals. However, when faced with problems involving three or more terminals, which are more common in practical applications, existing conformal mapping methods apply assumptions or approximations. A general exact method does not exist for a structure with an arbitrary number of terminals. This study presents a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals. Through an accurate analysis of boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded into the inner part of a mapped region. The method is applied to several typical situations, and the calculation process is described for two examples of an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes and of a light beam splitter with three ports. Compared with previously reported results, the solutions for the two examples based on our method are more precise and general. The proposed method is helpful in promoting the application of conformal mapping in analysis of practical problems. PMID:27830746

  9. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  10. Plasmonic organic thin-film solar cell: light trapping by using conformal vs. non-conformal relief gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshmiri, Hamid; Dostlek, Jakub

    2015-05-01

    Theoretical study of light management in thin film organic photovoltaic cell that utilizes diffraction coupling to guided waves is presented. As a model system, a regular solar cell geometry with P3HT:PCBM active layer, transparent ITO electrode and Al backside electrode is used. The paper discusses enhancement of absorption of incident photons selectively in the active layer by the interplay of surface plasmon polariton and optical waveguide waves, the effect on the profile of their field and damping that affects the spatial distribution of dissipated light energy in the layer structure. The model shows that for optimized grating period and modulation depth the number of absorbed photons in the active layer can be increased by 24 per cent. The comparison of the geometry with conformal and non-conformally corrugated layers reveals that the conformal structure outperforms the non-conformal in the enhancing of photon absorption in the wavelength range of 350-800 nm.

  11. Conformational activation of ADAMTS13.

    PubMed

    South, Kieron; Luken, Brenda M; Crawley, James T B; Phillips, Rebecca; Thomas, Mari; Collins, Richard F; Deforche, Louis; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; Lane, David A

    2014-12-30

    A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs 13 (ADAMTS13) is a metalloprotease that regulates von Willebrand factor (VWF) function. ADAMTS13-mediated proteolysis is determined by conformational changes in VWF, but also may depend on its own conformational activation. Kinetic analysis of WT ADAMTS13 revealed ∼ 2.5-fold reduced activity compared with ADAMTS13 lacking its C-terminal tail (MDTCS) or its CUB1-2 domains (WTΔCUB1-2), suggesting that the CUB domains naturally limit ADAMTS13 function. Consistent with this suggestion, WT ADAMTS13 activity was enhanced ∼ 2.5-fold by preincubation with either an anti-CUB mAb (20E9) or VWF D4CK (the natural binding partner for the CUB domains). Furthermore, the isolated CUB1-2 domains not only bound MDTCS, but also inhibited activity by up to 2.5-fold. Interestingly, a gain-of-function (GoF) ADAMTS13 spacer domain variant (R568K/F592Y/R660K/Y661F/Y665F) was ∼ 2.5-fold more active than WT ADAMTS13, but could not be further activated by 20E9 mAb or VWF D4CK and was unable to bind or to be inhibited by the CUB1-2 domains, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of the CUB domains involve an interaction with the spacer domain that is disrupted in GoF ADAMTS13. Electron microscopy demonstrated a "closed" conformation of WT ADAMTS13 and suggested a more "open" conformation for GoF ADAMTS13. The cryptic spacer domain epitope revealed by conformational unfolding also represents the core antigenic target for autoantibodies in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. We propose that ADAMTS13 circulates in a closed conformation, which is maintained by a CUB-spacer domain binding interaction. ADAMTS13 becomes conformationally activated on demand through interaction of its C-terminal CUB domains with VWF, making it susceptible to immune recognition.

  12. Logarithmic conformal field theory: beyond an introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Ridout, David

    2013-12-01

    This article aims to review a selection of central topics and examples in logarithmic conformal field theory. It begins with the remarkable observation of Cardy that the horizontal crossing probability of critical percolation may be computed analytically within the formalism of boundary conformal field theory. Cardy’s derivation relies on certain implicit assumptions which are shown to lead inexorably to indecomposable modules and logarithmic singularities in correlators. For this, a short introduction to the fusion algorithm of Nahm, Gaberdiel and Kausch is provided. While the percolation logarithmic conformal field theory is still not completely understood, there are several examples for which the formalism familiar from rational conformal field theory, including bulk partition functions, correlation functions, modular transformations, fusion rules and the Verlinde formula, has been successfully generalized. This is illustrated for three examples: the singlet model \\mathfrak {M} (1,2), related to the triplet model \\mathfrak {W} (1,2), symplectic fermions and the fermionic bc ghost system; the fractional level Wess-Zumino-Witten model based on \\widehat{\\mathfrak {sl}} \\left( 2 \\right) at k=-\\frac{1}{2}, related to the bosonic βγ ghost system; and the Wess-Zumino-Witten model for the Lie supergroup \\mathsf {GL} \\left( 1 {\\mid} 1 \\right), related to \\mathsf {SL} \\left( 2 {\\mid} 1 \\right) at k=-\\frac{1}{2} and 1, the Bershadsky-Polyakov algebra W_3^{(2)} and the Feigin-Semikhatov algebras W_n^{(2)}. These examples have been chosen because they represent the most accessible, and most useful, members of the three best-understood families of logarithmic conformal field theories. The logarithmic minimal models \\mathfrak {W} (q,p), the fractional level Wess-Zumino-Witten models, and the Wess-Zumino-Witten models on Lie supergroups (excluding \\mathsf {OSP} \\left( 1 {\\mid} 2n \\right)). In this review, the emphasis lies on the representation theory

  13. Experimental characterization of adsorbed protein orientation, conformation, and bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Thyparambil, Aby A.; Wei, Yang; Latour, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Protein adsorption on material surfaces is a common phenomenon that is of critical importance in many biotechnological applications. The structure and function of adsorbed proteins are tightly interrelated and play a key role in the communication and interaction of the adsorbed proteins with the surrounding environment. Because the bioactive state of a protein on a surface is a function of the orientation, conformation, and accessibility of its bioactive site(s), the isolated determination of just one or two of these factors will typically not be sufficient to understand the structure–function relationships of the adsorbed layer. Rather a combination of methods is needed to address each of these factors in a synergistic manner to provide a complementary dataset to characterize and understand the bioactive state of adsorbed protein. Over the past several years, the authors have focused on the development of such a set of complementary methods to address this need. These methods include adsorbed-state circular dichroism spectropolarimetry to determine adsorption-induced changes in protein secondary structure, amino-acid labeling/mass spectrometry to assess adsorbed protein orientation and tertiary structure by monitoring adsorption-induced changes in residue solvent accessibility, and bioactivity assays to assess adsorption-induced changes in protein bioactivity. In this paper, the authors describe the methods that they have developed and/or adapted for each of these assays. The authors then provide an example of their application to characterize how adsorption-induced changes in protein structure influence the enzymatic activity of hen egg-white lysozyme on fused silica glass, high density polyethylene, and poly(methyl-methacrylate) as a set of model systems. PMID:25708632

  14. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist binding site. Part I: Active conformation of cyproheptadine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Drooge, Marc J.; Donné-op den Kelder, Gabriëlle M.; Timmerman, Hendrik

    1991-08-01

    The active conformation of several histamine H1-antagonists is investigated. As a template molecule we used the antagonist cyproheptadine, which consists of a piperidylene ring connected to a tricyclic system. The piperidylene moiety is shown to be flexible. The global minimum is a chair conformation but, additionally, a second chair and various boat conformations have to be considered, as their energies are less than 5 kcal/mol above the energy of the global minimum. Two semi-rigid histamine H1-antagonists, phenindamine and triprolidine, were fitted onto the various conformations of cyproheptadine in order to derive the pharmacologically active conformation of cyproheptadine. At the same time, the active conformation of both phenindamine and triprolidine was derived. It is demonstrated that, within the receptor-bound conformation of cyproheptadine, the piperidylene ring most probably exists in a boat form.

  15. Methodology for UV Cured Conformal Coating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    coated by these prototype processes were to result in an acceptable end -product (defined as meeting requirements of MIL-I-46058). The UV conformal coat...Chill, with stands, variable height load mod- ule, DIGI-LO K controller, end automatic refill system Zicon automatic 1 40 Hughson Chemical Put No...Coztrol Control I C~ut-.- __________ ______ 1/See &s--acze4 tert !tna fm Ze2sen. Teatin.; Ubartories, !zc. 2! 1-2s czt .-l s~pecizezx lu sl tz t ac~’ to

  16. Fake conformal symmetry in unimodular gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    We study Weyl symmetry (local conformal symmetry) in unimodular gravity. It is shown that the Noether currents for both Weyl symmetry and global scale symmetry vanish exactly as in conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. We clearly explain why in the class of conformally invariant gravitational theories, the Noether currents vanish by starting with conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. Moreover, we comment on both classical and quantum-mechanical equivalences in Einstein's general relativity, conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity, and the Weyl-transverse gravity. Finally, we discuss the Weyl current in the conformally invariant scalar action and see that it is also vanishing.

  17. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  18. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  19. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  20. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.